Science.gov

Sample records for salaam tanzania methods

  1. Implementation of WHO/CDC Guidelines for Intentional Injury Death Surveillance: A Mixed-Methods Approach in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Outwater, Anne H.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Mgaya, Edward

    2013-01-01

    A foundational implementation of the WHO/CDC Injury Surveillance Guidelines was conducted in Dar es Salaam region of the United Republic of Tanzania in 2005. The Guidelines were adapted to gather qualitative as well as quantitative data about intentional injury mortality which were collected concurrently at the Muhimbili National Hospital Mortuary. An interview schedule of 12 quantitative variables and one open-ended question, participant observation and newspaper reports were used. Mixed methods allowed an understanding of intentional injury mortality to emerge, even for those with the least amount of data, the 22% of homicides whose bodies were never claimed. Mixed methods made it possible to quantify intentional injury mortality rates, describe subpopulations with scanty data, and learn how to embed ongoing injury mortality surveillance into daily practice. PMID:24130432

  2. Implementation of WHO/CDC Guidelines for Intentional Injury Death Surveillance: A Mixed-Methods Approach in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Outwater, Anne H; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Mgaya, Edward

    2011-08-01

    A foundational implementation of the WHO/CDC Injury Surveillance Guidelines was conducted in Dar es Salaam region of the United Republic of Tanzania in 2005. The Guidelines were adapted to gather qualitative as well as quantitative data about intentional injury mortality which were collected concurrently at the Muhimbili National Hospital Mortuary. An interview schedule of 12 quantitative variables and one open-ended question, participant observation and newspaper reports were used. Mixed methods allowed an understanding of intentional injury mortality to emerge, even for those with the least amount of data, the 22% of homicides whose bodies were never claimed. Mixed methods made it possible to quantify intentional injury mortality rates, describe subpopulations with scanty data, and learn how to embed ongoing injury mortality surveillance into daily practice. PMID:24130432

  3. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats. PMID:19440962

  4. The use of social media among adolescents in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Kleeb, Matthis; Mbelwa, Alice; Ahorlu, Collins

    2014-05-01

    Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing. It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones. Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture. PMID:24908469

  5. Suicide in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania, 2005.

    PubMed

    Mgaya, Edward; Kazaura, Method R; Outwater, Anne; Kinabo, Lina

    2008-04-01

    Suicide surveillance was launched at the Muhimbili National Hospital mortuary in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania from 1st January to 31st December, 2005 to determine its magnitude and characteristics. Following the WHO guidelines with minor modifications, information on sex, dates of birth and death, places of residence and death, occupation, reasons and means of suicide were collected. There were 65 (2.3 per 100,000 population) suicides recorded in 2005. The suicide rate for males was 3.4/100,000 and for females was 1.2/100,000 which maybe some of the lowest rates ever reported in the world. The mean age at suicide was 32.9 (SD=13.1) years. Males were about three times more likely to commit suicide as females. The main motive behind suicide was recorded for 26 (40%) victims as family-related and for 11 (17%) as health related. Although there was a wide range of ages at which people committed suicide, the average age seems to be very low. Since reasons for suicide are coated with family problems, strategies to improve awareness of psychological and mental health services and to provide alternative economic and social support networks are advocated. PMID:18313013

  6. Factors Contributing to the Accumulation of Primary Teacher's Debts to the Government of Tanzania: A Case Study for Dar Es Salaam Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kombo, Ibun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the study which was conducted to determine factors contributing to the accumulation of primary school teacher's debts to the Government of Tanzania, a case study of Dar es Salaam Region in its three municipalities namely, Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke. Data was obtained through sampling method which also helped to…

  7. Clinical, Virologic, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Dengue Outbreak, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mboera, Leonard E.G.; De Nardo, Pasquale; Oriyo, Ndekya M.; Meschi, Silvia; Rumisha, Susan F.; Colavita, Francesca; Mhina, Athanas; Carletti, Fabrizio; Mwakapeje, Elibariki; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Nicastri, Emanuele; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a dengue outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2014, that was caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2. DENV infection was present in 101 (20.9%) of 483 patients. Patient age and location of residence were associated with infection. Seven (4.0%) of 176 patients were co-infected with malaria and DENV. PMID:27088845

  8. Clinical, Virologic, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Dengue Outbreak, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014.

    PubMed

    Vairo, Francesco; Mboera, Leonard E G; De Nardo, Pasquale; Oriyo, Ndekya M; Meschi, Silvia; Rumisha, Susan F; Colavita, Francesca; Mhina, Athanas; Carletti, Fabrizio; Mwakapeje, Elibariki; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Nicastri, Emanuele; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    We investigated a dengue outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2014, that was caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2. DENV infection was present in 101 (20.9%) of 483 patients. Patient age and location of residence were associated with infection. Seven (4.0%) of 176 patients were co-infected with malaria and DENV. PMID:27088845

  9. Body-Art Practices Among Undergraduate Medical University Students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chacha, Chacha Emmanuel; Kazaura, Method R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include “a mark of beauty,” 24%, “just wanted one,” 18% and “a mark of femininity or masculinity,” 17%. The majority (98%) of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52%) reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks. PMID:25814729

  10. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8–13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pangani, Ismail N.; Kiplamai, Festus K.; Kamau, Jane W.; Onywera, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The understanding of obesity as a growing health problem in Africa and Tanzania in particular is hampered by lack of data as well as sociocultural beliefs in which overweight and obesity are revered. This study sought to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 8–13 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Method. A cross-sectional analytical research design was used to study overweight and obesity in primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The target population was 150,000 children aged 8–13 years. Stratified random sampling was used to select 1781 children. Weight and height were taken and WHO standards for children were used to determine weight status. Results. Findings showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.9% and 6.7%, respectively (N = 1781). However, 6.2% of the children were underweight. There were significant differences in mean BMI between children in private and public schools (p = 0.021), between male and female (p < 0.001), and across age groups of 8–10 and 11–13 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children is significant and requires management and prevention strategies. PMID:27403343

  11. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8-13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pangani, Ismail N; Kiplamai, Festus K; Kamau, Jane W; Onywera, Vincent O

    2016-01-01

    Background. The understanding of obesity as a growing health problem in Africa and Tanzania in particular is hampered by lack of data as well as sociocultural beliefs in which overweight and obesity are revered. This study sought to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 8-13 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Method. A cross-sectional analytical research design was used to study overweight and obesity in primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The target population was 150,000 children aged 8-13 years. Stratified random sampling was used to select 1781 children. Weight and height were taken and WHO standards for children were used to determine weight status. Results. Findings showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.9% and 6.7%, respectively (N = 1781). However, 6.2% of the children were underweight. There were significant differences in mean BMI between children in private and public schools (p = 0.021), between male and female (p < 0.001), and across age groups of 8-10 and 11-13 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children is significant and requires management and prevention strategies. PMID:27403343

  12. Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has

  13. Prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle users in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kauky, Cosmas George; Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Urio, Loveness John; Abade, Ahmed Mohammed; Mghamba, Janneth Maridadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists as one of the preventive measures for road traffic injuries. Methods A cross sectional observational survey was conducted in the 3 Districts (Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke) that make Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. A standardized line-listing form and checklist were used to record the drivers and passengers use of helmet as observed by study investigators. Data for helmet use was collected on one weekday and one weekend day. Time for observation was during the rush hour in the morning, noon and evening. Then data were entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 analysis Results A total of 7,678 motorcycle drivers and 4,328 passengers observed in this study. Drivers were almost male (98.8%) and 73.2% of all passengers were males. The prevalence use of helmet use among motorcyclist's riders was 82.1% and among passengers was 22.5%. Proportion of helmet use in drivers and passengers observed were relatively similar during weekday and weekend day and time of observation. Conclusion This study showed the relative high helmet use among motorcyclist riders though very low in passengers. This study recommends increased community awareness on helmet use among passengers and enforcement and revival of road safety laws of passengers and motorcyclists on helmet use. PMID:26309470

  14. Assessment of human thermal perception in the hot-humid climate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, is a typical African city along the Indian Ocean coast, and therefore an important urban area to examine human thermal perception in the hot-humid tropical climate. Earlier research on human bioclimate at Dar es Salaam indicated that heat stress prevails during the hot season from October to March, peaking between December and February, particularly the early afternoons. In order to assess the human thermal perception and adaptation, two popular places, one at an urban park and another at a beach environment, were selected and questionnaire surveys were conducted in August-September 2013 and January 2014, concurrently with local micro-meteorological measurements at survey locations. The thermal conditions were quantified in terms of the thermal index of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the micro-scale climate model RayMan. The thermal comfort range of human thermal comfort and the local thermal adaptive capacity were determined in respect to the thermal index by binning thermal sensation votes. The thermal comfort range was found to be well above that in temperate climates at about 23-31 °C of PET. The study could significantly contribute to urban planning in Dar es Salaam and other coastal cities in the tropics.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and the Association with HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…

  16. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ogoma, Sheila B; Kannady, Khadija; Sikulu, Maggy; Chaki, Prosper P; Govella, Nicodem J; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Killeen, Gerry F

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8%) of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9%) had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431) and 55.7% (127/228) of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508). The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2%) or window screens (75.5%). Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake. PMID:19785779

  17. Factors for change in maternal and perinatal audit systems in Dar es Salaam hospitals, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective maternal and perinatal audits are associated with improved quality of care and reduction of severe adverse outcome. Although audits at the level of care were formally introduced in Tanzania around 25 years ago, little information is available about their existence, performance, and practical barriers to their implementation. This study assessed the structure, process and impacts of maternal and perinatal death audit systems in clinical practice and presents a detailed account on how they could be improved. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in eight major hospitals in Dar es Salaam in January 2009. An in-depth interview guide was used for 29 health managers and members of the audit committees to investigate the existence, structure, process and outcome of such audits in clinical practice. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 30 health care providers in the maternity wards to assess their awareness, attitude and practice towards audit systems. The 2007 institutional pregnancy outcome records were reviewed. Results Overall hospital based maternal mortality ratio was 218/100,000 live births (range: 0 - 385) and perinatal mortality rate was 44/1000 births (range: 17 - 147). Maternal and perinatal audit systems existed only in 4 and 3 hospitals respectively, and key decision makers did not take part in audit committees. Sixty percent of care providers were not aware of even a single action which had ever been implemented in their hospitals because of audit recommendations. There were neither records of the key decision points, action plan, nor regular analysis of the audit reports in any of the facilities where such audit systems existed. Conclusions Maternal and perinatal audit systems in these institutions are poorly established in structure and process; and are less effective to improve the quality of care. Fundamental changes are urgently needed for successful audit systems in these institutions. PMID

  18. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  19. Birth prevalence of selected external structural birth defects at four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Mpembeni, Rose; Mghamba, Janneth M; Goodman, David; Valencia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background 94% of all birth defects (BD) and 95% of deaths due to the BD occur in low and middle income countries, many of which are preventable. In Tanzania, there is currently a paucity of BD data necessary to develop data informed prevention activities. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of deliveries identified with BD in the labor ward registers at four Dar es Salaam hospitals between October, 2011 and February, 2012. The birth prevalence of structural BD, case fatality proportion, and the distribution of structural defects associated deaths within total deaths were calculated. Results A total of 28 217 resident births were encountered during the study period. Overall birth prevalence of selected defects was 28.3/10 000 live births. Neural tube defects and indeterminate sex were the most and least common defects at birth (9.9 and 1.1/10 000 live births, respectively). Among stillbirths (66.7%) and deaths that occurred within less than 5 days of an affected live birth (18.5%), neural tube defects were the most frequently associated structural defect. Conclusion Structural BD is common and contributes to perinatal mortality in Dar es Salaam. More than half of perinatal deaths encountered among the studied selected external structural BD are associated with neural tube defects, a birth defect with well–established evidence based prevention interventions. By establishing a population–based BD surveillance program, Tanzania would have the information about neural tube defects and other major structural BD needed to develop and monitor prevention activities. PMID:26361541

  20. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciani, Giulia; Sappa, Giuseppe; Cella, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    They are presented the results of a groundwater modeling study on the Coastal Aquifer of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Dar es Salaam is one of the fastest-growing coastal cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, with with more than 4 million of inhabitants and a population growth rate of about 8 per cent per year. The city faces periodic water shortages, due to the lack of an adequate water supply network. These two factors have determined, in the last ten years, an increasing demand of groundwater exploitation, carried on by quite a number of private wells, which have been drilled to satisfy human demand. A steady-state three dimensional groundwater model has been set up by the MODFLOW code, and calibrated with the UCODE code for inverse modeling. The aim of the model was to carry out a characterization of groundwater flow system in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain. The inputs applied to the model included net recharge rate, calculated from time series of precipitation data (1961-2012), estimations of average groundwater extraction, and estimations of groundwater recharge, coming from zones, outside the area under study. Parametrization of the hydraulic conductivities was realized referring to the main geological features of the study area, based on available literature data and information. Boundary conditions were assigned based on hydrogeological boundaries. The conceptual model was defined in subsequent steps, which added some hydrogeological features and excluded other ones. Calibration was performed with UCODE 2014, using 76 measures of hydraulic head, taken in 2012 referred to the same season. Data were weighted on the basis of the expected errors. Sensitivity analysis of data was performed during calibration, and permitted to identify which parameters were possible to be estimated, and which data could support parameters estimation. Calibration was evaluated based on statistical index, maps of error distribution and test of independence of residuals. Further model

  1. Serological evidence of Lyme borreliosis in Africa: results from studies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mhalu, F S; Matre, R

    1996-09-01

    Investigations were performed on sera from blood donors, pregnant women, patients with polyarthritis and from patients with clinical suspicion of syphilis in Dar es Salaam using Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) flagellar antigen in a second generation ELISA test from DAKO A/S, Denmark, for specific IgM or IgG antibodies. An IgM and or IgG seropositivity rate of 30/100 (30%), 19/50 (7.2%), 10/20 (50%) and 11/20 (55%) was found in sera from the respective groups. These results compare with a Bb seroprevalence rate of 4/100 (4%), 1/52 (2%) and 363/5024 (7.2%) in blood donors, in pregnant women and in patients investigated serologically for Lyme borreliosis (Lb) respectively in Bergen, Norway, where cases of Lb are detected regularly. The high prevalence of antibodies to Bb flagellar antigen in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania where clinical conditions including erythema migrans, arthritis, mycocarditis and CNS diseases as well as tickbites are found call for further clinical, entomological and laboratory investigations. PMID:8991238

  2. Basic analysis of climate and urban bioclimate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Better understanding of urban microclimate and bioclimate of any city is imperative today when the world is constrained by both urbanisation and global climate change. Urbanisation generally triggers changes in land cover and hence influencing the urban local climate. Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania is one of the fast growing cities. Assessment of its urban climate and the human biometeorological conditions was done using the easily available synoptic meteorological data covering the period 2001-2011. In particular, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated using the RayMan software and results reveal that the afternoon period from December to February (DJF season) is relatively the most thermal stressful period to human beings in Dar es Salaam where PET values of above 35 °C were found. Additionally, the diurnal cycle of the individual meteorological elements that influence the PET index were analysed and found that air temperature of 30-35 °C dominate the afternoon period from 12:00 to 15:00 hours local standard time at about 60 % of occurrence. The current results, though considered as preliminary to the ongoing urban climate study in the city, provide an insight on how urban climate research is of significant importance in providing useful climatic information for ensuring quality of life and wellbeing of city dwellers.

  3. Barriers to men who have sex with men attending HIV related health services in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Magesa, Daniel J; Mtui, Leah J; Abdul, Mariam; Kayange, Alick; Chiduo, Rodney; Leshabari, Melkizedek T; Kayombo, Edmund; Tungaraza, Dominicus

    2014-04-01

    The HIV/AIDS disease burden is disproportionately high among men who have sex with men (MSM) worldwide. If this group will continue to be ignored they will continue to be the focus of HIV infection to the general population. This study explored barriers impeding MSM utilizing the HIV related health services currently available. The objectives of the study were to: (i) determine how stigma and discrimination affect MSM attendance to HIV related health services; (ii) determine how health care worker's (HCW's) practices and attitudes towards MSM affect their attendance to HIV related health service; (iii) learn MSM's perception towards seeking HIV related health services and other factors affecting accessibility of HIV related health services among MSM in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. This was a descriptive study whereby qualitative methods were employed, using in-depth interviews for 50 individuals and focus group discussions for 5 groups which were conducted at PASADA premises, in Temeke district in 2012. After transcription data was read through, codes created were then collapsed into themes which were interpreted. The findings of this study show that majority of the study participants access HIV related health services in Dar es Salaam when they need to. However, they reported stigma and discrimination, lack of confidentiality and privacy, lack of availability and MSM friendly HIV related health services, financial challenges, poor practices and negative attitudes directed towards them by health workers, fears and lack of HIV knowledge among them as barriers for them to access these services. With these findings, there is an importance of enabling MSM to overcome the perceived stigma when seeking for HIV related health services. Also there is a need to conduct further research with regards to how HCW's treat this group and their understanding on same sex practices. PMID:26875306

  4. A qualitative study of perceived risk for HIV transmission among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding people’s views about HIV transmission by investigating a specific population may help to design effective HIV prevention strategies. In addition, knowing the inherent sexual practices of such a population, as well as the risky circumstances that may facilitate HIV transmission, is crucial for the said strategies to become effective. In this article, we report how police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, perceived the problem of HIV and AIDS in their local context, particularly in relation to unsafe sexual practices. The study was done with the view to recommending ways by which HIV transmission could be minimised within the police force. Methods The study was conducted among members of the police force in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted, with a total of 66 participants who were mixed in terms of age, gender, and marital status. Some of these were caregivers to patients with AIDS. Data were analysed using the interpretive description approach. Results The participants believed that both individual sexual behaviour and work-related circumstances were sources of HIV infection. They also admitted that they were being tempted to engage in risky sexual practices because of the institutional rules that prohibit officers from getting married during their training and for three years after. Nevertheless, as members of the Police Force, they stressed the fact that the risky sexual behaviour that exposes them to HIV is not limited to the force; it is rather a common problem that is faced by the general population. However, they complained, the nature of their job exposes them to road accident victims, subjecting them further to possible infection, especially when they have to handle these road accident casualties without proper protective gear. Conclusion Individual sexual behaviour and job-related circumstances are worth investigating if proper advice is to be given to the police regarding HIV

  5. Overweight, obesity and perceptions about body weight among primary schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mpembeni, Rose N M; Muhihi, Alfa J; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu; Ngarashi, Davis; Lujani, Benjamin; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Anaeli, Amani; Njelekela, Marina A

    2014-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of overweight and obesity and assessed perception about body weight among primary schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this cross sectional study, nine schools were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle information including perception about body weight. Height and weight were measured following standard procedures. Chi- square tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine factors which influence perceptions about body weight. A total of 446 children were included into the study. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2 (16.1 ± 4.0 for males and 17.0 ± 4.0 for females). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher among girls, 13.1% and 6.3% compared to boys with 6.3% and 3.8% overweight and obese respectively (P=0.0314). Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.0% (10.1% among boys and 19.4% among girls). One-third (33.3%) of the children perceived their body weight as overweight or obese. Among overweight and obese children, 35.4% had unfavourable perception of their body weights. There was a statistically significant difference between perceived body weight and actual body weight as indicated by BMI for both boys and girls (P < 0.05). Age of the child (AOR = 0.55 95% CI 0.36-0.85) and area of residence (COR = 0.64 95% CI 0.44-0.95) were found to be significant predictors of favourable perception of one's body weight. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is not very

  6. Skinning the goat and pulling the load: transactional sex among youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Maganja, R K; Maman, S; Groves, A; Mbwambo, J K

    2007-09-01

    Transactional sex has been associated with risk of HIV infection in a number of studies throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Urban young women are economically vulnerable and at heightened risk of HIV infection in Tanzania; yet there are few studies that have explored relationship dynamics, including transactional sex, in this setting. This paper sheds light on the broader context of sexual relationships among youth at risk for HIV, how transactional sex plays out in these relationships, and how the transactional nature of relationships affects women's risk for HIV. We conducted 60 in depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions with young men and women, 16-24 years old, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These data guided the development of a community based HIV and violence prevention intervention for young men. Youth described the exchange of sex for money or other material goods in all types of sexual relationships. While the exchange was explicit in casual relationships, young women voiced material and monetary expectations from their committed partners as well. Young men described their pursuit of multiple partners as sexually motivated, while women sought multiple partners for economic reasons. Young men were aware of the expectations of material support from partners, and acknowledged that their ability to provide for a partner affected both the longevity and exclusivity of their relationships. Youth described a deep mistrust of the motivations and commitment of their sexual partners. Furthermore, young women's financial dependence on men impacted their ability to negotiate safe sexual behaviors in both casual and committed relationships. Programs designed to reduce HIV risk among Tanzanian youth need to take into account the transactional component of sexual relationships and how such exchanges differ according to partner type. PMID:17851993

  7. Health-care worker engagement in HIV-related quality improvement in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Maria E.; Li, Michelle S.; Siril, Hellen; Hawkins, Claudia; Kaaya, Sylvia; Ismail, Shabbir; Chalamilla, Guerino; Mdingi, Sarah Geoffrey; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess health-care worker (HCW) awareness, interest and engagement in quality improvement (QI) in HIV care sites in Tanzania. Design Cross-sectional survey distributed in May 2009. Setting Sixteen urban HIV care sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1 year after the introduction of a quality management program. Participants Two hundred seventy-nine HCWs (direct care, clinical support staff and management). Main Outcome Measures HCW perceptions of care delivered, rates of engagement, knowledge and interest in QI. HCW-identified barriers to and facilitators of the delivery of quality HIV care. Results Two hundred seventy-nine (73%) of 382 HCWs responded to the survey. Most (86%) felt able to meet clients’ needs. HCW-identified facilitators of quality included: teamwork (88%), staff communication (79%), positive work environment (75%) and trainings (84%). Perceived barriers included: problems in patients’ lives (73%) and too few staff or too high patient volumes (52%). Many HCWs knew about specific QI activities (52%) or had been asked for input on QI (63%), but fewer (40.5%) had participated in activities and only 20.1% were currently QI team members. Managers were more likely to report QI involvement than direct care or clinical support staff (P < 0.01). No difference in QI involvement was seen based on patient load or site type. Conclusions HCWs can provide important insights into barriers and facilitators of providing quality care and can be effectively engaged in QI activities. HCW participation in efforts to improve services will ensure that HIV/AIDS quality of care is achieved and maintained as countries strive for universal antiretroviral access. PMID:21441571

  8. Suspended particulate matter and its relations to the urban climate in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, P.; Bennet, C.; Eliasson, I.; Selin Lindgren, E.

    Relationships between sources and levels of particulate matter and climatic parameters (urban heat island intensity, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity) were investigated in the coastal city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania's largest city. Measurements were made during the wet and dry seasons of 2001 at an urban and a rural site. Five elements were used to represent different sources: K in fine particles (biomass), Zn in fine particles (industry), Cl in coarse particles (sea spray), Ti in coarse particles (soil) and Pb in fine particles (traffic). The concentrations of these elements varied considerably between the urban and rural site during both the wet and dry season, with the urban site in the dry season having the highest concentrations. Diurnal differences are also apparent, although not as straightforward. In an attempt to explain these differences, correlations between all elements and the climatic parameters were investigated. The results show that the nocturnal urban heat island intensity was positively correlated and wind speed negatively correlated with particulate levels, presumably due to the increased atmospheric stability.

  9. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marion W.; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:25734790

  10. Pit latrine emptying behavior and demand for sanitation services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Marion W; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-03-01

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like 'flooding out'. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:25734790

  11. Informal Urban Settlements and Cholera Risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Penrose, Katherine; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Werema, Japhet; Ryan, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Background As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km2 in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were asked. In this study, the

  12. Seasonal changes in the larvel populations of Aedes aegypti in two biotopes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trpis, Milan

    1972-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of larval populations of Aedes aegypti was studied in two different biotopes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The first biotope was located on the Msasani peninsula on the coast 6 km north of Dar es Salaam, where A. aegypti breeds exclusively in coral rock holes. The population dynamics was studied during both the rainy and the dry season. Seasonal changes in the density of A. aegypti larvae depend primarily on variation in rainfall. The population of larvae dropped to zero only for a short time during the driest period while the adult population was maintained at a low level. The second biotope was in an automobile dump in a Dar es Salaam suburb, where A. aegypti breeds in artificial containers such as tires, automobile parts, tins, coconut shells, and snail shells. The greater part of the A. aegypti population of this biotope is maintained in the egg stage during the dry season. It serves as a focal point for breeding during the dry season: with the coming of the rains, the population expands into the surrounding residential areas. More than 70% of the larval population developed in tires, 20% in tins, 5% in coconut shells, and 1% in snail shells. PMID:4539415

  13. Rational dispensing and use of artemether-lumefantrine during pregnancy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R; Mnyusiwalla, Fatema

    2011-04-01

    Artemether-Lumefantrine (ALu) is widely used for uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Because of the suspected teratogenic effects of artemether during the first trimester, quinine is used in early pregnancy unless the risks outweigh the benefits. The aim of this study was to assess dispensing practice of ALu in private pharmacies and knowledge of pregnant women regarding the use of ALu. This was a prospective-descriptive study involving visits to 200 private retail pharmacies (using a mystery shopper) and interviewing pregnant women at the municipal public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Among the drug dispensers, 60 (30%) were pharmacists, 71(35.5%) nurse assistants, 34 (17%) pharmaceutical technicians and 35 (17.5%) sales persons with no formal education on drug dispensing. Among the dispensers, 14.5% had high knowledge, 38.0% had medium knowledge and 47.5% had low knowledge on the use of ALu during pregnancy. About thirty three percent of the drug dispensers were willing to dispense ALu during the first trimester of pregnancy. Sixty two percent of the drug dispensers indicated that ALu is the drug of choice for uncomplicated malaria after the first trimester of pregnancy. However, 36% indicated that ALu could not be used during pregnancy. A total of 200 pregnant women were interviewed. Among them, 16.5% were aware that ALu should not be taken during the first trimester of pregnancy. Only 17% of pregnant women were given information on the importance of taking food when using ALu, but none of them was given information on the importance of fatty meals when using ALu. In conclusion, the results show that most drug dispensers have inadequate knowledge about good dispensing practice of ALu in pregnancy. There is therefore a need for continuing training of drug dispensers regarding antimalarial drugs use in pregnancy. PMID:25566607

  14. Patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care at private clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Miller, James S; Mhalu, Aisa; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Hellen; Kaaya, Silvia; Tito, Justina; Aris, Eric; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2014-01-01

    Health system responsiveness (HSR) measures quality of care from the patient's perspective, an important component of ensuring adherence to medication and care among HIV patients. We examined HSR in private clinics serving HIV patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We surveyed 640 patients, 18 or older receiving care at one of 10 participating clinics, examining socioeconomic factors, HIV regimen, and self-reported experience with access and care at the clinic. Ordered logistic regression, adjusted for clustering of the clinic sites, was used to measure the relationships between age, gender, education, site size, and overall quality of care rating, as well as between the different HSR domains and overall rating. Overall, patients reported high levels of satisfaction with care received. Confidentiality, communication, and respect were particularly highly rated, while timeliness received lower ratings despite relatively short wait times, perhaps indicating high expectations when receiving care at a private clinic. Respect, confidentiality, and promptness were significantly associated with overall rating of health care, while provider skills and communication were not significantly associated. Patients reported that quality of service and confidentiality, rather than convenience of location, were the most important factors in their choice of a clinic. Site size (patient volume) was also positively correlated with patient satisfaction. Our findings suggest that, in the setting of urban private-sector clinics, flexible clinics hours, prompt services, and efforts to improve respect, privacy and confidentiality may prove more helpful in increasing visit adherence than geographic accessibility. While a responsive health system is valuable in its own right, more work is needed to confirm that improvements in HSR in fact lead to improved adherence to care. PMID:24499337

  15. Roadside concentration of gaseous and particulate matter pollutants and risk assessment in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Msafiri M

    2005-05-01

    This study used manual air sampling method to assess the contribution of road traffic to air pollution level in Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania. Samples were collected from 11 different sites. Parameters measured were: sulphur dioxide using pararosaniline method, nitrogen dioxide using saltzman method, particulate matter and particulate lead using filtration method and atomic absorption spectrometric method, respectively. Results showed that hourly average sulphur dioxide concentration range from 127 to 1385 microg/m3. The measured values of sulphur dioxide were above the recommended WHO guidelines with an hourly objective value of 350 microg/m3 at 87% of the sampling sites. The hourly average nitrogen dioxide concentration ranged from 18 to 53 microg/m3. The maximum hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration at 53 microg/m3 was below the WHO guideline value of 200 microg/m3. The hourly average suspended particulate matter (SPM) ranged from 98 to 1161 microg/m3, exceeding the recommended value of 230 microg/m3 by WHO at 87% of the sampling sites. The hourly average lead concentration was found to range from 0.60 to 25.6 microg/m3, exceeding again the WHO guideline value of 1.5 microg/m3 at 83% of the sampling sites. Results predicted by Gaussian model when compared with the measured values were found to have a correlation coefficient of 0.8, signifying a good correlation. The risk assessment was undertaken considering the people who spend a significant portion of their time near the roads, such as the Uhuru primary school pupils and the adult population who reside by the roadside. The unit risk realised was 18.2 x 10(-6) for adult population and 2.2 x 10(-6) for pupils, both scenarios showing risk higher than the United Sates of America Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) acceptable limit of 1 x 10(-6). Considering the magnitude of the problem at hand, this study recommends an introduction of mandatory emission tests of SPM, lead and sulphur dioxide (SO2). The study

  16. Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al

  17. Association between body fat composition and blood pressure level among secondary school adolescents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mushengezi, Brighton; Chillo, Pilly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excess body fat and high blood pressure (BP) are important risk factors for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and both may have their roots of occurrence in childhood and adolescence. The present study aimed at determining the association between body fat composition and BP level among adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 5 randomly selected secondary schools within Dar es Salaam was conducted between June and November 2013. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on demographic characteristics and other cardiovascular risk factors. BP, height, weight and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Body fat was assessed by skinfold thickness and categorized as underfat, healthy, overfat or obese according to World Health Organization definitions. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 90th percentile for age, height and gender of the adolescent. Results The study included 582 adolescents (mean age 16.5±1.8 years, 52.1% boys). The proportion of adolescents with overfat or obesity was 22.2%. Systolic, diastolic and combined hypertension was present in 17.5%, 5.5%, and 4.0% respectively. In the total population mean body fat percent correlated positively with diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) but not with systolic BP. In multivariate analysis body mass index (β=0.21, p=0.008) and waist circumference (β=0.12, p=0.049), but not body fat percentage (β=-0.09, p=0.399) independently predicted higher MAP. Conclusion Body mass index predicts BP level better than body fat composition and should be used as a measure of increased risk for hypertension among adolescents. PMID:25918567

  18. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

    2007-01-01

    Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa. PMID:17784963

  19. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. PMID:25649406

  20. Identifying Programmatic Gaps: Inequities in Harm Reduction Service Utilization among Male and Female Drug Users in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Lambdin, Barrot H.; Bruce, R. Douglas; Chang, Olivia; Nyandindi, Cassian; Sabuni, Norman; Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; McCurdy, Sheryl; Masao, Frank; Ivo, Yovin; Msami, Amani; Ubuguy, Omar; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Current estimates suggest an HIV prevalence of 42% among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Dar es Salaam, while HIV prevalence is estimated to be 8.8% among the general population in the city. To address the HIV epidemic in this population, the government of Tanzania began establishing HIV prevention, treatment and care services including outreach and medication assisted treatment (MAT) for PWIDs in 2010. We assessed gender inequities in utilization of outreach and MAT services and evaluated differences in HIV risk behaviors between female and male PWIDs. Materials and Methods Routine outreach data between December 2010 to mid-August 2012 and baseline data on clients enrolling in methadone from February 2011 to August 2012 were utilized. Binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk estimates comparing females to males. Results From December 2010 to August 2012, 8,578 contacts were made to drug users; among them 1,898 were injectors. A total of 453 injectors were eligible and referred to MAT, of which, 443 enrolled in treatment. However, regarding total outreach contacts, outreach to PWID, referral to MAT and enrollment in MAT, 8% or less of drug users accessing services were women. In contrast, weighted estimations from surveys suggest that 34% of PWIDs are female, and this approximation is similar to recent population size estimations. Overall, 43% of traditional outreach workers conducting outreach with drug users were female. Though reporting higher levels of condom usage, female PWID were more likely to report multiple sex partners, anal sex, commercial sex work and struggle under a higher burden of addiction, mental disorders and abuse. Conclusions Services have not been mobilized adequately to address the clear needs of females who inject drugs. A clear and urgent need exists for women-centered strategies that effectively engage female PWID into HIV prevention services. PMID:23825620

  1. Community Health Workers to Improve Antenatal Care and PMTCT Uptake in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Quantitative Performance Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sando, David; Magesa, Lucy; Machumi, Lameck; Mungure, Esther; Mwanyika Sando, Mary; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Foster, Dawn; Kajoka, Deborah; Naburi, Helga; Ekström, Anna M.; Spiegelman, Donna; Li, Nan; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    Background: Home visits by community health workers (CHW) could be effective in identifying pregnant women in the community before they have presented to the health system. CHW could thus improve the uptake of antenatal care (ANC), HIV testing, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. Methods: Over a 16-month period, we carried out a quantitative evaluation of the performance of CHW in reaching women early in pregnancy and before they have attended ANC in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results: As part of the intervention, 213 CHW conducted more than 45,000 home visits to about 43,000 pregnant women. More than 75% of the pregnant women identified through home visits had not yet attended ANC at the time of the first contact with a CHW and about 40% of those who had not yet attended ANC were in the first trimester of pregnancy. Over time, the number of pregnant women the CHW identified each month increased, as did the proportion of women who had not yet attended ANC. The median gestational age of pregnant women contacted for the first time by a CHW decreased steadily and significantly over time (from 21/22 to 16 weeks, P-value for test of trend <0.0001). Conclusions: A large-scale CHW intervention was effective in identifying pregnant women in their homes early in pregnancy and before they had attended ANC. The intervention thus fulfills some of the conditions that are necessary for CHW to improve timely ANC uptake and early HIV testing and PMTCT enrollment in pregnancy. PMID:25436818

  2. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  3. Urban lymphatic filariasis in the metropolis of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The last decades have seen a considerable increase in urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is estimated that over 50% of the population will live in urban areas by 2040. Rapid growth of cities combined with limited economic resources often result in informal settlements and slums with favorable conditions for proliferation of vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Dar es Salaam, which has grown more than 30 times in population during the past 55 years (4.4 million inhabitants in 2012), previous surveys have indicated high prevalences of LF. This study investigated epidemiological aspects of LF in Dar es Salaam, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Six sites with varying distance from the city center (3–30 km) and covering different population densities, socioeconomic characteristics, and water, sewerage and sanitary facilities were selected for the study. Pupils from one public primary school at each site were screened for circulating filarial antigen (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 (marker of exposure to transmission). Community members were examined for CFA, microfilariae and chronic manifestations. Structured questionnaires were administered to pupils and heads of community households, and vector surveys were carried out in selected households. Results The study indicated that a tremendous decrease in the burden of LF infection had occurred, despite haphazard urbanisation. Contributing factors may be urban malaria control targeting Anopheles vectors, short survival time of the numerous Culex quinquefasciatus vectors in the urban environment, widespread use of bed nets and other mosquito proofing measures, and mass drug administration (MDA) in 2006 and 2007. Although the level of ongoing transmission was low, the burden of chronic LF disease was still high. Conclusions The development has so far been promising, but continued efforts are necessary to ensure elimination of LF as a

  4. A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mlunde, Linda Beatrice; Sunguya, Bruno Fokas; Mbwambo, Jessie Kazeni; Ubuguyu, Omary Said; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a baseline cross-sectional study as part of a prospective cohort study of people who inject drugs. We included 578 participants comprising of new enrollees of the integrated methadone-assisted treatment program and those who were selected from the communities but not enrolled in the program. We interviewed new enrollees preceding their enrollment and receipt of services from the program. We measured participants’ high-risk behaviors and their utilization of screening services. We analyzed the data descriptively and used multiple logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with ever being screened for infectious diseases. Results Of 578 participants, 14.2% shared injection needles. Of 547 sexually active participants, 37.5% had multiple sexual partners and only 17.4% used a condom. Of all participants, however, only 36.0% had ever been screened for HIV infection, 18.5% for tuberculosis, 11.8% for any other sexually transmitted infection, and 11.6% for hepatitis B/C. They were more likely to have ever been screened for HIV infection if they had education levels above primary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.54–4.20), had a history of transactional sex (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.01–6.84), and were new enrollees of the program (AOR: 7.41, 95% CI: 4.41–12.86). Conclusions People who inject drugs practice high-risk behaviors but their utilization of screening services for infectious diseases is poor in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is crucial to

  5. Students' Experiences and Challenges of Blended Learning at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raphael, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), especially eLearning, have heightened the need for University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) to supplement on-campus face-to-face delivery as well as meeting increased students' enrolments through blended distance learning. Since 2008, the University has been offering three…

  6. Child Labour in Urban Agriculture: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlozi, Malongo R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam was found to use child labor of both children with parents of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Discusses policy implications and calls for the education of parents of lower SES not to expect an economic contribution from their children's labor, and the education of children about their rights. (LZ)

  7. Generating trust: Programmatic strategies to reach women who inject drugs with harm reduction services in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; Mahenge, Bathsheba; Saleem, Haneefa; Mbwambo, Jessie; Lambdin, Barrot H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Strong evidence supports the effectiveness of methadone-assisted therapy (MAT) to treat opioid dependence, reduce the risk of HIV transmission, and improve HIV related health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence reaches 71% in women who inject drugs (WWID) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; creating an urgent need for access to MAT. Despite the availability and potential benefits of treatment, few women have enrolled in services. This formative research sought to identify programmatic strategies to increase women’s participation in outreach and their subsequent enrollment in MAT. Methods We conducted twenty-five, in-depth interviews with patients and their providers at a MAT clinic. Open-ended interviews explored enrollment experiences, with a focus on contextual barriers and facilitators unique to women. Ethnographic observations of harm reduction education at outreach sites and the MAT clinic enriched interview data. Trust/mistrust emerged as an overarching theme cross cutting patient and provider accounts of the connective process to enroll PWID in the methadone program. We explore trust and mistrust in relationship to the interrelated themes of family loss, social isolation, vehement discrimination and motivation for treatment. Results Narratives delineated both the generation of mistrust against PWID and the generation of mistrust in PWID against outsiders and medical institutions. In order to enroll PWID in treatment, community base organizations engaged outreach strategies to overcome mistrust and connect eligible patients to care, which varied in their success at recruiting women and men. Greater discrimination against WWID pushed them into hiding, away from outreach teams that focus on outdoor areas where men who inject drugs congregate. Building trust through multiple encounters and making a personal connection facilitated entry into care for women. Only PWID were eligible for MAT, due to resource constraints and the higher

  8. Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study

  9. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates’ students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions remain higher among university students. This calls for understanding the knowledge on contraceptive use and sexual behaviours among this high risk group if the incidence of unintended pregnancy, illegal abortions and high sexual risky behaviour are to be minimized. This study aimed to assess ssexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates’ students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among undergraduate female students in the two Universities located in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania. The study period was from June 2013 to October 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 281 students. Of these, 253 were retrieved, giving a response rate of 90%. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows version 17.0. Descriptive statistics were summarized. The chi square test was used to examine relationship between various sociodemographic and sexual behaviours variables with contraceptive use. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Results showed that majority (70.4%) of the students have had sexual intercourse. All participants had knowledge of contraception. More than half, 148 (58.5%) of sexually active women reported ever used contraception before while 105 (41.5%) were current contraceptive users. Majority (74.7%) of the sexually active group started sexual activity at young age (19–24 years). Condom, 221(24.3%) and pills, 153 (16.8%) were the known contraceptive methods. The most popular method of contraception used were condoms, withdrawal and periodic abstinence. The main sources of information about contraception were from friends, radio and school (39.5%, 36% and 24%) respectively. Forty (15.8%) women had pregnancies. Of these, 11 (27%) have had unwanted pregnancies among which

  10. The Risk of Dengue Virus Transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an Epidemic Period of 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mweya, Clement N.; Rumisha, Susan F.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Stanley, Grades; Makange, Mariam R.; Misinzo, Gerald; De Nardo, Pasquale; Vairo, Francesco; Oriyo, Ndekya M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, there is no comprehensive data on the risk of transmission of dengue in the country. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during the 2014 epidemic. Methodology/Principal Findings This cross-sectional study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during the dengue outbreak of 2014. The study involved Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke districts. Adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. In each household compound, water-holding containers were examined for mosquito larvae and pupae. Dengue virus infection of mosquitoes was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Partial amplification and sequencing of dengue virus genome in infected mosquitoes was performed. A total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes were collected. Over half (59.9%) of the adult mosquitoes were collected in Kinondoni. Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2% of the mosquitoes of which 90.6% were from Kinondoni. Of a total of 796 houses inspected, 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. Kinondoni had the largest proportion of water-holding containers (57.7%), followed by Temeke (31.4%) and Ilala (23.4%). The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house index of 18.1% in Ilala, 25.5% in Temeke and 35.3% in Kinondoni. The respective container indices were 77.4%, 65.2% and 80.2%. Of the reared larvae and pupae, 5,250 adult mosquitoes emerged, of which 61.9% were Ae. aegypti. Overall, 27 (8.18) of the 330 pools of Ae. aegypti were positive for dengue virus. On average, the overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) indicates pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes (95%CI = 5.72–12

  11. Efficacy of waterless hand hygiene compared with handwashing with soap: a field study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  12. Cost Savings with Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria in Low-Transmission Areas: Evidence from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Yukich, Joshua; D'Acremont, Valerie; Kahama, Judith; Swai, Ndeniria; Lengeler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria may help rationalize antimalarial drug use. However, the economic effects of these tests may vary. Data on costs were collected from 259 patients in 6 health facilities by using exit and in-charge interviews and record reviews during a trial of RDT rollout in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The RDTs decreased patient expenditure on drugs (savings = U.S. $0.36; P = 0.002) and provider drug costs (savings = U.S. $0.43; P = 0.034) compared with control facilities. However, RDT introduction did not significantly reduce patients' overall expenditures (U.S. $1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = $0.76–$1.36 versus U.S. $1.33 95% CI = $0.99–$1.77) and may increase total provider costs (U.S. $3.63, 95% CI = $3.40–$3.89 versus U.S. $2.32, 95% CI = $1.99–$2.69) compared with control facilities. Clinician's compliance with test results was higher with RDTs than with routine microscopy (95% versus 82%; P = 0.002). The RDTs reduced drug costs in this setting but did not offset the cost of the tests, although they also resulted in non-monetary benefits, including improved management of patients and increased compliance with test results. PMID:20595479

  13. Modeling approaches and strategies for data-scarce aquifers: example of the Dar es Salaam aquifer in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Camp, Marc; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Al Farrah, Nawal; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-03-01

    Management of groundwater resources can be improved by using groundwater models to perform risk analyses and to improve development strategies, but a lack of extensive basic data often limits the implementation of sophisticated models. Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is an example of a city where increasing groundwater use in a Pleistocene aquifer is causing groundwater-related problems such as saline intrusion along the coastline, lowering of water-table levels, and contamination of pumping wells. The lack of a water-level monitoring network introduces a problem for basic data collection and model calibration and validation. As a replacement, local water-supply wells were used for measuring groundwater depth, and well-top heights were estimated from a regional digital elevation model to recalculate water depths to hydraulic heads. These were used to draw a regional piezometric map. Hydraulic parameters were estimated from short-time pumping tests in the local wells, but variation in hydraulic conductivity was attributed to uncertainty in well characteristics (information often unavailable) and not to aquifer heterogeneity. A MODFLOW model was calibrated with a homogeneous hydraulic conductivity field and a sensitivity analysis between the conductivity and aquifer recharge showed that average annual recharge will likely be in the range 80-100 mm/year.

  14. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  15. Determinants of Anemia Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Adults at Care and Treatment Clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Petraro, Paul; Duggan, Christopher; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Makubi, Abel; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Helen; Sando, David; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-02-01

    Anemia is often a comorbidity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Many cross-sectional studies have been conducted on anemia and HIV, but few, if any, have addressed incidence of anemia prospectively. A longitudinal analysis was conducted in 48,068 nonpregnant HIV-infected adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, seen at Management and Development for Health-U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief HIV care and treatment programs between 2004 and 2011. Almost 56% (N = 27,184) of study participants had anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) at the time of enrollment at the clinic. Female gender, low body mass index (BMI), low CD4 T-cell count, high levels of liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens, and concurrent tuberculosis treatment were all independently significantly associated with an increased risk of anemia. Low BMI and low CD4 T-cell count were independently significantly associated with an increased risk for iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Higher BMI status and ART use were associated with recovery from anemia. Anemia, including IDA, is a comorbidity that is associated with other adverse consequences (e.g., low BMI and CD4 T-cell count) among individuals with HIV infection, including those on ART. Interventions to prevent anemia and its complications need to be examined in the context of future studies. PMID:26666698

  16. The pattern of mucocutaneous disorders in HIV – infected children attending care and treatment centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Panya, Millembe F; Mgonda, Yassin M; Massawe, Augustine W

    2009-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS is associated with a wide range of mucocutaneous disorders some of which are useful in the clinical staging and prognosis of the syndrome. There is paucity of information regarding the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending paediatric Care and Treatment Centres (CTC) in Dar es Salaam. Objective To determine the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Methods This was a cross sectional descriptive study involving public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Clinical information was obtained using a questionnaire. Dermatological examination was carried out in daylight. Investigations were taken as appropriate. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 10.0. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were utilized. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred and forty seven HIV infected children (52% males) attending CTCs were recruited into the study. Mucocutaneous disorders were encountered in 85% of them. There was no gender difference in the prevalence of the infective mucocutaneous disorders but males had a higher prevalence of non-infective/inflammatory dermatoses (58%) than females (42%) (p = 0.02). Overall, mucocutaneous disorders (infective + non infective) were more prevalent in advanced stages of HIV disease. Children with advanced HIV disease had a significantly increased frequency of fungal and viral infections (43% and 25% respectively than those with less advanced disease; 24% and 13% respectively (p = 0.01). Seventy four percent of the HIV-infected children with mucocutaneous disorders were already on ART. Conclusion Mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending Care and Treatment Centres are common and highly variable. Comprehensive management

  17. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  18. Genetic diversity of norovirus in hospitalised diarrhoeic children and asymptomatic controls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Sabrina; Hanevik, Kurt; Blomberg, Bjørn; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel; Langeland, Nina

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated and reports norovirus diarrhoea, genetic diversity and associated clinical symptoms, HIV status and seasonality in a paediatric population of Tanzania. Stool specimens and demographic/clinical information, were prospectively collected from 705 hospitalised children with diarrhoea (cases) and 561 children without diarrhoea (controls) between 2010 and 2011. Norovirus detection was done by real-time RT-PCR. Genotype was determined using Gel-based and real time RT-PCR methods and sequencing targeting the polymerase and the capsid region respectively. Norovirus was detected in 14.3%, 181/1266 children. The prevalence of norovirus was significantly higher in cases (18.3%, 129/705) than in controls, (9.2%, 52/561), P<0.05. Except for one child who had double infection with GI and GII all 129 cases had GII. Among controls, 23.1% had GI and 76.9% had GII. Norovirus GII.4 was significantly more prevalent in cases 87.9% than in controls 56.5%. Other genotypes detected in both cases and controls were GII.21, GII.16 and GII.g. The highest numbers of norovirus were detected in April 2011. The number of norovirus detected was significantly higher during the first than second year of life (109/540, 20.2% vs. 20/165, 12.1%). The prevalence of norovirus in HIV-positive and negative children was (21.2%, 7/33) and (10.3%, 40/390, P=0.05) respectively, regardless of diarrhoea symptoms. No significant difference in gender, parent's level of education or nutritional status with norovirus infection was observed within cases or controls. This study confirms the significant role of norovirus infection, especially GII.4 in diarrhoeic children who need hospitalisation and adds knowledge on norovirus epidemiology in the African region. PMID:24960396

  19. The burden of co-existing dermatological disorders and their tendency of being overlooked among patients admitted to muhimbili national hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Skin diseases are underestimated and overlooked by most clinicians despite being common in clinical practice. Many patients are hospitalized with co-existing dermatological conditions which may not be detected and managed by the attending physicians. The objective of this study was to determine the burden of co-existing and overlooked dermatological disorders among patients admitted to medical wards of Muhimbili National hospital in Dar es Salaam. Study design and settings A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Muhimbili National hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited from the medical wards. Detailed interview to obtain clinico-demographic characteristics was followed by a complete physical examination. Dermatological diagnoses were made mainly clinically. Appropriate confirmatory laboratory investigations were performed where necessary. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0. A p-value of < 0.5 was statistically significant. Results Three hundred and ninety patients admitted to medical wards were enrolled into the study of whom, 221(56.7%) were females. The mean age was 36.7 ± 17.9 (range 7-84 years). Overall, 232/390 patients (59.5%) had co-existing dermatological disorders with 49% (191/390) having one, 9% (36/390) two and 5 patients (1%) three. A wide range of co-existing skin diseases was encountered, the most diverse being non-infectious conditions which together accounted for 36.4% (142/390) while infectious dermatoses accounted for 31.5% (123/390). The leading infectious skin diseases were superficial fungal infections accounting for 18%. Pruritic papular eruption of HIV/AIDS (PPE) and seborrheic eczema were the most common non-infectious conditions, each accounting for 4.3%. Of the 232/390 patients with dermatological disorders, 191/232 (82.3%) and 154/232 (66.3%) had been overlooked by their referring and admitting

  20. A pilot study to evaluate incorporating eye care for children into reproductive and child health services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: a historical comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many blinding eye conditions of childhood are preventable or treatable, particularly in developing countries. However, primary eye care (PEC) for children is poorly developed, leading to unnecessary visual loss. Activities for control by health workers entail interventions for systemic conditions (measles, vitamin A deficiency), identification and referral of children with sight threatening conditions and health education for caregivers. This pilot study evaluated integrating a package of activities to promote child eye health into Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Design: historical comparison study. Fifteen Clinical Officers and 15 nurses in 15 randomly selected RCH clinics were trained in PEC for children in July 2010. They were given educational materials (poster and manual) and their supervisors were orientated. Knowledge and practices were assessed before and 3 weeks after training. One year later their knowledge and practices were compared with a different group of 15 Clinical Officers and 15 nurses who had not been trained. Results Before training staff had insufficient knowledge to identify, treat and refer children with eye diseases, even conjunctivitis. Some recommended harmful practices or did not know that cataract requires urgent referral. Eye examination, vitamin A supplementation of mothers after delivery and cleaning the eyes at birth with instillation of antibiotics (Crede’s prophylaxis) were not routine, and there were no eye-specific educational materials. Three weeks after training several clinics delivering babies started Crede’s prophylaxis, vitamin A supplementation of women after delivery increased from 83.7% to 100%, and all staff included eye conditions in health education sessions. At one year, trained staff were more likely to correctly describe, diagnose and treat conjunctivitis (z=2.34, p=0.04)(30%-vs-60.7%). Mystery mothers observed health education sessions in 7/10 RCH

  1. Barriers and Promoters of Home-Based Pasteurization of Breastmilk Among HIV-Infected Mothers in Greater Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Leshabari, Sebalda; Arkfeld, Chaele; Singler, Jennifer; Dantzer, Emily; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Mashio, Clara; Maternowska, Catherine; Chantry, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background For the past decade, heat-treating breastmilk has been an infant feeding option recommended by the World Health Organization as a strategy to reduce vertical transmission. However, little is known about field experiences with it. Our primary objective was to explore the barriers and promoters of the implementation of breastmilk pasteurization, “flash-heating” (FH), in the real-world setting of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects and Methods Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with participants in a home-based infant feeding counseling intervention in which FH was promoted after 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Additionally, three focus group discussions were conducted with peer counselors. Interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded independently using NVivo 8 software (QSR International). Data were analyzed using the socioecological framework. Results Information and support provided by peer counselors were the most important promoters of initiation and continuation of FH; this impacted individual-, interpersonal-, and institutional-level promoters of success. Other promoters included perceived successful breastmilk expression, infant health after initiation of FH, and the inability to pay for replacement milks. Stigma was the most important barrier and cut across all levels of the framework. Other barriers included doubt about the safety or importance of pasteurized breastmilk, difficulties with expressing milk (often attributed to poor diet), and competing responsibilities. The most common suggestion for improving the uptake and duration of FH was community education. Conclusions Given the acknowledged role of breastmilk pasteurization in the prevention of vertical transmission, further implementation research is needed. A multilevel intervention addressing barriers to FH would likely improve uptake. PMID:23131094

  2. “Can’t you initiate me here?”: Challenges to timely initiation on antiretroviral therapy among methadone clients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Haneefa T.; Mushi, Dorothy; Hassan, Saria; Bruce, R. Douglas; Cooke, Alexis; Mbwambo, Jessie; Lambdin, Barrot H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite dramatic improvement in antiretroviral therapy (ART) access globally, people living with HIV who inject drugs continue to face barriers that limit their access to treatment. This paper explores barriers and facilitators to ART initiation among clients attending a methadone clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We interviewed 12 providers and 20 clients living with HIV at the Muhimbili National Hospital methadone clinic between January and February 2015. We purposively sampled clients based on sex and ART status and providers based on job function. To analyze interview transcripts, we adopted a content analysis approach. Results Participants identified several factors that hindered timely ART initiation for clients at the methadone clinic. These included delays in CD4 testing and receiving CD4 test results; off-site HIV clinics; stigma operating at the individual, social and institutional levels; insufficient knowledge of the benefits of early ART initiation among clients; treatment breakdown at the clinic level possibly due to limited staff; and initiating ART only once one feels physically ill. Participants perceived social support as a buffer against stigma and facilitator of HIV treatment. Some clients also reported that persistent monitoring and follow-up on their HIV care and treatment by methadone clinic providers led them to initiate ART. Conclusion Health system factors, stigma and limited social support pose challenges for methadone clients living with HIV to initiate ART. Our findings suggest that on-site point-of-care CD4 testing, a peer support system, and trained HIV treatment specialists who are able to counsel HIV-positive clients and initiate them on ART at the methadone clinic could help reduce barriers to timely ART initiation for methadone clients. PMID:26831364

  3. Masculine attitudes of superiority deter men from accessing antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Nyamhanga, Tumaini M.; Muhondwa, Eustace P.Y.; Shayo, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Background This article presents part of the findings from a larger study that sought to assess the role that gender relations play in influencing equity regarding access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Review of the literature has indicated that, in Southern and Eastern Africa, fewer men than women have been accessing ART, and the former start using ART late, after HIV has already been allowed to advance. The main causes for this gender gap have not yet been fully explained. Objective To explore how masculinity norms limit men's access to ART in Dar es Salaam. Design This article is based on a qualitative study that involved the use of focus group discussions (FGDs). The study employed a stratified purposive sampling technique to recruit respondents. The study also employed a thematic analysis approach. Results Overall, the study's findings revealed that men's hesitation to visit the care and treatment clinics signifies the superiority norm of masculinity that requires men to avoid displaying weakness. Since men are the heads of families and have higher social status, they reported feeling embarrassed at having to visit the care and treatment clinics. Specifically, male respondents indicated that going to a care and treatment clinic may raise suspicion about their status of living with HIV, which in turn may compromise their leadership position and cause family instability. Because of this tendency towards ‘hiding’, the few men who register at the public care and treatment clinics do so late, when HIV-related signs and symptoms are already far advanced. Conclusion This study suggests that the superiority norm of masculinity affects men's access to ART. Societal expectations of a ‘real man’ to be fearless, resilient, and emotionally stable are in direct conflict with expectations of the treatment programme that one has to demonstrate health-promoting behaviour, such as promptness in attending the care and treatment clinic, agreeing to take

  4. Elemental and ionic components of atmospheric aerosols and associated gaseous pollutants in and near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mmari, Albert G.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja S.; Bencs, László; McCrindle, Robert I.; Van Grieken, René

    2013-10-01

    Elemental and water-soluble ionic compounds (WSICs) of atmospheric aerosols (total suspended particulate - TSP) and some gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2 and O3) from a coastal, semi-urban and rural site in and near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were investigated during dry and wet seasons of January 2005-November 2007. Na+, Ca2+, SO42-, NO3- and Cl- made up the dominant fraction of WSICs during the dry season with average concentrations ranging from non-detectable (n.d.)-5.4, 0.26-2.6, 0.74-14.7, 0.4-1.5 and 1.1-3.4 μg m-3, respectively, while in the wet season, from n.d. up to 1.7, 1.2, 4.4, 2.1 and 3.0 μg m-3, respectively. The total air concentrations of the detected elements (Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn) showed seasonal and site-specific variation in the range of 7.5-26.6 with an average of 14.5 μg m-3. Most of the air concentrations of pollutants were observed to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal site, which is under urban and industrial pollutant emissions. Sulphur and nitrogen oxidation ratios during the dry season ranged from 0.08 to 0.91 and 0.013 to 0.049, respectively, while they were between 0.09-0.65 and 0.002-0.095, respectively, in the wet season. These values indicate the photochemical oxidation of SO2 and a high extent of NO3-formation in the atmosphere. Neutralization ratios revealed the presence of acidic SO42- and NO3- aerosols. Principal component analysis identified sea spray, local combustion, vehicular traffic, biomass burning and re-suspended road dust as dominant sources of aerosols at the studied coastal and semi-urban sites. However, at the rural site, besides sea spray, crustal sources, soil dust re-suspension and long-range transport are the possible origins of suspended particulates.

  5. HIV risk behaviors, perceived severity of drug use problems, and prior treatment experience in a sample of young heroin injectors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sheryl; Williams, Mark; Mbwambo, Jessie; Kilonzo, Gad

    2011-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 203 male and 95 female heroin injectors aged 17 to 25 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nearly one-quarter of participants reported injecting with needles used by someone else. Few reported cleaning needles with bleach. Multiple sexual partnerships, unprotected sex, and trading sex for money were especially present among women, the majority (55%) of whom was HIV seropositive. Self reports suggest the presence of heroin dependence among users. While most participants expressed a desire to quit their use, only 14 (5%) had been in treatment. There appears to be a large unmet need for heroin use treatment. These findings need to be considered in light of a potential forthcoming wave of heroin injection in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23024611

  6. Determinants of Previous HIV Testing and Knowledge of Partner’s HIV Status Among Men Attending a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) remains low among men in sub-Saharan Africa. The factors associated with previous HIV testing and knowledge of partner’s HIV status are described for 9,107 men who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences’ VCT site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 1997 and 2008. Data are from intake forms administered to clients seeking VCT services. Most of the men (64.5%) had not previously been tested and 75% were unaware of their partner’s HIV status. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, education, condom use, and knowledge of partner’s HIV status were significant predictors of previous HIV testing. Education, number of sexual partners, and condom use were also associated with knowledge of partner’s HIV status. The low rate of VCT use among men underscores the need for more intensive initiatives to target men and remove the barriers that prevent HIV disclosure. PMID:23221684

  7. Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs), recruited from within local communities via the elected local government. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional survey assessed the ability of CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae, and investigated demographic characteristics of the CORPs, their reasons for participating in the UMCP, and their work performance. Detection coverage was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the investigator which had been reported by CORP. Detection sensitivity was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the CORPS which the investigator found to contain Anopheles larvae that were also reported to be occupied by the CORP. Results The CORPs themselves perceived their role as professional rather than voluntary, with participation being a de facto form of employment. Habitat detection coverage was lower among CORPs that were recruited through the program administrative staff, compared to CORPs recruited by local government officials or health committees (Odds Ratio = 0.660, 95% confidence interval = [0.438, 0.995], P = 0.047). Staff living within their areas of responsibility had > 70% higher detection sensitivity for both Anopheline (P = 0.016) and Culicine (P = 0.012): positive habitats compared to those living outside those same areas. Discussion and conclusions Improved employment conditions as well as involving the local health committees in recruiting individual program staff, communication and community engagement skills are required to optimize achieving effective community

  8. Provision of Vocational Skills Education to Orphans: Lessons from Orphanage Centres in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meli, Benjamin Mbeba

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises data from a study that investigated the efficacy of vocational skills training provided to orphans from three orphanages in Temeke District, Dar es Salaam. The three orphanage centres that were studied are Kurasini National Children Home, Saudia and Don Bosco Vocational Centre. The sample comprised of 45 orphans, an official…

  9. The second African Federation of Neurological Surgeons course in the East, Central, and Southern Africa region held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, January 2011.

    PubMed

    Kahamba, Joseph F; Assey, Anthony B; Dempsey, Robert J; Qureshi, Mahmood M; Härtl, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The second International African Federation of Neurological Surgeons course was organized on January 24 to 28, 2011, at the Seacliff Hotel and Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete graced the official opening with high ranking government officials in attendance. The targeted participants were young neurosurgeons in the East, Central, and South African region. More than 80 surgeons, residents, and neurosurgical nurses came from Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The objectives of the course were to teach and train young local surgeons in the essential-relevant for the region-and current techniques and management principles of brain and spinal diseases, acquire new skills through hands-on practical sessions, and share experiences. The course consisted of didactic sessions, practical aspects on spine internal fixation, cadaver dissections, and live microscopic and endoscopic surgery. Experienced faculty from different states of the United States, Spain, Turkey, India, Egypt, and Ethiopia facilitated the course. The objectives of the course were met with a favorable evaluation report. The collaboration and experience gained will be reinvested in organizing similar courses in the region. PMID:22120325

  10. Diabetes in tropical Africa: a prospective study, 1981-7. I. Characteristics of newly presenting patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1981-7.

    PubMed Central

    Swai, A B; Lutale, J; McLarty, D G

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed diabetic patients in tropical Africa. DESIGN--Prospective study of all newly diagnosed diabetic patients registered at a major urban hospital between 1 June 1981 and 31 May 1987. SETTING--Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PATIENTS--1250 Patients: 874 men, 376 women. RESULTS--272 (21.8%) Patients had diabetes requiring insulin, 825 (66.0%) had diabetes not requiring insulin, and 153 (12.2%) had diabetes of uncertain type. Most patients (1103, 88.2%) presented with the classic symptoms of diabetes. The peak time of presentation of diabetic patients requiring insulin was at age 15 to 19 years. Male manual workers and peasant farmers with diabetes not requiring insulin presented at a significantly older age and had a lower body mass index than sedentary office workers. Forty six (18.1%) of the patients requiring insulin diabetes and 111 (14.4%) not requiring insulin had first degree relative with diabetes. Twenty seven per cent of patients were underweight (body mass index less than 20 kg/m2) and 14.6% were obese (body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2). Hypertension was diagnosed in 211 (26.7%) of 791 patients not requiring insulin. Nine (3.3%) of those requiring insulin may have had the protein deficient type of diabetes related to malnutrition. The fibrocalculous variety of diabetes related to malnutrition was not observed. CONCLUSIONS--Newly presenting diabetic patients in Tanzania with diabetes requiring insulin are older at presentation than those in Britain; most diabetic patients present with diabetes not requiring insulin and a smaller proportion of Tanzanian patients are obese. Most have a lower socioeconomic state than diabetic patients in Britain. There are often delays in diagnosis in Tanzania, and there is a higher incidence of death shortly after presentation. PMID:2344535

  11. Organic liquids storage tanks volatile organic compounds (VOCS) emissions dispersion and risk assessment in developing countries: the case of Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Msafiri M

    2006-05-01

    The emission estimation of nine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from eight organic liquids storage tanks companies in Dar-es-Salaam City Tanzania has been done by using US EPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.9b). Total VOCs atmospheric emission has been established to be 853.20 metric tones/yr. It has been established further that petrol storage tanks contribute about 87% of total VOCs emitted, while tanks for other refined products and crude oil were emitting 10% and 3% of VOCs respectively. Of the eight sources (companies), the highest emission value from a single source was 233,222.94 kg/yr and the lowest single source emission value was 6881.87 kg/yr. The total VOCs emissions estimated for each of the eight sources were found to be higher than the standard level of 40,000 kg/yr per source for minor source according to US EPA except for two sources, which were emitting VOCs below the standard level. The annual emissions per single source for each of the VOCs were found to be below the US EPA emissions standard which is 2,000 kg/yr in all companies except the emission of hexane from company F1 which was slightly higher than the standard. The type of tanks used seems to significantly influence the emission rate. Vertical fixed roof tanks (VFRT) emit a lot more than externally floating roof tanks (EFRT) and internally floating roof tanks (IFRT). The use of IFRT and EFRT should be encouraged especially for storage of petrol which had highest atmospheric emission contribution. Model predicted atmospheric emissions are less than annual losses measured by companies in all the eight sources. It is possible that there are other routes for losses beside atmospheric emissions. It is therefore important that waste reduction efforts in these companies are directed not only to reducing atmospheric emissions, but also prevention of the spillage and leakage of stored liquid and curbing of the frequently reported illegal siphoning of stored products

  12. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Tellevik, Marit G.; Moyo, Sabrina J.; Blomberg, Bjørn; Hjøllo, Torunn; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an unmatched case-control study among children < 2 years of age in Dar es Salaam, recruited from August 2010 to July 2011. Detection and identification of protozoans were done by PCR techniques on DNA from stool specimens from 701 cases of children admitted due to diarrhea at the three study hospitals, and 558 controls of children with no history of diarrhea during the last month prior to enrollment. The prevalence of C. parvum/hominis was 10.4% (84.7% C. hominis), and that of G. lamblia 4.6%. E. histolytica was not detected. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was significantly higher in cases (16.3%) than in controls (3.1%; P < 0.001; OR = 6.2; 95% CI: 3.7–10.4). G. lamblia was significantly more prevalent in controls (6.1%) than in cases (3.4%; P = 0.027; OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1–3.1). Cryptosporidium infection was found more often in HIV-positive (24.2%) than in HIV-negative children (3.9%; P < 0.001; OR = 7.9; 95% CI: 3.1–20.5), and was also associated with rainfall (P < 0.001; OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.5–3.8). Among cases, stunted children had significantly higher risk of being infected with Cryptosporidium (P = 0.011; OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.2–3.8). G. lamblia infection was more prevalent in the cool season (P = 0.004; OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.8), and more frequent among cases aged > 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5–7.8). Among children aged 7–12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012). Conclusions Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea

  13. Evaluation of self-care practices and emotional distress among people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mosha, Theobald C E; Rashidi, Heri

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine self-care practices and diabetes related emotional distress among people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross sectional survey-involving 121 Types 2 diabetics was conducted in 4 diabetic clinics located in Dar es Salaam. Anthropometric and biomedical measurements namely weight, height, waist, hip, mid-upper arm circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were measured. Self-care practices and diabetic related emotion distress were evaluated by using validated instruments. Results revealed that, the average fasting plasma glucose was 11.2 ± 5.5 mmol/l, blood pressure was 134.7/86.1 mm/Hg and the mean BMI for males and females were 25.0 ± 4.3 and 27.0 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), respectively. Subject's self-care score for general diet, specific diet, physical exercise, foot-care and medication were 4.6 ± 2.4, 3.7 ± 1.5, 3.4 ± 1.8, 3.6 ± 2.8 and 5.5 ± 2.8 days per week, respectively. Self-monitoring of blood glucose was irregular and only 46.3% of the subjects tested their levels of blood glucose at least once in between the appointments (90 days). Low income was the major limitation for complying with the self-care practices related to diet, blood glucose testing and medication. It is recommended that, the Government of Tanzania should in the short run subsidize the prices of diabetes drugs, remove all taxes on the glucose test kits and establish a national diabetes program that would coordinate and oversee provision of the basic services such as screening, glucose testing, medication, counseling and management of the condition. In the long run, the government should establish a preventive public health program in order to curtail the escalation of diabetes. Further research should be conducted to determine how factors such as socio-cultural and demographic, self-care, and psychosocial distress interact to determine biomedical outcomes such as blood pressure, blood glucose and body mass index

  14. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C; Tsuruta, Atsuko; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sixbert

    2009-01-01

    Background Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. Methods A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR), logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Results Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05–0.3, p < 0.001). During the post-cleaning period, a higher risk of infection (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, p = 0.0069) was observed in neighbourhoods under no intervention compared to intervention ones. Eighteen months after the initial cleaning, one of the drains was still clean due to continued maintenance efforts (it contained no waste materials and the water was flowing at normal velocity). A three-month moving average of the percentage of water habitats in that drain containing pupae and/or Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Conclusion Although

  15. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices. PMID:26891516

  16. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in ambient PM10 and PM2.5 particles in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkoma, Stelyus L; Chi, Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2010-02-15

    Ambient daytime and nighttime PM(10) and PM(2.5) samples were collected in parallel at a kerbside in Dar es Salaam in August and September 2005 (dry season) and in April and May 2006 (wet season). All samples were analyzed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM(10) and PM(2.5) mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 76+/-32microg/m(3) and 26+/-7microg/m(3) for the 2005 dry season and 52+/-27microg/m(3) and 19+/-10microg/m(3) for the 2006 wet season campaign. On average, TC accounted for 29% of the PM(10) mass and 49% of the PM(2.5) mass for the 2005 dry season campaign and the corresponding values for the 2006 wet season campaign were 35% and 59%. There was little difference between the two campaigns for the WSOC/OC ratios with the PM(2.5) fraction having higher ratios than the PM(10) fraction during each campaign. Also for EC/TC higher ratios were noted in PM(2.5) than in PM(10), but the ratios were substantially larger in the 2006 wet season than in the 2005 dry season. The large EC/TC ratios (means 0.22-0.38) reflect the substantial impact from traffic at Dar es Salaam, as was also apparent from the clear diurnal variation in OC levels, with higher values during the day. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to traffic and charcoal burning. On average, 70% of the PM(10) OC was attributed to traffic and 30% to charcoal burning in both campaigns. A definite explanation for the substantially larger EC/TC ratios in the 2006 campaign as compared to the 2005 campaign is not available. PMID:19906404

  17. Implementation and Operational Research: Linkage to Care Among Methadone Clients Living With HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Robert Douglas; Masao, Frank; Ubuguyu, Omary; Sabuni, Norman; Mbwambo, Jessie; Lambdin, Barrot H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The first methadone maintenance treatment clinic in Tanzania was launched in February 2011 to address an emerging HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to understand factors associated with linkage to HIV care and explore how a methadone maintenance treatment clinic can serve as a platform for integrated HIV care and treatment. Methods: This study used routine programmatic and clinical data on clients enrolled in methadone at Muhimbili National Hospital from February 2011 to January 2013. Multivariable proportional hazards regression model was used to examine time to initial CD4 count. Results: Final analyses included 148 HIV-positive clients, contributing 31.7 person-years. At 30, 60, and 90 days, the probability of CD4 screening was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI): 32% to 48%], 55% (95% CI: 47% to 63%), and 63% (95% CI: 55% to 71%), respectively. Clients receiving high methadone doses (≥85 mg/d) [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.68, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.74] had higher likelihood of CD4 screening than those receiving low doses (<85 mg/d). Clients with primary education or lower (aHR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.51) and self-reported poor health (aHR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.09 to 3.51) were also more likely to obtain CD4 counts. Clients with criminal arrest history (aHR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.85]) were less likely to be linked to care. Among 17 antiretroviral therapy eligible clients (CD4 ≤ 200), 12 (71%) initiated treatment, of which 7 (41%) initiated within 90 days. Conclusions: Levels of CD4 screening and antiretroviral therapy initiation were similar to Sub-Saharan programs caring primarily for people who do not inject drugs. Adequate methadone dosing is important in retaining clients to maximize HIV treatment benefits and allow for successful linkage to services. PMID:26009835

  18. Active case finding for tuberculosis among people who inject drugs on methadone treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A.; Mbwambo, J.; Mteza, I.; Shenoi, S.; Lambdin, B.; Nyandindi, C.; Doula, B. I.; Mfaume, S.; Bruce, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING Active case finding is a World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed strategy for improving tuberculosis (TB) case detection. Despite WHO recommendations for active case finding among people who inject drugs (PWID), few studies have been published. The historical focus of case finding has been in populations that are human immunodeficiency virus-positive, incarcerated or at higher occupational risk. OBJECTIVE We sought to examine the yield of active case finding among PWID newly started on methadone in Tanzania. DESIGN Of 222 methadone clients, 156 (70%) met with study administrators; 150 consented to participate, 139 (93%) of whom were male. The median age was 34 years. A symptom-based questionnaire was developed by the investigators and administered to every consenting patient by a native Swahili speaker. RESULTS Of the 150 patients surveyed, 16 (11%) had one or more TB symptoms and were referred for laboratory testing. Six new TB cases were identified in this active case finding program, with a prevalence of 4%. CONCLUSION This study presents the first data on TB prevalence in a population of PWID in Tanzania. This prevalence is 23 times that of the general Tanzanian TB prevalence of 0.2%. These results have significant implications for TB control. PMID:24902554

  19. Effects of seasonal change and seawater intrusion on water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes, in coastal aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia; Sweya, Lukuba Ngalya; Luciani, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater is the major source to meet domestic, industrial and agricultural needs in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, population growth, increasing urbanization, industrialization and tourism, and climatic changes have caused an intensive exploitation of groundwater resources leading the aquifers become more vulnerable to seawater intrusion. The aim of this study is to examine the variations of groundwater chemistry (as resulting from natural and anthropogenic inputs) depending on seasonal changes, in order to evaluate water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. Physical and chemical data come from the analysis of groundwater samples, collected from 72 wells, used for the evaluation of water quality parameters, during a year of monitoring. Pattern diagrams, geochemical modeling techniques and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been used to identify the main factors influencing groundwater composition. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: (a) Na-Cl, (b) Ca-Cl, (c) mixed Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl (d) mixed Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. The geochemical modeling results show that groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by evaporation process, as it is suggested by the increase of Na and Cl ions concentrations. According to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA, most water samples from dry and rainy seasons, distributed in category C2-S1, C3-S1, C3-S2, C4-S2 highlighting medium to very high salinity hazard and low to medium sodium content class. PCA evidenced the role of seawater intrusion, evaporation process and anthropogenic pollution (i.e. high NO3 levels due to agricultural activities), as the major factors that influenced the water chemistry, and hence the water quality. Based on Pearson correlation matrix, the presence of high correlations (>0.8) among Na, Cl, Mg and SO4, in association with EC, were interpreted as the seawater intrusion effects. In this area groundwater quality is generally low, and

  20. Social venues that protect against and promote HIV risk for young men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Yamanis, Thespina Jeanne; Maman, Suzanne; Mbwambo, Jessie K.; Earp, JoAnne; Kajula, Lusajo

    2010-01-01

    Developing effective place-based health interventions requires understanding of the dynamic between place and health. The therapeutic landscape framework explains how place-based social processes and physical geography interact and influence health behavior. This study applied this framework to examine how venues, or social gathering places, influenced HIV risk behavior among young, urban men in Tanzania. Eighty-three public venues where men ages 15–19 met new sexual partners were identified by community informants in one city ward. The majority (86%) of the venues were called ‘camps’, social gathering places that had formal leaders and members. Observations were conducted at 23 camps and in-depth interviews were conducted with 36 camp members and 10 camp leaders in 15 purposively selected camps. Geographic and social features of camps were examined to understand their contributions to men’s behaviors. Camps were characterized by a geographic space claimed by members, a unique name and a democratic system of leadership and governance. Members were mostly men and socialized daily at their camp. They reported strong social bonds and engaging in health-promoting activities such as playing sports and generating income. Members also engaged in HIV risk behaviors, such as meeting new sexual partners and having sex in or around the camp at night. Some members promoted concurrent sexual partnerships with their friends and resisted camp leaders’ efforts to change their sexual risk behavior. We conclude that camps are strategic venues for HIV prevention programs for young Tanzanian men. They served as both protective and risk landscapes, illustrating three domains of the therapeutic landscape framework: the built environment; identities of landscape occupants; and sites for collective efficacy. The framework and data suggest HIV intervention components that might augment the protective features of the camps, while changing environmental features to reduce risk

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV-infected women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enju; McCree, Renicha; Mtisi, Expeditho; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Aris, Eric; Lema, Irene A; Hertzmark, Ellen; Chalamilla, Guerino; Li, Nan; Vermund, Sten H; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and predictors of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) among HIV-infected women in Tanzania, a cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-infected women at HIV care and treatment clinics. A Papanicolaou (Pap) smear was used as a screening tool for detection of cervical SIL. From December 2006 to August 2009, 1365 HIV-infected women received cervical screening. The median age was 35 (interquartile range [IQR]: 30-42) years, and the median CD4 + cell count was 164 (IQR: 80-257) cells/mm(3). The prevalence of cervical SIL was 8.7% (119/1365). In multivariate analysis, older age (≥50 versus 30-<40 years: prevalence ratio [PR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.84, p for trend = 0.001), lower CD4 + cell counts (<100 versus ≥200 cells/mm(3): PR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.36, p for trend = 0.03) and cervical inflammation (PR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.16-2.60, p = 0.008) were associated with an increased risk of cervical SIL. Women with advanced WHO HIV disease stage (IV versus I/II: PR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.35-8.85, p for trend = 0.01) had an increased risk for high-grade SIL. In resource-limited settings where it is not feasible to provide cervical cancer prevention services to all HIV-infected women, greater efforts should focus on scaling-up services among those who are older than 50 years, with lower CD4 cell counts and advanced HIV disease stage. PMID:25957324

  2. Social reactions to rape: experiences and perceptions of women rape survivors and their potential support providers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Muganyizi, Projestine S; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla; Massawe, Siriel; Nystrom, Lennarth; Axemo, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Social reactions to rape are socioculturally determined and have a strong influence on the coping and recovery of the survivor. The existing knowledge on social reactions emanates from Western countries with limited research attention on non-Western populations, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to establish the types and perceptions of social reactions that are expressed to rape survivors and people's intentions to express them to survivors of varied social backgrounds in Tanzania. Using triangulation of research methods, experiences of social reactions among rape survivors (n = 50) and nurses (n = 44) from a community in Tanzania were explored, and the intentions to express typical social reactions to rape survivors of different social backgrounds were established from a representative community sample (n = 1,505). Twelve typical social reactions were identified with the positive reactions more commonly mentioned than the negative reactions. Nondisclosure of rape events and distracting the survivor from the event were perceived as both positive and negative. A commercial sex worker was most vulnerable to negative reactions. The cultural influences of social reactions and implications for practical applicability of the results are discussed. PMID:19852402

  3. Current clinical efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections in urban Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Z.; Makwaya, C.; Minjas, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    Reported is the use of a 14-day WHO protocol, which takes into account the clinical, parasitological and haematological responses to antimalarial drugs, to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in young children (n = 200) in urban Dar es Salaam. Chloroquine failure was found in 43% of the children. Of these, 12.5% were considered to be early treatment failures and were given a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Fever subsided in all children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and there were no parasitological failures. In addition, children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of early treatment failure with chloroquine had better haematological recovery than the chloroquine-sensitive group. It is concluded that chloroquine can no longer be considered an effective therapy for P. falciparum malaria in young children in Dar es Salaam. PMID:10534897

  4. Conference on Resource Sharing in Southern and Central Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, December 16-19, 1985). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

    This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…

  5. The Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C.; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sigsbert; Killeen, Gerry F.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. Principal Findings More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%), and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149) of all culicine and 33% (320/976) of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001) times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001). The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. Conclusion Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between on-going control

  6. Infant and young child feeding practices among children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to infant and young child feeding messages and promotions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vitta, Bineti S; Benjamin, Margaret; Pries, Alissa M; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    There are limited data describing infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) in urban Tanzania. This study assessed the types of foods consumed by children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to promotions of these foods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 305 mothers of children less than 24 months of age who attended child health services in October and November, 2014. Among infants less than 6 months of age, rates of exclusive breastfeeding were low (40.8%) and a high proportion (38.2%) received semi-solid foods. Continued breastfeeding among 20-23-month-olds was only 33.3%. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was not prevalent, and only 3.9% of infants less than 6 months of age and 4.8% of 6-23 month-olds were fed formula. Among 6-23-month-olds, only 38.4% consumed a minimum acceptable diet (using a modified definition). The homemade complementary foods consumed by the majority of 6-23-month-olds (85.2%) were cereal-dominated and infrequently contained micronutrient-rich ingredients. Only 3.1% of 6-23-month-olds consumed commercially produced infant cereal on the day preceding the interview. In contrast, commercially produced snack foods were consumed by 23.1% of 6-23-month-olds. Maternal exposure to commercial promotions of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods was low (10.5% and 1.0%, respectively), while exposure to promotions of commercially produced snack foods was high (45.9%). Strategies are needed to improve IYCF practices, particularly with regard to exclusive and continued breastfeeding, increased dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, and avoidance of feeding commercially produced snack foods. PMID:27061958

  7. Evaluation of the hygienic quality and associated public health hazards of raw milk marketed by smallholder dairy producers in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine three parameters of the quality of the raw milk marketed by milk selling points (MSPs) in Dar es Salaam region. Total bacterial count (TBC) was used as an indicator of the microbial quality of the milk; antimicrobial residues were determined; and the California mastitis test (CMT) was used to screen for milk somatic cells as an indication of the mastitis level in the cows that provided the milk. Moreover, a water sample at each MSP was taken for bacteriological culturing. Finally, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the milk sellers at the MSPs to identify risk factors for poor milk hygiene. A total of 128 milk samples and corresponding water samples were collected from randomly selected milk selling points in Dar es Salaam region. The mean TBC was (8.2 +/- 1.9) x 10(6) cfu/ml, and major bacterial isolates from the milk samples were Escherichia coli (6.3%), Bacillus cereus (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (6.3%), Enterobacter aerogenes (5.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (4.7%). In most cases, the organisms identified in milk corresponded to those isolated from the corresponding water samples. Of milk samples, 79.0% were positive to the CMT and 7.0% were positive for antimicrobial residues. TBC was normalized by log-transformation, and the possible predictors of TBC were identified by fitting two linear regression models. In a random effect model, water microbial quality, frequency of cleaning the milk containers, frequency of milk supply, milk storage time and the type of containers, and mixing of fresh and previous milk were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the mean log TBC. In a fixed effect model, in addition to these indicators, water shortage, water source and the refrigerator condition were significantly (p < or = 0.01) associated with log TBC. It was concluded that the milk sold in Dar es Salaam region is of poor quality and is of public health significance. PMID

  8. Malaria control in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Yhdego, M.; Majura, P. )

    1988-01-01

    A review of the malaria control programs and the problem encountered in the United Republic of Tanzania since 1945 to the year 1986 is discussed. Buguruni, one of the squatter areas in the city of Dar es Salaam, is chosen as a case study in order to evaluate the economic advantage of engineering methods for the control of malaria infection. Although the initial capital cost of engineering methods may be high, the cost effectiveness requires a much lower financial burden of only about Tshs. 3 million compared with the conventional methods of larviciding and insecticiding which requires more than Tshs. 10 million. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of engineering methods are made concerning the upgrading of existing roads and footpaths in general with particular emphasis on drainage of large pools of water which serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes.

  9. Tanzania.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    In 1985, Tanzania's population was 21.7 million in the Mainland and 600,000 in Zanzibar, with an annual growth rate of 3.2%. The infant mortality rate was 110/1000 and life expectancy was 52 years. 85% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture, while the remaining 15% work in industry, commerce, or government. The gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at US$4.1 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% and a per capita income of $200. Tanzania is a single-party state with a strong central executive. The Government pursues a policy of socialism and self-reliance. Many manufacturing enterprises are state controlled. Although agriculture provides 1/3 of the GDP, the Government has focused on industrial development. Broad-based development plans stress providing food, shelter, drinking water, education, and health care at the village level. Government recognition of the domestic factors influencing allocation of scarce resources has led to an increasing emphasis on agriculture in macroeconomic policies. PMID:12177914

  10. Tanzania.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    Background notes on Tanzania present a profile of nationality, population count of 26 million, growth rate of 3.5%, ethnic groups (130), religions (33% Muslim, 33% animist, 33% Christian), languages, education (86% primary), literacy (79%), health (infant mortality of 106/1000), and work force (90% agriculture). Geographic data are given for the area, cities, terrain, and climate. The Tanzanian government is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There is 1 political party and everyone 18 years is eligible to vote. 4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) ($5.9 billion) is devoted to defense. Economic growth is 4.3%/year and person income is $240/capita. Natural resources, agriculture, industry, and trade are identified. $400 million has been received between 1970-92 in US economic aid. The 1992 official exchange rate is 300 Tanzanian shillings to the US dollar. Descriptive text is given for the population, the history of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the government, principal government officials (President, 1st Vice President [VP], 2nd VP and President of Zanzibar, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, Ambassador to the US, Ambassador to the UN, and US embassy address and phone number), political conditions, the economy, the defense, foreign relations, and US-Tanzanian relations. Principal US officials are identified for the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, USAID Director, and Public Affairs Officer; the US embassy address is given also. The population is 80% rural with a density of 1/sq km in arid areas, 51/sq km on the mainland, and 134/sq km on Zanzibar. The new capital will be Dodoma in central Tanzania. Most residents are of Bantu stock; nomadic groups are the Masai and the Luo. 1% are non-Africans. Government has a strong central executive. The current President is Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The Revolutionary Party is in the primary policymaking body and provides all government leaders. The government seeks to foster the

  11. Factors that influence the willingness of young adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to participate in phase I/II HIV vaccine trials

    PubMed Central

    Mbunda, Theodora; Bakari, Muhammad; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Sandstrom, Eric; Kulane, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS continues to destroy the lives of young people especially in low-income countries. The inclusion of youths in HIV vaccine trials is of utmost importance in obtaining an effective vaccine that is acceptable to them. Objective To characterize the willingness of young adults in Tanzania to participate in an HIV vaccine trial and the factors that influence this willingness. Design Four hundred and fifty young adults who visited a youth-friendly Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) from February 2012 to September 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning sociodemographic information, their knowledge about and perception of HIV vaccine studies, and the availability of social support. Results Of our participants, 50.6% expressed willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, and this willingness was positively correlated with having some knowledge about HIV vaccine studies (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4–3.4), a positive perception toward such studies (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.6), having a relationship with someone who could help them make a decision (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–4.9), and age at the time of sexual debut (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI 1.0–6.7) for 15- to 19-year-olds and (AOR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.0–7.1) for older participants. Conclusions The participants exhibited a moderate willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, which was associated with a positive perception of and some knowledge about such trials, having a relationship with someone who might influence their decision as well as age at time of sexual debut. More efforts should be made to inform the youths about specific HIV vaccine trials and related matters, as well as to engage significant others in the decision-making process. PMID:24572007

  12. Integrating ICT into Teaching and Learning at the University of Dar es Salaam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Dachi, Hilary; Raphael, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Since 1985, Tanzania has been undergoing significant political and economic changes from a centralized to a more market-oriented and globally connected economy. The University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) has responded to these changes by reviewing its legal status, vision, and functions, particularly those related to research, teaching, and public…

  13. USING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH OF RAPID MICROBIAL DETECTION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNITY EDUCATION TO REDUCE WATERBORNE ILLNESS IN DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    • Participated in the Uncommon Dialogue meeting, in which we were able to meet with local water authorities, tour various communities, and learn about the larger scale water challenges that unplanned communities face.
    • Piloted rapid method in n...

    • "Finding a Life" among Undocumented Congolese Refugee Children in Tanzania

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mann, Gillian

      2010-01-01

      The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that…

    • Morbidity and Mortality following Traditional Uvulectomy among Children Presenting to the Muhimbili National Hospital Emergency Department in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

      PubMed Central

      Sawe, H. R.; Mfinanga, J. A.; Ringo, F. H.; Mwafongo, V.; Reynolds, T. A.; Runyon, M. S.

      2015-01-01

      Background. Traditional uvulectomy is performed as a cultural ritual or purported medical remedy. We describe the associated emergency department (ED) presentations and outcomes. Methods. This was a subgroup analysis of a retrospective review of all pediatric visits to our ED in 2012. Trained abstracters recorded demographics, clinical presentations, and outcomes. Results. Complete data were available for 5540/5774 (96%) visits and 56 (1.0%, 95% CI: 0.7–1.3%) were related to recent uvulectomy, median age 1.3 years (interquartile range: 7 months–2 years) and 30 (54%) were male. Presenting complaints included cough (82%), fever (46%), and hematemesis (38%). Clinical findings included fever (54%), tachypnea (30%), and tachycardia (25%). 35 patients (63%, 95% CI: 49–75%) received intravenous antibiotics, 11 (20%, 95% CI: 10–32%) required blood transfusion, and 3 (5%, 95% CI: 1–15%) had surgical intervention. All were admitted to the hospital and 12 (21%, 95% CI: 12–34%) died. By comparison, 498 (9.1%, 95% CI: 8–10%) of the 5484 children presenting for reasons unrelated to uvulectomy died (p = 0.003). Conclusion. In our cohort, traditional uvulectomy was associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Emergency care providers should advocate for legal and public health interventions to eliminate this dangerous practice. PMID:26161270

    • Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and associated factors among diabetic men attending diabetic clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

      PubMed Central

      Mutagaywa, Reuben Kato; Lutale, Janeth; Aboud, Muhsin; Kamala, Benjamin Anathory

      2014-01-01

      Introduction There has been an increase in the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in the general population especially among Diabetic patients. This seems to be neglected problem in low-income countries. This study aims at establishing the prevalence of ED and associated risk factors in diabetic patients attended at Diabetic Clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted among 312 diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital between May and December 2011. Results More than half (55.1%) of the patients were found to have some form of ED (12.8% had mild dysfunction, 11.5% moderate and 27.9% severe dysfunction). The severity of ED was correlated with increased age. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that ED was significantly predicted by old age (odds ratio (OR) = 7.1, 95% CI 1.2-40.7), evidence of peripheral neuropathy (OR) =5.9, 95% CI 1.6-21.3), and evidence of peripheral vascular disease (OR =2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.3). Also longer duration of DM was marginally associated with ED (p=0.056). Patients with ED were also more likely to suffer other sexual domains (p<0.001). No lifestyle factor was associated with ED. Conclusion The prevalence of ED is high among DM patients. Interventions aimed at prevention, early diagnosis and detection of DM and its complications, and adherence to treatment to prevent complications should be implemented. Further studies should emphasize on temporal variation to show true causality of DM on erectile dysfunction. PMID:25170371

    • Understanding Household Behavioral Risk Factors for Diarrheal Disease in Dar es Salaam: A Photovoice Community Assessment

      PubMed Central

      Badowski, Natalie; Castro, Cynthia M.; Montgomery, Maggie; Pickering, Amy J.; Mamuya, Simon; Davis, Jennifer

      2011-01-01

      Whereas Tanzania has seen considerable improvements in water and sanitation infrastructure over the past 20 years, the country still faces high rates of childhood morbidity from diarrheal diseases. This study utilized a qualitative, cross-sectional, modified Photovoice method to capture daily activities of Dar es Salaam mothers. A total of 127 photographs from 13 households were examined, and 13 interviews were conducted with household mothers. The photographs and interviews revealed insufficient hand washing procedures, unsafe disposal of wastewater, uncovered household drinking water containers, a lack of water treatment prior to consumption, and inappropriate toilets for use by small children. The interviews revealed that mothers were aware and knowledgeable of the risks of certain household practices and understood safer alternatives, yet were restricted by the perceived impracticality and financial constraints to make changes. The results draw attention to the real economic and behavioral challenges faced in reducing the spread of disease. PMID:21969836

    • Clinical and epidemiologic variations of esophageal cancer in Tanzania

      PubMed Central

      Gabel, Jaime V; Chamberlain, Robert M; Ngoma, Twalib; Mwaiselage, Julius; Schmid, Kendra K; Kahesa, Crispin; Soliman, Amr S

      2016-01-01

      AIM: To estimate the incidence of esophageal cancer (EC) in Kilimanjaro in comparison to other regions in Tanzania. METHODS: We also examined the clinical, epidemiologic, and geographic distribution of the 1332 EC patients diagnosed and/or treated at Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) during the period 2006-2013. Medical records were used to abstract patient information on age, sex, residence, smoking status, alcohol consumption, tumor site, histopathologic type of tumor, date and place of diagnosis, and type and date of treatment at ORCI. Regional variation of EC patients was investigated at the level of the 26 administrative regions of Tanzania. Total, age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: Male patients 55 years and older had higher incidence of EC than female and younger patients. Of histopathologically-confirmed cases, squamous-cell carcinoma represented 90.9% of histopathologic types of tumors. The administrative regions in the central and eastern parts of Tanzania had higher incidence rates than western regions, specifically administrative regions of Kilimanjaro, Dar es Salaam, and Tanga had the highest rates. CONCLUSION: Further research should focus on investigating possible etiologic factors for EC in regions with high incidence in Tanzania. PMID:26989467

    • Walking in Unfamiliar Territory: Headteachers' Preparation and First-Year Experiences in Tanzania

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Onguko, Brown Bully; Abdalla, Mohamed; Webber, Charles F.

      2012-01-01

      Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the preappointment experiences of early-career headteachers in Tanzania and to discuss implications for postsecondary institutions and ministries of education in East Africa. Research Design: Seven novice headteachers in a suburb of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, completed questionnaires and participated…

    • The Determinants of Traditional Medicine Use in Northern Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Study

      PubMed Central

      Stanifer, John W.; Patel, Uptal D.; Karia, Francis; Thielman, Nathan; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilaweh, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Matemu, Oliver; Omolo, Justin; Boyd, David

      2015-01-01

      Introduction Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region. Methods Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes. Results Most structured survey participants (68%) reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56%) reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%), chronic diseases (15%), reproductive problems (11%), and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%). We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding. Conclusions In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments

  1. Interpretation of California mastitis test scores using Staphylococcus aureus culture results for screening of subclinical mastitis in low yielding smallholder dairy cows in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Nielen, M

    2007-03-17

    Screening of subclinical mastitis under field conditions is done using the California mastitis test (CMT). CMT score of > or = 1 corresponding to > or = 500,000 somatic cells ml(-1) is commonly used as threshold of subclinical mastitis in temperate countries. However, given the innately high physiological level of somatic cells in low yielding dairy cows, this threshold may not apply to low yielding dairy cows. The current study was undertaken to investigate the clinical utility of CMT for screening of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis in low yielding smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania. A total of 1151 of quarter-milk samples were CMT tested, of these 914-originated from cows with a lactation period of 14-305 days. All samples were screened for subclinical mastitis by the CMT as well as microbiological culture of single, duplicate (two consecutive) and triplicate (three consecutive) samples as a gold standard. For the duplicate and triplicate quarter-samples, cows were considered positive for S. aureus subclinical mastitis if results of microbiologic culture for S. aureus were positive for two of two, and for at least two of the first three consecutive quarter-milk samples collected from that cow, respectively. Using a CMT score of > or = 1 would classify 78.6% of the 940 quarter-samples as positive. Eighty-two percent of the samples in which S. aureus was isolated had CMT scores > or = 2; this would classify 51.6% of the 940 quarter-samples as positive. For the single sample, this cut-off had sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio for S. aureus of 0.87, 0.83 and 4.24, respectively. For the duplicate quarter-milk samples this cut-off had sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio of 0.94, 0.86, and 5.19. While, for the triplicate quarter-milk samples this cut-off had sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio of 0.97, 0.92 and 7.47, respectively. Based on these results and practical considerations, it is concluded that CMT score of > or = 2

  2. Comparison of Methods for Xenomonitoring in Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northeastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Irish, Seth R; Stevens, William M B; Derua, Yahya A; Walker, Thomas; Cameron, Mary M

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes (xenomonitoring) can play an important role in determining when lymphatic filariasis has been eliminated, or in focusing control efforts. As mosquito infection rates can be low, a method for collecting large numbers of mosquitoes is necessary. Gravid traps collected large numbers of Culex quinquefasciatus in Tanzania, and a collection method that targets mosquitoes that have already fed could result in increased sensitivity in detecting W. bancrofti-infected mosquitoes. The aim of this experiment was to test this hypothesis by comparing U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps with CDC gravid traps in northeastern Tanzania, where Cx. quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis. After an initial study where small numbers of mosquitoes were collected, a second study collected 16,316 Cx. quinquefasciatus in 60 gravid trap-nights and 240 light trap-nights. Mosquitoes were pooled and tested for presence of W. bancrofti DNA. Light and gravid traps collected similar numbers of mosquitoes per trap-night, but the physiological status of the mosquitoes was different. The estimated infection rate in mosquitoes collected in light traps was considerably higher than in mosquitoes collected in gravid traps, so light traps can be a useful tool for xenomonitoring work in Tanzania. PMID:26350454

  3. Support for a National Research Information Service in Tanzania. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

    This report briefly reviews the current situation in Tanzania with respect to scientific and technical (S&T) information provision at the research and development (R&D) level, and formulates proposals to revive a workable situation for the R&D community. A presentation of the objectives of a mission to Dar es Salaam is followed by a discussion of…

  4. Marketing of Information in the Water Sector in Tanzania: A Strategy for MAJIDOC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Benedict P.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines a strategy for marketing the information products and services of the Water and Sanitation Information and Documentation Centre (MAJIDOC) of the Water Resources Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Objectives of the marketing strategy are explained, ideas for internal and external promotion are described, and a budget plan is included.…

  5. Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Results and discussion Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. Conclusions To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological testing, preclinical testing

  6. SU-E-E-03: Developing Solutions to Critical Radiation Oncology Challenges in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Kenton, O; Dachi, J; Metz, J; Avery, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Develop solutions to critical medical physics challenges in Tanzania. Methods: In September of 2013 we began working with Jumaa Bin Dachi, a Therapy Physicist at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We developed a bi-lateral learning partnership over the course of eight qualitative Skype meetings with Jumaa. From these meetings we have ascertained that there is a gap between the installation of new equipment and treating patients. This gap has often been overlooked by international partners attempting to improve radiation therapy access. Relationships with academic institutions abroad can fill these gaps, and lead to sustained care of patients needing radiation. Results: Our efforts are best given in a supporting role to help develop solutions and new technology that can reduce the burden on the Medical Physicist. Solutions may include: training material, support for radiation therapy classes, development of appropriate local protocols, and peer-review on documents being produced. New technology needs to focus around simple and easy field shaping, improved patient imaging systems, and systems for patient set-up. We believe our work can help alleviate some of the burdens faced by this institute. Conclusion: While we are just in the beginning stage of this partnership, we believe there is great potential for success between both parties. We hope that the Ocean Road Cancer Institute will benefit from potential funding and resources by partnering with a High Income Country to develop affordable solutions to clinical problems in Tanzania.

  7. Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Results Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. Conclusion GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended. PMID:23467278

  8. Prioritization of intervention methods for prevention of communicable diseases in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, A. W.

    Water, sanitation, housing and hygienic behavior plays dominant role in the transmission and intensification of diseases. To effectively utilize limited financial resources, it is important to prioritize disease intervention methods in order to minimize mortality and morbidity cases. Realization of the environmental health components that respond to the practical effects of their contribution to transmission of diseases has greater chances of effectively enhancing health. Data of frequency of diseases and mortality rate were collected from four municipal hospitals from districts of Ilala, Kinondoni, Temeke and Kibaha in Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions. The populations at risk were sub-categorized in relation to age; below five years and above five years. The age parameter assists on envisaging the major causes to be either in-house or in public domain. Data were analyzed to assess the role of water quality, water quantity, excreta disposal, waste disposal and hygiene education on spreading the diseases in order to come up with scientifically evaluated information. Scores were given to each intervention method depending on its importance in controlling a particular disease. The results indicate that incidences of malaria, skin and eye infections, pneumonia and diarrhea are frequent in these districts. Children under 5 years are particularly affected by pneumonia and diarrhea more than adults. Malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are the major causes of mortality rates in these districts. Fatality cases are caused largely by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea for children less than 5 years, but malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are responsible for mortality rates in adults and children over 5 years. Statistical analysis revealed that in all districts, hygiene education is the major factor responsible for transmission of diseases accounting for 32-39%. Other factors, which are the major contributors to the incidences of diseases, are inadequacy of water (15.6-22.5%) and

  9. Tooth cleaning methods and their effectiveness among adults in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sarita, P T; Tuominen, R

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate how various population characteristics affect the choice of different tooth cleaning methods and to estimate their role in preventing occurrence of plaque, calculus and gingivitis among rural adults in Tanzania. Two hundred adults aged 20 years and over were interviewed and clinically examined for plaque, calculus and gingival bleeding. A high proportion (97.5%) of the subjects reported that they clean their teeth every day. Among them, 69.4% used only indigenous tooth cleaning methods, 16.3% only factory made toothbrushes and 14.3% both. Twigs (Chewing sticks) were the most commonly used indigenous tooth cleaning method, followed by charcoal. Together with age, educational and occupational status and tribal origin significantly affected the choice of tooth cleaning method. Men had more often visible plaque than women (OR = 2.84). However, other sociodemographic factors and the method of cleaning teeth were not significantly associated with the occurrence of plaque, calculus or gingival bleeding. PMID:1298964

  10. Urban mosquitoes, situational publics, and the pursuit of interspecies separation in Dar es Salaam

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ANN H.; LEZAUN, JAVIER

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in anthropology points to the recognition of multispecies entanglements as the grounds for a more ethical politics. In this article, we examine efforts to control mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as an example of the laborious tasks of disentanglement that characterize public health interventions. The mosquito surveillance and larval elimination practices of an urban malaria control program offer an opportunity to observe how efforts to create distance between species relate to the physical and civic textures of the city. Seen in the particular context of the contemporary African metropolis, the work of public health appears less a matter of control than a commitment to constant urban maintenance and political mobilization. PMID:25429167

  11. Urban mosquitoes, situational publics, and the pursuit of interspecies separation in Dar es Salaam.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ann H; Lezaun, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Recent work in anthropology points to the recognition of multispecies entanglements as the grounds for a more ethical politics. In this article, we examine efforts to control mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as an example of the laborious tasks of disentanglement that characterize public health interventions. The mosquito surveillance and larval elimination practices of an urban malaria control program offer an opportunity to observe how efforts to create distance between species relate to the physical and civic textures of the city. Seen in the particular context of the contemporary African metropolis, the work of public health appears less a matter of control than a commitment to constant urban maintenance and political mobilization. PMID:25429167

  12. Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse--A Qualitative Interview Study with Representatives of the Socio-Legal System in Urban Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisanga, Felix; Mbwambo, Jessie; Hogan, Norah; Nystrom, Lennarth; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews, this study explored perceptions and experiences of key players handling child sexual offense cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The informants included public police investigators, magistrates, legal workers, and social workers working with nongovernmental organizations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed…

  13. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scale for Adolescents: Item Response Theory Analyses Based on Data from a Study in South Africa and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaro, Leif E.; Breivik, Kyrre; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Kaaya, Sylvia; Onya, Hans E.; Wubs, Annegreet; Helleve, Arnfinn; Flisher, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor…

  14. Landsat-derived cropland mask for Tanzania using 2010-2013 time series and decision tree classifier methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    80% of Tanzania's population is involved in the agriculture sector. Despite this national dependence, agricultural reporting is minimal and monitoring efforts are in their infancy. The cropland mask developed through this study provides the framework for agricultural monitoring through informing analysis of crop conditions, dispersion, and intensity at a national scale. Tanzania is dominated by smallholder agricultural systems with an average field size of less than one hectare (Sarris et al, 2006). At this field scale, previous classifications of agricultural land in Tanzania using MODIS course resolution data are insufficient to inform a working monitoring system. The nation-wide cropland mask in this study was developed using composited Landsat tiles from a 2010-2013 time series. Decision tree classifiers methods were used in the study with representative training areas collected for agriculture and no agriculture using appropriate indices to separate these classes (Hansen et al, 2013). Validation was done using random sample and high resolution satellite images to compare Agriculture and No agriculture samples from the study area. The techniques used in this study were successful and have the potential to be adapted for other countries, allowing targeted monitoring efforts to improve food security, market price, and inform agricultural policy.

  15. Maternal mortality and morbidity. Women's reproductive health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Alloo, F

    1994-01-01

    Sexuality is a taboo for women in a patriarchal society. Tanzania has inadequate reproductive health care. Aspects of reproductive health are dealt with in safe motherhood or maternal and child health programs. Tanzania's health policy is based on women as mothers; it does not refer to women's right. For women in Tanzania, reproductive health is the right to live. Thousands of Tanzanian women die every year due to maternal complications. In an effort to contribute to the improvement of the conditions in health institutions and the advancement of women's status in the country, the Tanzania Media Women's Association (TAMWA) and the Medical Women's Association of Tanzania (MEWATA) joined in the organization of a Reproductive Health Meeting in Dar es Salaam. At the conference, major factors causing maternal mortality and morbidity, such as complications of abortion, anaemia in pregnancy, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and puerperal sepsis, were discussed. A World Health Organization (WHO) report indicated that maternal mortality in Tanzania was 200-400/100,000 live births, while a survey conducted by MEWATA showed that maternal deaths at the Muhimbili Medical Center in the capital were 754/100,000 live births in 1991. Many maternal deaths could be prevented if hospitals were be properly equipped. Tanzanian women's poor health results in large part from their low socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, lack of income and employment. TAMWA chairperson Fatma Alloo and Dr. Kimambo (Ministry of Health) endorsed a national women's health movement to demand a government commitment to a holistic reproductive health policy. PMID:12288398

  16. Using mixed methods to evaluate perceived quality of care in southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Tancred, Tara; Schellenberg, Joanna; Marchant, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare perceived quality of maternal and newborn care using quantitative and qualitative methods. Design A continuous household survey (April 2011 to November 2013) and in-depth interviews and birth narratives. Setting Tandahimba district, Tanzania. Participants Women aged 13–49 years who had a birth in the previous 2 years were interviewed in a household survey. Recently delivered mothers and their partners participated in in-depth interviews and birth narratives. Intervention None. Main Outcome Measures Perceived quality of care. Results Quantitative: 1138 women were surveyed and 93% were confident in staff availability and 61% felt that required drugs and equipment would be available. Drinking water was easily accessed by only 60% of respondents using hospitals. Measures of interaction with staff were very positive, but only 51% reported being given time to ask questions. Unexpected out-of-pocket payments were higher in hospitals (49%) and health centres (53%) than in dispensaries (31%). Qualitative data echoed the lack of confidence in facility readiness, out-of-pocket payments and difficulty accessing water, but was divergent in responses about interactions with health staff. More than half described staff interactions that were disrespectful, not polite, or not helpful. Conclusion Both methods produced broadly aligned results on perceived readiness, but divergent results on perceptions about client–staff interactions. Benefits and limitations to both quantitative and qualitative approaches were observed. Using mixed methodologies may prove particularly valuable in capturing the user experience of maternal and newborn health services, where they appear to be little used together. PMID:26823050

  17. Research Trends in Emerging Contaminants on the Aquatic Environments of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Miraji, H.; Othman, O. C.; Ngassapa, F. N.; Mureithi, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The continuity for discovery and production of new chemicals, allied products, and uses has currently resulted into generation of recent form of contaminants known as Emerging Contaminants (ECs). Once in the aquatic environment ECs are carcinogenic and cause other threats to both human's and animals' health. Due to their effects this study was aimed at investigating research trends of ECs in Tanzania. Findings revealed that USA and EU countries were leading in ECs researches, little followed by Asia, South Africa, and then Zambia. Only few guidelines from USA-EPA, WHO, Canada, and Australia existed. Neither published guidelines nor regulations for ECs existed in Tanzania; rather only the occurrence of some disinfection by-products and antibiotics was, respectively, reported in Arusha and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. As these reports had a limited coverage of ECs, henceforth, these findings constitute the first-line reference materials for ECs research in Tanzania which shall be useful for future monitoring and regulation planning. PMID:26998381

  18. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  19. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Amir, H; Mbonde, M P; Kitinya, J N

    1992-11-01

    The Tanzania Cancer Registry at Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was reviewed for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in non-albino African subjects. The data was analysed for age, sex, site and predisposing factors. Our results were then compared with studies previously carried out in Tanzania, elsewhere in Africa and also on Blacks in America. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin was found to be a common malignancy, and the commonest skin cancer. Its peak was in the 40-49 years age group though it could occur in children under five years of age. The most affected site was the lower limb, followed by the head and the neck. The penis in the male and the vulva in the female were the third most affected sites. The scalp and the lip were more affected in females than males. Chronic trauma, chronic ulcers, and scars were the main predisposing risk factors to the lower limb and the scalp, while ultra violet radiation to the head and neck, and smegma of the uncircumcised penis were thought to be predisposing risk factors. PMID:1308840

  20. Pregnancy desire and dual method contraceptive use among people living with HIV attending clinical care in Kenya, Namibia and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Antelman, Gretchen; Medley, Amy; Mbatia, Redempta; Pals, Sherri; Arthur, Gilly; Haberlen, Sabina; Ackers, Marta; Elul, Batya; Parent, Julie; Rwebembera, Anath; Wanjiku, Lucy; Muraguri, Nicholas; Gweshe, Justice; Mudhune, Sandra; Bachanas, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe factors associated with pregnancy desire and dual method use among people living with HIV in clinical care in sub-Saharan Africa. Design Sexually active HIV-positive adults were enrolled in 18 HIV clinics in Kenya, Namibia and Tanzania. Demographic, clinical and reproductive health data were captured by interview and medical record abstraction. Correlates of desiring a pregnancy within the next 6 months, and dual method use [defined as consistent condom use together with a highly effective method of contraception (hormonal, intrauterine device (IUD), permanent)], among those not desiring pregnancy, were identified using logistic regression. Results Among 3375 participants (median age 37 years, 42% male, 64% on antiretroviral treatment), 565 (17%) desired a pregnancy within the next 6 months. Of those with no short-term fertility desire (n=2542), 686 (27%) reported dual method use, 250 (10%) highly effective contraceptive use only, 1332 (52%) condom use only, and 274 (11%) no protection. Respondents were more likely to desire a pregnancy if they were from Namibia and Tanzania, male, had a primary education, were married/cohabitating, and had fewer children. Factors associated with increased likelihood of dual method use included being female, being comfortable asking a partner to use a condom, and communication with a health care provider about family planning. Participants who perceived that their partner wanted a pregnancy were less likely to report dual method use. Conclusions There was low dual method use and low use of highly effective contraception. Contraceptive protection was predominantly through condom-only use. These findings demonstrate the importance of integrating reproductive health services into routine HIV care. PMID:25512359

  1. Is Development Assistance for Health fungible? Findings from a mixed methods case study in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Martínez Álvarez, Melisa; Borghi, Josephine; Acharya, Arnab; Vassall, Anna

    2016-06-01

    The amount of Development Assistance for Health (DAH) available to low- and middle-income countries has increased exponentially over the past decade. However, there are concerns that DAH increases have not resulted in increased spending on health at the country level. This is because DAH may be fungible, resulting from the recipient government decreasing its contribution to the health sector as a result of external funding. The aim of this research is to assess whether DAH funds in Tanzania are fungible, by exploring government substitution of its own resources across sectors and within the health sector. A database containing 28140 projects of DAH expenditure between 2000 and 2010 was compiled from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Creditor Reporting System (OECD-CRS) and AidData databases. Government health expenditure data for the same period were obtained from the Government of Tanzania, World Bank, public expenditure reviews and budget speeches and analysed to assess the degree of government substitution. 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Development Partners (DPs), government and non-government stakeholders between April and June 2012 to explore stakeholder perceptions of fungibility. We found some evidence of substitution of government funds at the health sector and sub-sector levels and two mechanisms through which it takes place: the resource allocation process and macro-economic factors. We found fungibility of external funds may not necessarily be detrimental to Tanzania's development (as evidence suggests the funds displaced may be reallocated to education) and the mechanisms used by DPs to prevent substitution were largely ineffective. We recommend DPs engage more effectively in the priority-setting process, not just with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW), but also with the Ministry of Finance, to agree on priorities and mutual funding responsibilities at a macroeconomic level. We also call for

  2. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other

  3. Coping with urban growth and development through environmental planning and management (EPM): the sustainable Dar es Salaam project.

    PubMed

    Majani, B B

    1996-03-01

    This article discusses the Urban Management Program (UMP) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The UMP is a joint effort of UNCHS (Habitat), UNDP, and the World Bank. The UMP established the Sustainable Cities Program (SCP) in August 1990. The aim was to provide city officials and their partners in private, public, and popular sectors with improved environmental planning and management capacity. Dar es Salaam has 4 major land formations that constrain management options. About 70% of urban population live in unplanned areas with marginal access to piped water, sanitation, drainage, or basic social services. Improper waste disposal has contributed to water pollution. Under 3% of the city's solid waste is collected. Low lying areas along the coast become flooded, and poor drainage causes continually flooded road systems. SCP began a 4-stage process to identify issues, develop and implement strategy and action plans, and institutionalize the process. An environmental profile was established in 1992. Plans were developed for solid waste management, upgrading unplanned settlements, servicing planned land and city center renewal, and managing open spaces, wastes, and petty trading. These efforts were institutionalized. The efforts are noteworthy for their active participation in plan preparation by key urban managers, multisectoral coordination on environmental issues, involvement of the private sector, establishment of priorities, and detailed action plans. Political support at the highest levels combined with community participation were key to program success. The lessons learned are identified. PMID:12178488

  4. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  5. Regional Differences in Intervention Coverage and Health System Strength in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kumalija, Claud J.; Perera, Sriyanjit; Masanja, Honorati; Rubona, Josibert; Ipuge, Yahya; Mboera, Leonard; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Boerma, Ties

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessments of subnational progress and performance coverage within countries should be an integral part of health sector reviews, using recent data from multiple sources on health system strength and coverage. Method As part of the midterm review of the national health sector strategic plan of Tanzania mainland, summary measures of health system strength and coverage of interventions were developed for all 21 regions, focusing on the priority indicators of the national plan. Household surveys, health facility data and administrative databases were used to compute the regional scores. Findings Regional Millennium Development Goal (MDG) intervention coverage, based on 19 indicators, ranged from 47% in Shinyanga in the northwest to 71% in Dar es Salaam region. Regions in the eastern half of the country have higher coverage than in the western half of mainland. The MDG coverage score is strongly positively correlated with health systems strength (r = 0.84). Controlling for socioeconomic status in a multivariate analysis has no impact on the association between the MDG coverage score and health system strength. During 1991–2010 intervention coverage improved considerably in all regions, but the absolute gap between the regions did not change during the past two decades, with a gap of 22% between the top and bottom three regions. Interpretation The assessment of regional progress and performance in 21 regions of mainland Tanzania showed considerable inequalities in coverage and health system strength and allowed the identification of high and low-performing regions. Using summary measures derived from administrative, health facility and survey data, a subnational picture of progress and performance can be obtained for use in regular health sector reviews. PMID:26536351

  6. Effect of prenatal and perinatal antibiotics on maternal health in Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Aboud, Said; Msamanga, Gernard; Read, Jennifer S.; Wang, Lei; Mfalila, Chelu; Sharma, Usha; Martinson, Francis; Taha, Taha E.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We assessed the effect of prenatal and peripartum antibiotics on maternal morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected and uninfected women. Methods A multicenter trial was conducted at clinical sites in 4 Sub-Saharan African cities: Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. A total of 1558 HIV-infected and 271 uninfected pregnant women who were eligible to receive both the prenatal and peripartum antibiotic/placebo regimens were enrolled. Pregnant women were interviewed at 20–24 weeks of gestation and a physical examination was performed. Women were randomized to receive either antibiotics or placebo. At the 26–30 week visit, participants were given antibiotics or placebo to be taken every 4 hours beginning at the onset of labor and continuing after delivery 3 times a day until a 1-week course was completed. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Results There were no significant differences between the antibiotic and placebo groups for medical conditions, obstetric complications, physical examination findings, puerperal sepsis, and death in either the HIV-infected or the uninfected cohort. Conclusion Administration of study antibiotics during pregnancy had no effect on maternal morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women. PMID:19716560

  7. Population growth, agrarian peasant economy and environmental degradation in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Madulu, N F

    1995-03-01

    Population strategies to relieve the density pressures on land and resources in Tanzania have not considered the basic causes of population growth. Resettlement results in the same environmental degradation as in the original settlement. There should be a reduction in the population growth and planning of proper land use and resource exploitation before resettlement. Rural development must include a decline in the dependency on subsistence agriculture. Population in Tanzania increased by 213% during 1948-88. An absolute increase in population size during 1978-88 is recorded despite a slight decline in the rate of growth. Death rates declined, but birth rates were relatively stable at around 50 per 1000 population. Regions with the highest growth rates were Dar es Salaam (4.8%), Rukwa (4.3%), Arusha (3.8%), Mbeya (3.1%), and Ruvuma (3.2%). The regions with the lowest rates were Tanga and Kilimanjaro (2.1%), Coast (2.1%), Lindi (2%), and Mtwara (1.4%). Low growth rates are attributed to low fertility and high infertility. Other factors affecting high growth rates are culture, rates of natural increase, intensity of internal and international migration, climatic conditions, and availability of resources. In 1988 46% of the population was under 15 years old. Per capita land availability declined from 11.8 hectares in 1948 to 3.8 hectares in 1988. The number of landless peasants increased. Productivity declined, and distances to farms increased. The total fertility rate was 6.5 children per woman in 1988 and 6.1 during 1991-92. Slight declines were apparent in the crude birth rate also. High fertility was a response to universal marriage, low contraceptive use (7% using modern methods during 1991-92), declining lactation periods, high mortality rates, and old traditions favoring large families. Children were used extensively in time-consuming and labor-intensive activities, such as fetching water. The mean number of children ever born was higher among women with 1

  8. Early Cenozoic tropical climate: report from the Tanzania Onshore Paleogene Integrated Coring (TOPIC) workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, P. N.; Hudson, W.

    2014-12-01

    We are currently developing a proposal for a new International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) project to recover a stratigraphic and paleoclimatic record from the full succession of Eocene hemipelagic sediments that are now exposed on land in southern Tanzania. Funding for a workshop was provided by ICDP, and the project was advertised in the normal way. A group of about 30 delegates assembled in Dar-es-Salaam for 3 intensive days of discussion, project development, and proposal writing. The event was hosted by the Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) and was attended by several geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, and micropaleontologists from TPDC and the University of Dar-es-Salaam. International delegates were from Canada, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (and we also have project partners from Australia, Belgium, and Sweden who were not able to attend). Some of the scientists are veterans of previous scientific drilling in the area, but over half are new on the scene, mostly having been attracted by Tanzania's reputation for world-class paleoclimate archives. Here we outline the broad aims of the proposed drilling and give a flavor of the discussions and the way our proposal developed during the workshop. A video of the workshop with an introduction to the scientific goals and interviews of many of the participants is available at http://vimeo.com/107911777.

  9. Pollution of water sources due to poor waste management--the case of Dar-es-Salaam.

    PubMed

    Makule, D E

    2000-01-01

    Pollution of water sources for the city of Dar-es-Salaam originates from haphazard disposal of solid wastes, discharge of untreated or inadequately treated wastewater to water sources, lack of standard sanitary facilities and poor hygienic practices. Contaminated water used for human consumption can lead to serious health problems e.g. cholera, typhoid, skin diseases, etc., which, in turn, leads to reduced working hours/manpower. This has a direct effect to production output which can lead to a deterioration of local community welfare. Having realised this as a problem, the Government of Tanzania stipulated, in its water policy of 1991, the need for protection of water sources. In achieving this goal, proper waste management was singled out to be of vital importance. Due to economic hardships, however, budget allocation by the central Government could not cover the costs needed for proper handling of waste. This left Tanzania with no alternative other than heavy reliance on donor and bilateral organisations for financial support of programmes. Nevertheless, these sources of funds proved to be unreliable for many different reasons. To deal with these problems, the Government currently emphasises involving local community and NGOs, the formation of stakeholder funds and organisations, and involvement of the private sector. Other efforts are intensification of education programmes to create more awareness to the local communities on the need for protection of water sources. Although at its infancy level, the system is showing some signs of improvement. PMID:10842803

  10. Residents’ perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city.

  11. Improved salt iodation methods for small-scale salt producers in low-resource settings in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Assey, Vincent D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Momburi, Philip B; Maganga, Michael; Mlingi, Nicholaus V; Reilly, Marie; Greiner, Ted; Peterson, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Background Universal salt iodation will prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Globally, salt-iodation technologies mostly target large and medium-scale salt-producers. Since most producers in low-income countries are small-scale, we examined and improved the performance of hand and knapsack-sprayers used locally in Tanzania. Methods We studied three salt facilities on the Bagamoyo coast, investigating procedures for preparing potassium-iodate solution, salt spraying and mixing. Different concentrations of solution were prepared and tested using different iodation methods, with the aim of attaining correct and homogeneous iodine levels under real-life conditions. Levels achieved by manual mixing were compared to those achieved by machine mixing. Results The overall median iodation level in samples of salt iodated using previously existing methods was 10.6 ppm (range 1.1 – 110.0 ppm), with much higher levels in the top than the bottom layers of the salt bags, p < 0.0001. Experimentation using knapsack-sprayers and manual mixing led to the reliable achievement of levels (60.9 ppm ± 7.4) that fell within the recommended range of 40 – 80 ppm. The improved methods yielded homogenous iodine concentrations in all layers of salt-bags (p = 0.58) with 96% of the samples (n = 45) falling within 40 – 80 ppm compared to only 9% (n = 45) before the experiment and training (p < 0.0001). For knapsack-spraying, a machine mixer improved the iodine levels and homogeneity slightly compared to manual mixing (p = 0.05). Conclusion Supervised, standardized salt iodation procedures adapted to local circumstances can yield homogeneous iodine levels within the required range, overcoming a major obstacle to universal salt iodation. PMID:19534763

  12. Why give birth in health facility? Users’ and providers’ accounts of poor quality of birth care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, half of all pregnant women access a health facility for delivery. The proportion receiving skilled care at birth is even lower. In order to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, the government has set out to increase health facility deliveries by skilled care. The aim of this study was to describe the weaknesses in the provision of acceptable and adequate quality care through the accounts of women who have suffered obstetric fistula, nurse-midwives at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities and local community members. Methods Semi-structured interviews involving 16 women affected by obstetric fistula and five nurse-midwives at maternity wards at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities, and Focus Group Discussions with husbands and community members were conducted between October 2008 and February 2010 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania and Temeke hospitals in Dar es Salaam, and Mpwapwa district in Dodoma region. Results Health care users and health providers experienced poor quality caring and working environments in the health facilities. Women in labour lacked support, experienced neglect, as well as physical and verbal abuse. Nurse-midwives lacked supportive supervision, supplies and also seemed to lack motivation. Conclusions There was a consensus among women who have suffered serious birth injuries and nurse midwives staffing both BEmOC and CEmOC maternity wards that the quality of care offered to women in birth was inadequate. While the birth accounts of women pointed to failure of care, the nurses described a situation of disempowerment. The bad birth care experiences of women undermine the reputation of the health care system, lower community expectations of facility birth, and sustain high rates of home deliveries. The only way to increase the rate of skilled attendance at birth in the current Tanzanian context is to make facility birth a safer alternative than home birth. The findings from this study

  13. Quality and comparison of antenatal care in public and private providers in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Boller, Christoph; Wyss, Kaspar; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the quality of public and private first-tier antenatal care services in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, using defined criteria. METHODS: Structural attributes of quality were assessed through a checklist, and process attributes, including interpersonal and technical aspects, through observation and exit interviews. A total of 16 health care providers, and 166 women in the public and 188 in the private sector, were selected by systematic random sampling for inclusion in the study. Quality was measured against national standards, and an overall score calculated for the different aspects to permit comparison. FINDINGS: The results showed that both public and private providers were reasonably good with regard to the structural and interpersonal aspects of quality of care. However, both were poor when it came to technical aspects of quality. For example, guidelines for dispensing prophylactic drugs against anaemia or malaria were not respected, and diagnostic examinations for the assessment of gestation, anaemia, malaria or urine infection were frequently not performed. In all aspects, private providers were significantly better than public ones. CONCLUSION: Approaches to improving quality of care should emerge progressively as a result of regular quality assessments. Changes should be introduced using an incremental approach addressing few improvements at a time, while ensuring participation in, and ownership of, every aspect of the strategy by health personnel, health planners and managers and also the community. PMID:12751419

  14. Providing anti-retroviral therapy in the context of self-perceived stigma: a mixed methods study from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, Edith A M; George, John

    2014-04-01

    Adherence to anti-retroviral treatment (ART) has been a significant step towards improving quality of life among people living with HIV. However, stigma has been described to influence adherence to ART. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted to explore factors related to stigma and perceived influence of stigma on adherence to treatment amongst ART-prescribed patients and health care providers, respectively in Tanzania. Stigma was assessed through interviewer administered survey among 295 patients. The results from patients showed that 279/295 (95%) were satisfied with the services provided at the Care and Treatment Centres (CTCs). The set up of CTCs 107/295 (36%), and queuing at the CTCs 88/295 (30%) were associated with stigma (P < 0.001). The perceived influence of stigma on adherence to ART was assessed using focus group discussions (FGDs) of 33 health care providers (HCPs). Through FGDs, HCPs perceived the set up of CTCs as friendly yet violated confidentiality. The HCPs reported that ART-prescribed patients hide identifiable cards to avoid being recognised by other people. Some patients were reported to rush to avoid familiar faces, and due to the rush they picked wrong medicines. Also some patients were reported to throw away manufacturers' box with dosage instructions written on the box, resulting in use of doses contrary to the prescriptions. We conclude that despite the fact that most patients were satisfied with the services provided at the CTCs, it is important that HCPs provide dosage instructions on another piece of paper or use disposable bags. A common dispensing window for all patients regardless of the diagnosis may be useful to minimize stigma. Also HCPs may introduce appointment system to avoid long queue at the CTCs. PMID:26875301

  15. Claiming territory: medical mission, interreligious revivalism, and the spatialization of health interventions in urban Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, new religious actors have become involved in the provision of medical care in urban Tanzania. Muslim revivalist organizations and neo-Pentecostal churches in particular have established a range of health interventions that are tied to revisionist claims about religion, spirituality, and politics in society. In this article I discuss medical mission in Dar es Salaam in the light of (post)colonial histories of health service provision as well as with regard to inter- and intradenominational contestations over health and well-being, a morally acceptable life, and political participation. I argue that the nature of the inscription of revivalist organizations in urban space through health interventions depends on their structural location and their respective members' social and economic capital. I also show that the ongoing transformations of urban space through medical mission have become reflective of, as well as are triggering, moral interpretations of history and social inequality in contemporary Tanzania. PMID:24383752

  16. Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including “mwarobaini” (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), “mtopetope” (Annona spp) (20.8%), “mchungwa/mlimau” (Citrus spp) (8.3%), “mvumbashi/uvumbati” (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), “mkorosho” (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), “mwembe” (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), “mpera” (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and “maganda ya nazi” (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in

  17. AgriSense-STARS: Advancing Methods of Agricultural Monitoring for Food Security in Smallholder Regions - the Case for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempewolf, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ntikha, O.; Hansen, M.; Justice, C. J.; Adusei, B.; Kongo, V.

    2015-12-01

    In-season monitoring of crop conditions provides critical information for agricultural policy and decision making and most importantly for food security planning and management. Nationwide agricultural monitoring in countries dominated by smallholder farming systems, generally relies on extensive networks of field data collectors. In Tanzania, extension agents make up this network and report on conditions across the country, approaching a "near-census". Data is collected on paper which is resource and time intensive, as well as prone to errors. Data quality is ambiguous and there is a general lack of clear and functional feedback loops between farmers, extension agents, analysts and decision makers. Moreover, the data are not spatially explicit, limiting the usefulness for analysis and quality of policy outcomes. Despite significant advances in remote sensing and information communication technologies (ICT) for monitoring agriculture, the full potential of these new tools is yet to be realized in Tanzania. Their use is constrained by the lack of resources, skills and infrastructure to access and process these data. The use of ICT technologies for data collection, processing and analysis is equally limited. The AgriSense-STARS project is developing and testing a system for national-scale in-season monitoring of smallholder agriculture using a combination of three main tools, 1) GLAM-East Africa, an automated MODIS satellite image processing system, 2) field data collection using GeoODK and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and 3) the Tanzania Crop Monitor, a collaborative online portal for data management and reporting. These tools are developed and applied in Tanzania through the National Food Security Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC) within a statistically representative sampling framework (area frame) that ensures data quality, representability and resource efficiency.

  18. Maternal deaths in Tanzania -- a challenge.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A reproductive health approach to health care has many consequences for women in Tanzania. Conditions are currently such that in one hospital in Amana there were 30 to 40 deliveries daily, but only 2 beds. The consequence was patients were treated while lying on the floor. The main city hospital did not have a vacuum aspirator, resuscitation equipment for newborns, or a sterilizer. A Dar es Salaam study shows a hospital maternal mortality rate of 754/100,000 live births, which is much higher than the 200-400/100,000 live births estimated by the WHO. The barriers to women's health are low socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, lack of income, lack of employment opportunities, and limited access to basic sanitation. There is discrimination against women in food, education, and economic independence, and social custom that denies decision making about marriage and reproduction. Access to information is limited to mother and child clinics. Men tend not to be involved in family planning or in treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. Strategies have been narrowly focused on maternal mortality, rather than on reproductive health and the right to live. Pregnancy threatens the right to life. PMID:12222520

  19. Establishing an Anaesthesia and Intensive Care partnership and aiming for national impact in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ulisubisya, Mpoki; Jörnvall, Henrik; Irestedt, Lars; Baker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care is a neglected specialty in low-income countries. There is an acute shortage of health workers - several low-income countries have less than 1 anaesthesia provider per 100,000 population. Only 1.5% of hospitals in Africa have the intensive care resources needed for managing patients with sepsis. Health partnerships between institutions in high and low-income countries have been proposed as an effective way to strengthen health systems. The aim of this article is to describe the origin and conduct of a health partnership in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care between institutions in Tanzania and Sweden and how the partnership has expanded to have an impact at regional and national levels.The Muhimbili-Karolinska Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Collaboration was initiated in 2008 on the request of the Executive Director of Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. The partnership has conducted training courses, exchanges, research projects and introduced new equipment, routines and guidelines. The partnership has expanded to include all hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Through the newly formed Life Support Foundation, the partnership has had a national impact assisting the reanimation of the Society of Anaesthesiologists of Tanzania and has seen a marked increase of the number of young doctors choosing a residency in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. PMID:26993790

  20. Point-of-sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Champeny, Mary; Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of point-of-sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point-of-sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one-third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Key messages Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point-of-sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one-third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu). Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores. Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS. Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061961

  1. A novel technology to improve drinking water quality using natural treatment methods in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mbogo, Shaaban Aman

    2008-03-01

    It is estimated that one billion people worldwide do not have access to treated drinking water. This paper reports on an investigation into the potential of indigenous or natural water treatment methods as alternatives to conventional chemical water treatment methods. The seeds of five natural plant species--Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus mungo, Glycine max, Pisum sativam, and Arachis hypogea--were evaluated for the removal of turbidity, and their efficiency was compared with that of alum. The use of a solar energy-saving method to disinfect drinking water--leaving it to heat under the sun to reduce bacteria colonies--also was evaluated, The study revealed that for raw water with turbidity of 482 nephelometric turbidity units, coagulation with seed extracts from natural plant species reduced natural turbidity by 96.7 to 100 percent when the seed extract was used as the primary coagulant and by 100 percent when it was used as a coagulant aid. The study showed further that natural coagulants were as effective as commercial alum [Al2(SO4)3] and even superior for clarification because the optimum dosage was low compared with that of alum. Leaving samples of water clarified by natural coagulants on a black-painted roof for 8 hours achieved up to 100 percent bacteria kill. PMID:18348392

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwambete, K. D.; Lyombe, F.

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps’ concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps’ ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps’ concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts® soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency® and Dalan® exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex®, Roberts®, Family® and Protector® were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda® liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps’ antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora. PMID:22131630

  3. Sources of salinity and urban pollution in the Quaternary sand aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walraevens, Kristine; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Mtoni, Yohana; Van Camp, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater is globally important for human consumption, and changes in quality can have serious consequences. The study area is within a coastal aquifer where groundwater quality is influenced by various potential sources of salinity that determine the composition of water extracted from wells. Groundwater chemistry data from the aquifer have been acquired to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in this area and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Analysis of groundwater samples shows that the dominant watertype is mostly NaCl with pH < 7 in both aquifers (i.e. upper and lower) except for the shallow wells where CaHCO3 prevails with pH ⩾ 7, and boreholes located near the Indian Ocean, where coral reef limestone deposits are located and the watertype evolves towards CaHCO3. In the lower aquifer, Cl- is higher than in the upper aquifer. The origin of salinity in the area is strongly influenced by groundwater ascending from deep marine Miocene Spatangid Shales through faults, seawater incursion on the border of the Indian Ocean, and throughout, there is some salinity within the Quaternary aquifer, especially in intercalated deltaic clays in the fluviatile deposits, showing some marine influences. The seawater intrusion is linked to the strongly increasing groundwater exploitation since 1997. Another process that plays a major role to the concentration of major ions in the groundwater is calcite dissolution. Next to geogenic salinity and seawater intrusion, anthropogenic pollution as well is affecting groundwater quality in the aquifer. An important result of this study is the observation of high nitrate concentrations, that call for improved sanitation in the area, where domestic sewage with on-site sanitation (mainly pit latrines) also threatens the groundwater resource.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwambete, K D; Lyombe, F

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps' concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps' ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps' concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts(®) soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency(®) and Dalan(®) exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex(®), Roberts(®), Family(®) and Protector(®) were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda(®) liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps' antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora. PMID:22131630

  5. Self Evaluation: A Case Study of a School in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokeyo, Carolyne Adhiambo; Oluoch, John

    2015-01-01

    External evaluation of schools purpose to monitor delivery of education with a view to ensuring adherence to stipulated curriculum and set standards as well as efficient and effective quality education. However, school improvement scholars in developed economies now argue that schools must take their own initiative to assess the extent to which…

  6. Deficiencies of macronutrient intake among HIV-positive breastfeeding women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kim, Faith; Neke, Nyasule M; Hendricks, Kristy; Wamsele, Joyce; Lukmanji, Zohra; Waddell, Richard; Maro, Isaac; Connor, Ruth; Mackenzie, Todd; Matee, Mecky; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C Fordham

    2014-12-15

    We compared macronutrient intake, food insecurity, and anthropometrics in breastfeeding women: 40 HIV-positive women not yet on antiretroviral therapy and 40 HIV-negative women. Calculated deficits at 2 weeks were 517 kcal per day for HIV-positive women vs 87 kcal per day surplus for HIV-negative women (P = 0.01) and 29 g protein per day for HIV-positive women vs 16 g protein per day for HIV-negative women (P = 0.04). Food insecurity scores were 11.3 for HIV-positive women vs 7.8 for HIV-negative women (P < 0.01). Enhanced dietary education together with macronutrient supplementation may be required to improve health outcomes in HIV-positive women and their infants. PMID:25230293

  7. Huntington's disease in Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, E M

    1981-01-01

    Huntington's disease was studied in a Bantu community in northern Tanzania. Although there is evidence to suggest that the disease has been present here for over one hundred years, this is the first report of the condition in Tanzania. A survey of published reports indicates that the disease is infrequently reported in persons of Negro ancestry. PMID:6453998

  8. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Helen L.; Mnzava, Kunda W.; Mitchell, Sarah T.; Melubo, Matayo L.; Kibona, Tito J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Crump, John A.; Sharp, Joanne P.; Halliday, Jo E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Zoonoses are common causes of human and livestock illness in Tanzania. Previous studies have shown that brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever account for a large proportion of human febrile illness in northern Tanzania, yet they are infrequently diagnosed. We conducted this study to assess awareness and knowledge regarding selected zoonoses among healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania; to determine what diagnostic and treatment protocols are utilized; and obtain insights into contextual factors contributing to the apparent under-diagnosis of zoonoses. Methodology/Results We conducted a questionnaire about zoonoses knowledge, case reporting, and testing with 52 human health practitioners and 10 livestock health providers. Immediately following questionnaire administration, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 of these respondents, using the findings of a previous fever etiology study to prompt conversation. Sixty respondents (97%) had heard of brucellosis, 26 (42%) leptospirosis, and 20 (32%) Q fever. Animal sector respondents reported seeing cases of animal brucellosis (4), rabies (4), and anthrax (3) in the previous 12 months. Human sector respondents reported cases of human brucellosis (15, 29%), rabies (9, 18%) and anthrax (6, 12%). None reported leptospirosis or Q fever cases. Nineteen respondents were aware of a local diagnostic test for human brucellosis. Reports of tests for human leptospirosis or Q fever, or for any of the study pathogens in animals, were rare. Many respondents expressed awareness of malaria over-diagnosis and zoonoses under-diagnosis, and many identified low knowledge and testing capacity as reasons for zoonoses under-diagnosis. Conclusions This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic

  9. Breeding places and seasonal incidence of Aedes aegypti, as assessed by the single-larva survey method*

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T. Ramachandra; Trpis, M.; Gillett, J. D.; Teesdale, C.; Tonn, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The single-larva survey method was employed to study the breeding places and seasonal incidence of Aedes aegypti in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. From May 1968 to May 1969, 28 462 containers of water—located in approximately equal numbers indoors and outdoors—were investigated. The highest frequency of breeding (8.0%) of A. aegypti was observed in tires and motor parts. Drums, barrels, water-pots, and other receptacles left outdoors showed a higher frequency (3.1%) than those kept indoors (0.6%). Metal containers were infested to a greater extent than those made of mud, wood, or other materials; 2.5% of coconut shells, snail shells, etc. and 1.3% of tree holes, plant axils, and cut bamboos were infested. The seasonal prevalence, expressed as a container index, closely followed and paralleled the fluctuations in rainfall. The value of this survey method for both ecological studies and practical control purposes is discussed. PMID:4544149

  10. Microbiological quality of milk in Tanzania: from Maasai stable to African consumer table.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar; Maichin, Andreas; Lema, Benedict; Laffa, John

    2013-11-01

    In Tanzania, pastoralists such as the Maasai and small urban farmers are responsible for the country's milk production, and 95% of the national milk supply is sold without regulation. This study was conducted using hygiene checklists and milk sampling to investigate milk quality and safety at various steps throughout the milk production chain. In regions of Dar es Salaam and Lake Victoria, 196 milk samples were collected: 109 samples of raw milk, 41 samples of packed or open served heat-treated products, and 46 samples of fermented products. Samples were taken from (i) the production level (pastoralists and urban farmers), (ii) the collection level (middlemen and depots), (iii) processors (dairies), and (iv) retailers (kiosks). Samples were analyzed for hygiene criteria (total bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and coagulase-positive staphylococci) and foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Adequate heating of milk for drinking was determined via heat labile alkaline phosphatase and lactoperoxidase analysis. Total bacterial counts indicated that only 67% (73 of 109) of raw milk samples and 46% (19 of 41) of heat-treated samples met national Tanzanian standards. Bulk milk samples taken from the traditional milking vessels of Maasai pastoralists had the lowest total bacterial counts: ≥ 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml. Foodborne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were isolated from 10.1% (11 of 109) of raw milk samples but were not detected in heat-treated or fermented products, and 83% of heat-treated milk samples were lactoperoxidase negative, indicating overpasteurization. Coliforms were detected in 41% (17 of 41) of processed milk samples, thus indicating a high rate of recontamination. A progressive decrease in microbial quality along the milk production chain was attributed to departures from traditional methods, inadequate milk containers, long transport distances, lack of cooling, and

  11. Healthcare Cost of Smoking Induced Cardiovascular Disease in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Asmerom; Hepelwa, Aloyce; Ngeh, Ernest Tingum; Hu, Teh-wei

    2016-01-01

    The study presented here estimates the total health care cost attributable to smoking induced cardiovascular disease in Tanzania. The study based on a survey conducted at a referral university hospital in Dar es Salaam in 2014. Assuming a 2% prevalence rate of cardiovascular disease and a population of 47.2 million, it was estimated that there are 943,800 cardiovascular patients in Tanzania. The proportion of ever smokers among the surveyed patients was found to be 25 percent yielding 240,400 patients who suffer from smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Per capita annual expenditure per patient is estimated to be 566.6 US dollars and total annual expenditure for the country was estimated to be 136.1 million US dollars. On a per capita basis more direct and indirect cost is incurred on males compared to females; more is spent on the elderly (40 or more years) compared to the youth (less than 20 years). When compared with the mean annual household income of the surveyed population, the smoking induced per capita expenditure constitutes 35% of household income. PMID:27152318

  12. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries.

    PubMed

    Mbugi, Erasto V; Katale, Bugwesa Z; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Keyyu, Julius D; Kendall, Sharon L; Dockrell, Hazel M; Michel, Anita L; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Warren, Robin M; Matee, Mecky I; van Helden, Paul D; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  13. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mbugi, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  14. An overview of the global threat reduction initiative's physical protection work in Tanzania.

    SciTech Connect

    Banzi, Firmi Paul; Itamura, Michael Takeshi; Robinson, Phillip W.; Strosinski, Micheal Vernon

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) established the Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) mission to reduce and protect nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 80 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance security of facilities with these materials. In 2004, a GTRI delegation began working with the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, (TAEC). The team conducted site assessments for the physical protection of radiological materials in Tanzania. Today, GTRI and the Government of Tanzania continue cooperative efforts to enhance physical security at several radiological sites, including a central sealed-source storage facility, and sites in the cities of Arusha, Dar Es Salaam, and Tanga. This paper describes the scope of physical protection work, lessons learned, and plans for future cooperation between the GTRI program and the TAEC. Additionally the paper will review the cooperative efforts between TAEC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with regards to a remote monitoring system at a storage facility and to the repackaging of radioactive sources.

  15. Country watch: Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kishe, F; Mtweve, S P

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the approach of the KIWAKKUKI women's group in helping to change sex behavior among youth and to inform community women's groups in Moshi, Tanzania. The group concluded after four years of experience that people change risky sexual behavior most when participatory methods based on local culture are used in educational programs. KIWAKKUKI established discussion groups for primary and secondary school students in the schools. The approach included use of videos, clothboards, chalkboards, and sometimes role plays. The mothers engaged in discussions with children other than their own, which reduced some embarrassment. Sex education discussion groups were also conducted among church youth and community women's groups. Monthly meetings drew a membership of about 356 persons, of whom 30-50 were trainers and advocates. Some of the topics of conversation were knowledge about physical bodies and personalities, assertiveness and the ability to say "no," laws and regulations relating to marriage, inheritance, sexual harassment, abuse, and AIDS. Other topics focused on the cultural understanding of circumcision, teeth extraction, wife inheritance, and women's income generation. The basic premise of their operation is empowerment of women and the belief that women can make a difference in changing culture. Men, who indicated an interest in forming a group, were redirected to their own group formation. PMID:12346873

  16. Solar Power for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Christine; Gerace, Jay; Mehner, Nicole; Mohamed, Sharif; Reiss, Kelly

    1999-12-06

    Condensed list of products and activities: 8 educational posters and 1 informational brochure (all original illustrations and text); a business plan with micro-agreements; corporation created called Tanzanian Power, LLC; business feasibility study developed with the University of Albany; Hampshire College collaborated in project development; research conducted seeking similar projects in underdeveloped countries; Citibank proposal submitted (but rejected); cleaned and sent PV panels to Tanzania; community center built in Tanzania; research and list provided to Robinson for educational TV videos and product catalogs; networked with Chase Manhattan Bank for new solar panels; maintained flow of information among many people (stateside and Tanzania); wrote and sent press releases and other outreach information. Several families purchased panels.

  17. Genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in a population of Anopheles arabiensis, the primary malaria vector in Lower Moshi, north-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid resistance has been slower to emerge in Anopheles arabiensis than in An. gambiae s.s and An. funestus and, consequently, studies are only just beginning to unravel the genes involved. Permethrin resistance in An. arabiensis in Lower Moshi, Tanzania has been linked to elevated levels of both P450 monooxygenases and β-esterases. We have conducted a gene expression study to identify specific genes linked with metabolic resistance in the Lower Moshi An. arabiensis population. Methods Microarray experiments employing an An. gambiae whole genome expression chip were performed on An. arabiensis, using interwoven loop designs. Permethrin-exposed survivors were compared to three separate unexposed mosquitoes from the same or a nearby population. A subsection of detoxification genes were chosen for subsequent quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Microarray analysis revealed significant over expression of 87 probes and under expression of 85 probes (in pairwise comparisons between permethrin survivors and unexposed sympatric and allopatric samples from Dar es Salaam (controls). For qRT-PCR we targeted over expressed ABC transporter genes (ABC ‘2060’), a glutathione-S-transferase, P450s and esterases. Design of efficient, specific primers was successful for ABC ‘2060’and two P450s (CYP6P3, CYP6M2). For the CYP4G16 gene, we used the primers that were previously used in a microarray study of An. arabiensis from Zanzibar islands. Over expression of CYP4G16 and ABC ‘2060’ was detected though with contrasting patterns in pairwise comparisons between survivors and controls. CYP4G16 was only up regulated in survivors, whereas ABC ‘2060’ was similar in survivors and controls but over expressed in Lower Moshi samples compared to the Dar es Salaam samples. Increased transcription of CYP4G16 and ABC ‘2060’ are linked directly and indirectly respectively, with permethrin resistance in Lower Moshi An. arabiensis. Conclusions Increased

  18. Tanzania: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara

    A survey of the status of language usage in Tanzania begins with an overview of the three levels of language use: (1) Swahili, the national and official language, used in public life; (2) English, used in international affairs and in technical and intellectual matters; and (3) the over 120 vernacular languages used in family and religious life,…

  19. Quantitation of multiple mycotoxins and cyanogenic glucosides in cassava samples from Tanzania and Rwanda by an LC-MS/MS-based multi-toxin method.

    PubMed

    Sulyok, M; Beed, F; Boni, S; Abass, A; Mukunzi, A; Krska, R

    2015-01-01

    A multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for a mycotoxin survey in 627 samples of processed cassava collected from different districts across Tanzania and Rwanda after the method performance for this matrix had been determined. Matrix effects as well as extraction efficiencies were found to be similar to most other previously investigated matrices with the exception of distinct matrix effects in the negative ionisation mode for early eluting compounds. Limits of detection were far below the regulatory limits set in the European Union for other types of commodities. Relative standard deviations were generally lower than 10% as determined by replicates spiked on two concentration levels. The sample-to-sample variation of the apparent recoveries was determined for 15 individually spiked samples during three different analytical sequences. The related standard deviation was found to be lower than 15% for most of the investigated compounds, thus confirming the applicability of the method for quantitative analysis. The occurrence of regulated mycotoxins was lower than 10% (with the exception of zearalenone) and the related limits were exceeded only in few samples, which suggests that cassava is a comparatively safe commodity as regards mycotoxins. The most prevalent fungal metabolites were emodin, kojic acid, beauvericin, tryptophol, 3-nitropropionic acid, equisetin, alternariol methylether, monocerin, brevianamide F, tenuazonic acid, zearalenone, chrysophanol, monilifomin, enniatins, apicidin and macrosporin. The related concentrations exceeded 1 mg kg(-1) only in few cases. However, extremely high levels of cyanogenic plant toxins, which had been previously added to the method, were observed in few samples, pointing out the need for improved post-harvest management to decrease the levels of these compounds. PMID:25350522

  20. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals. PMID:12572817

  1. Identification of VIM-2-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Tanzania Is Associated with Sequence Types 244 and 640 and the Location of blaVIM-2 in a TniC Integron

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Sabrina; Haldorsen, Bjørg; Aboud, Said; Blomberg, Bjørn; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Langeland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data on carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria on the African continent are limited. Here, we report the identification of VIM-2-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Tanzania. Eight out of 90 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from a tertiary care hospital in Dar es Salaam were shown to harbor blaVIM-2. The blaVIM-2-positive isolates belonged to two different sequence types (ST), ST244 and ST640, with blaVIM-2 located in an unusual integron structure lacking the 3′ conserved region of qacΔE1-sul1. PMID:25331700

  2. Factors affecting adoption, implementation fidelity, and sustainability of the Redesigned Community Health Fund in Tanzania: a mixed methods protocol for process evaluation in the Dodoma region

    PubMed Central

    Kalolo, Albino; Radermacher, Ralf; Stoermer, Manfred; Meshack, Menoris; De Allegri, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the implementation of various initiatives to address low enrollment in voluntary micro health insurance (MHI) schemes in sub-Saharan Africa, the problem of low enrollment remains unresolved. The lack of process evaluations of such interventions makes it difficult to ascertain whether their poor results are because of design failures or implementation weaknesses. Objective In this paper, we describe a process evaluation protocol aimed at opening the ‘black box’ to evaluate the implementation processes of the Redesigned Community Health Fund (CHF) program in the Dodoma region of Tanzania. Design The study employs a cross-sectional mixed methods design and is being carried out 3 years after the launch of the Redesigned CHF program. The study is grounded in a conceptual framework which rests on the Diffusion of Innovation Theory and the Implementation Fidelity Framework. The study utilizes a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data collection tools (questionnaires, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and document review), and aligns the evaluation to the Theory of Intervention developed by our team. Quantitative data will be used to measure program adoption, implementation fidelity, and their moderating factors. Qualitative data will be used to explore the responses of stakeholders to the intervention, contextual factors, and moderators of adoption, implementation fidelity, and sustainability. Discussion This protocol describes a systematic process evaluation in relation to the implementation of a reformed MHI. We trust that the theoretical approaches and methodologies described in our protocol may be useful to inform the design of future process evaluations focused on the assessment of complex interventions, such as MHI schemes. PMID:26679408

  3. Incremental effect of natural tick challenge on the infection and treatment method-induced immunity against T. parva in cattle under agro-pastoral systems in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kazungu, Yvette E M; Mwega, Elisa; Neselle, Moses Ole; Sallu, Raphael; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the incremental effect of natural tick challenge on the infection and treatment method-induced immunity against T. parva under agro-pastoral systems in Simanjiro district, Northern Tanzania. T. parva specific antibody percent positivity and prevalence of T. parva parasites were studied in relation to duration post vaccination and proximity to Tarangire National park. A total of 381 cattle were included in this study, of which 127 were unvaccinated and 254 had been vaccinated at different time points between 2008 and 2014. Antibody percent positivity (PP) determined by the PIM-based T. parva ELISA and the prevalence of T. parva parasites detected by a nested PCR based on the p104 gene were used to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle. Results showed that seroprevalence was significantly higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated cattle (OR 10.89, p = 0.0341). Only 1.6% (6/381) of all cattle were seronegative and 5/6 of these were unvaccinated. Prevalence of T. parva parasites was significantly higher in vaccinated (50.39%) than unvaccinated (19.69%) cattle (OR 2.03, p = 0.0144). While there was a positive association between PP and duration post vaccination but the latter was inversely associated with T. parva parasite prevalence. This study also showed that cattle which were closer to the park had higher antibody PP and T. parva prevalence. It is concluded that duration post vaccination as well as proximity from the wildlife in Tarangire National park together may exert an incremental effect on the outcome of ECF vaccination by influencing stronger antibody immunity of cattle and ability to withhold high T. parva infection pressure under constant field tick challenge. Further, the high seroprevalence in vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle suggests a likely state of endemic stability to T. parva in the study area. PMID:26005108

  4. "I am nothing": experiences of loss among women suffering from severe birth injuries in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the increased attention on maternal mortality during recent decades, which has resulted in maternal health being defined as a Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Continuous leaking of urine and the physical, emotional and social suffering associated with it, has a profound impact on women's quality of life. This study seeks to explore the physical, cultural and psychological dimensions of living with obstetric fistula, and demonstrate how these experiences shape the identities of women affected by the condition. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was used to explore the experiences of Tanzanian women living with obstetric fistula and those of their husbands. The study was conducted at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania hospital in Dar es Salaam, Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, and Mpwapwa district, in Dodoma region. Conveniently selected samples of 16 women were interviewed, and 151 additional women responded to a questionnaire. In addition, 12 women affected by obstetric fistula and six husbands of these affected women participated in a focus group discussions. Data were analysed using content data analysis framework and statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 15 for Microsoft windows. Results The study revealed a deep sense of loss. Loss of body control, loss of the social roles as women and wives, loss of integration in social life, and loss of dignity and self-worth were located at the core of these experiences. Conclusion The women living with obstetric fistula experience a deep sense of loss that had negative impact on their identity and quality of life. Acknowledging affected women's real-life experiences is important in order to understand the occurrence and management of obstetric fistula, as well as prospects after treatment. This knowledge will help to

  5. Rural to urban migration and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High levels of rural to urban migration are a feature of most African countries. Our aim was to investigate changes, and their determinants, in cardiovascular risk factors on rural to urban migration in Tanzania. Methods Men and women (15 to 59 years) intending to migrate from Morogoro rural region to Dar es Salaam for at least 6 months were identified. Measurements were made at least one week but no more than one month prior to migration, and 1 to 3 monthly after migration. Outcome measures included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and self reported physical activity and diet. Results One hundred and three men, 106 women, mean age 29 years, were recruited and 132 (63.2%) followed to 12 months. All the figures presented here refer to the difference between baseline and 12 months in these 132 individuals. Vigorous physical activity declined (79.4% to 26.5% in men, 37.8% to 15.6% in women, p < 0.001), and weight increased (2.30 kg men, 2.35 kg women, p < 0.001). Intake of red meat increased, but so did the intake of fresh fruit and vegetables. HDL cholesterol increased in men and women (0.24, 0.25 mmoll-1 respectively, p < 0.001); and in men, not women, total cholesterol increased (0.42 mmoll-1, p = 0.01), and triglycerides fell (0.31 mmoll-1, p = 0.034). Blood pressure appeared to fall in both men and women. For example, in men systolic blood pressure fell by 5.4 mmHg, p = 0.007, and in women by 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.001. Conclusion The lower level of physical activity and increasing weight will increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, changes in diet were mixed, and may have contributed to mixed changes in lipid profiles and a lack of rise in blood pressure. A better understanding of the changes occurring on rural to urban migration is needed to guide preventive measures. PMID:20497567

  6. Auditory impairments in HIV-infected individuals in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maro, Isaac I.; Moshi, Ndeserua; Clavier, Odile H.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Wilbur, Jed C.; Chambers, Robert D.; Fellows, Abigail M.; Jastrzembski, Benjamin G.; Mascari, John E.; Bakari, Muhammad; Matee, Mecky; Musiek, Frank E.; Waddell, Richard D.; von Reyn, C. Fordham; Buckey, Jay C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Abnormal hearing tests have been noted in HIV-infected patients in several studies, but the nature of the hearing deficit has not been clearly defined. We performed a cross-sectional study of both HIV+ and HIV− individuals in Tanzania using an audiological test battery. We hypothesized that HIV+ adults would have a higher prevalence of abnormal central and peripheral hearing test results compared to HIV− controls. Additionally, we anticipated that the prevalence of abnormal hearing assessments would increase with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) use, and treatment for tuberculosis (TB). Design Pure-tone thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), tympanometry, and a gap detection test were performed using a laptop-based hearing testing system on 751 subjects (100 HIV− in the U.S., plus 651 in Dar es Salaam Tanzania including 449 HIV+ [130 ART− and 319 ART+], and 202 HIV−, subjects. No U.S. subjects had a history of TB treatment. In Tanzania, 204 of the HIV+, and 23 of the HIV−, subjects had a history of TB treatment. Subjects completed a video and audio questionnaire about their hearing as well as a health history questionnaire. Results HIV+ subjects had reduced DPOAE levels compared to HIV− subjects, but their hearing thresholds, tympanometry results, and gap detection thresholds were similar. Within the HIV+ group, those on ART reported significantly greater difficulties understanding speech-in-noise, and were significantly more likely to report that they had difficulty understanding speech than the ART− group. The ART+ group had a significantly higher mean gap detection threshold compared to the ART− group. No effects of TB treatment were seen. Conclusions The fact that the ART+/ART− groups did not differ in measures of peripheral hearing ability (DPOAEs, thresholds), or middle ear measures (tympanometry), but that the ART+ group had significantly more trouble understanding speech and higher gap detection thresholds

  7. Adult Students go to Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Brian

    1976-01-01

    A preparatory course and a three-week study safari to Tanzania were conducted jointly by the University of Southampton and Nottingham University. The course sought to increase the participants' understanding of Tanzania's geography, economy, politics, education, and social systems. The actual visit is also described. (Author/EC)

  8. Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

  9. The economics of pharmaceutical supply in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Yudkin, J S

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the patterns of purchasing, distribution, and utilization of pharmaceuticals currently found in Tanzania, an underdeveloped country in Africa. Like other nations in the Third World, Tanzania offers the prospect of a rapidly expanding market for the multinational pharmaceutical industry. However, this market has been to a large extent developed by the intense promotional activities of the drug companies themselves. In addition to normal marketing methods, these companies indulge in techniques which would be neither acceptable nor legal in developed countries. As a result, expensive proprietary drugs are overpurchased and overprescribed, mainly in the large urban hospitals, with consequent deprivation of other health care facilities, particularly those for the rural peasants who form the majority of the population. The activities of the multinational pharmaceutical companies in the Third World are therefore an important component in the continuing underdevelopment of health in these nations. PMID:7419314

  10. Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs and coping strategies used to prevent changes in treatment regimens in Kinondoni District, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Since 2004, the government of Tanzania has been rolling out antiretroviral treatment programs all over the country. However, the capacity of the health system to cope with the rapid scale-up of these programs is a major concern, and problems may result in drug stock-outs that force changes in treatment regimens. This study aims to explore stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs and further determine the coping strategies employed to prevent changes in treatment regimens in HIV/AIDS care and treatment clinics in Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 HIV/AIDS care and treatment clinics. Interviews were conducted with the person in charge and a member of the pharmacy staff from each clinic using a pre-tested semi-structured interview guide. Verbal responses were transcribed, coded and analysed by thematic approach. Quantitative data were analysed using Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel®, Microsoft Corporation). Results The total number of clients enrolled in the visited clinics was 32,147, of whom 20,831 (64.8%) had already been initiated onto antiretroviral therapies (ART). Stock-out of antiretroviral drugs was reported in 16 out of the 20 clinics, causing 210 patients to change their ART regimens, during the 12 months preceding the survey. Inefficient supply systems, quantification problems and short expiry duration were cited as the main causes of stock-outs. The coping strategies utilised to prevent changes in ART regimens were: shortening of the refill period, borrowing and moving patients to other clinics. Conclusion Changes in ART regimens due to stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred in a small but significant number of patients. This increases the risk of the emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains. Healthcare workers use various coping strategies to prevent changes in ART regimens but, unfortunately, some of these strategies are likely to increase patient-borne costs, which may

  11. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance. PMID:16261277

  12. Assessing the Available ICT Infrastructure for Collaborative Web Technologies in a Blended Learning Environment in Tanzania: A Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pima, John Marco; Odetayo, Michael; Iqbal, Rahat; Sedoyeka, Eliamani

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the use of a Mixed Methods approach in an investigation that sought to assess the available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure capable of supporting Collaborative Web Technologies (CWTs) in a Blended Learning (BL) environment in Tanzanian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). We first used…

  13. Dry season survival of Aedes aegypti eggs in various breeding sites in the Dar es Salaam area, Tanzania*

    PubMed Central

    Trpiš, M.

    1972-01-01

    In field experiments in different breeding sites in a shaded suburban area, 7-40% of A. aegypti eggs survived a 120-day dry period. In a relatively unshaded coral area, only 3-23% of eggs survived 60 days in exposed sites, but 7-17% survived 120 days in shaded sites. Survival in some sites was higher than in the laboratory at constant conditions. PMID:4539825

  14. Determining spatial variability of dry spells: a Markov-based method, applied to the Makanya catchment, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, B. M. C.; Mul, M. L.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2013-06-01

    With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource-intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the length of dry spells for fixed probabilities of non-exceedance. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. The dry spell map thus obtained is compared to the spatially variable critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure in different locations. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the length of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels that make rainfed agricultural unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully being practised. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells and, subsequently, to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.

  15. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  16. Traditional healers in Tanzania: sociocultural profile and three short portraits.

    PubMed

    Gessler, M C; Msuya, D E; Nkunya, M H; Schär, A; Heinrich, M; Tanner, M

    1995-11-01

    Traditional healers are an important part of African societies, but unfortunately the knowledge of the extent and character of traditional healing and the people involved in the practice is limited and impressionistic. They are frequently ignored in studies of user/provider patterns, although they cover the health needs of a substantial proportion of the population. For future health planning it is necessary to know what the reasons are that even in big cities, where western health care services are available, traditional healers flourish, and even compete with each other for certain aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate certain aspects of the profession of traditional healing in general in different areas in Tanzania in order to get an idea about the kind of traditional medical services which are available, and about the people who provide such services. For this reason traditional healers were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire in different rural and urban places: in the Kilombero valley (Kilombero/Ulanga district), on the main island of Ukerewe (Ukerewe District), and in the region near Bukoba town (Bukoba District), and in the settlement of Dar es Salaam (largest city of Tanzania). The results of the study show that traditional healers are a very heterogeneous group of persons not having much in common relating to their religion, sex and level of education. The traditional practice is very often taken over from a family member, but also other reasons for becoming a healer, like initiation through ancestor spirits, are very frequently given. More than 50% of the respondents practice full time. These full time practitioners are mainly found among men and in the younger age group. Treatment of in-patients, who can stay in special patient-houses, is offered by half of the traditional healers. Divination used as a diagnostic tool was found mainly among men. Referral of patients to the hospital was mentioned by almost all respondents in

  17. Condom use and sexuality communication with adults: a study among high school students in South Africa and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fostering adolescents’ communication on sexuality issues with their parents and other significant adults is often assumed to be an important component of intervention programmes aimed at promoting healthy adolescent sexual practices. However, there are few studies describing the relationship between such communication and sexual practices, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the relationships between adolescents’ communication with significant adults and their condom use in three sites in this region. Methods Data stem from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a school-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Only data from comparison schools were used. The design is therefore a prospective panel study with three waves of data collections. Data were collected in 2004 from 6,251 participants in 40 schools. Associations between adolescents’ communication with adults about sexuality issues and their use of condoms were analysed cross-sectionally using analysis of variance, as well as prospectively using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that consistent condom users had significantly higher mean scores on communication (across topics and communication partners) than both occasional users and never-users, who had the lowest scores. After controlling for condom use at the first data collection occasion in each model as well as for possible confounders, communication scores significantly predicted consistent condom use prospectively in all three ordinal logistic regression models (Model R2 = .23 to .31). Conclusion The findings are consistent with the assertion that communication on sexuality issues between adolescents and significant adults results in safer sexual practices, as reflected by condom use, among in-school adolescents. The associations between communication variables and condom use might

  18. Insecticide resistance mechanisms associated with different environments in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: a case study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides is a growing concern in Africa. Since only a few insecticides are used for public health and limited development of new molecules is expected in the next decade, maintaining the efficacy of control programmes mostly relies on resistance management strategies. Developing such strategies requires a deep understanding of factors influencing resistance together with characterizing the mechanisms involved. Among factors likely to influence insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, agriculture and urbanization have been implicated but rarely studied in detail. The present study aimed at comparing insecticide resistance levels and associated mechanisms across multiple Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from different environments. Methods Nine populations were sampled in three areas of Tanzania showing contrasting agriculture activity, urbanization and usage of insecticides for vector control. Insecticide resistance levels were measured in larvae and adults through bioassays with deltamethrin, DDT and bendiocarb. The distribution of An. gambiae sub-species and pyrethroid target-site mutations (kdr) were investigated using molecular assays. A microarray approach was used for identifying transcription level variations associated to different environments and insecticide resistance. Results Elevated resistance levels to deltamethrin and DDT were identified in agriculture and urban areas as compared to the susceptible strain Kisumu. A significant correlation was found between adult deltamethrin resistance and agriculture activity. The subspecies Anopheles arabiensis was predominant with only few An. gambiae sensu stricto identified in the urban area of Dar es Salaam. The L1014S kdr mutation was detected at elevated frequency in An gambiae s.s. in the urban area but remains sporadic in An. arabiensis specimens. Microarrays identified 416 transcripts differentially expressed in any area versus the susceptible reference

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

  20. The spectrum of dermatological disorders among primary school children in Dar es Salaam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of < 0.5 was significant. Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years). The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05). Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor) being the commonest (20%). Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420); the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41) and higher (21.8%) in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045). Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%). All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4%) with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420) followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1%) whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7%) followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%). Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%). Thirty six children (8.6%) had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2%) in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004). The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4%) and pediculosis capitis (3.6%). Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%), non

  1. The Effects of Informational Interventions on Household Water Management, Hygiene Behaviors, Stored Drinking Water Quality, and Hand Contamination in Peri-Urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J.; Rogers, Kirsten; Mamuya, Simon; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2011-01-01

    Safe water storage and hand hygiene have been shown to reduce fecal contamination and improve health in experimental settings; however, triggering and sustaining such behaviors is challenging. This study investigates the extent to which personalized information about Escherichia coli contamination of stored water and hands influenced knowledge, reported behaviors, and subsequent contamination levels among 334 households with less than 5-year-old children in peri-urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. One-quarter of the study participants received information about strategies to reduce risk of water- and sanitation-related illness. Respondents in another three study cohorts received this same information, along with their household's water and/or hand-rinse test results. Findings from this study suggest that additional work is needed to elucidate the conditions under which such testing represents a cost-effective strategy to motivate improved household water management and hand hygiene. PMID:21292883

  2. Metal pollution of river Msimbazi, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Ak'habuhaya, J.; Lodenius, M. )

    1988-01-01

    The Misimbazi River in Dar es Salaam is polluted with industrial, urban and agricultural waste waters. A preliminary investigation on the extent of metal pollution (Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Mn, Al) was made from samples of sediments and biological indicators. The metal concentrations were in general low, but some of our results indicated industrial pollution.

  3. Determinants of concurrent sexual partnerships within stable relationships: a qualitative study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Carie Muntifering; Babalola, Stella; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concurrent sexual partnerships (CP) have been identified as a potential driver in the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, making it essential to understand motivating factors for engagement in CP. We aimed to assess community attitudes and beliefs about relationship factors that influence men and women in stable relationships to engage in CP in Tanzania. Social exchange theory was used for interpreting the data. Design Qualitative study with focus group discussions (FGDs). Setting Semiurban/rural communities in four regions across Tanzania (Dar es Salaam, Shinyanga, Iringa and Mbeya). Participants 120 women aged 17–45 years and 111 men aged 18–49 years from four study areas participated in 32 FGDs. Outcome measures FGD participants were asked the following questions about CP: definitions and types, motivations and justifications for engaging or not engaging, cultural factors, gender and socialisation, and local resources and efforts available for addressing CP. Our analysis focused specifically on beliefs about how relationship factors influence engagement in CP. Results Dissatisfaction with a stable relationship was believed to be a contributing factor for engagement in CP for both men and women. Participants more commonly reported financial dissatisfaction as a contributing factor for women engaging in CP within stable relationships, whereas emotional and sexual dissatisfaction were reported as contributing factors for men and women. Furthermore, participants described how potential outside partners are often evaluated based on what they are able to offer compared with stable partners. Conclusions Efforts to reach men and women in stable relationships with HIV prevention messages must consider the various dimensions of motivation for engaging in CP, including relationship dynamics. PMID:24508848

  4. Rationale and design of the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, W W; Msamanga, G I; Spiegelman, D; Urassa, E J; Hunter, D J

    1999-02-01

    We present the rationale and design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin supplements among HIV-positive pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Higher levels of intake of vitamins A, B, C, and E may decrease the risk of vertical transmission and progression of HIV infection by enhancing maternal and infant immune function; by reducing viral load in the blood, breast milk, or lower genital tract secretions; and/or by strengthening the placental barrier to infection. Eligible pregnant women were randomized to receive vitamin A, multivitamins excluding A, vitamin A and multivitamins, or placebo. The main endpoints include vertical transmission of HIV infection, as assessed by examination of infection in infants using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and progression of HIV disease as measured by the WHO clinical staging system. Over a period of 2 years, 13,876 women were tested for HIV infection, with appropriate pre- and posttest counseling, to enroll 1085 consenting HIV-positive women. The trial assesses women and their children once a month for a minimum of 18 months after delivery or up to the end of this 5-year study. We examine recruitment strategies and means of enhancing cohort retention in long-term follow-up. We assess compliance with the use of supplements by direct questioning, by counting pills, and biochemically by using serum beta-carotene and urine riboflavin levels. Briefly, we discuss ethical issues related to the conduct of AIDS prevention trials in this setting. In sub-Saharan Africa, most HIV-infected persons lack access to the relevant antiretroviral and prophylactic drugs, and the region urgently needs low-cost treatments and preventive strategies. The Tanzania trial should provide valuable data to address the effect of vitamin supplements in the transmission and progression of HIV infection. PMID:10027501

  5. Reforming Teacher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…

  6. Conventialization of Numerals in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajoro, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The supposed pre-eminence of an external examination can exert a disproportionate influence on a curriculum and the associated learning and teaching. Teaching can easily subordinate learning and understanding to curriculum coverage if the society develops a culture that appears to make such demands. This study focuses on Tanzania and provides the…

  7. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction.

    Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground.

    Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center).

    The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses

  8. Dispensing Practice of Prescribed Medicines in the Private Pharmacies in Urban Areas of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kamuhabwa, A R; Ignace, A M

    2015-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess quality of dispensing and knowledge of dispensers in 206 private retail pharmacies. The study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between September 2011 and April 2012. Patient simulation (mystery shopper) approach was used to assess dispensing skills of drug dispensers for prescription only medicines. In assessing dispensing skills, a 7-days course of metronidazole tablets was bought from each pharmacy. The knowledge of drug dispenser's regarding dispensing of prescription only medicines was assessed through focus group discussions and interviews. Majority (70.4%) of drug dispensers were not trained pharmaceutical personnel. The level of dispensing skills ranged from low (25.7%) to medium (70.4%). Majority of drug dispensers had low (11.4%) to medium (83.2%) levels of knowledge about dispensing of 'prescription only' medicines. From these findings, it is recommended that the national Pharmacy Council should ensure that prescription only medicines are dispensed by trained pharmaceutical personnel. On job training and continuing professional development should also be emphasized to build capacity of drug dispensers. PMID:26798168

  9. Effect of multivitamin supplements on weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-negative women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Changamire, Freeman T; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Peterson, Karen E; Msamanga, Gernard I; Spiegelman, Donna; Petraro, Paul; Urassa, Willy; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2015-07-01

    Multivitamin supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of low birthweight. This effect could be mediated through gestational weight gain. However, the effect of multivitamin supplementation on weight gain during pregnancy has not been fully studied. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of multivitamins on pregnancy weight gain. We enrolled 8468 HIV-negative women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of multivitamins on birth outcomes. Women were randomly assigned to receive either a daily oral dose of multivitamin tablets or a placebo and were weighed every 4 weeks from enrolment until the last visit before delivery. Intent-to-treat analyses were carried out to examine the effects of multivitamins on pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate linear and binomial regression models with the log-link function were used to examine the association of weight gain during pregnancy to birthweight. The overall total weight gain was 253 g (SE: 69, P: 0.0003) more, while the overall 4 weekly weight gain was 59 g greater (SE: 18, P: 0.005) among women who received multivitamins compared to placebo. Women in the lowest quartile of gestational weight gain had babies with an average birthweight of 3030 g (SD: 524), while women in the highest quartile had babies weighing 3246 g (SD: 486), on average. Prenatal multivitamin supplements increased gestational weight gain, which was a significant predictor of birthweight. PMID:23253638

  10. Dispensing Practice of Prescribed Medicines in the Private Pharmacies in Urban Areas of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kamuhabwa, A. R.; Ignace, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess quality of dispensing and knowledge of dispensers in 206 private retail pharmacies. The study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between September 2011 and April 2012. Patient simulation (mystery shopper) approach was used to assess dispensing skills of drug dispensers for prescription only medicines. In assessing dispensing skills, a 7-days course of metronidazole tablets was bought from each pharmacy. The knowledge of drug dispenser's regarding dispensing of prescription only medicines was assessed through focus group discussions and interviews. Majority (70.4%) of drug dispensers were not trained pharmaceutical personnel. The level of dispensing skills ranged from low (25.7%) to medium (70.4%). Majority of drug dispensers had low (11.4%) to medium (83.2%) levels of knowledge about dispensing of ‘prescription only’ medicines. From these findings, it is recommended that the national Pharmacy Council should ensure that prescription only medicines are dispensed by trained pharmaceutical personnel. On job training and continuing professional development should also be emphasized to build capacity of drug dispensers. PMID:26798168

  11. Genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Aboud, S; Msamanga, G; Read, J S; Mwatha, A; Chen, Y Q; Potter, D; Valentine, M; Sharma, U; Hoffmann, I; Taha, T E; Goldenberg, R L; Fawzi, W W

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital warts, 2.6% had chlamydia infection, 2.2% had genital ulcers and 1.7% had gonorrhoea. The main factors associated with genital tract infections included genital warts (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7), genital ulcers (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–5.1) and abnormal vaginal discharge (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9–3.3) for trichomoniasis. BV was the most common genital tract infection followed by candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Differences in burdens and risk factors call for enhanced interventions for identification of genital tract infections among HIV-infected women. PMID:19050213

  12. Risk indicators associated with subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2004-08-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in Tanzania appear to be unaware of the subclinical mastitis situation in their cows. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and September 2002 on smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region. The study objectives were to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and related risk indicators, and to assess their contribution to the occurrence of subclinical mastitis. Three field procedures based on the principles of herd health and production management were followed: clinical, farm and data inspection. The California mastitis test (CMT) was carried out on quarter milk samples to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. A total of 182 lactating cows from 62 herds were investigated. Clinical inspection indicated that 3.8% of the lactating cows had clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 90.3% of lactating cows screened. Farm inspection revealed that water scarcity, barn size, residual suckling, single udder-towel and dairy labourers as the most substantial (p < 0.05) risk indicators. Although most of the risk indicators studied were not found to be statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, possibly owing to sample size and the presence of confounders, the epidemiological need to address such risk indicators cannot be overemphasized. PMID:15560518

  13. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Aisa S; Szántó, Gábor L

    2011-10-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal level for viable compost production. This paper presents a multidisciplinary analysis of factors influencing the success and failure of the composting initiative of KIWODET, a community based organization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results show that despite the ready availability and good compostability of the waste stream, not all fractions of municipal organic wastes qualify as feedstock. Negative consumer attitude hindered the acceptance of compost produced from residential wastes. KIWODET did manage to successfully implement a composting operation for commercial organic wastes. Their additional waste collection and sorting activities also contributed to an increased feedstock control as well as the integration of informal waste collecting activities. When KIWODET was forced to suspend its composting activities because of land use issues, their diversified waste sector activities proved crucial in reducing the negative financial impact on their overall performance. This paper emphasizes that successful composting initiatives can arise from local capacity in developing countries. However, the lack of municipal integration and support leaves such technically viable initiatives strongly vulnerable to external factors. PMID:21558081

  14. Ending neglect: providing effective childhood tuberculosis training for health care workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Olotu, R.; Talbot, E. A.; Cronin, B. J.; Christopher, R.; Mkomwa, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Health care facilities in Dar es Salaam, Pwani, and Arusha, Tanzania. Objective: To assess health care worker (HCW) knowledge and practices 1 year after specialized training in childhood tuberculosis (TB). Design: Using a standardized survey, we interviewed a convenience sample of HCWs providing both general and specialized care to children. Results: We interviewed 117 HCWs in TB clinics, maternal and child health clinics, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics, out-patient departments, and pediatric in-patient wards at 12 facilities. A total of 81 HCWs (62% of nurses, 74% of clinicians) reported having attended the national childhood TB training course. Most HCWs responded correctly to questions on childhood TB diagnosis, treatment, and TB-HIV co-management, regardless of training history. Most HCWs reported that they routinely obtain chest radiographs, HIV testing, and a TB contact history when evaluating children for TB. Less than half of HCWs reported routinely obtaining sputum for mycobacterial culture or performing a tuberculin skin test. Three times as many trained as untrained HCWs reported having ever prescribed isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) to a child (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In general, levels of childhood TB knowledge were high and practices were in accordance with national guidance. Specific gaps in diagnosis, treatment and use of IPT were identified for future focused training. PMID:26400701

  15. Corporal punishment in Tanzania's schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were interviewed. It was found that corporal punishment was the most common form of punishment in secondary schools. The majority of teachers supported its continued use, but believed in moderation. The majority of students and teachers were unaware of national laws to restrict corporal punishment. There was agreement between students and teachers that corporal punishment was used for major and minor student offences such as misbehaviour and tardiness. Students reported disliking the practice and believed it was ineffective and resulted in emotional, as well as physical, distress.

  16. Reasons for poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy postnatally in HIV-1 infected women treated for their own health: experiences from the Mitra Plus study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a study of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) by triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (the Mitra Plus study), retrospective viral load testing revealed a high and increasing frequency of detectable viral load during follow-up for two years postnatally in women given continuous ART for their own health suggesting poor adherence. This study explored women’s own perceived barriers to adherence to ART post-delivery so as to identify ways to facilitate better drug adherence among women in need of ART for their own health. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 of the 48 women who had detectable viral load at 24 months postnatally. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Most women in the study did not acknowledge poor adherence until confronted with the viral load figures. Then, however, they revealed multiple reasons for failing to adhere. They said that their motivation to take ART decreased once they had protected their children from becoming infected and successfully weaned them. Feeling well for some, and a feeling of hopelessness for others, also decreased motivation to continue ART. The overwhelming demands of everyday life, poverty and lack of empowerment also posed significant barriers to long-term adherence. The need to keep their HIV status a secret and not let anyone see them taking the drugs was another steep barrier. Conclusion Reasons for postnatal failure to adhere by mothers put on ART for life during pregnancy included lack of motivation to continue ART after weaning the child, poverty and stigma. Projects that simultaneously address stigma, poverty and women’s lack of empowerment may be necessary for PMTCT and ART to reach their full potential. Our results indicate that the new WHO proposal to start all HIV-infected pregnant women on lifelong ART regardless of CD4 cell count needs to address the challenging realities of women in resource-poor contexts

  17. Antimicrobial resistance among producers and non-producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in urinary isolates at a tertiary Hospital in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Published data on the existence and magnitude of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in urinary pathogens in local setting is limited. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and ESBL production among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp from urine samples in a tertiary hospital. This was a cross sectional study conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Findings A total of 270 E.coli and Klebsiella spp urinary pathogens from children and adults isolated from January to March 2010 were included in the study. E. coli and Klebsiella spp isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute's disc diffusion method. These isolates were further screened for ESBL phenotype using cefotaxime and ceftazidime discs. Isolates with reduced sensitivity were confirmed using ESBL E-test strips. Of 270 isolates, 138 (51.1%) were E. coli and 132 (48.9%) were Klebsiella spp. ESBL was detected in 122 (45.2%) of all the isolates. ESBL- producing E. coli strains were significantly more resistance to cotrimoxazole (90.7%), ciprofloxacin (46.3%) and nalidixic acid (61.6%) than strains that did not produce ESBL (p < 0.05). Similarly, ESBL- producing Klebsiella spp strains were significantly more resistance to cotrimoxazole (92.6%), ciprofloxacin (25.0%), nalidixic acid (66.2%), and gentamicin (38.2%) than strains that did not produce ESBL (P < 0.05). Multi-drug resistance was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) more in ESBL producing isolates (90.5%) than non ESBL producers (68.9%). The occurrence of ESBL was significantly higher among isolates from inpatients than outpatients [95 (50.5%) vs. 27(32.9%)] (p = 0.008). The occurrence of ESBL was significantly higher among isolates from children than in adults [84 (54.9%) vs. 38(32.5%)] (p < 0.001). Conclusions High prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp strains was found among

  18. Helium and carbon isotope systematics of Rungwe geothermal gases and fluids; southern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    P. H. BARRY1*, D. R. HILTON1, T. P. FISCHER2, J. M. DE MOOR2, F. MANGASINI3 C. RAMIREZ4 1 Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, USA (*Correspondence: pbarry@ucsd.edu) 2 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA. 3 Department of Mining and Mineral Processing Engineering, University of Dar Es Salaam, PO Box 35131, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. 4 Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Geologicas, Escuela Centroamericana de Geologia, Universidad de Costa Rica. The East African Rift (EAR) is the largest modern example of continental rifting, extending from the Afar depression in the north to the Rungwe region in southern Tanzania. EAR volcanism is attributed to the presence of one or more mantle plumes [1]. Late Miocene to recent volcanism and geothermal activity mark the Rungwe region [2], with mafic eruptions as recently as 200 years ago. Our aim is to delineate the southern geographical extent of plume influence on the propagating EAR by investigating the He-CO2 characteristics of geothermal fluids in the Rungwe region. We report new helium (He) and carbon (C) isotopes (3He/4He, δ13C) and relative abundance (CO2/3He) characteristics for a suite of 20 geothermal gas and fluid samples from 11 different localities in the Rungwe region. He-isotopes are in good agreement with previous reports [3], and range from ~1 RA to ~7 RA (MORB-like values), indicating admixture between upper mantle He and variable proportions of radiogenic He. C-isotopes ranges from -2.8 to -6.5 ‰ (vs. PDB) with all falling in the MORB range (~4.5 ± 2‰). CO2/3He ratios vary over 5 orders of magnitude from ~3 x 10^9 (MORB-like) to higher values (up to ~3 x 10^13) normally associated with crustal lithologies. Taken together, the He-CO2 data can be explained by 2-component mixing of a deep-seated mantle source with crustal component(s). There are no

  19. Geospatial Resource Access Analysis In Hedaru, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Dylan G.; Premkumar, Deepak; Mazur, Robert; Kisimbo, Elibariki

    2013-12-01

    Populations around the world are facing increased impacts of anthropogenic-induced environmental changes and rapid population movements. These environmental and social shifts are having an elevated impact on the livelihoods of agriculturalists and pastoralists in developing countries. This appraisal integrates various tools—usually used independently— to gain a comprehensive understanding of the regional livelihood constraints in the rural Hedaru Valley of northeastern Tanzania. Conducted in three villages with different natural resources, using three primary methods: 1) participatory mapping of infrastructures; 2) administration of quantitative, spatially-tied surveys (n=80) and focus groups (n=14) that examined land use, household health, education, and demographics; 3) conducting quantitative time series analysis of Landsat- based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index images. Through various geospatial and multivariate linear regression analyses, significant geospatial trends emerged. This research added to the academic understanding of the region while establishing pathways for climate change adaptation strategies.

  20. Factors associated with road traffic injuries in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Respicious; Museru, Lawrence; Kiloloma, Othman; Munthali, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Injuries represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and road traffic crashes accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. Tanzania is among the countries with high rates of road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern, associated factors and management of road traffic injury patients in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients involved in motor traffic crashes and attended in six public hospitals of Tanzania mainland between April 2014 and September 2014. Results A total of 4675 road traffic injury patients were seen in studied hospitals, 76.6% were males. Majority (70.2%) were between 18 - 45 years age group. Motorcycles were the leading cause of road traffic crashes (53.4%), and drivers (38.3%) accounted for majority of victims. Fractures accounted for 34.1%, and injuries were severe in 2.2% as determined by the Kampala trauma score II (KTS II). Majorities 57.4% were admitted and 2.2% died at the casualty. Factors associated with mortality were; using police vehicles to hospital (P = 0.000), receiving medical attention within 2 to 10 hours after injury (P = 0.000), 18 - 45 years age group (P = 0.019), not using helmet (P = 0.007), severe injuries (P = 0.000) and sustaining multiple injury (P = 0.000). Conclusion Road traffic Injuries in Tanzania are an important public health problem, predominantly in adult males, mostly due to motorcycle crashes. It is therefore important to reinforce preventive measures and pre-hospital emergency service is urgently needed. PMID:27217872

  1. Tanzania post-colonial educational system and perspectives on secondary science education, pedagogy, and curriculum: A qualitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandela, Eugenia L.

    The development of technology and innovation in any country depends on a strong investment in science education from the lower to the upper levels of education. In most of the Sub-Saharan African nations, science education curriculum and teaching still faces many issues and problems that are inhibiting the growth of technology and innovation in these nations. In order to address these issues, an interpretive qualitative study that aims to examine how Tanzanian secondary science educators perceive secondary science education was conducted in the summer of 2013. The purpose of this study is to investigate problems and educational issues that might be limiting the growth of science, technology, and innovation in the Tanzanian society. Additionally, this research investigates the impacts of the colonial legacy that relates to language, politics, and economics, as they affect science education in Tanzania secondary schools. This study focuses on the governmental four-year ordinary level secondary science education; it took place in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The researcher interviewed nine secondary science educators: three secondary science teachers and six secondary science education administrators. The researcher also conducted classroom observations. The data results from both interview and classroom observations were contextualized with data from existing documentation on Tanzanian secondary science education and data from previous research. The emergent themes from the study indicate that most of the problems and issues that are currently facing secondary science education are historically connected to the impact of the colonization period in 19th and 20th centuries. This study suggests that in order to improve science education in Tanzanian society, the people, especially the elites, need to break away from an "Orientalist" mindset and start integrating the Tanzanian culture and science into the still existing Eurocentric science curriculum. In addition, the

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

  3. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L’Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by

  4. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors

  5. Environmental air degradation in Dar es Salaam by x-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Koleleni, Y I A

    2002-03-01

    In Dar es Salaam a study of the aerosol contents was conducted and particulate matter on the filters were collected using an Andersen PM10 impactor to determine the environmental air pollution. The contents were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In this study sources of environmental degradation and the concentrations were named as follows: Combustion processes with range of Br from 10 to 800 ng/m3, Pb from 30 to 790 ng/m3. Industrial processes with range of Fe from 37 to 883 ng/m3, Cu from 14 to 310 ng/m3, Zn from 6 to 820ng/m3. Top soil activities with range of K from 20 to 540 ng/m3, Ca from 24 to 3805 ng/m3, Ti from 2 to 59 ng/m3, Mn from 10 to 386 ng/m3. Marine processes with range of Cl from 20 to 310 ng/m3, S from 72 to 134 ng/m3. PMID:11930944

  6. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  7. Results of Co-Teaching Instruction to Special Education Teacher Candidates in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Laura M.; Kaff, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method descriptive pilot investigation addressed co-teaching as an inclusive school practice for special education teacher candidates at Sebastian Kolowa Memorial University (SEKOMU) in Tanzania. The investigation results, though preliminary, indicate that course content and instruction in co-teaching had a positive impact on the…

  8. Students' Attitudes towards School-Based Sex and Relationships Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper was to assess students' attitudes towards school-based sex and relationships education (SRE). Design: This study featured a cross-sectional survey design. Method: A sample of 715 students from two districts in Tanzania completed a survey questionnaire assessing various aspects related to their attitudes…

  9. Type 1 diabetes care updates: Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Muze, Kandi Catherine; Majaliwa, Edna Siima

    2015-04-01

    Tanzania is located in east Africa with a population of 45 million. The country's population is growing at 2.5% annually. The International Diabetes Federation Child Sponsorship Program was launched in Tanzania in 2005. The number of type 1 diabetes mellitus children enrolled in the changing diabetes in children program in Tanzania has augmented from almost below 50 in 2005 to over 1200 in 2014. The country had an overall trend of HbA1c value of 14% in 2005 while the same has reduced over the years to 10% in 2012-13. The program has been able to reduce the proportion of patients with HbA1c values of 11-14%; from 71.9% in 2008 to 49.8% in 2012-13. The challenges, which CDiC faces are misdiagnosis, low public awareness, and stigma especially in the reproductive age/adolescent groups. PMID:25941637

  10. The integrated project in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The 1st Integrated Project (IP) in Africa was started in Tanzania in 1983 by the International Planned Parenthood (IPPF) Africa Bureau. It was to be done by the Family Planning Association of Tanzania (UMATI). 2 pilot areas are in the Kilimanjaro region. 1 covers Modio and Roo villages in rural Masama; the other is a sugar cane plantation run by Tanganyika Planting Company Ltd. (TPC). The IP National Steering Committee (NSC) was formed in 1983 with representatives from the Ministry of Health and a parasitologist. No nutritionist was included. In 1983 a survey of population, health care activities, and demographic characteristics was undertaken. In 1984 house-to-house visits were made. Information was gathered on family planning knowledge, practice, and sanitary conditions. Mass stool examinations and blanket treatment for both children and adults began in August, 1984. Family planning information is fully integrated with education about sanitation and nutrition. 11 films were shown at TPC to about 500 children and adults and almost 20,000 children and adults received some form of health education. Health educators and laboratory technicians moved to accommodations in TPC and Modio village to live among the people they were serving. At the end of 1986, the number of family planning acceptors had risen quite a bit. It continued to do so in 1987. At TPC mass stool tests and deworming were done in 1985. This was completed in Masama in May, 1987. For follow-up selective treatments twice a year was done. The focus of environmental sanitation activity, especially in Masama, was the search for a cheap, well-built latrine. The IP staff in Masama trained 43 of the 90 traditional birth attendants (TBAs). UMATI has realized in 1984 that thought IP they can more effectively involve the community in family planning. By working on parasite infection, the IP staff aroused community interest in family planning. The NSC has set the tone of this project because it understood the

  11. Young Men's Social Network Characteristics and Associations with Sexual Partnership Concurrency in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Yamanis, Thespina J; Fisher, Jacob C; Moody, James W; Kajula, Lusajo J

    2016-06-01

    Social network influence on young people's sexual behavior is understudied in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research identified networks of mostly young men in Dar es Salaam who socialize in "camps". This study describes network characteristics within camps and their relationship to young men's concurrent sexual partnerships. We conducted surveys with a nearly complete census of ten camp networks (490 men and 160 women). Surveys included name generators to identify camp-based networks. Fifty seven percent of sexually active men (n = 471) reported past year concurrency, measured using the UNAIDS method. In a multivariable model, men's individual concurrency was associated with being a member of a closer knit camp in which concurrency was the normative behavior. Younger men who had older members in their networks were more likely to engage in concurrency. Respondent concurrency was also associated with inequitable personal gender norms. Our findings suggest strategies for leveraging social networks for HIV prevention among young men. PMID:26271813

  12. Geographical Aspects of Cancer in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, George A.

    1983-01-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to the Tanzanian Cancer Registry, which records all histologically confirmed malignant tumors, the number of reported cancer cases has increased significantly over the past three decades. The most commonly diagnosed tumors are cervix cancer, skin cancer, primary liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma. Geographical and tribal variations exist in disease frequency. Environmental factors appear to have a major role in the distribution. Through elimination of these factors, cancer in Tanzania could be reduced if not totally prevented. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:6631988

  13. Fires in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like many countries, the southeastern African country of Malawi faces the challenge of balancing a growing population's need for food and energy with preservation of natural resources. This MODIS image from November 8, 2001, shows Malawi surrounded by (starting from top and moving clockwise) Tanzania, Mozambique, and northern Zambia. Lake Malawi runs north-south through the eastern part of the country, and is the southern-most of Africa's Great Rift Lakes, a series of deep lakes that run roughly north-south along the Great Rift Valley in eastern Africa, formed when the Earth buckled and then sank after the collision of Africa and Eurasia millions of years ago. Most of the land around the lake and throughout the country has been cleared of its natural vegetation and converted to agricultural land. This causes soil erosion problems and sedimentation in the lake, which affects the sustainability of fishing in the lake. In this image, greenish swirls in the water around the shores could indicate a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton or algae. Deforestation is also a major issue, especially since wood for fuel is the primary source of the country's energy. The difference between the lands protected by parks and preserves stand out dramatically. The largest protected area is halfway down the western border of the country-Kasungu National Park. Several smaller preserves also exist, and where they do, they stand out in green against the paler landscape. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Practical Use of ICT in Science and Mathematics Teachers' Training at Dar es Salaam University College of Education: An Analysis of Prospective Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the ways through which pre-service science and mathematics teachers at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) can acquire competencies for integrating technology pedagogy and content in teaching. Specifically the study investigated the preservice teachers' ICT integration competencies; practices that can be…

  15. Education and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgwood, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the returns to education in Tanzania, both financial and non-financial, and considers whether these returns translate into poverty reduction. It looks at reasons why achievement of high primary enrolment rates in the past did not lead to the realisation of the associated developmental outcomes, considering factors…

  16. Evolution of Elections Management in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, A. S.; Mdegella, O. M.; Lubawa, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the evolution of elections management in Tanzania with a focus on technological advancement in administering registration of voters. The paper provides the merits that permanent voters register has brought over the thumb practice. It traces the management of elections during colonialism, after independence…

  17. Curriculum Unit: Kenya and Tanzania, Tourist Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This curriculum guide is designed to enable teachers and ninth grade students to develop a clearer understanding of the countries of Kenya and Tanzania and the economic needs of their citizens. A pretest-posttest examination with 20 true or false questions, 2 essay questions, and a list of 50 vocabulary words is provided. Brief descriptions of the…

  18. Modeling solutions to Tanzania's physician workforce challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goodell, Alex J.; Kahn, James G.; Ndeki, Sidney S.; Kaale, Eliangiringa; Kaaya, Ephata E.; Macfarlane, Sarah B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a great need for physicians in Tanzania. In 2012, there were approximately 0.31 physicians per 10,000 individuals nationwide, with a lower ratio in the rural areas, where the majority of the population resides. In response, universities across Tanzania have greatly increased the enrollment of medical students. Yet evidence suggests high attrition of medical graduates to other professions and emigration from rural areas where they are most needed. Objective To estimate the future number of physicians practicing in Tanzania and the potential impact of interventions to improve retention, we built a model that tracks medical students from enrollment through clinical practice, from 1990 to 2025. Design We designed a Markov process with 92 potential states capturing the movement of 25,000 medical students and physicians from medical training through employment. Work possibilities included clinical practice (divided into rural or urban, public or private), non-clinical work, and emigration. We populated and calibrated the model using a national 2005/2006 physician mapping survey, as well as graduation records, graduate tracking surveys, and other available data. Results The model projects massive losses to clinical practice between 2016 and 2025, especially in rural areas. Approximately 56% of all medical school students enrolled between 2011 and 2020 will not be practicing medicine in Tanzania in 2025. Even with these losses, the model forecasts an increase in the physician-to-population ratio to 1.4 per 10,000 by 2025. Increasing the absorption of recent graduates into the public sector and/or developing a rural training track would ameliorate physician attrition in the most underserved areas. Conclusions Tanzania is making significant investments in the training of physicians. Without linking these doctors to employment and ensuring their retention, the majority of this investment in medical education will be jeopardized. PMID:27357075

  19. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123

  20. High Malaria Prevalence among Schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Siza, Julius E; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Kuboza, Josephat; Mnyeshi, Peter; Changalucha, John M; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su Young; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine the status of malaria among schoolchildren on Kome Island (Lake Victoria), near Mwanza, Tanzania, a total of 244 schoolchildren in 10 primary schools were subjected to a blood survey using the fingerprick method. The subjected schoolchildren were 123 boys and 121 girls who were 6-8 years of age. Only 1 blood smear was prepared for each child. The overall prevalence of malaria was 38.1% (93 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable. However, the positive rate was the highest in Izindabo Primary School (51.4%) followed by Isenyi Primary School (48.3%) and Bugoro Primary School (46.7%). The lowest prevalence was found in Muungano Primary School (16.7%) and Nyamiswi Primary School (16.7%). These differences were highly correlated with the location of the school on the Island; those located in the peripheral area revealed higher prevalences while those located in the central area showed lower prevalences. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species (38.1%; 93/244), with a small proportion of them mixed-infected with Plasmodium vivax (1.6%; 4/244). The results revealed that malaria is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania, and there is an urgent need to control malaria in this area. PMID:26537036

  1. Hydrogeochemical features of Lake Ngozi (SW Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delalande-Le Mouëllic, Manuëlla; Gherardi, Fabrizio; Williamson, David; Kajula, Stephen; Kraml, Michael; Noret, Aurélie; Abdallah, Issah; Mwandapile, Ezekiel; Massault, Marc; Majule, Amos; Bergonzini, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Located on the triple rift junction hosting the Karonga-Usungu depression in Tanzania, Lake Ngozi is the second largest crater lake of the East African Rift. The lake has a number of peculiar features: it has a near constant water level, no permanent surface inlets and outlets, it is vertically well-mixed, with homogeneous distribution of temperature and chemical composition, and it is characterised by near neutral to slightly acid Na-Cl waters of comparatively high salinity and high P-CO2. Based on the different chemical signature of surface and ground waters (low-Cl type) from lake waters, mass balance methods have been applied to investigate lake dynamics. Water enters the lake mainly by precipitation and groundwater inflow, and leaves by groundwater outflow and evaporation. A large groundwater outflow of 2.4 m yr-1 has been estimated. The high salinity, Na-Cl signature of Lake Ngozi waters, together with 3He/4He ratios measured on dissolved gases (between 7 and 8.3 Ra) and high-PCO2 values estimated all along the water vertical column indicate the inflow of deep-seated fluids, likely magmatic in origin, into the lake. The existence of a hydrothermal system possibly at 250 °C in the root of the volcanic edifice is also hypothesised on the basis of solute geothermometry. Despite the current lack of vertical stratification, the lake is suspected to act as condenser for CO2 and other gases of deep magmatic origin, and should be then further monitored for the risk of limnic eruptions as well as for environmental and climatic concerns.

  2. Multi Drug and Other Forms of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Are Uncommon among Treatment Naïve Tuberculosis Patients in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Nagu, Tumaini J.; Aboud, Said; Mwiru, Ramadhani; Matee, Mecky; Fawzi, Wafaie; Mugusi, Ferdinand

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance and effective management of drug resistance is important to sustaining tuberculosis (TB) control efforts. We aimed to determine resistance rates to first line anti tuberculosis drugs and to describe factors associated with the resistance to any of the first line anti tuberculosis drugs in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Materials Newly diagnosed, TB patients with neither history of tuberculosis treatment nor isoniazid prophylaxis were included into the study. Sputum specimens were cultured on either mycobacteria growth indicator tube 960 (MGIT 960) or Lowenstein Jenstein (LJ) medium supplemented with either glycerol (GLJ) or pyruvate (PLJ). Drug susceptibility for isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol was determined by either Lowenstein–Jensen (LJ) medium or mycobacteria growth indicator tube 960 (MGIT 960). Results A total of 933 newly diagnosed TB patients, were included into the study. Multi drug resistance (MDR) tuberculosis was detected among 2 (0.2%) patients. Resistance to any of the four tested drugs was detected among 54 (5.8%) patients. Mono-resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol were 21(2.3%), 3 (0.3%), 13 (1.4%), 9 (1.0%) respectively. Conclusion Primary resistance to first line anti tuberculosis drugs is still low in this setting. Continued vigilance including periodic national surveillance of anti-tuberculosis resistance is recommended. PMID:25849784

  3. Grain size distribution along the Msasani Beach, north of Dar es Salaam Harbour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzuka, Alfred N. N.; Shaghude, Yohana W.

    2000-02-01

    Beach sediments collected from the tidal flat and beach slope at the Msasani Beach, about 15 km north of the Dar es Salaam Harbour, are used to (1) establish the grain size distribution pattern, (2) assess the effect of man-made and natural structures (rivers, creeks, sea wall and groynes) on the grain size distribution, and (3) assess whether sediments are preferentially transported northward by longshore currents. Generally, the Msasani Beach slope sediments have an average mean diameter of 1.55φ while those from the tidal flat average at 1.87φ. There is a general trend of decreasing grain size from south to north that is associated with improvement in sorting, particularly in the tidal flat. The northward fining of the sediment suggests that the sediment in the study area is transported from south to north. The trend of northward decrease in the mean grain size is locally distorted at the river mouths, creeks and man-made structures. The contribution of the man-made structures to the observed distortion can not be separated from that of natural structures owing to the fact that these man-made structures were placed next to the natural features. The data collected from the Msasani Beach were subjected to factor analysis. Four factors account for more than 95% of the observed variations in the grain size distribution in the study area. These factors are: medium energy environments (66.5% of total variance) common at the beach slope; low energy environments found in micro-bays (16%); high energy environment found at the tidal creeks and river entrance (7.8%); and intermediate (between medium and low) energy environments common in the tidal flat (5.6%). Most of the beach slope samples are unimodal (87%), while a significant number of the tidal flat samples (46%) are bimodal, with the most common mode being 2.25φ. The bimodality observed in this study can be attributed to the presence of shell fragments that were not removed during sieving, to sudden fluctuation

  4. Appropriate deflouridation technology for use in flourotic areas in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjengera, H.; Mkongo, G.

    High fluoride in drinking water is a problem found in both ground and surface water in various parts of Tanzania. Several defluoridation methods have been tested and detailed studies have been carried on bone-char method, alum/lime method and the combination of the two methods. In bone char method, the bones are charred in special kilns fuelled by wood charcoal. Different sizes of the kiln have been fabricated and tested. Crushing and sieving devices have been developed. The effectiveness of bone char particles sizes in fluoride removal has been studied and the results favoured small particle sizes. However, experimental conditions discouraged the use of very fine particles sizes of bone char due easy clogging. Household and institutional levels bone char defluoridation systems have been developed and tested. Filter columns packed with heat-activated bones are found to be more effective than fill and draw bucket type defluoridator. The bone char media used has the capability of producing water with a residual fluoride concentration of less than 0.1 mg/l from an initial fluoride of 12.0 mg/l. Use of alum and lime in fluoride removal from waters with excessive fluoride has been experimented upon. A plant with an automatic chemical dosing and mixing system for use at institutional levels has been developed and tested. The method was able to treat water with an initial fluoride concentration of 12 mg/l to a residual fluoride concentration ranging from 2 to 3 mg/l. During the study it was established, that the bone char method is appropriate for use in rural areas of Tanzania due its simplicity, local availability of materials and the possibility of processing the material locally.

  5. A SWOT Analysis of the Integration of E-Learning at a University in Uganda and a University in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Justice Mugenyi, Kintu

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) to integrating e-learning perceived by academic staff at a university in Uganda and a university in Tanzania. Mixed-methods research was used in which a main qualitative study was complemented by a quantitative method. The sample participants were academic staff…

  6. Challenges and coping strategies of orphaned children in Tanzania who are not adequately cared for by adults.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Marguerite; Mathias, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Orphaned children in poor rural communities sometimes have no adult who is able to care for them or else the adult caregiver is not able to provide adequate care. Tanzania remains one of the poorest countries in the world, and poverty frequently constrains foster care. Although HIV prevalence is declining, AIDS is still a major cause of orphaning. This article explores the challenges and coping strategies accompanying two possible life trajectories for orphaned children without adequate adult care: 1) that they remain in rural areas in child-headed households, or 2) that they are trafficked to an urban area. Antonovsky's salutogenic model is used as the theoretical framework. The data come from two separate phenomenological studies with vulnerable children. In the first study, in-depth interviews were held with 12 orphaned children in a poor rural area; data concerning three child heads of households are included here. In the second study, 15 girls who were trafficked from rural areas to Dar es Salaam gave extended life-history narrations; data are included for nine of the girls who were orphaned. Loss of parents, a lack of cash, and the need to balance school attendance with food production were chronic stressors for the children heading households, while resources included income-generation strategies and the ability to negotiate with teachers for time to cultivate. For the trafficked girls chronic stressors included exploitation, long working hours, little or no pay, isolation and rape. Resources for them, although limited, included faith networks and neighbours; escape from the exploitative situation frequently involved external help. We conclude that given physical and social assets the child-headed households were able to cope with the challenges of caring for themselves and a younger child, but isolation and dependency on employers made it difficult for the trafficked girls to cope with this exploitation. The salutogenic model proved a useful tool in

  7. Assessment of maternal mortality in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Walraven, G E; Mkanje, R J; van Roosmalen, J; van Dongen, P W; Dolmans, W M

    1994-05-01

    The results from a prospective community survey, a sisterhood method survey, and a hospital survey were compared in order to ascertain a reliable and inexpensive method for estimating direct deaths from obstetric complications of pregnancy. The maternal mortality ratio was used to express risk of dying during pregnancy. The surveys were conducted in Kwimba District in Mwanza region of northwestern Tanzania: in August 1989 to March 1991 in the community study within the primary health care area of Sumve Hospital, which supplied data on maternal mortality between 1986 and 1990. The sisterhood survey was conducted in 2 villages in 1990, of which 1 village was included in the community survey. The village study included 447 women, of whom 421 remained in the survey and delivered 427 infants (415 live born); there was 1 maternal death. The sisterhood method engaged 2865 respondents and the lifetime risk of maternal death was estimated at 297 and the proportional maternal mortality rate was 13.9%. There were 82 maternal deaths and 589 deaths from all causes among sisters aged 15 years and older. 7526 women were included in the hospital survey, of which 7335 births were represented; there were 62 maternal deaths. The maternal mortality risk was 845 among hospital admissions. 69% of all maternal deaths were accounted for by direct causes. Most deaths were attributed to the top 5 worldwide causes: obstructed labor, puerperal sepsis, postpartum hemorrhage, complications of abortion, and preeclampsia. There were few reports of abortions and abortion-related mortality. Relapsing fever or Borrelia infection was an indirect cause of death common to the region and particularly hazardous to pregnant women. Many hospital deaths were emergency admissions. The conclusion was that the sisterhood method provided a better indication of the extent of maternal mortality within the community. Other advantages were the small sample and the speed, quickness, and low cost. Hospital data

  8. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Caro, Tim; Davenport, Tim R B

    2016-08-01

    Tanzania, arguably mainland Africa's most important nation for conservation, is losing habitat and natural resources rapidly. Moving away from a charcoal energy base and developing sustainable finance mechanisms for natural forests are critical to slowing persistent deforestation. Addressing governance and capacity deficits, including law enforcement, technical skills, and funding, across parts of the wildlife sector are key to effective wildlife protection. These changes could occur in tandem with bringing new models of natural resource management into play that include capacity building, corporate payment for ecosystem services, empowering nongovernmental organizations in law enforcement, greater private-sector involvement, and novel community conservation strategies. The future of Tanzania's wildlife looks uncertain-as epitomized by the current elephant crisis-unless the country confronts issues of governance, embraces innovation, and fosters greater collaboration with the international community. PMID:26681228

  9. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  10. 2004 Tsunami survey in Comoros and Tanzania with inferences on tsunami risk in the Western Indian Ocean during future mega-thrust events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synolakis, C. E.; Okal, E. A.; Fritz, H. M.; Sladen, A.

    2008-12-01

    We present a total of 59 new data points of run-up of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the Comoros and Tanzania, surveyed in 2006-2008 by International Tsunami Survey Teams. Run-up at the Northeastern tip of Grande Comore (6.8 m) is comparable to Socotra (6.1 m), and surpassed only in the Western Indian Ocean by the catastrophic values in Somalia (run-up 9 m; inundation 700 m). Run-up in Mayotte, and to a lesser extent Zanzibar, show considerable variations (from 1 to 5 m), attributed to the influence of the local structure of the reef surrounding these islands. By contrast, the unreefed islands of Anjouan and Moheli, and the mainland coast of Tanzania around Dar-es-Salaam, feature more consistent values in the 2 to 3 m range. The death toll in Tanzania is revised to at least 20. We then use the MOST code to simulate the propagation on the high seas of both the 2004 tsunami, and of potential future tsunamis under scenarios of mega earthquakes rupturing in the South Sumatra region; in particular, we consider the case of a probable event releasing the strain left over from the 1833 rupture after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake. While these studies are not carried to the full extent of run-up calculations at individual sites, they give a general estimate of expectable hazard, relative to 2004, under the relevant scenarios, at 17 offshore virtual gauges strategically located from Oman to South Africa. We confirm more quantitatively the results of Okal and Synolakis (2008), namely that the change of directivity characteristics results in an increase of tsunami amplitude (with respect to 2004) at all sites South of Kenya (including Madagascar and the Mascarenes), while amplitudes at the Horn of Africa (Socotra, Somalia) remain large, due to focusing by individual bathymetric features. In short, potential earthquake sources along the Southern coast of Sumatra could result in higher wave heights than in 2004, along most of the Eastern shores of Africa, Madagascar and the

  11. Science Education in Tanzania: Challenges and Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Mehta, Khanjan

    2012-01-01

    Students in rural and urban areas in Tanzania, and elsewhere in Africa, continue to have limited or lack access to culturally and employment-relevant science education. The current case study, a 2007-2009 examination of barriers to the reform movement of science education in Tanzania, uses data from interviews, classroom observations, document…

  12. Information, Affect and Action: Motivating Reduction of Risk Behaviors for HIV/AIDS in Kenya and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Garcia, Fe; Apamo, Peter; Mutheu, Lucy; Ndege, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This study reports assessment of motivational and perceptual components of a youth and community AIDS awareness education program, focusing on effectiveness across program sites. The design of this investigation was quasi-experimental, with two intervention districts and one control each, in Kenya and Tanzania. Methods included questionnaires…

  13. Noninvasive Tuberculosis Screening in Free-Living Primate Populations in Gombe National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Tiffany M; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Singer, Randall S; Lipende, Iddi; Collins, Anthony; Gillespie, Thomas R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Travis, Dominic A

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in noninvasive detection methods for mycobacterial infection in primates create new opportunities for exploring the epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-living species. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and baboons (Papio anubis) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, were screened for infection with pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex using Fecal IS6110 PCR; none was positive. This study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale mycobacterial screening in wild primates. PMID:26419483

  14. Linking lake variability, climate, and human activity in Basotu, Tanzania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Lindsey; Westerberg, Lars-Ove; Risberg, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Lake Basotu (4.3697°S, 35.0728°E) is a crater lake in north-central Tanzania. This lake is an important source of freshwater for local people as no perennial rivers are present. Due to intensive agricultural methods and climatic factors, lake level has fluctuated greatly over time. A history of environmental variability of the past 1800 years was established using the diatom record, magnetic parameters, and carbon content from a three meter long sediment core. Fluctuations in modern lake extent (1973 - 2015) were calculated using archived Landsat images and compared to meteorological records and documents of activity around the lake to determine the greatest impacts and their consequences on this essential water resource. Variations in the paleo-record indicate that fluctuations in lake level are not abnormal, however human influence has likely increased the sensitivity of Lake Basotu to climatic fluctuations.

  15. Two treatments, one disease: childhood malaria management in Tanga, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the Tanga District of coastal Tanzania, malaria is one of the primary causes of mortality for children under the age of five. While some children are treated with malaria medications in biomedical facilities, as the World Health Organization recommends, others receive home-care or treatment from traditional healers. Recognition of malaria is difficult because symptoms can range from fever with uncomplicated malaria to convulsions with severe malaria. This study explores why caregivers in the Tanga District of Tanzania pursue particular courses of action to deal with malaria in their children. Methods Qualitative data were collected through interviews with three samples: female caregivers of children under five (N = 61), medical practitioners (N = 28), and traditional healers (N = 18) in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas. The female caregiver sample is intentionally stratified to reflect the greater population of the Tanga District in level of education, marital status, gender of household head, religion, and tribal group affiliation. Qualitative data were counted, coded and analysed using NVivo7 software. Results Results indicate that a variety of factors influence treatment choice, including socio-cultural beliefs about malaria symptoms, associations with spiritual affliction requiring traditional healing, knowledge of malaria, and fear of certain anti-malaria treatment procedures. Most notably, some caregivers identified convulsions as a spiritual condition, unrelated to malaria. While nearly all caregivers reported attending biomedical facilities to treat children with fever (N = 60/61), many caregivers stated that convulsions are best treated by traditional healers (N = 26/61). Qualitative interviews with medical practitioners and traditional healers confirmed this belief. Conclusion Results offer insight into current trends in malaria management and have implications in healthcare policy, educational campaigns, and the importance of integrating

  16. Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Norheim, Ole F; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2015-09-01

    Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article aims to estimate the cost of providing medical primary prevention interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among at-risk patients, reflecting actual resource use and if the World Health Organization (WHO)'s CVD medical preventive guidelines are implemented in Tanzania. In addition, we estimate and explore the cost to patients of receiving these services. Cost data were collected in four health facilities located in both urban and rural settings. Providers' costs were identified and measured using ingredients approach to costing and resource valuation followed the opportunity cost method. Unit costs were estimated using activity-based and step-down costing methodologies. The patient costs were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The unit cost of providing CVD medical primary prevention services ranged from US$30-41 to US$52-71 per patient per year at the health centre and hospital levels, respectively. Employing the WHO's absolute risk approach guidelines will substantially increase these costs. The annual patient cost of receiving these services as currently practised was estimated to be US$118 and US$127 for urban and rural patients, respectively. Providers' costs were estimated from two main viewpoints: 'what is', that is the current practice, and 'what if', reflecting a WHO guidelines scenario. The higher cost of implementing the WHO guidelines suggests the need for further evaluation of whether these added costs are reasonable relative to the added benefits. We also found considerably higher patient costs, implying that distributive and equity implications of access to care require more consideration. Facility location surfaced as the main explanatory variable for both direct and indirect patient costs in the regression

  17. Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Norheim, Ole F; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article aims to estimate the cost of providing medical primary prevention interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among at-risk patients, reflecting actual resource use and if the World Health Organization (WHO)’s CVD medical preventive guidelines are implemented in Tanzania. In addition, we estimate and explore the cost to patients of receiving these services. Cost data were collected in four health facilities located in both urban and rural settings. Providers’ costs were identified and measured using ingredients approach to costing and resource valuation followed the opportunity cost method. Unit costs were estimated using activity-based and step-down costing methodologies. The patient costs were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The unit cost of providing CVD medical primary prevention services ranged from US$30–41 to US$52–71 per patient per year at the health centre and hospital levels, respectively. Employing the WHO’s absolute risk approach guidelines will substantially increase these costs. The annual patient cost of receiving these services as currently practised was estimated to be US$118 and US$127 for urban and rural patients, respectively. Providers’ costs were estimated from two main viewpoints: ‘what is’, that is the current practice, and ‘what if’, reflecting a WHO guidelines scenario. The higher cost of implementing the WHO guidelines suggests the need for further evaluation of whether these added costs are reasonable relative to the added benefits. We also found considerably higher patient costs, implying that distributive and equity implications of access to care require more consideration. Facility location surfaced as the main explanatory variable for both direct and indirect patient costs in

  18. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe: Service Delivery Intensity and Modality and Their Influence on the Age of Clients

    PubMed Central

    Ashengo, Tigistu Adamu; Hatzold, Karin; Mahler, Hally; Rock, Amelia; Kanagat, Natasha; Magalona, Sophia; Curran, Kelly; Christensen, Alice; Castor, Delivette; Mugurungi, Owen; Dhlamini, Roy; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to 80% of men aged 15–49 within five years could avert 3.4 million new HIV infections in Eastern and Southern Africa by 2025. Since 2009, Tanzania and Zimbabwe have rapidly expanded VMMC services through different delivery (fixed, outreach or mobile) and intensity (routine services, campaign) models. This review describes the modality and intensity of VMMC services and its influence on the number and age of clients. Methods and Findings Program reviews were conducted using data from implementing partners in Tanzania (MCHIP) and Zimbabwe (PSI). Key informant interviews (N = 13 Tanzania; N = 8 Zimbabwe) were conducted; transcripts were analyzed using Nvivo. Routine VMMC service data for May 2009–December 2012 were analyzed and presented in frequency tables. A descriptive analysis and association was performed using the z-ratio for the significance of the difference. Key informants in both Tanzania and Zimbabwe believe VMMC scale-up can be achieved by using a mix of service delivery modality and intensity approaches. In Tanzania, the majority of clients served during campaigns (59%) were aged 10–14 years while the majority during routine service delivery (64%) were above 15 (p<0.0001). In Zimbabwe, significantly more VMMCs were done during campaigns (64%) than during routine service delivery (36%) (p<0.00001); the difference in the age of clients accessing services in campaign versus non-campaign settings was significant for age groups 10–24 (p<0.05), but not for older groups. Conclusions In Tanzania and Zimbabwe, service delivery modalities and intensities affect client profiles in conjunction with other contextual factors such as implementing campaigns during school holidays in Zimbabwe and cultural preference for circumcision at a young age in Tanzania. Formative research needs to be an integral part of VMMC programs to guide the design of service delivery modalities in the face of, or

  19. Use of Modern Technologies in Improving Astronomy Education in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwaji, N. T.

    2006-08-01

    With only the most basic astronomy content officially included in the Physics syllabus of Secondary Schools in Tanzania and a one semester Astrophysics option course offered in the Physics Department of one University, the reasons for apathy towards astronomy education in Tanzania are discussed. Using the current focus on introducing ICT into Primary and Secondary schools in Tanzania, the potential for advancing astronomy education per se and natural sciences in general is presented. Limiting factors such as teachers in general and science and astronomy literate teachers in particular, infrastructure and running costs of providing ICT based education, cultural impediments need to be overcome.

  20. Seismic experiment reveals rifting of craton in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Langston, Charles A.; Last, Robert J.; Birt, Christopher; Owens, Thomas J.

    A research project in Tanzania, East Africa, is being conducted to examine seismic velocities within the crust and upper mantle in an area where cratonic lithosphere is experiencing extensional tectonism. The results will be used to evaluate models of cratonic structure. Waveforms from several hundred teleseismic earthquakes and over 10,000 regional and local earthquakes recorded in 1994 and 1995 by the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment are not only yielding new insights into deep continental structure, but are also helping to determine the tectonic stability of cratons by identifying the locus of rifting within northeastern Tanzania.

  1. Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, D.; Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Ebinger, C. J.; Accardo, N. J.; O'Donnell, J. P.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mphepo, F.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Tepp, G.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province David Borrego, Marsella Kachingwe, Andrew Nyblade, Donna Shillington, James Gaherty, Cynthia Ebinger, Natalie Accardo, J.P. O'Donnell, Gabriel Mbogoni, Gabriel Mulibo, Richard Ferdinand, Patrick Chindandali, Felix Mphepo, Gabrielle Tepp, Godson Kamihanda We investigate crustal structure around the northern end of Lake Malawi and in the Rungwe Volcanic Province using teleseismic receiver functions from the SEGMeNT broadband seismic network. The SEGMeNT network includes 55 broadband stations deployed in northern Malawi and southern Tanzania, with station spacing of 20-50 km. Fourteen stations were deployed in August 2013, and an additional of 41 stations were added to the study region beginning June/July 2014. Fifteen stations are located in Malawi and 40 stations in Tanzania. Data from teleseismic earthquakes with magnitude 5.5 or greater in the 30 to 90 degrees distance range have been used to calculate P-wave receiver functions. Estimates of Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratios have been obtained by using the H-k stacking method and by jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh wave phase velocities. Preliminary results show an average Moho depth of 40 km and an average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.72. Little evidence is found for magmatic underplating beneath the Rungwe Volcanic Province.

  2. Structure and performance of infectious disease surveillance and response, United Republic of Tanzania, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Nsubuga, Peter; Eseko, Nicholas; Tadesse, Wuhib; Ndayimirije, Nestor; Stella, Chungong; McNabb, Scott

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the structure and performance of and support for five infectious disease surveillance systems in the United Republic of Tanzania: Health Management Information System (HMIS); Infectious Disease Week Ending; Tuberculosis/Leprosy; Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; and Acute Flaccid Paralysis/Poliomyelitis. METHODS: The systems were assessed by analysing the core activities of surveillance and response and support functions (provision of training, supervision, and resources). Data were collected using questionnaires that involved both interviews and observations at regional, district, and health facility levels in three of the 20 regions in the United Republic of Tanzania. FINDINGS: An HMIS was found at 26 of 32 health facilities (81%) surveyed and at all 14 regional and district medical offices. The four other surveillance systems were found at <20% of health facilities and <75% of medical offices. Standardized case definitions were used for only 3 of 21 infectious diseases. Nineteen (73%) health facilities with HMIS had adequate supplies of forms; 9 (35%) reported on time; and 11 (42%) received supervision or feedback. Four (29%) medical offices with HMIS had population denominators to use for data analyses; 12 (86%) were involved in outbreak investigations; and 11 (79%) had conducted community prevention activities. CONCLUSION: While HMIS could serve as the backbone for IDSR in the United Republic of Tanzania, this will require supervision, standardized case definitions, and improvements in the quality of reporting, analysis, and feedback. PMID:11984605

  3. The Potential of Medical Abortion to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Africa: What Benefits for Tanzania and Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Burgin, Joanna; Campbell, Oona M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative. Methods By estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios) and contrasting situations regarding health care provision and abortion legislation. We focused on misoprostol-only regimens due to the drug's low cost and accessibility. We included the impact of medical abortion on women who would otherwise choose unsafe abortion and on women with unwanted/mistimed pregnancies who would otherwise carry to term. Results Thousands of lives could be saved each year in each country by implementing medical abortion using misoprostol (2122 in Tanzania and 2551 in Ethiopia assuming coverage equals family planning services levels: 56% for Tanzania, 31% for Ethiopia). Changes in MMRatios would be less pronounced because the intervention would also affect national birth rates. Conclusions This is the first analysis of impact of medical abortion provision which takes into account additional potential users other than those currently using unsafe abortion. Thousands of women's lives could be saved, but this may not be reflected in as substantial changes in MMRatios because of medical abortion's demographic impact. Therefore policy makers must be aware of the inability of some traditional measures of maternal mortality to detect the real benefits offered by such an intervention. PMID:20948995

  4. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania: current status.

    PubMed

    Msami, H M; Ponela-Mlelwa, T; Mtei, B J; Kapaga, A M

    2001-02-01

    CBPP reappeared in Arusha, Northern Tanzania in 1990, having been introduced from Kenya. The disease spread rapidly to Mara region through rustling of sick or infected animals. In November 1992, an unrelated outbreak occurred in Kagera, having spread from Southern Uganda. Up to the end of December 1994, the disease appeared to be confined to Kagera and Arusha. In January 1995, CBPP was observed in Morogoro region, south of the central railway line. Thereafter, the disease spread through western Tanzania. More recently, further disease has occurred in the Southern Highlands and Central regions. The contaminated area now stretches roughly between latitudes 1 degree and 9 degrees S and longitudes 30 degrees and 37 degrees E, with a cattle population of about 10 million. The direct losses incurred as a result of animal mortality, and vaccination campaign and disease surveillance costs have been assessed at over US$11 million. Indirect losses resulting from chronic disease are much more difficult to assess but are believed to be even higher. Control of the disease has been through restricting animal movements and a mass vaccination campaign. Uncontrolled animal movement during transhumance, trade, cattle thefts and vaccination breakthroughs facilitated the spread of the disease. PMID:11234189

  5. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Initiatives in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Bill; Parthesius, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.

  6. The economic costs of malaria in children in three sub-Saharan countries: Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria causes significant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), especially among children less than five years of age (U5 children). Although the economic burden of malaria in this region has been assessed previously, the extent and variation of this burden remains unclear. This study aimed to estimate the economic costs of malaria in U5 children in three countries (Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya). Methods Health system and household costs previously estimated were integrated with costs associated with co-morbidities, complications and productivity losses due to death. Several models were developed to estimate the expected treatment cost per episode per child, across different age groups, by level of severity and with or without controlling for treatment-seeking behaviour. Total annual costs (2009) were calculated by multiplying the treatment cost per episode according to severity by the number of episodes. Annual health system prevention costs were added to this estimate. Results Household and health system costs per malaria episode ranged from approximately US$ 5 for non-complicated malaria in Tanzania to US$ 288 for cerebral malaria with neurological sequelae in Kenya. On average, up to 55% of these costs in Ghana and Tanzania and 70% in Kenya were assumed by the household, and of these costs 46% in Ghana and 85% in Tanzania and Kenya were indirect costs. Expected values of potential future earnings (in thousands) lost due to premature death of children aged 0–1 and 1–4 years were US$ 11.8 and US$ 13.8 in Ghana, US$ 6.9 and US$ 8.1 in Tanzania, and US$ 7.6 and US$ 8.9 in Kenya, respectively. The expected treatment costs per episode per child ranged from a minimum of US$ 1.29 for children aged 2–11 months in Tanzania to a maximum of US$ 22.9 for children aged 0–24 months in Kenya. The total annual costs (in millions) were estimated at US$ 37.8, US$ 131.9 and US$ 109.0 nationwide in Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya and included average

  7. Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Tanzania; 1930 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Sindato, Calvin; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kivaria, Fredrick; Dautu, George; Bernard, Bett; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like disease was first reported in Tanzania more than eight decades ago and the last large outbreak of the disease occurred in 2006–07. This study investigates the spatial and temporal pattern of RVF outbreaks in Tanzania over the past 80 years in order to guide prevention and control strategies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out based on disease reporting data from Tanzania at district or village level. The data were sourced from the Ministries responsible for livestock and human health, Tanzania Meteorological Agency and research institutions involved in RVF surveillance and diagnosis. The spatial distribution of outbreaks was mapped using ArcGIS 10. The space-time permutation model was applied to identify clusters of cases, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of outbreaks in the district. Principal Findings RVF outbreaks were reported between December and June in 1930, 1947, 1957, 1960, 1963, 1968, 1977–79, 1989, 1997–98 and 2006–07 in 39.2% of the districts in Tanzania. There was statistically significant spatio-temporal clustering of outbreaks. RVF occurrence was associated with the eastern Rift Valley ecosystem (OR = 6.14, CI: 1.96, 19.28), total amount of rainfall of >405.4 mm (OR = 12.36, CI: 3.06, 49.88), soil texture (clay [OR = 8.76, CI: 2.52, 30.50], and loam [OR = 8.79, CI: 2.04, 37.82]). Conclusion/Significance RVF outbreaks were found to be distributed heterogeneously and transmission dynamics appeared to vary between areas. The sequence of outbreak waves, continuously cover more parts of the country. Whenever infection has been introduced into an area, it is likely to be involved in future outbreaks. The cases were more likely to be reported from the eastern Rift Valley than from the western Rift Valley ecosystem and from areas with clay and loam rather than sandy soil texture. PMID:24586433

  8. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges and opportunities of reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Shija, Angela E; Msovela, Judith; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2011-12-01

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. Most of maternal deaths are caused by factors attributed to pregnancy, childbirth and poor quality of health services. More than 80% of maternal deaths can be prevented if pregnant women access essential maternity care and assured of skilled attendance at childbirth as well as emergency obstetric care. The objective of this review was to analyse maternal mortality situation in Tanzania during the past 50 years and to identify efforts, challenges and opportunities of reducing it. This paper was written through desk review of key policy documents, technical reports, publications and available internet-based literature. From 1961 to 1990 maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. However, from 1990's there been an increasing trend to 578 per 100,000 live births. Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 to 454 per 100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage (96%) in pregnant women who attend at least one antenatal clinic, only half of the women (51%) have access to skilled delivery. Coverage of emergence obstetric services is 64.5% and utilization of modern family planning method is 27%. Only about 13% of home deliveries access post natal check-up. Despite a number of efforts maternal mortality is still unacceptably high. Some of the efforts done to reduce maternal mortality in Tanzania included the following initiatives: reproductive and child survival; increased skilled delivery; maternal death audit; coordination and integration of different programs including maternal and child health services, family planning, malaria interventions, expanded program on immunization and adolescent health and nutrition programmes. These initiatives are however challenged by inadequate access to maternal health care services. In order to considerably reduce maternal deaths some of recommended

  9. Assessment of corporate compliance with guidance and regulations on labels of commercially produced complementary foods sold in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lara; Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Badham, Jane; Mengkheang, Khin; Adhikary, Indu; Sy Gueye, Ndèye Yaga; Coly, Aminata Ndiaye; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    National legislation and global guidance address labelling of complementary foods to ensure that labels support optimal infant and young child feeding practices. This cross-sectional study assessed the labels of commercially produced complementary foods (CPCF) sold in Phnom Penh (n = 70), Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley (n = 22), Nepal; Dakar Department (n = 84), Senegal; and Dar es Salaam (n = 26), Tanzania. Between 3.6% and 30% of products did not provide any age recommendation and 8.6-20.2% of products, from all sites, recommended an age of introduction of <6 months. Few CPCF products provided a daily ration (0.0-8.6%) and 14.5-55.6% of those that did exceeded the daily energy recommendation for complementary foods for a breastfed child from 6 to 8.9 months of age. Only 3.6-27.3% of labels provided accurate and complete messages in the required language encouraging exclusive breastfeeding, and almost none (0.0-2.9%) provided accurate and complete messages regarding the appropriate introduction of complementary foods together with continued breastfeeding. Between 34.3% and 70.2% of CPCF manufacturers also produced breastmilk substitutes and 41.7-78.0% of relevant CPCF products cross-promoted their breastmilk substitutes products. Labelling practices of CPCF included in this study do not fully comply with international guidance on their promotion and selected aspects of national legislation, and there is a need for more detailed normative guidance on certain promotion practices in order to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding. PMID:27061960

  10. Young Men’s Social Network Characteristics and Associations with Sexual Partnership Concurrency in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jacob C.; Moody, James W.; Kajula, Lusajo J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network influence on young people’s sexual behavior is understudied in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research identified networks of mostly young men in Dar es Salaam who socialize in “camps”. This study describes network characteristics within camps and their relationship to young men’s concurrent sexual partnerships. We conducted surveys with a nearly complete census of ten camp networks (490 men and 160 women). Surveys included name generators to identify camp-based networks. Fifty seven percent of sexually active men (n = 471) reported past year concurrency, measured using the UNAIDS method. In a multivariable model, men’s individual concurrency was associated with being a member of a closer knit camp in which concurrency was the normative behavior. Younger men who had older members in their networks were more likely to engage in concurrency. Respondent concurrency was also associated with inequitable personal gender norms. Our findings suggest strategies for leveraging social networks for HIV prevention among young men. PMID:26271813

  11. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  12. Non-traumatic paraplegia in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, E M

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective study of all 100 cases of non-traumatic (medical) paraplegia admitted to a large hospital in northern Tanzania over an eight-year period was undertaken; 15 of the patients were examined. Patients' ages ranged from 2 to 80 years (mean 31), and 67 were male. Seventy-one lived under 85 km (53 miles) from the hospital, and the average period from onset of symptoms of paraplegia to admission to the referral hospital was ten weeks. Tuberculosis was the most frequent cause of paraplegia (54%), followed by neoplasia (13%) and schistosomiasis, (6%). No cases of nutritional myelopathy were diagnosed. In 12 cases a diagnosis could not be established. The average period spent in hospital was 11 weeks, and 35 patients made a good recovery and were ambulant at discharge. PMID:6793199

  13. Natrocarbonatite tephra of Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Richard L.

    1983-10-01

    Carbonatite tephra was discharged in the final eruptive phase of Kerimasi, an extinct nephelinite volcano in the eastern rift valley of northern Tanzania. The tephra was dominantly of alkali carbonatite composition, thus providing the first well-documented example of premodern natrocarbonatite volcanism. The principal carbonate mineral was nyerereite, which is the dominant mineral in modern natrocarbonatite lava flows of the adjacent volcano Oldoinyo Lengai. The nyerereite of Kerimasi was leached of its alkalis by meteoric water and is now represented by calcite pseudomorphs. Natrocarbonatite tephra of Kerimasi shows that the alkali-rich eruptive rocks of Oldoinyo Lengai are not unique, thus supporting the hypothesis that carbonatite magmas associated with nephelinite volcanism were originally alkaline and that the subvolcanic calcitic carbonatites are a residuum from which the alkalis have been removed, either by volcanism or fenetizing fluids. A hypothesis to be tested is that eruptive carbonatite magma is, worldwide, commonly and perhaps dominantly of natrocarbonatite composition.

  14. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Van Dongen, Stefan; Davis, Stephen; Neerinckx, Simon; Deckers, Jozef; Libois, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P. irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because they provide an indicator that can be surveyed to assess the risk for plague. PMID:17553245

  15. Nutrition Transition in Rural Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keding, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    All three types of malnutrition - underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiency - are experienced in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, and they can occur in parallel in one community or even one household. To combat this triple burden of malnutrition, a combination of different strategies will be necessary, including a focus on food-based strategies that promote the consumption of a wide range of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. In addition to a literature review, data from our own nutrition studies in both Tanzania and Kenya are presented in this paper. The literature review revealed an average of 10% of children in urban areas of Kenya and Tanzania with overweight and obesity, which is an alarming trend, and it is suggested that interventions need to start not only at school but also with adolescent girls and pregnant women to target the '1,000-day window'. From own study data, dietary patterns were generated that included a 'purchase' pattern dominated by bought and processed foods, indicating a possible nutrition transition even in the rural areas of both countries. Vegetable and especially fruit consumption was low in both countries. In addition, in Kenya, study participants exceeded the suggested maximum level of sugar consumption per day, which will most likely contribute to increasing levels in overweight and obesity prevalence and other noncommunicable diseases in general. As sugar was mainly consumed in combination with black tea, next to eating habits, changing drinking habits is also an important part of the nutrition transition and needs to receive more attention. A 'healthy eating at school and at home strategy' is suggested, which needs the support of both schools and parents/caregivers. In general, to take countermeasures against the negative trends of nutrition transition, joint efforts from all players in the field - not only those in nutrition, health and medicine, but also those in education and agriculture

  16. Spectroscopy of red dravite from northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Naumenko, Ievgen V.; Vyshnevsky, Olexij A.

    2015-07-01

    Low-Fe dravite with a formula of Na0.66Ca0.16Mg2.62Fe0.33Mn0.02Ti0.02Al5.95B3Si6.04O27(OH)4 is described from Engusero Sambu, northern Tanzania (On maps, Engusero Sambu may be found to be marked as belonging to Kenya, but in reality, it is located near the border in northern Tanzania). The sample has an unusual red color that is distinctly different from the red dravite from the Osarara, Narok district, in Kenya that was formerly studied by Mattson and Rossman (Phys Chem Miner 14:225-234, 1984) and Taran and Rossman (Am Mineral 87:1148-1153, 2002). This unique sample has been characterized by optical and Mössbauer spectral measurements to investigate underlying cause of the intense bands in absorption spectra that give rise to the red color. These features are shown to be caused by exchange-coupled Fe3+-Fe3+ interactions. Thermal annealing of the samples causes an increase in Fe3+ contents due to oxidation of [Y]Fe2+. However, heat treatment does not change the high-energy absorption edge, which is probably caused by intense ligand-to-Fe3+ charge-transfer UV bands. In fact, Mössbauer results show that high-temperature annealing initiates breakdown of the tourmaline into an Fe oxide and causes accompanying redistribution of Fe3+ within the structure. Because of the popularity of tourmaline as a gemstone, this work has implications for understanding the causes of color in tourmaline, facilitating recognition of the distinctions between naturally occurring and treated tourmalines in the gem industry and enabling heat treatments for color enhancement.

  17. Home-Based and Facility-Based Directly Observed Therapy of Tuberculosis Treatment under Programmatic Conditions in Urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hella, Jerry; Maroa, Thomas; Kisandu, Shadrack; Chiryamkubi, Magreth; Said, Khadija; Mhalu, Grace; Mkopi, Abdallah; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Reither, Klaus; Gagneux, Sébastien; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Decentralization of Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) for tuberculosis (TB) to the community (home-based DOT) has improved the coverage of TB treatment and reduced the burden to the health care facilities (facility-based DOT). We aimed to compare TB treatment outcomes in home-based and facility-based DOT under programmatic conditions in an urban setting with a high TB burden. Methodology A retrospective analysis of a cohort of adult TB patients (≥15 years) routinely notified between 2010 and 2013 in two representative TB sub-districts in the Temeke district, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We assessed differences in treatment outcomes by calculating Risk Ratios (RRs). We used logistic regression to assess the association between DOT and treatment outcomes. Results Data of 4,835 adult TB patients were analyzed, with a median age of 35 years, 2,943 (60.9%) were men and TB/HIV co-infection prevalence of 39.9%. A total of 3,593 (74.3%) patients were treated under home-based DOT. Patients on home-based DOT were more likely to die compared to patients on facility-based DOT (RR 2.04, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.52–2.73), and more likely to complete TB treatment (RR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06–1.23), but less likely to have a successful treatment outcome (RR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97). Home-based DOT was preferred by women (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 1.55, 95% CI: 1.34–1.80, p<0.001), older people (aOR 1.01 for each year increase, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02, p = 0.001) and patients with extra-pulmonary TB (aOR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.16–1.81, p = 0.001), but less frequently by patients on a retreatment regimen (aOR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.08–0.19, p<0.001). Conclusions/significance TB patients under home-based DOT had more frequently risk factors of death such as older age, HIV infection and sputum smear-negative TB, and had higher mortality compared to patients under facility-based DOT. Further operational research is needed to monitor the implementation of DOT under

  18. Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, C.; Masamu, E. T.; Kiama, M. G.; Keto, A. J.; Kinenekejo, M.; Ichimori, K.; Lines, J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7704932

  19. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mhode, Maisara; Nyamhanga, Tumaini

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination. The sample size was determined according to the saturation principle. Results. Respondents experienced different forms of HIV-related stigma such as verbal, social, and perceived stigma. Various forms of discrimination were experienced, including relational discrimination, mistreatment by health care workers, blame and rejection by spouses, and workplace discrimination. HIV-related stigma and discrimination compromised ART adherence by reinforcing concealment of HIV status and undermining social suppport. Conclusion. After nearly a decade of increasing the provision of ART in Tanzania, PLHIV still experience stigma and discrimination; these experiences still appear to have a negative impact on treatment adherence. Efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination remain relevant in the ART period and should be given more impetus in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes. PMID:27110395

  20. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mhode, Maisara; Nyamhanga, Tumaini

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination. The sample size was determined according to the saturation principle. Results. Respondents experienced different forms of HIV-related stigma such as verbal, social, and perceived stigma. Various forms of discrimination were experienced, including relational discrimination, mistreatment by health care workers, blame and rejection by spouses, and workplace discrimination. HIV-related stigma and discrimination compromised ART adherence by reinforcing concealment of HIV status and undermining social suppport. Conclusion. After nearly a decade of increasing the provision of ART in Tanzania, PLHIV still experience stigma and discrimination; these experiences still appear to have a negative impact on treatment adherence. Efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination remain relevant in the ART period and should be given more impetus in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes. PMID:27110395

  1. Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

  2. Exploring the Emergence of Community Support for School and Encouragement of Innovation for Improving Rural School Performance: Lessons Learned at Kitamburo in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngalawa, Athanas; Simmt, Elaine; Glanfield, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative exploration of a primary school in a remote rural community of Tanzania, whose students showed promising performance in mathematics, as measured by the Primary School Leaving Examinations (PSLE). Case study methods were used to conduct research about the school and the community and included interviews, focus…

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  5. Observation-centered approach to ASD assessment in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ashley J; Zimak, Eric H; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Manji, Karim P; Morrow, Eric M

    2014-10-01

    Abstract In many lower-income countries, there is a paucity of assessment services for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)., Guidelines will be provided for conducting cross-cultural assessments in the context of limited validated resources in Tanzania. By examining behavioral, social, and adaptive differences we were able to provide differential diagnostic evaluations aligning with best practice standards for 41 children in Tanzania age 2-21 years. We describe the utility of a flexible, behavioral observation instrument, the Childhood Autism Rating Scales, Second Edition (CARS2), to gather diagnostic information in a culturally sensitive manner. We observed that the ASD group was characterized by significantly higher scores on the CARS2, F  =  21.09, p < .001, η(2)  =  .37, than the general delay comparison group. Additional recommendations are provided for making cultural adaptations to current assessment instruments for use in a country without normed instruments, such as Tanzania. PMID:25247726

  6. Who Sinned? Parents' Knowledge of the Causes of Disability in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tungaraza, Frida D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at finding out from parents what they knew to be the causes of their children's disabilities. One hundred and twenty six parents from four regions, namely Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Kilimanjaro and Morogoro were involved in this study. Data was collected through interview, narratives and observation. It was obvious from the findings…

  7. Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption?

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

  8. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms

  9. Sources of community health worker motivation: a qualitative study in Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a renewed interest in community health workers (CHWs) in Tanzania, but also a concern that low motivation of CHWs may decrease the benefits of investments in CHW programs. This study aimed to explore sources of CHW motivation to inform programs in Tanzania and similar contexts. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 CHWs in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded prior to translation and thematic analysis. The authors then conducted a literature review on CHW motivation and a framework that aligned with our findings was modified to guide the presentation of results. Results Sources of CHW motivation were identified at the individual, family, community, and organizational levels. At the individual level, CHWs are predisposed to volunteer work and apply knowledge gained to their own problems and those of their families and communities. Families and communities supplement other sources of motivation by providing moral, financial, and material support, including service fees, supplies, money for transportation, and help with farm work and CHW tasks. Resistance to CHW work exhibited by families and community members is limited. The organizational level (the government and its development partners) provides motivation in the form of stipends, potential employment, materials, training, and supervision, but inadequate remuneration and supplies discourage CHWs. Supervision can also be dis-incentivizing if perceived as a sign of poor performance. Conclusions Tanzanian CHWs who work despite not receiving a salary have an intrinsic desire to volunteer, and their motivation often derives from support received from their families when other sources of motivation are insufficient. Policy-makers and program managers should consider the burden that a lack of remuneration imposes on the families of CHWs. In addition, CHWs’ intrinsic desire to volunteer does not preclude a desire for external rewards

  10. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Sarah C.; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. Objectives To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). Methods A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15–49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. Conclusions The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26361246

  11. Obesity as a public health problem among adult women in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keding, Gudrun B; Msuya, John M; Maass, Brigitte L; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: For many developing countries, obesity and its sequelae have become a challenge of a magnitude similar to hunger and undernutrition. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the weight status of women in rural Tanzania with reference to season as well as the link between women's weight, food consumption, and attitudes toward obesity. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys in 3 different seasons within 1 year interviewed the same 210 women, ages 17–45 years, from 3 rural districts of northeastern and central Tanzania. These surveys assessed body mass index (BMI), food intake, and dietary diversity through 24-hour recalls, women's attitudes toward obesity, vegetable production, and socioeconomic status. Results: Although 71% of the women had a normal BMI, 7% were underweight, 16% overweight, and 6% obese. The BMI was correlated with the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), the Food Variety Score (FVS), with the consumption of foods from the food groups “bread/cakes,” “sugar,” and “tea,” and with the production of exotic vegetables. In a multiple regression model, FVS was directly associated with BMI. When asked to describe the typical characteristics of an obese person, women mentioned more negative than positive characteristics. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 3 times higher than that of underweight. Apparently, even in rural areas of Tanzania, a nutrition transition is underway. No direct association was identified between vegetable consumption and BMI. Although this study did not assess behavioral factors, such behavioral factors as activity levels as well as attitudes need to be considered, even in rural settings, to address all facets of malnutrition. PMID:25276549

  12. Where There Is No Toilet: Water and Sanitation Environments of Domestic and Facility Births in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A.; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. Methods We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. Results 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%–44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%–2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%–42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Conclusion Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply

  13. Ending open defecation in rural Tanzania: which factors facilitate latrine adoption?

    PubMed

    Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

    2014-09-01

    Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households' sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95-11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063-0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

  14. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  15. The sedimentary basins of Tanzania - reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbede, E. I.

    The sedimentary basins of Tanzania have been classified into four morphotectonic groups: the coastal basin, the Karoo rift basins, basins found within the present East African rift valley and the cratonic sag basins. Except for the cratonic sag basins, each of these basin group has been affected by rifting at one time or another. The geology of each basin is discussed, structural evolution is evaluated and the prospectivity is thence looked into. Coal is exploited at Songwe-Kiwira coalfield and is found in potentially economic quantities in other Karoo basins. Prospecting for hydrocarbon resources has been going on since the 50s. Gas has been discovered in Songosongo and Mnazi bay fields, uneconomical quantities of oil have also been reported in Songosongo. Being basically rift basins which have reached different stages of development, source rocks normally associated with Initial-rifting, synrifting as well as post-rifting processes are probably well developed. Reservoir rocks, traps and cap rocks are normally not rare in such tectonic environments. Thermal gradients associated with the rifting stage are normaly high to effect maturation of source rocks even at low sedimentary thicknesses. Studies done so far are still inconclusive, because while testing has mainly been focused on structural traps stratigraphic traps seems to be more promising.

  16. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a

  17. Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over

  18. Nature, extent and implications of belief in Kikombe cha babu and other herbal HIV cures in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Ioerger, Michael; Harman, Jennifer J; Modarres, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    This study's objective was to describe awareness of, access to, belief in, and utilization of the healing tea Kikombe cha babu and other alternative treatments for HIV in Tanzania. Associations with HIV testing, treatment, and prevention behaviors are also explored. A survey with questions about alternative medicine was administered to a sample in Tanzania using a stratified, multistage random selection method. Adults were interviewed face-to-face. Items concerning alternative HIV treatments addressed awareness, access, beliefs, and treatment-seeking behaviors. Questions about HIV prevention and treatment were also asked. Results showed participants indicated a high awareness of alternative treatments available in Tanzania, with 95.3% of 2313 adults having heard of these treatments. Of those, 6.0% had actually sought the treatment, and 46.8% had an acquaintance seek it. However, 81.0% indicated these treatments were not easily accessible. There is a high level of belief in the ability of these alternative treatments to cure HIV, with 44.0% of people who had heard of these treatments indicating they believe such treatments can cure HIV. Additionally, many people indicated having these alternative treatments available would result in decreased condom use (15.6%), no need to use condoms (94.9%), and no need to take antiretroviral therapy (81.7%). However, 57.4% indicated they would be more likely to get tested for HIV if alternative treatments were available. Belief in the ability of alternative treatments to cure HIV in Tanzania is high and should be further explored due to its implications for potentially sidelining HIV prevention and treatment initiatives. PMID:25024091

  19. A study of Rift Valley fever virus in Morogoro and Arusha regions of Tanzania – serology and farmers’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Wensman, Jonas J.; Lindahl, Johanna; Wachtmeister, Nica; Torsson, Emeli; Gwakisa, Paul; Kasanga, Christopher; Misinzo, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis primarily affecting ruminants, resulting in epidemic abortions, fever, nasal and ocular discharges, haemorrhagic diarrhoea, and a high mortality rate among young animals. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne RNA virus occurring in epizootic periods associated with heavy rainfall. The last outbreak of RVF in Tanzania was in 2006–2007, resulting in severe economic losses and impaired food security due to greater number of deaths of livestock. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against RVFV in sheep and goats in two different regions of Tanzania during an inter-epidemic period (IEP). In addition, the perception of important diseases among livestock keepers was assessed. Material and methods A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted in three purposively selected districts in Arusha and Morogoro regions of Tanzania. Serum samples from 354 sheep and goats were analysed in a commercial RVFV competitive ELISA. At the sampling missions, a questionnaire was used to estimate the socio-economic impact of infectious diseases. Results and discussion In total, 8.2% of the analysed samples were seropositive to RVF, and most seropositive animals were younger than 7 years, indicating a continuous circulation of RVFV in the two regions. None of the livestock keepers mentioned RVF as an important livestock disease. Conclusions This study confirms that RVFV is circulating at low levels in small ruminants during IEPs. In spite of recurring RVF outbreaks in Tanzania, livestock keepers seem to have a low awareness of the disease, making them poorly prepared and thus more vulnerable to future RVF outbreaks. PMID:26584830

  20. Where there is no morphine: The challenge and hope of palliative care delivery in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Mervyn; Hartwig, Kari; Mmbando, Paul Z.; Sayed, Abduraoof; de Vries, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background In Tanzania, a country of 42 million, access to oral morphine is rare. Aim To demonstrate the effectiveness of palliative care teams in reducing patients’ pain and in increasing other positive life qualities in the absence of morphine; and to document the psychological burden experienced by their clinical providers, trained in morphine delivery, as they observed their patients suffering and in extreme pain. Setting One hundred and forty-five cancer patients were included from 13 rural hospitals spread across Tanzania. Method A mixed method study beginning with a retrospective quantitative analysis of cancer patients who were administered the APCA African POS tool four times. Bivariate analyses of the scores at time one and four were compared across the domains. The qualitative arm included an analysis of interviews with six nurses, each with more than five years’ palliative care experience and no access to strong opioids. Results Patients and their family caregivers identified statistically significant (p < 0.001) improvements in all of the domains. Thematic analysis of nurse interviews described the patient and family benefits from palliative care but also their great distress when ‘bad cases’ arose who would likely benefit only from oral morphine. Conclusion People living with chronic cancer-related pain who receive palliative care experience profound physical, spiritual and emotional benefits even without oral morphine. These results demonstrate the need for continued advocacy to increase the availability of oral morphine in these settings in addition to palliative care services. PMID:26245417

  1. Costs of Inaction on Maternal Mortality: Qualitative Evidence of the Impacts of Maternal Deaths on Living Children in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Boulanger, Vanessa M.; Falb, Kathryn L.; Shuma, Jane; Leaning, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the interconnectedness of maternal deaths and impacts on children, beyond infants, or the mechanisms through which this interconnectedness is established. A study was conducted in rural Tanzania to provide qualitative insight regarding how maternal mortality affects index as well as other living children and to identify shared structural and social factors that foster high levels of maternal mortality and child vulnerabilities. Methods and Findings Adult family members of women who died due to maternal causes (N = 45) and key stakeholders (N = 35) participated in in-depth interviews. Twelve focus group discussions were also conducted (N = 83) among community leaders in three rural regions of Tanzania. Findings highlight the widespread impact of a woman’s death on her children’s health, education, and economic status, and, by inference, the roles that women play within their families in rural Tanzanian communities. Conclusions The full costs of failing to address preventable maternal mortality include intergenerational impacts on the nutritional status, health, and education of children, as well as the economic capacity of families. When setting priorities in a resource-poor, high maternal mortality country, such as Tanzania, the far-reaching effects that reducing maternal deaths can have on families and communities, as well as women’s own lives, should be considered. PMID:23990971

  2. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  3. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  4. Investigating Motivations for Women's Skin Bleaching in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol

    2011-01-01

    Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…

  5. School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

  6. High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Tatjana; Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Elias; Machibya, Harun; Maboko, Leonard; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity. PMID:23347529

  7. Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…

  8. Evaluating a School-Based Trachoma Curriculum in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewallen, Susan; Massae, Patrick; Tharaney, Manisha; Somba, Margareth; Geneau, Robert; MacArthur, Chad; Courtright, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Trachoma remains a public health problem in a number of sub-Saharan Africa countries; behavioral change and environmental improvements are cornerstones of prevention efforts. Evidence of successful health education are few in Africa. Health education efforts through primary schools have recently been developed and adopted in Tanzania. We evaluated…

  9. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  10. Successful Community Nutrition Programming: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannotti, Lora; Gillespie, Stuart

    This report on the key findings from a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000. The aim of the assessments was to identify key lessons learned from the successful processes and outcomes in these programs. The report is divided into eight chapters: (1)…

  11. Tanzania Higher Education--Fifty Years after Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnubi, Godfrey M.

    2013-01-01

    As Tanzania celebrates fifty years of independence at the crossroads of globalization, the country has experienced a changing landscape and a major transformation in higher learning education with spectacular expansion in student enrollment rates. This requires its higher education institutions, particularly universities, to function effectively…

  12. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  13. Resistance to Information Technology in Public Procurement in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nditi, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Organizations have become more dependent on information technology (IT) in the 21st century. But IT implementation and use is resisted in certain sectors of Tanzania, particularly in government-run enterprises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and consequences of resistance to IT development and implementation in the…

  14. Contextualized IT Education in Tanzania: Beyond Standard IT Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedre, Matti; Bangu, Nicholas; Nyagava, Seth I.

    2009-01-01

    Tumaini University at Iringa, Tanzania, started a new B.Sc. program in IT in 2007. In the course of planning and implementation of the program, we found out that standard ACM/IEEE IT curricula are not adequate for an IT program in a poor, developing country. The standard curricula describe, in detail, the competences that IT specialists in…

  15. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  16. Literacy and Power--The Cases of Tanzania and Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedin, Asa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper it is claimed that the relation between literacy and power is complex. What people do with literacy has effects on power relations but literacy is not democratic "per se". Drawing from two cases from Tanzania and Rwanda it is argued that plans for adult education and literacy education should consider the perspectives of target…

  17. Etiologies of Autism in a Case-Series from Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankoski, Raymond E.; Collins, Martha; Ndosi, Noah K.; Mgalla, Ella H.; Sarwatt, Veronica V.; Folstein, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Most autism has a genetic cause although post-encephalitis cases are reported. In a case-series (N = 20) from Tanzania, 14 met research criteria for autism. Three (M:F = 1:2) had normal development to age 22, 35, and 42 months, with onset of autism upon recovery from severe malaria, attended by prolonged high fever, convulsions, and in one case…

  18. Special Education in Tanzania: Project Findings and Recommendations. Terminal Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The report describes a UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) project in Tanzania which has the following objectives: establishment of seven educational assessment and resource centers for handicapped children; establishment of four units for deaf children in ordinary schools; implementation of three training…

  19. Higher Education System and Jobless Graduates in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndyali, Lyata

    2016-01-01

    The Tanzania's higher education institutions haven't raised much of expectations the graduates lack the skills required by the labor market and this trend results in mass graduate unemployment, otherwise this would have assisted them to be more self-reliant. The study explores the importance of higher-level business education human resources…

  20. Engaged Learning and Peace Corps Service in Tanzania: An Autoethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Brianna; Thorp, Laurie; Chung, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The Peace Corps Masters International program offers students the opportunity to combine their Peace Corps service with their master's education. This article demonstrates how classroom learning strengthened the author's Peace Corps service in Tanzania, which in turn strengthened her master's thesis. Peace Corps supports an approach…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse: Community Concerns in Urban Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of hopelessness, "lack of…

  2. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae identified in estuaries of Tanzania using PCR techniques.

    PubMed

    Dalusi, Lucy; Lyimo, Thomas J; Lugomela, Charles; Hosea, Ken M M; Sjöling, Sara

    2015-03-01

    The current study assessed the occurrence of the Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 in environmental samples along salinity gradients in three selected estuaries of Tanzania both through culture independent methods and by cultured bacteria. Occurrence of V. cholerae was determined by PCR targeting the V. cholerae outer membrane protein gene ompW. Furthermore, the presence of toxigenic strains and serogroups O1 and O139 was determined using multiplex PCR with specific primers targeting the cholera toxin gene subunit A, ctxA, and serotype specific primers, O1-rfb and O139-rfb, respectively. Results showed that V. cholerae occurred in approximately 10% (n = 185) of both the environmental samples and isolated bacteria. Eight of the bacteria isolates (n = 43) were confirmed as serogroup O1 while one belonged to serogroup O139, the first reported identification of this epidemic strain in East African coastal waters. All samples identified as serogroup O1 or O139 and a number of non-O1/O139 strains were ctxA positive. This study provides in situ evidence of the presence of pathogenic V. cholerae O1 and O139 and a number of V. cholerae non-O1/O139 that carry the cholera toxin gene in estuaries along the coast of Tanzania. PMID:25743072

  3. Essential medicines in Tanzania: does the new delivery system improve supply and accountability?

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Cowley, Peter; Kasale, Harun; Mbuya, Conrad; Reid, Graham; de Savigny, Don

    2014-02-01

    Objective: Assess whether reform in the Tanzanian medicines delivery system from a central 'push' kit system to a decentralized 'pull' Integrated Logistics System (ILS) has improved medicines accountability. Methods: Rufiji District in Tanzania was used as a case study. Data on medicines ordered and patients seen were compiled from routine information at six public health facilities in 1999 under the kit system and in 2009 under the ILS. Three medicines were included for comparison: an antimalarial, anthelmintic and oral rehydration salts (ORS). Results: The quality of the 2009 data was hampered by incorrect quantification calculations for orders, especially for antimalarials. Between the periods 1999 and 2009, the percent of unaccounted antimalarials fell from 60 to 18%, while the percent of unaccounted anthelmintic medicines went from 82 to 71%. Accounting for ORS, on the other hand, did not improve as the unaccounted amounts increased from 64 to 81% during the same period. Conclusions: The ILS has not adequately addressed accountability concerns seen under the kit system due to a combination of governance and system-design challenges. These quantification weaknesses are likely to have contributed to the frequent periods of antimalarial stock-out experienced in Tanzania since 2009. We propose regular reconciliation between the health information system and the medicines delivery system, thereby improving visibility and guiding interventions to increase the availability of essential medicines. PMID:25013720

  4. Geologic map of Oldonyo Lengai (Oldoinyo Lengai) Volcano and surroundings, Arusha Region, United Republic of Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Magigita, Masota M.; Kwelwa, Shimba

    2013-01-01

    The geology of Oldonyo Lengai volcano and the southernmost Lake Natron basin, Tanzania, is presented on this geologic map at scale 1:50,000. The map sheet can be downloaded in pdf format for online viewing or ready to print (48 inches by 36 inches). A 65-page explanatory pamphlet describes the geologic history of the area. Its goal is to place the new findings into the framework of previous investigations while highlighting gaps in knowledge. In this way questions are raised and challenges proposed to future workers. The southernmost Lake Natron basin is located along the East African rift zone in northern Tanzania. Exposed strata provide a history of volcanism, sedimentation, and faulting that spans 2 million years. It is here where Oldonyo Lengai, Tanzania’s most active volcano of the past several thousand years, built its edifice. Six new radiometric ages, by the 40Ar/39Ar method, and 48 new geochemical analyses from Oldonyo Lengai and surrounding volcanic features deepen our understanding of the area. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may download an electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications. The GIS database is in a Transverse Mercator projection, zone 36, New (1960) Arc datum. The database includes layers for hypsography (topography), hydrography, and infrastructure such as roads and trails.

  5. 'We call it the shaking illness': perceptions and experiences of Parkinson's disease in rural northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parkinson disease (PD) causes physical disability that negatively affects the quality of life of the sufferer's and their families. There are no Parkinson's disease (PD) social science studies published from Africa. This paper presents findings from a qualitative research study on how PD is perceived and treated in a population of approximately 161,000 within a demographic surveillance site in rural Tanzania. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 28 PD sufferers, 28 carers, 4 health workers and 2 traditional healers. In addition, 6 focus group discussions were conducted in 3 villages to investigate wider community views of PD. Results PD sufferers expressed frustration with the physical, psychological, social and economic consequences of the illness. Feelings of a diminished quality of life characterised by dependency, stigma and social isolation were common. Additionally, a handful of male sufferers related their sexual incompetence to the illness. Carers complained of lost income opportunities and social isolation resulting from caring for sufferers. Misconceptions about the cause, symptoms and appropriated PD treatment were widespread. Only 2 PD sufferers had commenced western type treatment through outsourcing drugs from other parts of the country and outside of Tanzania. Conclusions This study highlights the urgent need for PD awareness and treatment interventions in such settings. Such interventions need to address the concerns and needs of sufferers, their carers and the wider community, including the health care system. PMID:21477284

  6. Estimating human rabies mortality in the United Republic of Tanzania from dog bite injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cleaveland, Sarah; Fèvre, Eric M.; Kaare, Magai; Coleman, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make quantitative predictions about the magnitude of underreporting of human rabies deaths in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Human rabies deaths were estimated by using a series of probability steps to calculate the likelihood of rabies developing after the bite of a suspected rabid dog, incorporating field data on the incidence of animal bite injuries, the accuracy of rabies recognition, the distribution of bite wounds, and post-exposure treatment. FINDINGS: Predicted human rabies mortality was estimated to be (a) 1499 deaths per year (95% confidence interval 891-2238), equivalent to an annual incidence of 4.9 (2.9-7.2) deaths/100,000, when active surveillance data on bite incidence were used, and (b) 193 deaths per year (32-409), corresponding to an annual incidence of 0.62 (0.1-1.32) deaths/100,000, when national bite statistics were used. The annual mean number of rabies deaths officially recorded for the same period was 10.8 (7.7-14.0). CONCLUSION: In the United Republic of Tanzania, cases of rabies in humans have been greatly underreported. Dog bite injuries are an accessible source of epidemiological data that may be used to estimate the public health burden of rabies and to monitor epidemiological trends in developing countries. PMID:12075367

  7. Essential medicines in Tanzania: does the new delivery system improve supply and accountability?

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Cowley, Peter; Kasale, Harun; Mbuya, Conrad; Reid, Graham; de Savigny, Don

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Assess whether reform in the Tanzanian medicines delivery system from a central ‘push' kit system to a decentralized ‘pull' Integrated Logistics System (ILS) has improved medicines accountability. Methods: Rufiji District in Tanzania was used as a case study. Data on medicines ordered and patients seen were compiled from routine information at six public health facilities in 1999 under the kit system and in 2009 under the ILS. Three medicines were included for comparison: an antimalarial, anthelmintic and oral rehydration salts (ORS). Results: The quality of the 2009 data was hampered by incorrect quantification calculations for orders, especially for antimalarials. Between the periods 1999 and 2009, the percent of unaccounted antimalarials fell from 60 to 18%, while the percent of unaccounted anthelmintic medicines went from 82 to 71%. Accounting for ORS, on the other hand, did not improve as the unaccounted amounts increased from 64 to 81% during the same period. Conclusions: The ILS has not adequately addressed accountability concerns seen under the kit system due to a combination of governance and system-design challenges. These quantification weaknesses are likely to have contributed to the frequent periods of antimalarial stock-out experienced in Tanzania since 2009. We propose regular reconciliation between the health information system and the medicines delivery system, thereby improving visibility and guiding interventions to increase the availability of essential medicines. PMID:25013720

  8. Molecular diagnosis of African tick bite fever using eschar swabs in a traveller returning from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicole; Burgmann, Heinz; Forstner, Christina; Ramharter, Michael; Széll, Marton; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stanek, Gerold; Markowicz, Mateusz

    2016-08-01

    African tick bite fever is an emerging infectious disease among travellers caused by the pathogen Rickettsia africae. Most travel-associated cases have been reported from countries in southern Africa. So far it has rarely been reported among travellers to eastern Africa and our patient is one of the first described cases imported from Tanzania. A woman presented with fever, chills, headache, myalgia and a rickettsial eschar on her ankle after returning from Tanzania. The diagnosis of African tick bite fever is often based on clinical grounds due to a lack of reliable diagnostic tests at commencement of symptoms. In this patient direct molecular detection of R. africae was performed by PCR from a sample obtained non-invasively with a swab from the rickettsial eschar. A positive PCR result was achieved although the patient had already started antibiotic treatment with doxycycline. In conclusion, this non-invasive method enables early diagnosis of African tick bite fever by direct molecular detection of R. africae and might improve the management of undifferentiated fever in travellers from Africa. PMID:27488618

  9. Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Multiple insurance funds serving different population groups may compromise equity due to differential revenue raising capacity and an unequal distribution of high risk members among the funds. This occurs when the funds exist without mechanisms in place to promote income and risk cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Methods Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Results There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status to CHF households, but a lower concentration of identified risk factors. Conclusion Mechanisms for broader risk spreading and cross-subsidisation across the funds are necessary for the promotion of equity. These include risk equalisation to adjust for differential risk distribution and revenue raising capacity of the funds. Expansion of CHF coverage is equally important, by addressing non-financial barriers to CHF enrolment to encourage wealthy non-members to join, as well as subsidised membership for the poorest. PMID:25574326

  10. Spatial Clustering of Porcine Cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngowi, Helena A.; Kassuku, Ayub A.; Carabin, Hélène; Mlangwa, James E. D.; Mlozi, Malongo R. S.; Mbilinyi, Boniface P.; Willingham, Arve L.

    2010-01-01

    prevalence study did not reveal any significant clustering by this method. Spatial scan statistics found one significant cluster of porcine cysticercosis prevalence (P = 0.0036; n = 370). In addition, the analysis found one large cluster of porcine cysticercosis incidence based on Ag-ELISA (P = 0.0010; n = 236) and two relatively small clusters of incidence based on lingual examination (P = 0.0012 and P = 0.0026; n = 241). These clusters had similar spatial location and included six wards, four of which were identified as high risk areas of porcine cysticercosis. Conclusion/Significance This study has identified local clusters of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, where limited resources for control of T. solium could be directed. Further studies are needed to establish causes of clustering to institute appropriate interventions. PMID:20386601

  11. Comparing the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Maseko, Fresier; Chirwa, Maureen; Mwisongo, Aziza; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction is an important determinant of health worker motivation, retention, and performance, all of which are critical to improving the functioning of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. A number of small-scale surveys have measured the job satisfaction and intention to leave of individual health worker cadres in different settings, but there are few multi-country and multi-cadre comparative studies. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a stratified cluster sample of 2,220 health workers, 564 from Tanzania, 939 from Malawi, and 717 from South Africa. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic information, a 10-item job satisfaction scale, and one question on intention to leave. Multiple regression was used to identify significant predictors of job satisfaction and intention to leave. Results There were statistically significant differences in job satisfaction and intention to leave between the three countries. Approximately 52.1% of health workers in South Africa were satisfied with their jobs compared to 71% from Malawi and 82.6% from Tanzania (χ2=140.3, p<0.001). 18.8% of health workers in Tanzania and 26.5% in Malawi indicated that they were actively seeking employment elsewhere, compared to 41.4% in South Africa (χ2=83.5, p<0.001). The country differences were confirmed by multiple regression. The study also confirmed that job satisfaction is statistically related to intention to leave. Conclusions We have shown differences in the levels of job satisfaction and intention to leave between different groups of health workers from Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Our results caution against generalising about the effectiveness of interventions in different contexts and highlight the need for less

  12. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf δ13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific δ13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ɛ29 and ɛ33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and δ13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  13. Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

    2014-05-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against

  14. HIV counselling and testing practices for children seen in an urban emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sawe, Hendry R; Mfinanga, Juma A; Ringo, Faith H; Mwafongo, Victor; Reynolds, Teri A; Runyon, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the HIV counselling and testing practices for children presenting to an emergency department (ED) in a low-income country. Setting The ED of a large east African national referral hospital. Participants This retrospective review of all paediatric (<18 years old) ED visits in 2012 enrolled patients who had an HIV test ordered and excluded those without testing. Files were available for 5540/5774 (96%) eligible patients and 1632 (30%) were tested for HIV, median age 1.3 years (IQR 9 months to 4 years), 58% <18 months old and 61% male. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was documentation of pretest and post-test counselling, or deferral of counselling, for children tested for HIV in the ED. Secondary measures included the overall rate of HIV testing, rate of counselling documented in the inpatient record when deferred in the ED, rate of counselling documented when testing was initiated by the inpatient service, rate of counselling documented by test result (positive vs negative) and the rate of referral to follow-up HIV care among patients testing positive. Results Of 418 patients tested in the ED, counselling, or deferral of counselling, was documented for 70 (17%). When deferred to the ward, subsequent counselling was documented for 15/42 (36%). Counselling was documented in 33% of patients testing positive versus 1.1% patients testing negative (OR 43 (95% CI 23 to 83). Of 199 patients who tested positive and survived to hospital discharge, 76 (38%) were referred for follow-up at the HIV clinic on discharge. Conclusions Physicians documented the provision, or deferral, of counselling for <20% of children tested for HIV in the ED. Counselling was much more likely to be documented when the test result was positive. Less than 40% of those testing positive were referred for follow-up care. PMID:26880672

  15. Epidemiology and control of human schistosomiasis in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In Tanzania, the first cases of schistosomiasis were reported in the early 19th century. Since then, various studies have reported prevalences of up to 100% in some areas. However, for many years, there have been no sustainable control programmes and systematic data from observational and control studies are very limited in the public domain. To cover that gap, the present article reviews the epidemiology, malacology, morbidity, and the milestones the country has made in efforts to control schistosomiasis and discusses future control approaches. The available evidence indicates that, both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are still highly endemic in Tanzania and cause significant morbidity.Mass drug administration using praziquantel, currently used as a key intervention measure, has not been successful in decreasing prevalence of infection. There is therefore an urgent need to revise the current approach for the successful control of the disease. Clearly, these need to be integrated control measures. PMID:23192005

  16. Workplace prevention programs promote behavior change in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Henry, K

    1995-02-01

    An estimated 800,000 Tanzanians had been infected with HIV by the end of 1992. Since working-age people spend 75% of their time at work, the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), the Tanzanian Council for Social Development, and the Organization of Tanzanian Trade Unions organize and implement workplace-based HIV/AIDS prevention programs. For example, anonymous HIV screening conducted by AMREF at Tanzania Breweries Limited in September 1993 found 11.4% of the brewery's truck drivers to be HIV-seropositive. The men subsequently participated in an informal AIDS education session conducted by peer educators with help from the brewery's STD/AIDS coordinator. These sessions are a regular part of workplace AIDS prevention programs supported by the US Agency of International Development's Tanzania AIDS Program implemented by the AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP). The author considers motivating managers, peer education, condoms, behavior change, and expansion and sustainability. PMID:12347575

  17. Pregnancy history and current use of contraception among women of reproductive age in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda: analysis of demographic and health survey data

    PubMed Central

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Matanda, Dennis J; Ayiko, Rogers; Rujumba, Joseph; Muiruri, Charles; Amendah, Djesika; Atela, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between pregnancy history and the use of contraception among women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in East Africa. Methods Demographic and Health Surveys data from Burundi (2010), Kenya (2008–2009), Rwanda (2010), Tanzania (2010) and Uganda (2011) were used in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to determine the effects of women's pregnancy history on their use of contraception. Setting Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Participants 3226, 2377, 4396, 3250 and 2596 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda, respectively, were included in the analysis. Results Women who had experienced a mistimed pregnancy were more likely to use a modern contraceptive method during their most recent sexual encounter in Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda. Other significant correlates of women's contraceptive use were: desire for more children, parity, household wealth, maternal education and access information through radio. In-country regional differences on use of modern contraceptive methods were noted across five East African countries. Conclusions Women's birth histories were significantly associated with their decision to adopt a modern contraceptive method. This highlights the importance of considering women's birth histories, especially women with mistimed births, in the promotion of contraceptive use in East Africa. Variations as a result of place of residency, educational attainment, access to family planning information and products, and wealth ought to be addressed in efforts to increase use of modern contraceptive methods in the East African region. PMID:26966059

  18. Patient satisfaction with emergency oral health care in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ntabaye, M K; Scheutz, F; Poulsen, S

    1998-10-01

    Emergency oral health care, as conceived in Tanzania, is an on-demand service provided at a rural health center or dispensary by a Rural Medical Aide. The service includes: simple tooth extraction under local anesthesia, draining of abscesses, control of acute oral infection with appropriate drug therapy, first aid for maxillo-facial trauma, and recognition of oral conditions requiring patient referral for further care at the district or regional hospital dental clinic. The objective of the present study was to describe patient satisfaction with emergency oral health care services in rural Tanzania and determine the relative importance of factors influencing patient satisfaction. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional interview survey between April 1993 and May 1994 using a patient satisfaction questionnaire in rural villages in the Rungwe district of Tanzania. It included 206 patients aged 18 years or more who had received emergency oral health care between April 1993 and March 1994. Overall, 92.7% of the respondents reported that they were satisfied with the service. Patients who were married, had no formal education and lived more than 3 km from the dispensary were more likely to be satisfied with treatment. In a logistic regression model, a good working atmosphere at the dispensary, a good relationship between care provider and patients (art of care) and absence of post-treatment complications significantly influenced patient satisfaction with odds ratios of 10.3, 17.4 and 6.2, respectively. PMID:9792119

  19. The past, present and future of domestic equines in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania's array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  20. Academia-Industry-Government Linkages in Tanzania: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpehongwa, Gasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed trends, challenges and prospects of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania. Using case study design, and documentary review to gather the required data, the study sought to answer three research questions: (1) what are the trends of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania?, (2) what are the challenges…

  1. Standards to Assure Quality in Tertiary Education: The Case of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyaga, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information on development of standards in Tanzania which may be of help to training providers in other countries as they seek to improve the quality and standards of their provision. Design/methodology/approach: The need to provide quality assured tertiary qualifications in Tanzania to win both…

  2. Provision of Pre-Primary Education as a Basic Right in Tanzania: Reflections from Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to assess provision of pre-primary education in Tanzania as a basic right through analyses of relevant policy documents. Documents which were published over the past decade were considered, including educational policies, action plans, national papers, the "Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania" documents, strategy documents,…

  3. UPE in Tanzania: SWAP-ing Quality for Quantity--Again?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, Tanzania renewed its 1974 commitment to universal primary education. This paper explores differences in the current policy-formulation context, examining how development discourse and aid practice have shifted the space and scale of public governance in Tanzania, legitimising international agendas and the participation of non-Tanzanians…

  4. Early Child Development and Care in Tanzania: Challenges for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2009-01-01

    Much remains unknown about the status of early child development and care in Tanzania. The little information available has never been put together to provide a holistic picture of the progress so far made in this important area. This paper intends to synchronise the information available in Tanzania for the purpose of depicting the country's…

  5. Angular leaf spot disease status and characterization of the causative pathgen (P. Griseola) in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angular leaf spot caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola is one of the most important disease of common bean in Tanzania. Breeding for resistance to this disease is complicated by the variable nature of the pathogen. In Tanzania no thorough attempt has been completed to evaluate the variabil...

  6. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  7. The Role of Media Technology within the Proposed Open University of Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Alan K.

    This report begins by briefly reviewing actions that have been taken since the idea of an Open University in Tanzania was first proposed in the late 1970s. The main body of the report begins with a discussion of the role of media technology in an open university with emphasis on delivery and support systems. The current situation in Tanzania is…

  8. Performance of Andean common bean under low fertility stress in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low soil fertility is a limiting factor for bean production in East Africa. In Tanzania low available N and P soils are widespread. Average bean yields in Tanzania are around 500 kg/ha although the potential yield under reliable rain-fed conditions is 1500–3000kg/ha, using improved varieties and pro...

  9. Tanzania at the Turn of the Century: Background Papers and Statistics. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report presents lessons from Tanzania's development experience of the past four decades, with emphasis on the period since the last report (1996), and assesses the imperatives for higher sustained growth and better livelihood for its citizens in the future. The background papers review and assess Tanzania's actual growth and poverty reduction…

  10. The influence of climate change on Tanzania's hydropower sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Boehlert, Brent; Meijer, Karen; Schellekens, Jaap; Magnell, Jan-Petter; Helbrink, Jakob; Kassana, Leonard; Liden, Rikard

    2015-04-01

    Economic costs induced by current climate variability are large for Tanzania and may further increase due to future climate change. The Tanzanian National Climate Change Strategy addressed the need for stabilization of hydropower generation and strengthening of water resources management. Increased hydropower generation can contribute to sustainable use of energy resources and stabilization of the national electricity grid. To support Tanzania the World Bank financed this study in which the impact of climate change on the water resources and related hydropower generation capacity of Tanzania is assessed. To this end an ensemble of 78 GCM projections from both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 datasets was bias-corrected and down-scaled to 0.5 degrees resolution following the BCSD technique using the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset as a reference. To quantify the hydrological impacts of climate change by 2035 the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was set-up for Tanzania at a resolution of 3 minutes and run with all 78 GCM datasets. From the full set of projections a probable (median) and worst case scenario (95th percentile) were selected based upon (1) the country average Climate Moisture Index and (2) discharge statistics of relevance to hydropower generation. Although precipitation from the Princeton dataset shows deviations from local station measurements and the global hydrological model does not perfectly reproduce local scale hydrographs, the main discharge characteristics and precipitation patterns are represented well. The modeled natural river flows were adjusted for water demand and irrigation within the water resources model RIBASIM (both historical values and future scenarios). Potential hydropower capacity was assessed with the power market simulation model PoMo-C that considers both reservoir inflows obtained from RIBASIM and overall electricity generation costs. Results of the study show that climate change is unlikely to negatively affect the

  11. Mobile Phone Use and Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Ashley L.; Baird, Timothy D.; Sorice, Michael G.

    2016-07-01

    Throughout the developing world, mobile phones are spreading rapidly into rural areas where subsistence livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and human-wildlife conflict (HWC) are each common. Despite this trend, little is known about the relationship between mobile phones and HWC in conservation landscapes. This paper examines this relationship within ethnically Maasai communities in northern Tanzania on the border of Tarangire National Park. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis are used to (1) describe how Maasai agro-pastoralists use phones to manage human-wildlife interactions; and (2) assess the relationship between phone use and measures of HWC, controlling for other factors. The findings indicate that households use phones to reduce the number and severity of HWC events and that the relationship between phones and HWC varies according to the type of HWC.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Matitu, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

  13. Mobile Phone Use and Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ashley L; Baird, Timothy D; Sorice, Michael G

    2016-07-01

    Throughout the developing world, mobile phones are spreading rapidly into rural areas where subsistence livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and human-wildlife conflict (HWC) are each common. Despite this trend, little is known about the relationship between mobile phones and HWC in conservation landscapes. This paper examines this relationship within ethnically Maasai communities in northern Tanzania on the border of Tarangire National Park. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis are used to (1) describe how Maasai agro-pastoralists use phones to manage human-wildlife interactions; and (2) assess the relationship between phone use and measures of HWC, controlling for other factors. The findings indicate that households use phones to reduce the number and severity of HWC events and that the relationship between phones and HWC varies according to the type of HWC. PMID:27017517

  14. "Protect Your Loved Ones From Fataki": Discouraging Cross-Generational Sex in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Tsang, Samantha W; Mooney, Alyssa; McCartney-Melstad, Anna; Mushi, Adiel K; Kamala, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The Fataki campaign aired in Tanzania via radio from 2008 to 2011 to address cross-generational sex, a major driver of HIV in the region. The campaign sought to incite social disapproval of men who engage in such relationships, generate dialogue around the issue, and encourage community interventions in these relationships through social learning. Using qualitative methods, we explored campaign reactions, use of the term Fataki to describe men in relationships with much younger women, and the nature of discussions spurred by the campaign. We conducted focus group discussions and individual interviews in Iringa and Pwani regions with young women, older men, and community leaders. Results showed that the Fataki term was widely used and had negative connotations reflecting social disapproval of men who participate in such relationships. Dialogue spurred by the campaign, primarily directed toward young women, focused on reasons for avoiding these relationships. We conclude with suggestions for relevant future interventions. PMID:25918112

  15. A Nationwide Survey of the Quality of Antimalarials in Retail Outlets in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harparkash; Goodman, Catherine; Thompson, Eloise; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Masanja, Irene; Kachur, S. Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania. Methods and Findings We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine), 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nearly one quarter (23.8%) of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone. Conclusions Substandard

  16. The decentralisation-centralisation dilemma: recruitment and distribution of health workers in remote districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The implementation of decentralisation reforms in the health sector of Tanzania started in the 1980s. These reforms were intended to relinquish substantial powers and resources to districts to improve the development of the health sector. Little is known about the impact of decentralisation on recruitment and distribution of health workers at the district level. Reported difficulties in recruiting health workers to remote districts led the Government of Tanzania to partly re-instate central recruitment of health workers in 2006. The effects of this policy change are not yet documented. This study highlights the experiences and challenges associated with decentralisation and the partial re-centralisation in relation to the recruitment and distribution of health workers. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted among informants recruited from five underserved, remote districts of mainland Tanzania. Additional informants were recruited from the central government, the NGO sector, international organisations and academia. A comparison of decentralised and the reinstated centralised systems was carried out in order to draw lessons necessary for improving recruitment, distribution and retention of health workers. Results The study has shown that recruitment of health workers under a decentralised arrangement has not only been characterised by complex bureaucratic procedures, but by severe delays and sometimes failure to get the required health workers. The study also revealed that recruitment of highly skilled health workers under decentralised arrangements may be both very difficult and expensive. Decentralised recruitment was perceived to be more effective in improving retention of the lower cadre health workers within the districts. In contrast, the centralised arrangement was perceived to be more effective both in recruiting qualified staff and balancing their distribution across districts, but poor in ensuring the retention of employees

  17. Sociodemographic drivers of multiple sexual partnerships among women in three rural districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Exavery, Amon; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Tani, Kassimu; Hingora, Ahmed; Phillips, James F

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines prevalence and correlates of multiple sexual partnerships (MSP) among women aged 15+ years in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania. Materials and methods Data were collected in a cross-sectional household survey in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts in Tanzania in 2011. From the survey, a total of 2,643 sexually active women ages 15+ years were selected for this analysis. While the chi-square test was used for testing association between MSP and each of the independent variables, logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results Number of sexual partners reported ranged from 1 to 7, with 7.8% of the women reporting multiple sexual partners (2+) in the past year. MSP was more likely among both ever married women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–10.49) and single women (AOR =6.13, 95% CI 2.45–15.34) than currently married women. There was an interaction between marital status and education, whereby MSP was 85% less likely among single women with secondary or higher education compared to married women with no education (AOR =0.15, 95% CI 0.03–0.61). Furthermore, women aged 40+ years were 56% less likely compared to the youngest women (<20 years) to report MSP (AOR =0.44, 95% CI 0.24–0.80). The odds of MSP among Muslim women was 1.56 times as high as that for Christians women (AOR =1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.21). Ndengereko women were 67% less likely to report MSP compared to Pogoro women (AOR =0.33, 95% CI 0.18–0.59). Conclusion Eight percent of the women aged 15+ in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania are engaged in MSP. Encouraging achievement of formal education, especially at secondary level or beyond, may be a viable strategy toward partner reduction among unmarried women. Age, religion, and ethnicity are also important dimensions for partner reduction efforts. PMID:25914557

  18. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further

  19. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker cadres with little pre

  20. Malaria entomological profile in Tanzania from 1950 to 2010: a review of mosquito distribution, vectorial capacity and insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Kabula, Bilali; Derua, Yahya A; Tungui, Patrick; Massue, Dennis J; Sambu, Edward; Stanley, Grades; Mosha, Franklin W; Kisinza, William N

    2011-12-01

    In Sub Saharan Africa where most of the malaria cases and deaths occur, members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex and Anophelesfunestus species group are the important malaria vectors. Control efforts against these vectors in Tanzania like in most other Sub Saharan countries have failed to achieve the set objectives of eliminating transmission due to scarcity of information about the enormous diversity of Anopheles mosquito species and their susceptibility status to insecticides used for malaria vector control. Understanding the diversity and insecticide susceptibility status of these vectors and other factors relating to their importance as vectors (such as malaria transmission dynamics, vector biology, ecology, behaviour and population genetics) is crucial to developing a better and sound intervention strategies that will reduce man-vector contact and also manage the emergency of insecticide resistance early and hence .a success in malaria control. The objective of this review was therefore to obtain the information from published and unpublished documents on spatial distribution and composition of malaria vectors, key features of their behaviour, transmission indices and susceptibility status to insecticides in Tanzania. All data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each data source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rate. This collation resulted in a total of 368 publications, encompassing 806,273 Anopheles mosquitoes from 157 georeferenced locations being collected and identified across Tanzania from 1950s to 2010. Overall, the vector species most often reported included An. gambiae complex (66.8%), An. funestus complex (21.8%), An. gambiae s.s. (2.1%) and An. arabiensis (9%). A variety of sampling/ collection and

  1. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Joel M.; Weiss, Helen A.; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15–24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. Results A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47–70% ever users and 20–45% current users) than females (24–54% ever users and 12–47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11–28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Conclusions Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking

  2. The challenge to avoid anti-malarial medicine stock-outs in an era of funding partners: the case of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Between 2007 and 2013, the Tanzanian public sector received 93.1 million doses of first-line anti-malarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the form of artemether-lumefantrine entirely supplied by funding partners. The introduction of a health facility ACT stock monitoring system using SMS technology by the National Malaria Control Programme in mid 2011 revealed a high frequency of stock-outs of ACT in primary care public health facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of availability of ACT and possible causes of observed stock-outs across public health facilities in Tanzania since mid-2011. Methods Data were collected weekly by the mobile phone reporting tool SMS for Life on ACT availability from over 5,000 public health facilities in Tanzania starting from September 2011 to December 2012. Stock data for all four age-dose levels of ACT across health facilities were summarized and supply of ACT at the national level was also documented. Results Over the period of 15 months, on average 29% of health facilities in Tanzania were completely stocked out of all four-age dose levels of the first-line anti-malarial with a median duration of total stock-out of six weeks. Patterns of total stock-out by region ranged from a low of 9% to a high of 52%. The ACT stock-outs were most likely caused by: a) insufficient ACT supplies entering Tanzania (e.g. in 2012 Tanzania received 10.9 million ACT doses compared with a forecast demand of 14.4 million doses); and b) irregular pattern of ACT supply (several months with no ACT stock). Conclusion The reduced ACT availability and irregular pattern of supply were due to cumbersome bureaucratic processes and delays both within the country and from the main donor, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Tanzania should invest in strengthening both the supply system and the health information system using mHealth solutions such as SMS for Life. This will continue to

  3. Access, Use and Perceptions of Teachers and Students towards Mobile Phones as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the access, use and perceptions of teachers and students towards mobile phones as a tool for facilitating teaching and learning beyond the classroom walls. A total of 29 pre-service teachers and four college instructors from Dar es salaam University College of Education (DUCE) as well as 12 in-service teachers and 40 students…

  4. Red blood cell indices and prevalence of hemoglobinopathies and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in male Tanzanian residents of Dar es Salaam.

    PubMed

    Mwakasungula, Solomon; Schindler, Tobias; Jongo, Said; Moreno, Elena; Kamaka, Kasimu; Mohammed, Mgeni; Joseph, Selina; Rashid, Ramla; Athuman, Thabit; Tumbo, Anneth Mwasi; Hamad, Ali; Lweno, Omar; Tanner, Marcel; Shekalaghe, Seif; Daubenberger, Claudia A

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, disorders of hemoglobin structure and production, are one of the most common monogenic disorders in humans. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is an inherited enzymopathy resulting in increased oxygen stress susceptibility of red blood cells. The distributions of these genetic traits in populations living in tropical and subtropical regions where malaria has been or is still present are thought to result from survival advantage against severe life threatening malaria disease. 384 male Tanzanian volunteers residing in Dar es Salaam were typed for G6PD, sickle cell disease and α-thalassemia. The most prominent red blood cell polymorphism was heterozygous α(+)-thalassemia (37.8%), followed by the G6PD(A) deficiency (16.4%), heterozygous sickle cell trait (15.9%), G6PD(A-) deficiency (13.5%) and homozygous α(+)-thalassemia (5.2%). 35%, 45%, 17% and 3% of these volunteers were carriers of wild type gene loci, one, two or three of these hemoglobinopathies, respectively. We find that using a cut off value of 28.6 pg. for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), heterozygous α(+)-thalassemia can be predicted with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 72% in this male population. All subjects carrying homozygous α(+)-thalassemia were identified based on their MCH value < 28.6 pg. PMID:25755846

  5. Red blood cell indices and prevalence of hemoglobinopathies and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in male Tanzanian residents of Dar es Salaam

    PubMed Central

    Mwakasungula, Solomon; Schindler, Tobias; Jongo, Said; Moreno, Elena; Kamaka, Kasimu; Mohammed, Mgeni; Joseph, Selina; Rashid, Ramla; Athuman, Thabit; Tumbo, Anneth Mwasi; Hamad, Ali; Lweno, Omar; Tanner, Marcel; Shekalaghe, Seif; Daubenberger, Claudia A

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, disorders of hemoglobin structure and production, are one of the most common monogenic disorders in humans. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is an inherited enzymopathy resulting in increased oxygen stress susceptibility of red blood cells. The distributions of these genetic traits in populations living in tropical and subtropical regions where malaria has been or is still present are thought to result from survival advantage against severe life threatening malaria disease. 384 male Tanzanian volunteers residing in Dar es Salaam were typed for G6PD, sickle cell disease and α-thalassemia. The most prominent red blood cell polymorphism was heterozygous α+-thalassemia (37.8%), followed by the G6PD(A) deficiency (16.4%), heterozygous sickle cell trait (15.9%), G6PD(A-) deficiency (13.5%) and homozygous α+-thalassemia (5.2%). 35%, 45%, 17% and 3% of these volunteers were carriers of wild type gene loci, one, two or three of these hemoglobinopathies, respectively. We find that using a cut off value of 28.6 pg. for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), heterozygous α+-thalassemia can be predicted with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 72% in this male population. All subjects carrying homozygous α+-thalassemia were identified based on their MCH value < 28.6 pg. PMID:25755846

  6. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and AIDS risk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kamazima, Switbert R; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Kazaura, Method R; Fimbo, Benett

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of trafficking in persons in Tanzania is unknown. Consequently, available information on health risks of persons trafficked for different forms of exploitation is extremely scanty. We conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania using both qualitative and quantitative methods to generate data on the health conditions of trafficked persons to inform trafficking in persons control measures through HIV and AIDS interventions. Study participants included the national, regional and district community development officers, district medical officers, local government leaders, managers or representatives of non-governmental organizations involved in anti-trafficking in persons activities, members of the community and victims. Findings indicated that common forms of labour into which persons are trafficked include domestic services, agriculture (farming), construction, mining/quarrying, fishing, lumbering and manufacturing. Trafficked persons are reported to be exposed to risks like overcrowding, long working hours, psychological problems, physical injuries, impotence, breathing problems and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. It is concluded that the reported occupational hazards in industries where trafficked persons are forced into are not specific to trafficked persons as they affect all labourers. However, the underground nature of the trafficking in persons process increases health problems and risks, including the vulnerability to HIV infection. More tailored research is needed, especially to find means of how to reach out and provide services to this particular vulnerable population, validate labour forms of exploitation into which persons are trafficked to enable the integration or mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS and trafficking in persons at the policy and programmatic levels. In addition, findings would facilitate the understanding of the link between increased risk of IRV and trafficking in persons. PMID:26591750

  7. Community-based monitoring of safe motherhood in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Mswia, Robert; Lewanga, Mary; Moshiro, Candida; Whiting, David; Wolfson, Lara; Hemed, Yusuf; Alberti, K. G. M. M.; Kitange, Henry; Mtasiwa, Deo; Setel, Philip

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the progress made towards the Safe Motherhood Initiative goals in three areas of the United Republic of Tanzania during the 1990s. METHODS: Maternal mortality in the United Republic of Tanzania was monitored by sentinel demographic surveillance of more than 77,000 women of reproductive age, and by prospective monitoring of mortality in the following locations; an urban site; a wealthier rural district; and a poor rural district. The observation period for the rural districts was 1992-99 and 1993-99 for the urban site. FINDINGS: During the period of observation, the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) due to maternal causes (PMDF) compared with all causes was between 0.063 and 0.095. Maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios) were 591-1099 and maternal mortality rates (MMRates; maternal deaths per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years) were 43.1-123.0. MMRatios in surveillance areas were substantially higher than estimates from official, facility-based statistics. In all areas, the MMRates in 1999 were substantially lower than at the start of surveillance (1992 for rural districts, 1993 for the urban area), although trends during the period were statistically significant at the 90% level only in the urban site. At the community level, an additional year of education for household heads was associated with a 62% lower maternal death rate, after controlling for community-level variables such as the proportion of home births and occupational class. CONCLUSION: Educational level was a major predictor of declining MMRates. Even though rates may be decreasing, they remained high in the study areas. The use of sentinel registration areas may be a cost-effective and accurate way for developing countries to monitor mortality indicators and causes, including for maternal mortality. PMID:12751416

  8. Increased utilisation of PEPFAR-supported laboratory services by non-HIV patents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McNairy, Margaret L.; Gwynn, Charon; Rabkin, Miriam; Antelman, Gretchen; Wu, Yingfeng; Alemayehu, Bereket; Lim, Travis; Imtiaz, Rubina; Mosha, Fausta; Mwasekaga, Michael; Othman, Asha A.; Justman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown to what extent the non-HIV population utilises laboratories supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Objectives We aimed to describe the number and proportion of laboratory tests performed in 2009 and 2011 for patients referred from HIV and non-HIV services (NHSs) in a convenience sample collected from 127 laboratories supported by PEPFAR in Tanzania. We then compared changes in the proportions of tests performed for patients referred from NHSs in 2009 vs 2011. Methods Haematology, chemistry, tuberculosis and syphilis test data were collected from available laboratory registers. Referral sources, including HIV services, NHSs, or lack of a documented referral source, were recorded. A generalised linear mixed model reported the odds that a test was from a NHS. Results A total of 94 132 tests from 94 laboratories in 2009 and 157 343 tests from 101 laboratories in 2011 were recorded. Half of all tests lacked a documented referral source. Tests from NHSs constituted 42% (66 084) of all tests in 2011, compared with 31% (29 181) in 2009. A test in 2011 was twice as likely to have been referred from a NHS as in 2009 (adjusted odds ratio: 2.0 [95% confidence interval: 2.0–2.1]). Conclusion Between 2009 and 2011, the number and proportion of tests from NHSs increased across all types of test. This finding may reflect increased documentation of NHS referrals or that the laboratory scale-up originally intended to service the HIV-positive population in Tanzania may be associated with a ‘spillover effect’ amongst the general population. PMID:26962475

  9. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania’s contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence. PMID:25132543

  10. Depression and HIV risk among men who have sex with men in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ahaneku, Hycienth; Ross, Michael W.; Nyoni, Joyce E.; Selwyn, Beatrice; Troisi, Catherine; Mbwambo, Jessie; Adeboye, Adeniyi; McCurdy, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies have shown high rates of depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developed countries. Studies have also shown association between depression and HIV risk among MSM. However, very little research has been done on depression among African MSM. We assessed depression and HIV risk among a sample of MSM in Tanzania. We reviewed data on 205 MSM who were recruited from two Tanzanian cities using the respondent driven sampling method. Demographic and behavioral data were collected using a structured questionnaire. HIV and sexually transmitted infections data were determined from biological tests. Depression scores were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). For the analysis, depression scores were dichotomized as depressed (PHQ > 4) and not depressed (PHQ ≤ 4). Bivariate and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with depression. The prevalence of depression in the sample was 46.3%. The mean (±SD) age of the sample was 25 (±5) years. In bivariate analysis, depression was associated with self-identifying as gay (p = .001), being HIV positive (p < .001: <8% of MSM knew they were HIV infected) and having a high number of sexual partners in the last 6 months (p = .001). Depression was also associated with sexual (p = .007), physical (p = .003) and verbal (p < .001) abuse. In the Poisson regression analysis, depression was associated with verbal abuse (APR = 1.91, CI = 1.30–2.81). Depression rates were high among MSM in Tanzania. It is also associated with abuse, HIV and HIV risk behaviors. Thus, reducing the risk of depression may be helpful in reducing the risk of HIV among MSM in Africa. We recommend the colocation of mental health and HIV preventive services as a cost-effective means of addressing both depression and HIV risk among MSM in Africa. PMID:27002772

  11. Who Has Mycobacterial Disease? A Cross Sectional Study in Agropastoral Communities in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kilale, Andrew Martin; Ngadaya, Esther; Muhumuza, Julius; Kagaruki, Gibson Benard; Lema, Yakobo Leonard; Ngowi, Bernard James; Mfinanga, Sayoki Godfrey; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine and describe clinical symptoms, demographic characteristics and environmental exposures as determinants of pulmonary mycobacterial diseases among patients examined for tuberculosis in agropastoral communities in Northern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional study. Sputum samples were collected from patients attending three hospitals in Tanzania, and were investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis by microscopy between November 2010 and June 2012. The patients were interviewed about background information, and potential exposure to mycobacteria. Results We examined 1,711 presumptive tuberculosis cases where 936 (54.2%) were males and 775 (45.3%) females. Of all the study participants, 277 (16%) were found to have sputum samples positive for mycobacteria; 228 (13%) were smear positive, 123 (7%) were culture positive and 74 (4%) were positive by both smear microscopy and culture. Of the 123 mycobacterial culture positive, 15 (12.2%) had non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Males were more likely than females to be positive for mycobacteria. Factors associated with mycobacterial disease were loss of appetite, age groups below 41 years, and being a male. Among HIV negative patients, loss of appetite, age below 20 years and being a male were associated with being mycobacterial positive. Among HIV positive patients, males and those patients with a persistently coughing family member were more likely to harbor mycobacteria. Conclusion The findings in this study show that both M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains were prevalent in the study community. Some risk factors were identified. Although the reported predictors may improve screening for mycobacterial diseases, their use requires some precaution. PMID:27213532

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of delivering adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Lees, Shelley; Mwanga, Joseph; Neke, Nyasule; Changalucha, John; Broutet, Nathalie; Maduhu, Ibrahim; Kapiga, Saidi; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Bloem, Paul; Ross, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers an opportunity to strengthen provision of adolescent health interventions (AHI). We explored the feasibility of integrating other AHI with HPV vaccination in Tanzania. Methods: A desk review of 39 policy documents was preceded by a stakeholder meeting with 38 policy makers and partners. Eighteen key informant interviews (KIIs) with health and education policy makers and district officials were conducted to further explore perceptions of current programs, priorities and AHI that might be suitable for integration with HPV vaccination. Results: Fourteen school health interventions (SHI) or AHI are currently being implemented by the Government of Tanzania. Most are delivered as vertical programmes. Coverage of current programs is not universal, and is limited by financial, human resource and logistic constraints. Limited community engagement, rumours, and lack of strategic advocacy has affected uptake of some interventions, e.g. tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization. Stakeholder and KI perceptions and opinions were limited by a lack of experience with integrated delivery and AHI that were outside an individual’s area of expertise and experience. Deworming and educational sessions including reproductive health education were the most frequently mentioned interventions that respondents considered suitable for integrated delivery with HPV vaccine. Conclusions: Given programme constraints, limited experience with integrated delivery and concern about real or perceived side-effects being attributed to the vaccine, it will be very important to pilot-test integration of AHI/SHI with HPV vaccination. Selected interventions will need to be simple and quick to deliver since health workers are likely to face significant logistic and time constraints during vaccination visits. PMID:26768827

  13. The make or buy debate: Considering the limitations of domestic production in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to ensure their population’s regular access to essential medicines, many least developed countries and developing countries are faced with the policy question of whether to import or manufacture drugs locally, in particular for life-saving antiretroviral medicines for HIV/AIDS patients. In order for domestic manufacturing to be viable and cost-effective, the local industry must be able to compete with international suppliers of medicines by producing sufficiently low cost ARVs. Methods This paper considers the ‘make-or-buy’ dilemma by using Tanzania as a case study. Key informant interviews, event-driven observation, and purposive sampling of documents were used to evaluate the case study. The case study focused on Tanzania’s imitation technology transfer agreement to locally manufacture a first-line ARV (3TC + d4T + NVP), reverse engineering the ARV. Results Tanzania is limited by weak political support for the use of TRIPS flexibilities, limited production capacity for ARVs and limited competitiveness in both domestic and regional markets. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare encourages the use of flexibilities while others push for increased IP protection. Insufficient production capacity and lack of access to donor-financed tenders make it difficult to obtain economies of scale and provide competitive prices. Conclusions Within the “make-or-buy” context, it was determined that there are significant limitations in domestic manufacturing for developing countries. The case study highlights the difficulty of governments to make use of economies of scale and produce low-cost medicines, attract technology transfer, and utilize the flexibilities of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating barriers to the use of TRIPS flexibilities and long-term planning across sectors in future technology transfer and manufacturing initiatives

  14. Magnitude of HIV infection among older people in Mufindi and Babati districts of the Tanzania mainland

    PubMed Central

    Nyigo, Vitus; Kilale, Andrew; Kilima, Stella; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Mshana, Jonathan; Mushi, Adiel K; Matemba, Lucas; Massaga, Julius

    2014-01-01

    Introduction According to the 2011–2012 HIV and Malaria Indicator Survey, the prevalence of HIV infection in Tanzania is 5.1%, with limited information on its magnitude among older people, as the community believes that the elderly are not at risk. Consequently, little attention is given to the fight against HIV and AIDS in this group. The present study investigated the magnitude of HIV and AIDS infection among older people in rural and urban areas of the Tanzania mainland. Subjects and methods The study was conducted in Mufindi and Babati districts of Iringa and Manyara regions, respectively, through multistage sampling procedures. Dried blood spot cards were used to collect blood samples for HIV testing among consenting participants. HIV testing was done and retested using different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results A total of 720 individuals, 340 (47.2%) males and 380 (52.8%) females, were randomly selected, of whom 714 (99.2%) consented to HIV testing while six (0.8%) refused to donate blood. The age ranged from 50 to 98 years, with a mean age of 64.2 years. Overall, a total of 56 (7.8%) participants were HIV-positive. Females had a higher prevalence (8.3%) than males (7.4%), with Mufindi district recording the higher rate (11.3%) compared to the 3.7% of Babati district. The prevalence was higher in the rural population (9.4%) compared to 6.4% of their urban counterparts. Conclusion Although HIV/AIDS is considered a disease of individuals aged 15–49 years, the overall prevalence among the older people aged 50 years and above for Mufindi and Babati districts was higher than the national prevalence in the general population. These findings point to the need to consider strengthening interventions targeting older populations against HIV/AIDS in these districts while establishing evidence countrywide to inform policy decisions. PMID:24926202

  15. Access to artemisinin-based anti-malarial treatment and its related factors in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) has been widely adopted as one of the main malaria control strategies. However, its promise to save thousands of lives in sub-Saharan Africa depends on how effective the use of ACT is within the routine health system. The INESS platform evaluated effective coverage of ACT in several African countries. Timely access within 24 hours to an authorized ACT outlet is one of the determinants of effective coverage and was assessed for artemether-lumefantrine (Alu), in two district health systems in rural Tanzania. Methods From October 2009 to June 2011we conducted continuous rolling household surveys in the Kilombero-Ulanga and the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Surveys were linked to the routine HDSS update rounds. Members of randomly pre-selected households that had experienced a fever episode in the previous two weeks were eligible for a structured interview. Data on individual treatment seeking, access to treatment, timing, source of treatment and household costs per episode were collected. Data are presented on timely access from a total of 2,112 interviews in relation to demographics, seasonality, and socio economic status. Results In Kilombero-Ulanga, 41.8% (CI: 36.6–45.1) and in Rufiji 36.8% (33.7–40.1) of fever cases had access to an authorized ACT provider within 24 hours of fever onset. In neither of the HDSS site was age, sex, socio-economic status or seasonality of malaria found to be significantly correlated with timely access. Conclusion Timely access to authorized ACT providers is below 50% despite interventions intended to improve access such as social marketing and accreditation of private dispensing outlets. To improve prompt diagnosis and treatment, access remains a major bottle neck and new more innovative interventions are needed to raise effective coverage of malaria treatment in Tanzania. PMID:23651521

  16. Predictors of Health Care Seeking Behavior During Pregnancy, Delivery, and the Postnatal Period in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna; Exavery, Amon; Phillips, James F; Tani, Kassimu; Kanté, Almamy M

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Four antenatal visits, delivery in a health facility, and three postnatal visits are the World Health Organization recommendations for women to optimize maternal health outcomes. This study examines maternal compliance with the full recommended maternal health visits in rural Tanzania with the goal of illuminating interventions to reduce inequalities in maternal health. Methods Analysis included 907 women who had given birth within two years preceding a survey of women of reproductive age. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of maternal, household, and community-level characteristics on four alternative classes defining relative compliance with optimal configuration of maternal health care seeking behavior. Results Parity, wealth index, timeliness of ANC initiation, nearest health facility type, religion, and district of residence were significant predictors of maternal health care seeking when adjusted for other factors. Multiparous women compared to primiparous were less likely to seek care at the high level [RRR 0.16, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.46], at the mid-level (RRR 0.22, 95 % CI 0.09-0.58), and the mid-low level (RRR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.09-0.80). Women in the highest wealth index compared to those in the poorest group were almost three times more likely to seek the highest two levels of care versus the lowest level (high RRR 2.92, 95 % CI 1.27-6.71, mid-level RRR 2.71, 95 % 1.31-5.62). Conclusion Results suggest that efforts to improve the overall impact of services on the continuum of care in rural Tanzania would derive particular benefit from strategies that improve maternal health coverage among multiparous and low socioeconomic status women. PMID:27194528

  17. Feasibility of nurse-led antidepressant medication management of depression in an HIV clinic in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Julie L.; Almond, Maria L. G.; Ringo, Edward J.; Shangali, Wahida H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest HIV prevalence worldwide and depression is highly prevalent among those infected. The negative impact of depression on HIV outcomes highlights the need to identify and treat it in this population. A model for doing this in lower-resourced settings involves task-shifting depression treatment to primary care; however, HIV-infected individuals are often treated in a parallel HIV specialty setting. We adapted a model of task-shifting, measurement based care (MBC), for an HIV clinic setting and tested its feasibility in Tanzania. MBC involves measuring depressive symptoms at meaningful intervals and adjusting antidepressant medication treatment based on the measure of illness. Method Twenty adults presenting for care at an outpatient HIV clinic in Tanzania were enrolled and followed by a nurse care manager who measured depressive symptoms at baseline and every four weeks for 12 weeks. An algorithm-based decision-support tool was utilized by the care manager to recommend individualized antidepressant medication doses to participants’ HIV providers at each visit. Results Retention was high and fidelity of the care manager to the MBC protocol was exceptional. Follow through of antidepressant prescription dosing recommendations by the prescriber was low. Limited availability of antidepressants was also noted. Despite challenges, baseline depression scores decreased over the 12- week period. Conclusions Overall, the model of algorithm-based nursing support of prescription decisions was feasible. Future studies should address implementation issues of medication supply and dosing. Further task-shifting to relatively more abundant and lower-skilled health workers, such as nurses’ aides warrants examination. PMID:22849034

  18. The challenges of achieving high training coverage for IMCI: case studies from Kenya and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mushi, Hildegalda P; Mullei, Kethi; Macha, Janet; Wafula, Frank; Borghi, Josephine; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Health worker training is a key component of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). However, training coverage remains low in many countries. We conducted in-depth case studies in two East African countries to examine the factors underlying low training coverage 10 years after IMCI had been adopted as policy. A document review and in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at facility, district, regional/provincial and national levels in two districts in Kenya (Homa Bay and Malindi) and Tanzania (Bunda and Tarime) were carried out in 2007–08. Bunda and Malindi achieved higher levels of training coverage (44% and 25%) compared with Tarime and Homa Bay (5% and 13%). Key factors allowing the first two districts to perform better were: strong district leadership and personal commitment to IMCI, which facilitated access to external funding and encouraged local-level policy adaptation; sensitization and training of district health managers; and lower staff turnover. However, IMCI training coverage remained well below target levels across all sites. The main barrier to expanding coverage was the cost of training due to its duration, the number of facilitators and its residential nature. Mechanisms for financing IMCI also restricted district capacity to raise funds. In Tanzania, districts could not spend more than 10% of their budgets on training. In Kenya, limited financial decentralization meant that district managers had to rely on donors for financial support. Critically, the low priority given to IMCI at national and international levels also limited the expansion of training. Levels of domestic and donor support for IMCI have diminished over time in favour of vertical programmes, partly due to the difficulty in monitoring and measuring the impact of an integrated intervention like IMCI. Alternative, lower cost methods of IMCI training need to be promoted, and greater advocacy for IMCI is needed both nationally and internationally. PMID

  19. The Use of Guidelines for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Tanzania: A Lesson from Kilimanjaro Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Mbwele, B; Slot, A; De Mast, Q; Kweka, P; Msuya, M; Hulscher, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluations of the guidelines for the management of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Tanzania is scant. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of the current Tanzanian treatment guideline for the management lower respiratory tract infection. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study in 11 hospitals of different levels in the Kilimanjaro region Data were collected from May 2012 to July 2012 by semi-structured interview for clinicians using 2 dummy cases for practical assessment. Data were analyzed by STATA v11 (StataCorp, TX, USA). Qualitative narratives from the interviews were translated, transcribed then coded by colors into meaningful themes. Results: A variety of principles for diagnosing and managing LRTI were demonstrated by 53 clinicians of Kilimanjaro. For the awareness, 67.9% (36/53) clinicians knew their responsibility to use Standard Treatment Guideline for managing LRTI. The content derived from Standard Treatment Guideline could be cited by 11.3% of clinicians (6/53) however they all showed concern of gaps in the guideline. Previous training in the management of patients with LRTI was reported by 25.9% (14/53), majority were pulmonary TB related. Correct microorganisms causing different forms of LRTI were mentioned by 11.3% (6/53). Exact cause of Atypical pneumonia and Q fever as an example was stated by 13.0% (7/53) from whom the need of developing the guideline for LRTI was explicitly elaborated. Conclusion: The current guidelines have not been used effectively for the management of LRTI in Tanzania. There is a need to review its content for the current practical use. PMID:27213093

  20. Educational, scientific, tourist and outreach potential of the September 1, 2016 Annular Solar Eclipse in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayabali Jiwaji, Noorali

    2015-08-01

    Tanzania will witness a major astronomical spectacle of an annular eclipse on September 1, 2016. The central part of the eclipse will pass through southern Tanzania, crossing national parks and game reserves such as Katavi and the world famous Selous. For the rest of Tanzania and neighbouring countries it will be a memorable event with large of the proportion of the Sun being covered up. The climate in Tanzania during September is cool and dry which will provide ideal viewing conditions. Solar eclipse events attract "eclipse chasers" from around the globe.Scientific interest in measuring the properties of the Sun and the effects of the eclipse on the atmosphere will allow local scientists to partner with leading scientists to gain valuable experience and knowledge.Local population's wonder and interest in eclipses can be exploited through public-private partnerships by encouraging students and local people to travel to the central path or to observe from their backyards. Large number of eclipse glasses can be manufactured cheaply using safe solar filters for supplying to students and general population in Tanzania and neigbouring countries. This will raise science awareness about the wonders of our Universe.When combined with the attraction of Tanzania's treasures in the north and the 16 tonne Mbozi meteorite in southern Tanzania, the touristic potential of this event can be exploited through tour packages and worldwide advertisements during the coming year.

  1. Partial Genetic Characterization of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus from Goats in Northern and Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kgotlele, T; Macha, E S; Kasanga, C J; Kusiluka, L J M; Karimuribo, E D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Wensman, J J; Munir, M; Misinzo, G

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal swabs, tissues and whole blood) were obtained from live goats with clinical presentation suggestive of PPR and goats that died naturally in Ngorongoro (Northern Tanzania) and Mvomero (Eastern Tanzania) districts. The clinical signs observed in goats suspected with PPR included fever, dullness, diarrhea, lacrimation, matting of eye lids, purulent oculonasal discharges, cutaneous nodules, erosions on the soft palate and gums and labored breathing. Post mortem findings included pneumonia, congestion of the intestines, and hemorrhages in lymph nodes associated with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. PPRV was detected in 21 out of 71 tested animals using primers targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the N gene, indicated that PPRV obtained from Northern and Eastern Tanzania clustered with PPRV strains of Lineage III, together with PPRV from Sudan and Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that there are active PPRV infections in Northern and Eastern Tanzania, suggesting risks for potential spread of PPR in the rest of Tanzania. PMID:25135464

  2. Partial genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from goats in northern and eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kgotlele, T; Macha, E S; Kasanga, C J; Kusiluka, L J M; Karimuribo, E D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Wensman, J J; Munir, M; Misinzo, G

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal swabs, tissues and whole blood) were obtained from live goats with clinical presentation suggestive of PPR and goats that died naturally in Ngorongoro (Northern Tanzania) and Mvomero (Eastern Tanzania) districts. The clinical signs observed in goats suspected with PPR included fever, dullness, diarrhea, lacrimation, matting of eye lids, purulent oculonasal discharges, cutaneous nodules, erosions on the soft palate and gums and labored breathing. Post mortem findings included pneumonia, congestion of the intestines, and hemorrhages in lymph nodes associated with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. PPRV was detected in 21 out of 71 tested animals using primers targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the N gene, indicated that PPRV obtained from Northern and Eastern Tanzania clustered with PPRV strains of Lineage III, together with PPRV from Sudan and Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that there are active PPRV infections in Northern and Eastern Tanzania, suggesting risks for potential spread of PPR in the rest of Tanzania. PMID:25135464

  3. Response to Rift Valley Fever in Tanzania: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fyumagwa, Robert D; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Nyaki, Athanas; Mdaki, Maulid L; Katale, Zablon B; Moshiro, Candida; Keyyu, Julius D

    2011-12-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an arthropod borne viral disease affecting livestock (cattle, sheep, goats and camels), wildlife and humans caused by Phlebovirus. The disease occurs in periodic cycles of 4-15 years associated with flooding from unusually high precipitations in many flood-prone habitats. Aedes and Culex spp and other mosquito species are important epidemic vectors. Because of poor living conditions and lack of knowledge on the pathogenesis of RVF, nomadic pastoralists and agro-pastoralists are at high risk of contracting the disease during epidemics. RVF is a professional hazard for health and livestock workers because of poor biosafety measures in routine activities including lack of proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Direct exposure to infected animals can occur during handling and slaughter or through veterinary and obstetric procedures or handling of specimens in laboratory. The episodic nature of the disease creates special challenges for its mitigation and control and many of the epidemics happen when the governments are not prepared and have limited resource to contain the disease at source. Since its first description in 1930s Tanzania has recorded six epidemics, three of which were after independence in 1961. However, the 2007 epidemic was the most notable and wide spread with fatal human cases among pastoralists and agro-pastoralists concurrent with high livestock mortality. Given all the knowledge that exist on the epidemiology of the disease, still the 2006/2007 epidemic occurred when the government of Tanzania was not prepared to contain the disease at source. This paper reviews the epidemiology, reporting and outbreak-investigation, public awareness, preparedness plans and policy as well as challenges for its control in Tanzania. PMID:26591988

  4. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.

    2005-05-01

    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

  5. Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children’s allocation of time to school and work. Children attend school for more days per week—but not for more hours per day—as a result of accessing better healthcare. There are no significant effects on child labor, but the results suggest that time spent in physically strenuous activities such as farming and herding increases. PMID:24353348

  6. Tanzania wildcats to evaluate Jurassic Mandawa salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Nagati, M.

    1996-10-07

    After 5 years of stagnant exploration in East Africa, Canadian independent Tanganyika Oil Co. of Vancouver, B.C., will drill two wildcats in Tanzania to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the coastal Jurassic Mandawa salt basin. Mita-1, spudded around Oct. 1, will be drilled to about 7,000 ft, East Lika-1 will be drilled in early December 1996 to approximately 6,000 ft. The two wells will test different structures and play concepts. The paper describes the exploration history, source rock potential, hydrocarbon shows, potential reservoir, and the prospects.

  7. The risk factors for human cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwang'onde, Beda J; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Chacha, Mwita

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the persistence of human cysticercosis (HCC) transmission in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania. The study was carried out in 25 villages, whereby five major risks were identified. The risks were indiscriminate defaecation and improper use of toilets; a free-range system of keeping pigs; indiscriminate or unregulated slaughtering and inadequate meat hygiene and inspection; consumption of undercooked and porcine cysticerci infected pork; and social structure and roles. All of the identified risks were backed up by the immanent lifestyles of the community involved. These findings are important for the development of intervention strategies in the study area. PMID:25005750

  8. Income and Health in Tanzania. An Instrumental Variable Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fichera, Eleonora; Savage, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a substantial debate over the direction of the causal relation between income and health. This is important for our understanding of the health production process and for the policy debate over improving healthcare. We instrument income with rainfall measurements by matching satellite information on timing and positioning of 21 rainfall stations to longitudinal data (1991–94) of over 4,000 individuals in 51 villages in Tanzania. A 10% increase in income reduces the number of illnesses by 0.02. We also find that a 10% increase in income implies an increase of about 0.1 vaccinations of children under six. PMID:25648157

  9. Phenotypes including immunocompetence in scavenging local chicken ecotypes in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Msoffe, P L; Minga, U M; Olsen, J E; Yongolo, M G; Juul-Madsen, H R; Gwakisa, P S; Mtambo, M M

    2001-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the variations in physical characters and immunocompetence among scavenging local chicken ecotypes in Tanzania. Eighty-four adult scavenging local chickens from four eco-climatic regions of Tanzania were studied. Measurements of adult body weight, body length, shank length and egg weight and observations of plumage colour and pattern, earlobe colour, skin colour and the shape of the comb were conducted. The antibody response to sheep red blood cells, serum haemolytic complement and the cutaneous response to phytohaemagglutinin-P were assessed. Five ecotypes were identified and named Mbeya, Morogoro-medium, Ching'wekwe, Kuchi and Singamagazi. Singamagazi and Kuchi were significantly heavier, with longer shanks and heavier eggs than the other ecotypes. The average adult body weight for males ranged from 1621 g (Mbeya) to 2915 g (Singamagazi). Average female weights ranged from 1108 g (Morogoro-medium) to 2020 g (Singamagazi). Mean egg weights ranged from 37.65 g (Ching'wekwe) to 45.61 (Singamagazi). The Kuchi had mostly rose and walnut combs, while the other ecotypes were mostly single combed. In each ecotype there were chickens with a high or low antibody response to red blood cells, but there was a significant difference between the ecotypes. PMID:11474868

  10. Music therapy in the context of palliative care in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Rebecca

    2010-10-01

    There has been much written to support music therapy as an adjunct in managing pain and anxiety in palliative care patients in Western societies, but little written on its use in developing countries. In light of increasing numbers of terminally ill patients in Tanzania owing to HIV/AIDS and cancer, limited access to opioids, and a growing interest in palliative care support, this study looks at the application of music in this context. The study reviews the history and principles of therapeutic music and outlines its role in palliative care. A qualitative study was conducted by questionnaire of 17 professionals involved in home-based palliative care in Tanzania. Findings include beliefs about the power of music, how music is being used to bring comfort to the dying patient, and the most important aspects of helpful music to many Tanzanian palliative care patients. Music can powerfully affect body, mind and spirit. It is vocal music, which is an accepted therapeutic music tool used to bring comfort to the palliative care patient and their family members. Finally, music is an active and participatory activity in Tanzanian culture, even for the dying. PMID:20972382

  11. Brucellosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  12. Brucellosis among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bouley, Andrew J; Biggs, Holly M; Stoddard, Robyn A; Morrissey, Anne B; Bartlett, John A; Afwamba, Isaac A; Maro, Venance P; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A

    2012-12-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  13. Animal research ethics in Africa: is Tanzania making progress?

    PubMed

    Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy

    2013-12-01

    The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised. PMID:23006770

  14. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison; Katholi, Charles R.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Machang'u, Robert R.; Portaels, Françoise; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were divided into “reacting” and “nonreacting” farms, based on tuberculin tests, and more mycobacteria were present in insectivores collected in reacting farms as compared to nonreacting farms. More mycobacteria were also present in insectivores as compared to rodents. All mycobacteria detected by culture and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely. However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania. PMID:21785686

  15. The Past, Present and Future of Domestic Equines in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    WILSON, R. Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania’s array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  16. Volunteers who won't give up in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    2000-02-01

    The voluntary position of community-based distribution agent (CBDA) is not one to be taken lightly. There are many responsibilities and burdens, and the community looks to CBDAs for guidance. However, when support for their activities stop and funding runs dry, many volunteers give up. Consequently, the Family Planning Association of Tanzania (UMATI) has gone to great lengths to ensure the quality and success of those chosen to be CBDAs, nurturing them into "volunteers who won't give up". In Tanzania, CBDAs are tested and selected through the joint efforts of the community and UMATI, and they therefore become respected members of the community. UMATI ensures their success by regular supervision and community participation. The active participation of the community leaders creates a sense of responsibility and ownership for a project, and this helps to support the CBDAs as well. UMATI's CBD training includes management of income generating activities (IGA), since the volunteers have to earn a living in addition to working for the community. There is also a network of support of IGAs that CBDAs can draw on. In addition to this support, there are nonmonetary incentives, such as bicycles and uniforms, which give the CBDAs a visible social presence. In some areas, village authorities have exempted CBDAs from other community services, and some villages provide space or land for IGAs for CBDAs. All of these factors, especially community support, lead to a very low dropout rate for volunteers, and the high morale and commitment of the CBDAs. PMID:12295747

  17. Experience on healthcare utilization in seven administrative regions of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Health care utilization in many developing countries, Tanzania included, is mainly through the use of traditional medicine (TRM) and its practitioners despite the presence of the conventional medicine. This article presents findings on the study that aimed to get an experience of health care utilization from both urban and rural areas of seven administrative regions in Tanzania. A total of 33 health facility managers were interviewed on health care provision and availability of supplies including drugs, in their respective areas. The findings revealed that the health facilities were overburden with higher population to serve than it was planned. Consequently essential drugs and other health supplies were available only in the first two weeks of the month. Conventional health practitioners considered traditional health practitioners to be more competent in mental health management, and overall, they were considered to handle more HIV/AIDS cases knowingly or unknowingly due to shear need of healthcare by this group. In general conventional health practitioners were positive towards traditional medicine utilization; and some of them admitted using traditional medicines. Traditional medicines like other medical health systems worldwide have side effects and some contentious ethical issues that need serious consideration and policy direction. Since many people will continue using traditional/alternative medicine, there is an urgent need to collaborate with traditional/alternative health practitioners through the institutionalization of basic training including hygiene in order to improved healthcare in the community and attain the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. PMID:22284539

  18. Community-based advocacy opportunities for tobacco control: experience from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kagaruki, Lutgard K

    2010-06-01

    Tanzania is third in Africa in tobacco production after Malawi and Zimbabwe. In spite of increased production, Tanzania remains a poor country, with tobacco farmers getting poorer and the country losing more than 16,500 hectares of forests annually from tobacco curing alone. Tanzania grows fire-cured and air-cured tobacco. Regarding tobacco use, 35% of Tanzanians smoke tobacco regularly and about 32% of all cancers at Ocean Road Cancer Institute are attributed to tobacco use, with the country spending more than $30m annually to treat tobacco-related cancers. Unfortunately, knowledge on tobacco-related hazards is limited even among policy/decision makers. However, surveys indicate that more than 65% of resource-poor tobacco farmers favour alternative livelihoods when assured of sustainable markets. There is need of intensifying advocacy campaigns against tobacco, in order to improve the socio-economic status of tobacco farmers, enhance public health and sustain the environment in Tanzania. PMID:20595340

  19. Focal mechanisms and the stress regime in NE and SW Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Florentin, Juliette

    2005-07-01

    We report 12 new focal mechanisms from earthquakes in NE and SW Tanzania where the stress regime within the East African rift system is not well constrained. Focal mechanisms for events at the intersection of the Lake Tanganyika and Rukwa rifts in SW Tanzania indicate a complicated stress pattern with possible dextral strike-slip motion on some faults but oblique motion on others (either sinistral on NW striking faults or dextral on NE striking faults). Within the Rukwa rift, focal mechanisms indicate normal dip-slip motion with NE-SW opening. In NE Tanzania where the Eastern rift impinges on the margin of the Tanzania Craton, fault motions are consistent with a zone of distributed block faults and sub E-W extension. All twelve earthquakes likely nucleated within the crust.

  20. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  1. “Bend a fish when the fish is not yet dry”: Adolescent Boys’ Perceptions of Sexual Risk in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of effort, the spread of HIV/AIDS continues among many African young people. A key contributor is unsafe sexual behavior that is desired, persuaded or coerced. We explored the masculinity norms shaping pubescent boys’ perceptions of and engagement in (unsafe) sexual behaviors in Tanzania. Through a comparative case study in rural and urban Tanzania, qualitative and participatory methods were used with 160 adolescent boys in and out of school to better understand the social and contextual factors promoting unsafe sexual behaviors. Adolescent boys in both the rural and urban sites reported struggling with intense sexual desires, strong peer pressures to have sex, and social norms dissuading condom use. A growing “normalization” of AIDS suggests messages promoting the dangers of HIV infection may be less effective. Findings reinforce the need for interventions with very young adolescents. Research is needed to identify more effective approaches for promoting safer sexual practices among boys in sub-Saharan Africa. Harm reduction approaches and gender transformative approaches might prove more effective than current HIV prevention efforts focused on youth. PMID:25583374

  2. "Bend a fish when the fish is not yet dry": adolescent boys' perceptions of sexual risk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2015-04-01

    Despite decades of effort, the spread of HIV/AIDS continues among many African young people. A key contributor is unsafe sexual behavior that is desired, persuaded, or coerced. We explored the masculinity norms shaping pubescent boys' perceptions of and engagement in (unsafe) sexual behaviors in Tanzania. Through a comparative case study in rural and urban Tanzania, qualitative and participatory methods were used with 160 adolescent boys in and out of school to better understand the social and contextual factors promoting unsafe sexual behaviors. Adolescent boys in both the rural and urban sites reported struggling with intense sexual desires, strong peer pressures to have sex, and social norms dissuading condom use. A growing "normalization" of AIDS suggests messages promoting the dangers of HIV infection may be less effective. Findings reinforce the need for interventions with very young adolescents. Research is needed to identify more effective approaches for promoting safer sexual practices among boys in sub-Saharan Africa. Harm reduction approaches and gender transformative approaches might prove more effective than current HIV prevention efforts focused on youth. PMID:25583374

  3. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural southeastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mtenga, S; Shamba, D; Wamoyi, J; Kakoko, D; Haafkens, J; Mongi, A; Kapiga, S; Geubbels, E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore ideas of truck drivers and villagers from rural Tanzania about heterosexual anal sex (HAS) and the associated health risks. Methods Qualitative study using 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with truck drivers and 16 IDIs and 4 FGDs with villagers from the Morogoro region. Study participants included 24 women and 46 men. Data analysis was performed thematically employing standard qualitative techniques. Results Reasons why men would practice HAS included sexual pleasure, the belief that anal sex is safer than vaginal sex, alternative sexual practice, exploration and proof of masculinity. Reasons why women would practice HAS included financial need, retaining a partner, alternative for sex during menses, pregnancy prevention and beauty enhancement because HAS is believed to ‘fatten the female buttocks’. Most participants believed that condoms are not needed during HAS. This was linked to the ideas that infections only ‘reside in wet places’ (vagina) and that the anus is not ‘conducive’ for condom use; condoms reduce ‘dryness’ and ‘friction’ (pleasure) and may ‘get stuck inside’. Conclusions The study participants reported practices and ideas about HAS that put them at risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Greater attention to education about HAS is urgently needed in Tanzania, where this sexual practice is still regarded as a taboo. This study offers useful information that could be included in sex education programmes. PMID:26113730

  4. Evaluation of potential impacts of climate change and water management on streamflow in the Rovuma River, Mozambique and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Economic development and public health are tied to water resources development in many parts of the world. Effective use of water management infrastructure investments requires projections of future climatic and water use conditions. This is particularly true in developing countries. We explore in this work water resource availability in the Rovuma River, which lies in a sparsely-populated region of southeastern Africa, on the border of Mozambique and Tanzania. While there are only limited documented observations of flow of the Rovuma River and it's tributaries, particularly in recent years, there is widespread interest in development of the water resources of the region. The national governments are interested in hydropower potential while private companies, many of them large multinational organizations, have started irrigation programs to increase agricultural output. While the Mozambique and Tanzania governments have a joint agreement over the river development, there is a need to assess both current and potential future water resource conditions in the basin. The sustainability of these developments, however, may be affected by climate change. Here we quantify potential changes in streamflow in the Rovuma River under dry and wet climate projection scenarios using the delta method and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro-scale hydrology model. We then evaluate streamflow changes relative to water withdrawals required for a range of irrigated agriculture scenarios. Our analysis is intended to be a starting point for planners to consider potential impacts of both streamflow withdrawal permits (for irrigated agriculture) and future uncertain climate conditions.

  5. Cattle ticks of the genera Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma of economic importance in Tanzania: distribution assessed with GIS based on an extensive field survey.

    PubMed

    Lynen, Godelieve; Zeman, Petr; Bakuname, Christine; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Mtui, Paul; Sanka, Paul; Jongejan, Frans

    2007-01-01

    In order to implement a robust integrated tick and tick-borne disease control programme in Tanzania, based on ecological and epidemiological knowledge of ticks and their associated diseases, a national tick and sero-surveillance study was carried out in all 21 regions of the mainland, as well as on Mafia Island, between 1998 and 2001. The current distributions of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. pravus, Amblyomma variegatum, A. gemma, and A. lepidum are illustrated and discussed. Tick distribution maps were assessed using the Weights-of-Evidence method (WofE), and employing temperature, humidity, NDVI, rainfall, and land-cover predictive data. Ground-truthing was done to check correspondence both of the data employed in prediction with land-cover characteristics discerned in the field as well as of the surveyed and predicted tick distributions. Statistical methods were used to analyse associations of the tick species with their environment, cattle density, and other ticks. Except for R. appendiculatus, no appreciable changes were demonstrated in the predicted and observed tick distributions compared to the existing maps that originated in the 1950-1960s. Cattle density influenced the distribution of A. variegatum and, to a certain extent, of A. lepidum, but had no appreciable influence on the distribution of any of the other ticks discussed in this paper, neither did livestock movement. Distinct differences for environmental requirements where observed between different tick species within the same genus. The predictive maps of R. appendiculatus and R. pravus suggest their mutually exclusive distribution in Tanzania, and simultaneous statistical analysis showed R. pravus as a greater specialist. Of the three Amblyomma species, A. variegatum is the most catholic tick species in Tanzania, while both A. gemma and A. lepidum belong to the more specialized species. Despite dissimilar habitat preferences, all three Amblyomma spp. co-exist in central Tanzania, where very

  6. Challenges to the implementation of International Health Regulations (2005) on Preventing Infectious Diseases: experience from Julius Nyerere International Airport, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Edith; Frumence, Gasto

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) is a legal instrument binding all World Health Organization (WHO) member States. It aims to prevent and control public health emergencies of international concern. Country points of entry (POEs) have been identified as potential areas for effective interventions to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases across borders. The agreement postulates that member states will strengthen core capacities detailed in the IHR (2005), including those specified for the POE. This study intended to assess the challenges faced in implementing the IHR (2005) requirements at Julius Nyerere International Airport (JNIA), Dar es Salaam. Design A cross-sectional, descriptive study, employing qualitative methods, was conducted at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW), WHO, and JNIA. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and documentary reviews were used to obtain relevant information. Respondents were purposively enrolled into the study. Thematic analysis was used to generate study findings. Results Several challenges that hamper implementation of the IHR (2005) were identified: (1) none of the 42 Tanzanian POEs have been specifically designated to implement IHR (2005). (2) Implementation of the IHR (2005) at the POE was complicated as it falls under various uncoordinated government departments. Although there were clear communication channels at JNIA that enhanced reliable risk communication, the airport lacked isolated rooms specific for emergence preparedness and response to public health events. Conclusions JNIA is yet to develop adequate core capacities required for implementation of the IHR (2005). There is a need for policy managers to designate JNIA to implement IHR (2005) and ensure that public health policies, legislations, guidelines, and practice at POE are harmonized to improve international travel and trade. Policy makers and implementers should also ensure that implementation of

  7. Termite fishing by wild chimpanzees: new data from Ugalla, western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Fiona A; Piel, Alex K

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees manufacture flexible fishing probes to fish for termites in Issa, Ugalla, western Tanzania. These termite-fishing tools are similar in size and material to those used by long-studied communities of chimpanzees in western Tanzania (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and in West Africa (P. t. verus), but not central African populations (P. t. troglodytes). This report adds to the patchwork of evidence of termite-fishing tool use behaviour by chimpanzees across Africa. PMID:23720026

  8. Trends in availability and prices of subsidized ACT over the first year of the AMFm: evidence from remote regions of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a pilot supra-national subsidy program that aims to increase access and affordability of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in public sector clinics and private retail shops. It is unclear to what extent the AMFm model will translate into wide scale availability and price reductions in ACT, particularly for rural, remote areas where disparities in access to medicines often exist. This study is the first to rigorously examine the availability and price of subsidized ACT during the first year of the AMFm, measured through retail audits in remote regions of Tanzania. Methods Periodic retail audits of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) were conducted in two remote regions of Tanzania (Mtwara and Rukwa). Temporal and spatial variation in ACT availability and pricing were explored. A composite measure of ADDO remoteness, using variables, such as distance to suppliers and towns, altitude and population density, was used to explore whether ACT availability and price vary systematically with remoteness. Results Between February 2011 and January 2012, the fraction of ADDOs stocking AMFm-ACT increased from 25% to 88% in Mtwara and from 3% to 62% in Rukwa. Availability was widespread, though diffusion throughout the region was achieved more quickly in Mtwara. No significant relationship was found between ACT availability and remoteness. Adult doses of AMFm-ACT were much more widely available than any other age/weight band. Average prices fell from 1529 TZS (1.03 USD) to 1272 TZS (0.81 USD) over the study period, with prices in Rukwa higher than Mtwara. The government recommended retail price for AMFm- ACT is 1,000 TZS ($0.64 USD). The median retail ACT price in the final round of data collection was 1,000 TZS. Conclusions The AMFm led to large increases in availability of low priced ACT in Tanzania, with no significant variation in availability based on remoteness. Availability did remain lower and

  9. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:26153978

  10. Clinical and subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania: risk, intervention and knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Bell, C E; Swai, E S; Kambarage, D M; Ogden, N H; Bryant, M J; French, N P

    2006-04-17

    In a cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI)=11.6-17.3) of cows had developed clinical mastitis during the previous year. The point prevalence of subclinical mastitis, defined as a quarter positive by the California Mastitis Test (CMT) or by bacteriological culture, was 46.2% (95% CI=43.6-48.8) and 24.3% (95% CI=22.2-26.6), respectively. In a longitudinal disease study in Iringa, the incidence of clinical mastitis was 31.7 cases per 100 cow-years. A randomised intervention trial indicated that intramammary antibiotics significantly reduced the proportion of bacteriologically positive quarters in the short-term (14 days post-infusion) but teat dipping had no detectable effect on bacteriological infection and CMT positive quarters. Other risk and protective factors were identified from both the cross-sectional and longitudinal included animals with Boran breeding (odds ratio (OR)=3.40, 95% CI=1.00-11.57, P<0.05 for clinical mastitis, and OR=3.51, 95% CI=1.29-9.55, P<0.01 for a CMT positive quarter), while the practice of residual calf suckling was protective for a bacteriologically positive quarter (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.48-0.81, Pmethods of dissemination were assessed over time. In a subsequent randomised controlled trial, there were strong associations between knowledge gained and both the individual question asked and the combination of dissemination methods (village meeting, video and handout) used. This study demonstrated that both clinical and subclinical mastitis is common in smallholder dairying in Tanzania, and that some of the risk and protective factors for mastitis can be addressed by practical management of dairy cows following effective knowledge

  11. The evolutionary ecology of early weaning in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wander, Katherine; Mattison, Siobhán M

    2013-10-01

    Public health recommendations promote prolonged breastfeeding of all children; however, parental investment (PI) theory predicts that breastfeeding will be allocated among a mothers' offspring to maximize her reproductive success. We evaluated PI in terms of risk for weaning before age two among 283 children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Results demonstrate: (i) a Trivers-Willard effect--high socioeconomic status (SES) females and low SES males were more likely to be weaned early; (ii) later-born children were less likely to be weaned early; (iii) higher birthweight children were less likely to be weaned early, and (iv) no effect of cattle (a source of supplementary milk) ownership. These associations were largely independent and remained significant in models controlling for potential confounders; however, the inverse association between early weaning and birth order lost significance in the model containing birthweight. These patterns were observed despite public health recommendations encouraging breastfeeding for at least two years. PMID:23926151

  12. Creating a national culture of quality: the Tanzania experience.

    PubMed

    Mwidunda, Patrick E; Eliakimu, Eliudi

    2015-07-01

    Although quality improvement has been a priority for Tanzania's health sector since the 1970s, few effective quality improvement initiatives were implemented, due to limited expertise, political commitment and resources. More recently, as the HIV epidemic gained momentum within the country, an influx of funding and of international organizations with quality improvement expertise accelerated the implementation of quality improvement projects, as well as efforts to institutionalize quality improvement at the national level. The support of US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and other donors, and the increasing numbers of HIV-implementing partners focused on quality management, and quality improvement strategies catalysed the development of HIV-specific quality improvement initiatives first, and then of national quality improvement frameworks. The diversity of quality improvement approaches championed by various donors and partners also presented important challenges to harmonization and institutionalization of quality improvement programmes. PMID:26102628

  13. Childbearing Experiences Following an HIV Diagnosis in Iringa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Haneefa T; Surkan, Pamela J; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-09-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) continue to have children after being diagnosed with HIV, yet little research attention has been paid to actual lived childbearing experiences of PLHIV post-HIV diagnosis. We interviewed 10 HIV-positive women and 11 HIV-positive men in Iringa, Tanzania, about their experiences of conceiving and having children after being diagnosed with HIV. We adopted an approach to data analysis based on grounded theory and phenomenology. Participants' experiences were shaped by social and institutional factors. Some participants reported pressures to bear children by partners and relatives, whereas others reported negative reactions from others concerning their pregnancies. Most participants had not discussed having children with a provider before attempting to conceive. Some reported being reprimanded by health providers for getting pregnant without seeking their advice. Consideration of support systems and challenges surrounding the childbearing experiences of PLHIV can help inform reproductive health interventions for those who desire children. PMID:26443798

  14. Economic evaluation of rural woodlots in a developing country: Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Kihiyo, V.B.M.S.

    1996-03-01

    Rural areas in developing countries use wood as their main source of energy. Previously, wood has been obtained free from natural forests and woodlands. The pressure of increased demand through population growth, and the fact that natural trees take longer to grow, has made this resource scarce. Thus, raising trees in woodlots has been adopted as the solution to its shortage in the wild. However, growing trees in woodlots will inevitably require resources in terms of capital, land and manpower. Economic evaluation becomes necessary to ascertain that these resources are used economically. This paper dwells on some of the salient features of the economic evaluation of woodlots, such as interest rates, shadow prices of factors of production, social opportunity, cost of capital and sensitivity analysis of such woodlots in a developing country such as Tanzania. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Hydrograph separation using hydrochemical tracers in the Makanya catchment, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mul, Marloes L.; Mutiibwa, Robert K.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    Hydrochemical tracers were used to separate and quantify different runoff components in the semi-arid Makanya catchment in the South Pare Mountains of Tanzania. One flood event was investigated during the rainy season of October-December 2005 and analysed for electrical conductivity, dissolved silica and major anions and cations. The event on 9 November 2005 showed two peaks, each originating from one of two sub-catchments, upper-Vudee and Ndolwa, each with a distinct water quality signature. Hydrograph separation indicated that the two peaks in the hydrograph originated from a delay in response between the two catchments. The hydrograph separation indicated that, for this event, over 95% of the discharge could be attributed to sub-surface runoff, while the remainder was due to faster surface runoff processes. The dominance of sub-surface processes was also indicated by the lack of suspended sediments in the samples, which is a clear indication that no surface runoff took place.

  16. East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

    2012-04-01

    Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa

  17. The evolutionary ecology of early weaning in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Wander, Katherine; Mattison, Siobhán M.

    2013-01-01

    Public health recommendations promote prolonged breastfeeding of all children; however, parental investment (PI) theory predicts that breastfeeding will be allocated among a mothers' offspring to maximize her reproductive success. We evaluated PI in terms of risk for weaning before age two among 283 children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Results demonstrate: (i) a Trivers–Willard effect—high socioeconomic status (SES) females and low SES males were more likely to be weaned early; (ii) later-born children were less likely to be weaned early; (iii) higher birthweight children were less likely to be weaned early, and (iv) no effect of cattle (a source of supplementary milk) ownership. These associations were largely independent and remained significant in models controlling for potential confounders; however, the inverse association between early weaning and birth order lost significance in the model containing birthweight. These patterns were observed despite public health recommendations encouraging breastfeeding for at least two years. PMID:23926151

  18. Storage Mixing Variability Across Seasons and Scales in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Lyon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to accurately assess water residence times and storage volumes hinges on data availability. However, hydrological data is often limited or non-existing in most regions of the world. This study synthesizes hydrological tracer data with hydroclimatic information in order to disentangle storage volume dynamics and variability across data-limited African catchments. Specifically, we focus on the Kilombero Valley in Tanzania where there is a large potential to develop and expand the agricultural sector and thus increasing food security nationally. The lack hydrological data and subsequent limited process understanding hinders our capacity to assess the sustainability of such an increased and intensified agriculture landscape. We demonstrate how hydrological tracers constitute an exceptionally valuable piece of information for constraining model parameterizations, improving process understanding and representing storage volumes in data limited regions. Geochemical (e.g., Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl-) and stable water isotope (d18O and d2H) tracers were used to estimate recharge rates and seasonal shifts in hydrologic flow pathways. End member mixing analysis (EMMA) applied within the GLUE uncertainty framework was used to assess relative source contributions to streamflow and storage volume connectivity across scales. Strong variations in stable water isotopes between rainfall seasons in Tanzania and geological partitioning of storages allowed for clear characterization of seasonal variations in hydrologic flow pathway development. Wetlands dominated the wet season flows while variability in the connectivity of water storages could be seen during the dry season. Differences in the wetting up versus drying down storage mixing across the landscape highlights process shifts. This characterization improves our ability to utilize the limited data available in Kilombero Valley as it provides the basis for modelling surface-groundwater interactions regionally and

  19. A qualitative pilot study of food insecurity among Maasai women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Carol; Hatfield, Jennifer; McIntyre, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is an ongoing threat in rural sub-Saharan Africa and is complicated by cultural practices, the rise of chronic conditions such as HIV and land use availability. In order to develop a successful food security intervention program, it is important to be informed of the realities and needs of the target population. The purpose of this study was to pilot a qualitative method to understand food insecurity based on the lived experience of women of the Maasai population in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area of Tanzania. Methods Short semi-structured qualitative interviews with 4 Maasai women. Results Food insecurity was present in the Maasai community: the participants revealed that they did not always have access to safe and nutritious food that met the needs of themselves and their families. Themes that emerged from the data fell into three categories: Current practices (food sources, planning for enough, food preparation, and food preservation), food Insecurity (lack of food, emotions, coping strategies, and possible solutions), and division (co-wives, food distribution, and community relationships). Conclusion This pilot study suggested the presence of food insecurity in the Maasai community. Larger sample studies are needed to clarify the extent and severity of food insecurity among this population. Having a detailed understanding of the various aspects of the food insecurity lived experience could inform a targeted intervention program. PMID:23077702

  20. A Spatial Analysis of Rift Valley Fever Virus Seropositivity in Domestic Ruminants in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sindato, Calvin; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute arthropod-borne viral zoonotic disease primarily occurring in Africa. Since RVF-like disease was reported in Tanzania in 1930, outbreaks of the disease have been reported mainly from the eastern ecosystem of the Great Rift Valley. This cross-sectional study was carried out to describe the variation in RVF virus (RVFV) seropositivity in domestic ruminants between selected villages in the eastern and western Rift Valley ecosystems in Tanzania, and identify potential risk factors. Three study villages were purposively selected from each of the two Rift Valley ecosystems. Serum samples from randomly selected domestic ruminants (n = 1,435) were tested for the presence of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM), using RVF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Mixed effects logistic regression modelling was used to investigate the association between potential risk factors and RVFV seropositivity. The overall RVFV seroprevalence (n = 1,435) in domestic ruminants was 25.8% and speciesspecific seroprevalence was 29.7%, 27.7% and 22.0% in sheep (n = 148), cattle (n = 756) and goats (n = 531), respectively. The odds of seropositivity were significantly higher in animals sampled from the villages in the eastern than those in the western Rift Valley ecosystem (OR = 1.88, CI: 1.41, 2.51; p<0.001), in animals sampled from villages with soils of good than those with soils of poor water holding capacity (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.58, 3.02; p< 0.001), and in animals which had been introduced than in animals born within the herd (OR = 5.08, CI: 2.74, 9.44; p< 0.001). Compared with animals aged 1–2 years, those aged 3 and 4–5 years had 3.40 (CI: 2.49, 4.64; p< 0.001) and 3.31 (CI: 2.27, 4.82, p< 0.001) times the odds of seropositivity. The findings confirm exposure to RVFV in all the study villages, but with a higher prevalence in the study villages from the eastern Rift Valley ecosystem. PMID:26162089

  1. Malaria treatment in the retail sector: Knowledge and practices of drug sellers in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Dillip, Angel; Lengeler, Christian; Obrist, Brigit; Msechu, June J; Makemba, Ahmed M; Mshana, Christopher; Schulze, Alexander; Mshinda, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Background Throughout Africa, the private retail sector has been recognised as an important source of antimalarial treatment, complementing formal health services. However, the quality of advice and treatment at private outlets is a widespread concern, especially with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). As a result, ACTs are often deployed exclusively through public health facilities, potentially leading to poorer access among parts of the population. This research aimed at assessing the performance of the retail sector in rural Tanzania. Such information is urgently required to improve and broaden delivery channels for life-saving drugs. Methods During a comprehensive shop census in the districts of Kilombero and Ulanga, Tanzania, we interviewed 489 shopkeepers about their knowledge of malaria and malaria treatment. A complementary mystery shoppers study was conducted in 118 retail outlets in order to assess the vendors' drug selling practices. Both studies included drug stores as well as general shops. Results Shopkeepers in drug stores were able to name more malaria symptoms and were more knowledgeable about malaria treatment than their peers in general shops. In drug stores, 52% mentioned the correct child-dosage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) compared to only 3% in general shops. In drug stores, mystery shoppers were more likely to receive an appropriate treatment (OR = 9.6), but at an approximately seven times higher price. Overall, adults were more often sold an antimalarial than children (OR = 11.3). On the other hand, general shopkeepers were often ready to refer especially children to a higher level if they felt unable to manage the case. Conclusion The quality of malaria case-management in the retail sector is not satisfactory. Drug stores should be supported and empowered to provide correct malaria-treatment with drugs they are allowed to dispense. At the same time, the role of general shops as first contact points

  2. Predictors of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners among HIV-positive pregnant women in Morogoro, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has been scaled, to more than 90% of health facilities in Tanzania. Disclosure of HIV results to partners and their participation is encouraged in the program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, patterns and predictors of HIV sero-status disclosure to partners among HIV positive pregnant women in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in March to May 2010 among HIV-positive pregnant women who were attending for routine antenatal care in primary health care facilities of the municipality and had been tested for HIV at least one month prior to the study. Questionnaires were used to collect information on possible predictors of HIV disclosure to partners. Results A total of 250 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled. Forty one percent (102) had disclosed their HIV sero-status to their partners. HIV-disclosure to partners was more likely among pregnant women who were < 25 years old [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2–4.1], who knew their HIV status before the current pregnancy [AOR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.7–8.3], and discussed with their partner before testing [AOR = 6.9; 95% CI: 2.4–20.1]. Dependency on the partner for food/rent/school fees, led to lower odds of disclosure to partners [AOR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1–0.7]. Nine out of ten women reported to have been counseled on importance of disclosure and partner participation. Conclusions Six in ten HIV positive pregnant women in this setting had not disclosed their results of the HIV test to their partners. Empowering pregnant women to have an individualized HIV-disclosure plan, strengthening of the HIV provider initiated counseling and testing and addressing economic development, may be some of the strategies in improving HIV disclosure and partner involvement in this setting. PMID:23641927

  3. Increasing Access to Subsidized Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy through Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, many people seek malaria treatment from retail drug sellers. The National Malaria Control Program identified the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program as a private sector mechanism to supplement the distribution of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) from public facilities and increase access to the first-line antimalarial in rural and underserved areas. The ADDO program strengthens private sector pharmaceutical services by improving regulatory and supervisory support, dispenser training, and record keeping practices. Methods The government's pilot program made subsidized ACTs available through ADDOs in 10 districts in the Morogoro and Ruvuma regions, covering about 2.9 million people. The program established a supply of subsidized ACTs, created a price system with a cost recovery plan, developed a plan to distribute the subsidized products to the ADDOs, trained dispensers, and strengthened the adverse drug reactions reporting system. As part of the evaluation, 448 ADDO dispensers brought their records to central locations for analysis, representing nearly 70% of ADDOs operating in the two regions. ADDO drug register data were available from July 2007-June 2008 for Morogoro and from July 2007-September 2008 for Ruvuma. This intervention was implemented from 2007-2008. Results During the pilot, over 300,000 people received treatment for malaria at the 448 ADDOs. The percentage of ADDOs that dispensed at least one course of ACT rose from 26.2% during July-September 2007 to 72.6% during April-June 2008. The number of malaria patients treated with ACTs gradually increased after the start of the pilot, while the use of non-ACT antimalarials declined; ACTs went from 3% of all antimalarials sold in July 2007 to 26% in June 2008. District-specific data showed substantial variation among the districts in ACT uptake through ADDOs, ranging from ACTs representing 10% of all antimalarial sales in Kilombero to 47% in

  4. Aetiology of Acute Febrile Episodes in Children Attending Korogwe District Hospital in North-Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahende, Coline; Ngasala, Billy; Lusingu, John; Butichi, Allvan; Lushino, Paminus; Lemnge, Martha; Premji, Zul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although the burden of malaria in many parts of Tanzania has declined, the proportion of children with fever has not changed. This situation underscores the need to explore the possible causes of febrile episodes in patients presenting with symptoms at the Korogwe District Hospital (KDH). Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted at KDH, north-eastern Tanzania. Patients aged 2 to 59 months presenting at the outpatient department with an acute medical condition and fever (measured axillary temperature ≥37.5°C) were enrolled. Blood samples were examined for malaria parasites, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and bacterial infections. A urine culture was performed in selected cases to test for bacterial infection and a chest radiograph was requested if pneumonia was suspected. Diagnosis was based on both clinical and laboratory investigations. Results A total of 867 patients with a median age of 15.1 months (Interquartile range 8.6–29.9) were enrolled from January 2013 to October 2013. Respiratory tract infections were the leading clinical diagnosis with 406/867 (46.8%) of patients diagnosed with upper respiratory tract infection and 130/867 (15.0%) with pneumonia. Gastroenteritis was diagnosed in 184/867 (21.2%) of patients. Malaria infection was confirmed in 72/867 (8.3%) of patients. Bacterial infection in blood and urine accounted for 26/808 (3.2%) infections in the former, and 66/373 (17.7%) infections in the latter. HIV infection was confirmed in 10/824 (1.2%) of patients. Respiratory tract infections and gastroenteritis were frequent in patients under 36 months of age (87.3% and 91.3% respectively). Co-infections were seen in 221/867 (25.5%) of patients. The cause of fever was not identified in 65/867 (7.5%) of these patients. Conclusions The different proportions of infections found among febrile children reflect the causes of fever in the study area. These findings indicate the need to optimise patient management by

  5. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  6. Prevalence of Bacterial Febrile Illnesses in Children in Kilosa District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mhamphi, Ginethon G.; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Selemani, Majige; Amuri, Mbaraka; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bacterial etiologies of non-malaria febrile illnesses have significantly become important due to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in children. Despite their importance, there are few reports on the epidemiology of these diseases in Tanzania, and the true burden of such illnesses remains unknown. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of leptospirosis, brucellosis, typhoid fever and urinary tract infections and their rate of co-infections with malaria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kilosa district hospital in Tanzania for 6 months. Febrile children aged from 2–13 years were recruited from the outpatient department. Patients were screened by serological tests such as IgM and IgG ELISA, and microscopic agglutination test. Results A total of 370 patients were enrolled; of these 85 (23.0%) had malaria parasites, 43 (11.6%) had presumptive acute leptospirosis and 26/200 (13%) had confirmed leptospirosis. Presumptive acute brucellosis due to B. abortus was identified among 26 (7.0%) of patients while B. melitensis was detected in 57 (15.4%) of the enrolled patients. Presumptive typhoid fever due to S. Typhi was identified in thirty eight (10.3%) of the participants and 69 (18.6%) had urinary tract infections. Patients presented with similar symptoms; therefore, the identification of these diseases could not be done based on clinical ground alone. Co-infections between malaria and bacterial febrile illnesses were observed in 146 patients (39.5%). Although antibacterials and/or anti-malarials were prescribed in most patients, some patients did not receive the appropriate treatment. Conclusion The study has underscored the importance of febrile bacterial diseases including zoonoses such as leptospirosis and brucellosis in febrile children, and thus such illnesses should be considered by clinicians in the differential diagnoses of febrile diseases. However, access to diagnostic tests for discrimination of febrile illnesses is

  7. The Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease in Northern Tanzania: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Maro, Venance; Egger, Joseph; Karia, Francis; Thielman, Nathan; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilaweh, Humphrey; Matemu, Oliver; Patel, Uptal D.

    2015-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, kidney failure has a high morbidity and mortality. Despite this, population-based estimates of prevalence, potential etiologies, and awareness are not available. Methods Between January and June 2014, we conducted a household survey of randomly-selected adults in Northern Tanzania. To estimate prevalence we screened for CKD, which was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or persistent albuminuria. We also screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lifestyle practices including alcohol, tobacco, and traditional medicine use. Awareness was defined as a self-reported disease history and subsequently testing positive. We used population-based age- and gender-weights in estimating prevalence, and we used generalized linear models to explore potential risk factors associated with CKD, including living in an urban environment. Results We enrolled 481 adults from 346 households with a median age of 45 years. The community-based prevalence of CKD was 7.0% (95% CI 3.8-12.3), and awareness was low at 10.5% (4.7-22.0). The urban prevalence of CKD was 15.2% (9.6-23.3) while the rural prevalence was 2.0% (0.5-6.9). Half of the cases of CKD (49.1%) were not associated with any of the measured risk factors of hypertension, diabetes, or HIV. Living in an urban environment had the strongest crude (5.40; 95% CI 2.05-14.2) and adjusted prevalence risk ratio (4.80; 1.70-13.6) for CKD, and the majority (79%) of this increased risk was not explained by demographics, traditional medicine use, socioeconomic status, or co-morbid non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Conclusions We observed a high burden of CKD in Northern Tanzania that was associated with low awareness. Although demographic, lifestyle practices including traditional medicine use, socioeconomic factors, and NCDs accounted for some of the excess CKD risk observed with urban residence, much of the increased urban

  8. Citywide trauma experience in Mwanza, Tanzania: a need for urgent intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trauma remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in resource limited countries. There is paucity of published reports on trauma care in Tanzania, particularly the study area. This study was carried out to describe our experiences in trauma management outlining the etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of trauma patients at our local setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. Methods A descriptive prospective study of trauma patients was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre from April 2010 to March 2012. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Results A total of 5672 trauma patients were enrolled in the study. The male to female ratio was 2.3: 1. The majority of patients were in the 2nd decade of life. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of trauma accounting for 60.7% of cases. The majority of patients (76.6%) sustained blunt injuries. Musculoskeletal (68.5%) and head/neck (52.6%) were the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (open wounds) and fractures were the most common injuries accounting for 82.8% and 76.8% respectively. Majority of patients (74.4%) were treated surgically with wound debridement (94.0%) being the most frequently performed procedure. Postoperative complications were recorded in 31.5% of cases. The overall median duration of hospitalization was 26 days (range 1 day to 144 days). Mortality rate was 16.7%. Patients who had polytrauma, burn injuries and those who had tetanus and long bone fractures stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001), whereas the age > 65 years, severe trauma, admission Systolic Blood Pressure < 90 mmHg, presence of tetanus, severe head injury, the duration of loss of consciousness, the need for intensive care unit admission and finding of space occupying lesion on CT scan of the brain significantly influenced mortality (P < 0

  9. Significance of Trends on Enrolment, Budget and Actual Expenditure in the Examination of Higher Education Financing in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memba, Albert Zephaniah; Feng, Zhao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Financing of higher education in Tanzania is considered a crucial factor in realizing the country's development vision. It is for these reasons that Tanzania has been financing its higher education since its inception. Diminishing resource capacity and competing interests for government finance plunged the higher education into financial doldrums.…

  10. A Ghanaian Response to the Study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effah, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: developing an Equity Scorecard" is a contribution to making higher education more socially inclusive in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings reinforce some of the policy initiatives taken in Ghana and Tanzania, and underscore the importance of widening participation in…

  11. Characterization of the common bean host and Pseudocercospora griseola the causative agent of angular leaf spot disease in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola is one of the most important diseases of common bean in Tanzania. Breeding for resistance to this disease is complicated by the variable nature of the pathogen. In Tanzania no thorough analysis of the variability of this pathogen...

  12. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  13. Foot-and-mouth disease in Tanzania from 2001 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Picado, A; Speybroeck, N; Kivaria, F; Mosha, R M; Sumaye, R D; Casal, J; Berkvens, D

    2011-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Tanzania, with outbreaks occurring almost each year in different parts of the country. There is now a strong political desire to control animal diseases as part of national poverty alleviation strategies. However, FMD control requires improving the current knowledge on the disease dynamics and factors related to FMD occurrence so control measures can be implemented more efficiently. The objectives of this study were to describe the FMD dynamics in Tanzania from 2001 to 2006 and investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of transmission. Extraction maps, the space-time K-function and space-time permutation models based on scan statistics were calculated for each year to evaluate the spatial distribution, the spatiotemporal interaction and the spatiotemporal clustering of FMD-affected villages. From 2001 to 2006, 878 FMD outbreaks were reported in 605 different villages of 5815 populated places included in the database. The spatial distribution of FMD outbreaks was concentrated along the Tanzania-Kenya, Tanzania-Zambia borders, and the Kagera basin bordering Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania. The spatiotemporal interaction among FMD-affected villages was statistically significant (P≤0.01) and 12 local spatiotemporal clusters were detected; however, the extent and intensity varied across the study period. Dividing the country in zones according to their epidemiological status will allow improving the control of FMD and delimiting potential FMD-free areas. PMID:21078082

  14. Preliminary investigation on presence of peste des petits ruminants in Dakawa, Mvomero district, Morogoro region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kgotlele, Tebogo; Kasanga, Christopher J; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Misinzo, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants characterised by the sudden onset of depression, fever, oculonasal discharges, sores in the mouth, foul-smelling diarrhoea and death. For many years, in Africa, the disease was mainly confined to West and Central Africa but it has now spread southwards to previously PPR-free countries including Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. Presence of the disease has also been confirmed in southern Tanzania especially Mtwara region. Recently, a suspected outbreak of PPR in Dakawa area, Mvomero district, Morogoro region was reported. Clinical samples (lungs, intestines, lymph nodes, whole blood and sera) from suspected goats (n = 8) and sheep (n = 1) were submitted to Sokoine University of Agriculture for analysis. Molecular diagnosis by amplification of the nucleoprotein gene and the fusion gene of PPR virus (PPRV) using PPRV specific primers was done. Five goats and the sheep were positive for PPRV after performing RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report confirming the presence of PPR in the Mvomero district of the Morogoro region, Tanzania. Hence, more efforts should be put in place to prevent the spread of PPR in Tanzania. PMID:25134174

  15. Social and economic aspects of the introduction of gasification technology in rural areas of developing countries (Tanzania)

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneveld, M.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    According to the evaluation criteria presented, the gasification of corn cobs is acceptable from the economical and agricultural point of view in the rural areas around Arusha (Tanzania). The gasification system is of relatively simple construction and local maintenance is possible. If the system is connected to the already existing corn mills in the villages, it is appropriate to the existing socio-cultural system. The economic calculations made clear that the use of gasification is attractive for both the owners of the corn mill and the government. The advantages for the government are the savings on imported oil and the extra income created for the users of the corn mill (inhabitants of the rural villages). The government loses income from taxes and from the production and transport of diesel oil. Evaluation methods presented can and should be used for gasification projects in other areas.

  16. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed. PMID:23307198

  17. Cost-effectiveness of social marketing of insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Kara; Kikumbih, Nassor; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Mponda, Haji; Nathan, Rose; Lake, Sally; Mills, Anne; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distribution of insecticide-treated nets was estimated to cost 1560 US dollars per death averted and 57 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted. These figures fell to 1018 US dollars and 37 US dollars, respectively, when the costs and consequences of untreated nets were taken into account. CONCLUSION: The social marketing of insecticide-treated nets is an attractive intervention for preventing childhood deaths from malaria. PMID:12764493

  18. Household willingness to pay for azithromycin treatment for trachoma control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin D.; Lynch, Matthew; West, Sheila; Munoz, Beatriz; Mkocha, Harran A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Household willingness to pay for treatment provides important information for programme planning. We tested for relationships between socioeconomic status, risk of trachoma, perceptions of the effects of azithromycin, and the household willingness to pay for future mass treatment with azithromycin. METHODS: We surveyed 394 households in 6 villages located in central United Republic of Tanzania regarding their willingness to pay for future azithromycin treatment. A random sample of households with children under 8 years of age was selected and interviewed following an initial treatment programme in each village. Data were gathered on risk factors for trachoma, socioeconomic status, and the perceived effect of the initial azithromycin treatment. Ordered probit regression analysis was used to test for statistically significant relationships. FINDINGS: 38% of responding households stated that they would not be willing to pay anything for future azithromycin treatment, although they would be willing to participate in the treatment. A proxy for cash availability was positively associated with household willingness to pay for future antibiotic treatment. Cattle ownership (a risk factor) and being a household headed by a female not in a polygamous marriage (lower socioeconomic status) were associated with a lower willingness to pay for future treatment. A perceived benefit from the initial treatment was marginally associated with a willingness to pay a higher amount. CONCLUSIONS: As those at greatest risk of active trachoma indicated the lowest willingness to pay, imposing a cost recovery fee for azithromycin treatment would likely reduce coverage and could prevent control of the disease at the community level. PMID:12751418

  19. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hermenau, Katharin; Eggert, Ina; Landolt, Markus A.; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys). We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans. PMID:26589257

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Malaria and Its Control in Rural Northwest Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mazigo, Humphrey D.; Obasy, Emmanuel; Mauka, Wilhellmus; Manyiri, Paulina; Zinga, Maria; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Mnyone, Ladslaus L.; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2010-01-01

    Background. We assessed community knowledge, attitudes, and practices on malaria as well as acceptability to indoor residual spraying. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was done in a community in Geita district (northwest Tanzania). Household heads (n = 366) were interviewed Results. Knowledge on malaria transmission, prevention, and treatment was reasonable; 56% of respondents associated the disease with mosquito bites, with a significant difference between education level and knowledge on transmission (P < .001). Knowledge of mosquito breeding areas was also associated with education (illiterate: 22%; literate: 59% (P < .001). Bed nets were used by 236 (64.5%), and usage was significantly associated with education level (P < .01). The level of bed net ownership was 77.3%. Most respondents (86.3%) agreed with indoor residual spraying of insecticides. Health facilities were the first option for malaria treatment by 47.3%. Artemether-lumefantrine was the most common antimalarial therapy used. Conclusions. Despite reasonable knowledge on malaria and its preventive measures, there is a need to improve availability of information through proper community channels. Special attention should be given to illiterate community members. High acceptance of indoor residual spraying and high level of bed net ownership should be taken as an advantage to improve malaria control. PMID:22332023

  1. Hands and water as vectors of diarrheal pathogens in Bagamoyo, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Mia Catharine; Pickering, Amy J; Gilsdorf, Rebecca J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of under-five childhood mortality worldwide, with at least half of these deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission of diarrheal pathogens occurs through several exposure routes including drinking water and hands, but the relative importance of each route is not well understood. Using molecular methods, this study examines the relative importance of different exposure routes by measuring enteric bacteria (pathogenic Escherichia coli) and viruses (rotavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus) in hand rinses, stored water, and source waters in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Viruses were most frequently found on hands, suggesting that hands are important vectors for viral illness. The occurrence of E. coli virulence genes (ECVG) was equivalent across all sample types, indicating that both water and hands are important for bacterial pathogen transmission. Fecal indicator bacteria and turbidity were good predictors of ECVG, whereas turbidity and human-specific Bacteroidales were good predictors of viruses. ECVG were more likely found in unimproved water sources, but both ECVG and viral genes were detected in improved water sources. ECVG were more likely found in stored water of households with unimproved sanitation facilities. The results provide insights into the distribution of pathogens in Tanzanian households and offer evidence that hand-washing and improved water management practices could alleviate viral and bacterial diarrhea. PMID:23181394

  2. Australian nursing and midwifery educators delivering evidence-based education in Tanzania: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gower, Shelley; van den Akker, Jose; Jones, Mark; Dantas, Jaya A R; Duggan, Ravani

    2016-05-01

    Since 2011, Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators have been providing evidence-based continuing education to Tanzanian health professionals. Despite thorough preparation before departure, differences in local resource levels and available facilities have necessitated impromptu adaptation of curriculum content and delivery methods to ensure an effective program was delivered. This study explored the personal, cultural and teaching strategies utilised by Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators in Tanzania and examined if the transferability of education packages was influenced by the educators' cultural competence. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, data was collected from 15 Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators using a demographic survey and in-depth individual semi-structured interviews. The core themes identified from the analysis were Determination to learn, Assessing needs, Communication skills and Greater understanding. These findings are described using the conceptual framework of Campinha-Bacote's The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services. With appropriate levels of cultural competence, international health professionals can be effective at providing ongoing professional development to colleagues in developing country contexts, which may help address difficulties with retention and motivation of staff. It is essential that prior to departure cultural competence training is provided to educators to enhance their teaching capacity and effectiveness in international settings. PMID:27235561

  3. 'If you have children, you have responsibilities': motherhood, sex work and HIV in southern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Sarah W; Shembilu, Catherine R; Winch, Peter J; Beyrer, Chris; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2015-01-01

    Many female sex workers begin sex work as mothers, or because they are mothers, and others seek childbearing. Motherhood may influence women's livelihoods as sex workers and their subsequent HIV risks. We used qualitative research methods (30 in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions) and employed Connell's theory of Gender and Power to explore the intersections between motherhood, sex work, and HIV-related risk. Participants were adult women who self-reported exchanging sex for money within the past month and worked in entertainment venues in southern Tanzania. Participants had two children on average, and two-thirds had children at home. Women situated their socially stigmatised work within their respectable identities as mothers caring for their children. Being mothers affected sex workers' negotiating power in complex manners, which led to both reported increases in HIV-related risk behaviours (accepting more clients, accepting more money for no condom, anal sex), and decreases in risk behaviours (using condoms, demanding condom use, testing for HIV). Sex workers/mothers were aware of risks at work, but with children to support, their choices were constrained. Future policies and programming should consider sex workers' financial and practical needs as mothers, including those related to their children such as school fees and childcare. PMID:25270410

  4. The market shaping of charges, trust and abuse: health care transactions in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tibandebage, Paula; Mackintosh, Maureen

    2005-10-01

    Effective health care is a relational activity, that is, it requires social relationships of trust and mutual understanding between providers and those needing and seeking care. The breakdown of these relationships is therefore impoverishing, cutting people off from a basic human capability, that of accessing of decent health care in time of need. In Tanzania as in much of Africa, health care relationships are generally also market transactions requiring out-of-pocket payment. This paper analyses the active constitution and destruction of trust within Tanzanian health care transactions, demonstrating systematic patterns both of exclusion and abuse and also of inclusion and merited trust. We triangulate evidence on charges paid and payment methods with perceptions of the trustworthiness of providers and with the socio-economic status of patients and household interviewees, distinguishing calculative, value based and personalised forms of trust. We draw on this interpretative analysis to argue that policy can support the construction of decent inclusive health care by constraining perverse market incentives that users understand to be a source of merited distrust; by assisting reputation-building and enlarging professional, managerial and public scrutiny; and by reinforcing value-based sources of trust. PMID:16005774

  5. Geophagia is not associated with Trichuris or hookworm transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Young, Sera L; Goodman, Dave; Farag, Tamer H; Ali, Said M; Khatib, Mzee R; Khalfan, Sabra S; Tielsch, James M; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2007-08-01

    Geophagia may be harmful as a method for the transmission of geohelminths. In this study, we pose two questions in a representative sample of 970 pregnant women from Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Can consumed earth be a vector for geohelminth infection? And do geophagists have differential parasitic infection? The parasitological content of 59 non-food substance samples was analysed. Cross-sectional data regarding pica behaviour were collected through interviews conducted by local researchers. Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm status was ascertained through Kato-Katz smears. The prevalence of geophagia at baseline was 5.6% and the overall prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection was 5.6%, 33.2% and 32.9%, respectively. No consumed soil samples contained infectious parasitic stages, and only one of the consumed pica substances (charcoal) contained parasites of potential risk to human health. In bivariate analyses, neither the prevalence nor the intensity of infection with Ascaris, Trichuris or hookworm differed significantly by geophagia status. Furthermore, in multivariate models, geophagia was not a significant predictor of helminth infection status. We conclude that geophagia is not a source of Trichuris or hookworm infection among pregnant women in Pemba (insufficient power to evaluate the effect of Ascaris), which is in contrast to existing findings of helminth infection and geophagia. PMID:17568644

  6. CONCENTRATION AND DRUG PRICES IN THE RETAIL MARKET FOR MALARIA TREATMENT IN RURAL TANZANIA

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, CATHERINE; KACHUR, S. PATRICK; ABDULLA, SALIM; BLOLAND, PETER; MILLS, ANNE

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition. The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care seekers obtaining appropriate treatment. Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. PMID:19301420

  7. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Swai, E S; Bell, C; Bryant, M J; Ogden, N H; Kambarage, D M; French, N P

    2008-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 randomly selected farms in each of the Iringa and Tanga regions of Tanzania to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in dairy cows kept by smallholders. Subclinical mastitis was assessed using the California mastitis test (cmt), and by the bacteriological culture of 1500 milk samples collected from 434 clinically normal cows. The percentages of the cows (and quarters) with subclinical mastitis were 75.9 per cent (46.2 per cent) when assessed by the cmt and 43.8 per cent (24.3 per cent) when assessed by culture. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of a cmt-positive quarter were Boran breed (odds radio [or]=3.51), a brought-in cow (rather than homebred) (or=2.39), peak milk yield, and age. The stripping method of hand milking was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of cmt-positive quarters (or=0.51). The cmt-positive cows were more likely to be culture positive (or=4.51), as were brought-in (or=2.10) and older cows. PMID:18603630

  8. Psychological Symptoms Among Obstetric Fistula Patients Compared to Gynecology Outpatients in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah M.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Masenga, Gileard G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa that causes uncontrollable leaking of urine and/or feces. Research has documented the social and psychological sequelae of obstetric fistula, including mental health dysfunction and social isolation. Purpose This cross-sectional study sought to quantify the psychological symptoms and social support in obstetric fistula patients, compared with a patient population of women without obstetric fistula. Methods Participants were gynecology patients (N = 144) at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center in Moshi, Tanzania, recruited from the Fistula Ward (n = 54) as well as gynecology outpatient clinics (n = 90). Measures included previously validated psychometric questionnaires, administered orally by Tanzanian nurses. Outcome variables were compared between obstetric fistula patients and gynecology outpatients, controlling for background demographic variables and multiple comparisons. Results Compared to gynecology outpatients, obstetric fistula patients reported significantly higher symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic complaints, and maladaptive coping. They also reported significantly lower social support. Conclusions Obstetric fistula patients present for repair surgery with more severe psychological distress than gynecology outpatients. In order to address these mental health concerns, clinicians should engage obstetric fistula patients with targeted mental health interventions. PMID:25670025

  9. Silica Exposures in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tanzania and Implications for Tuberculosis Prevention.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Andrew, Damian; Dalhoff, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gold miners exposed to crystalline silica are at risk of silicosis, lung cancer, and experience higher incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Although the hazards associated with mercury exposure in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) have been well documented, no published data was available on crystalline silica exposures in this population. Air sampling was conducted in the breathing zone of workers in five villages in Tanzania with battery-operated sampling pumps and bulk samples were collected to measure the type and concentration of crystalline silica in the ore. Samples were analyzed at an accredited laboratory with X-ray diffraction. Airborne crystalline silica exposures exceeded recommended limits for all tasks monitored with an average exposure of 16.85 mg/m(3) for underground drilling that was 337 fold greater than the recommended exposure limit (REL) published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and 0.19 mg/m(3) for aboveground operations or 4-fold greater than the REL. The exposures measured raise concern for possible acute and chronic silicosis and are known to significantly contribute to TB incidence rates in mining communities. The use of wet methods could greatly reduce exposures and the risk of TB and silicosis in ASGM. Ongoing efforts to address mercury and other hazards in ASGM should incorporate crystalline silica dust controls. PMID:25897484

  10. Non-communicable diseases in antiretroviral therapy recipients in Kagera Tanzania: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Magafu, Mgaywa Gilbert Mjungu Damas; Moji, Kazuhiko; Igumbor, Ehimario Uche; Magafu, Naoko Shimizu; Mwandri, Michael; Mwita, Julius Chacha; Habte, Dereje; Rwegerera, Godfrey Mutashambara; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to describe the extent of self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) recipients in Kagera region in Tanzania and their effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study was conducted 2 years after HAART administration was started in Kagera region. Methods The SF-36 questionnaire was used to collect the HRQOL data of 329 HAART recipients. Questions on the NCDs, socio-demographic characteristics and treatment information were validated and added to the SF-36. Bivariate analyses involving socio-demographic characteristics and SF-36 scores of the recipients were performed. Multiple logistic regression was employed to compute adjusted odds ratios for different explanatory variables on physical functioning and mental health scores. Results Respondents who reported having 1 or more NCDs were 57.8% of all the respondents. Arthritis was the commonest NCD (57.8%). Respondents with the NCDs were more likely to have HRQOL scores below the mean of the general Tanzanian population. The population attributable fraction (PAF) for the NCDs on physical functioning was 0.28 and on mental health was 0.22. Conclusion Self-reported NCDs were prevalent among the HAART recipients in Kagera region. They accounted for 28% of the physical functioning scores and 22% of the mental health scores that were below the mean of the general Tanzanian population. Therefore, the integration of NCD care is important in the management of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24711874

  11. Factors Associated with Repeat Blood Donation at the Northern Zone Blood Transfusion Centre in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mauka, Wilhellmuss I.; Mahande, Michael J.; Msuya, Sia E.; Philemon, Rune N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with repeat blood donation. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among blood donors aged 18–65 years in northern Tanzania. The questionnaire was administered among 454 participants through the phone. Results. Of the 454 participants, the proportion of repeat donation was 63.9%. In the backward logistic regression analysis, the significant predictors were living in Arusha which had lower odds of repeat donation compared to those living in Kilimanjaro. Knowledge of time interval between donations increased odds of repeating donations. High intention increased odds of repeat donation compared to low intention. Altruistic score had minor effect on increasing odds of repeating donation. Conclusion. Repeat blood donation is affected by proximity of donating site, awareness of the blood donation interval, intention to donate, and experience on previous donation. We recommend continuous education concerning blood donors and donation among health workers and society as a whole; this will create awareness on motivational factors for repeat donations. PMID:26783496

  12. The costs of introducing artemisinin-based combination therapy: evidence from district-wide implementation in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Njau, Joseph D; Goodman, Catherine A; Kachur, S Patrick; Mulligan, Jo; Munkondya, John S; Mchomvu, Naiman; Abdulla, Salim; Bloland, Peter; Mills, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background The development of antimalarial drug resistance has led to increasing calls for the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However, little evidence is available on the full costs associated with changing national malaria treatment policy. This paper presents findings on the actual drug and non-drug costs associated with deploying ACT in one district in Tanzania, and uses these data to estimate the nationwide costs of implementation in a setting where identification of malaria cases is primarily dependant on clinical diagnosis. Methods Detailed data were collected over a three year period on the financial costs of providing ACT in Rufiji District as part of a large scale effectiveness evaluation, including costs of drugs, distribution, training, treatment guidelines and other information, education and communication (IEC) materials and publicity. The district-level costs were scaled up to estimate the costs of nationwide implementation, using four scenarios to extrapolate variable costs. Results The total district costs of implementing ACT over the three year period were slightly over one million USD, with drug purchases accounting for 72.8% of this total. The composite (best) estimate of nationwide costs for the first three years of ACT implementation was 48.3 million USD (1.29 USD per capita), which varied between 21 and 67.1 million USD in the sensitivity analysis (2003 USD). In all estimates drug costs constituted the majority of total costs. However, non-drug costs such as IEC materials, drug distribution, communication, and health worker training were also substantial, accounting for 31.4% of overall ACT implementation costs in the best estimate scenario. Annual implementation costs are equivalent to 9.5% of Tanzania's recurrent health sector budget, and 28.7% of annual expenditure on medical supplies, implying a 6-fold increase in the national budget for malaria treatment. Conclusion The costs of implementing ACT are

  13. Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania following community, retail sector and health facility interventions -- a user perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ACCESS programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. Between 2004 and 2008 the programme implemented a social marketing campaign for improved treatment-seeking. To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO) was created in Tanzania in 2006. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) in 2007 and subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on understanding and treatment of malaria was studied in rural Tanzania. The data also enabled an investigation of the determinants of access to treatment. Methods Three treatment-seeking surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006 and 2008 in the rural areas of the Ifakara demographic surveillance system (DSS) and in Ifakara town. Each survey included approximately 150 people who had suffered a fever case in the previous 14 days. Results Treatment-seeking and awareness of malaria was already high at baseline, but various improvements were seen between 2004 and 2008, namely: better understanding causes of malaria (from 62% to 84%); an increase in health facility attendance as first treatment option for patients older than five years (27% to 52%); higher treatment coverage with anti-malarials (86% to 96%) and more timely use of anti-malarials (80% to 93-97% treatments taken within 24 hrs). Unfortunately, the change of treatment policy led to a low availability of ALu in the private sector and, therefore, to a drop in the proportion of patients taking a recommended malaria treatment (85% to 53%). The availability of outlets (health facilities or drug shops) is the most important determinant of whether patients receive prompt and effective treatment, whereas affordability and accessibility contribute to a lesser extent. Conclusions An integrated

  14. Improving district level health planning and priority setting in Tanzania through implementing accountability for reasonableness framework: Perceptions of stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2006, researchers and decision-makers launched a five-year project - Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) - to improve planning and priority-setting through implementing the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in Mbarali District, Tanzania. The objective of this paper is to explore the acceptability of Accountability for Reasonableness from the perspectives of the Council Health Management Team, local government officials, health workforce and members of user boards and committees. Methods Individual interviews were carried out with different categories of actors and stakeholders in the district. The interview guide consisted of a series of questions, asking respondents to describe their perceptions regarding each condition of the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in terms of priority setting. Interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Documentary data were used to support, verify and highlight the key issues that emerged. Results Almost all stakeholders viewed Accountability for Reasonableness as an important and feasible approach for improving priority-setting and health service delivery in their context. However, a few aspects of Accountability for Reasonableness were seen as too difficult to implement given the socio-political conditions and traditions in Tanzania. Respondents mentioned: budget ceilings and guidelines, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, as well as the limited capacity of the district to generate local resources as the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation of the framework in their context. Conclusion This study was one of the first assessments of the applicability of Accountability for Reasonableness in health care priority-setting in Tanzania. The analysis, overall, suggests that the Accountability for Reasonableness framework could be an important tool for improving priority-setting processes in the

  15. Feasibility of introducing compulsory community health fund in low resource countries: views from the communities in Liwale district of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1995, Tanzania introduced the voluntary Community Health Fund (CHF) with the aim of ensuring universal health coverage by increasing financial investment in the health sector. The uptake of the CHF is low, with an enrolment of only 6% compared to the national target of 75%. Mandatory models of community health financing have been suggested to increase enrolment and financial capacity. This study explores communities’ views on the introduction of a mandatory model, the Compulsory Community Health Fund (CCHF) in the Liwale district of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study which involved 387 participants in a structured face to face survey and 33 in qualitative interviews (26 in focus group discussions (FGD) and 7 in in-depth interviews (IDI). Structured survey data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 to produce descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results 387 people completed a survey (58% males), mean age 38 years. Most participants (347, 89.7%) were poor subsistence farmers and 229 (59.2%) had never subscribed to any form of health insurance scheme. The idea of a CCHF was accepted by 221 (57%) survey participants. Reasons for accepting the CCHF included: reduced out of pocket expenditure, improved quality of health care and the removal of stigma for those who receive waivers at health care delivery points. The major reason for not accepting the CCHF was the poor quality of health care services currently offered. Participants suggested that enrolment to the CCHF be done after harvesting when the population were more likely to have disposable income, and that the quality care of care and benefits package be improved. Conclusions The CHF is acceptable to the most of study participants and feasible in rural Tanzania as an alternative mechanism to finance health care for the rural poor. Community members are willing to join the scheme provided they are well informed, involved in the design and implementation

  16. Temporal trends of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Development and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) constitutes a major threat to recent global malaria control achievements. Surveillance of molecular markers could act as an early warning system of ACT-resistance before clinical treatment failures are apparent. The aim of this study was to analyse temporal trends of established genotypes associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance before and after its deployment as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Tanzania 2006. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) N86Y, Y184F, D1246Y and P. falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) K76T were analysed from dried blood spots collected during six consecutive studies from children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Fukayosi village, Bagamoyo District, Tanzania, between 2004–2011. Results There was a statistically significant yearly increase of pfmdr1 N86, 184F, D1246 and pfcrt K76 between 2006–2011 from 14% to 61% (yearly OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.25-1.52] p < 0.0001), 14% to 35% (OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.07-1.30] p = 0.001), 54% to 85% (OR = 1.21 [95% CI 1.03-1.42] p = 0.016) and 49% to 85% (OR = 1.33 [95% CI 1.17-1.51] p < 0.0001), respectively. Unlike for the pfmdr1 SNP, a significant increase of pfcrt K76 was observed already between 2004–2006, from 26% to 49% (OR = 1.68 [95% CI 1.17-2.40] p = 0.005). From 2006 to 2011 the pfmdr1 NFD haplotype increased from 10% to 37% (OR = 1.25 [95% CI 1.12-1.39] p < 0.0001), whereas the YYY haplotype decreased from 31% to 6% (OR = 0.73 [95% CI 0.56-0.98] p = 0.018). All 390 successfully analysed samples had one copy of the pfmdr1 gene. Conclusion The temporal selection of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance may represent an early warning sign of impaired future drug efficacy. This calls for stringent surveillance of artemether

  17. Endangered edible orchids and vulnerable gatherers in the context of HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tanzania is a wild orchid biodiversity hotspot and has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The wild orchids in the study are endemic and protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Every year, however, between 2.2 and 4.1 million orchid plants consumed in Zambia are estimated as originating from Tanzania. This research examines the differences between HIV/AIDS wild edible orchid gatherers and non-HIV/AIDS gatherers with regards to the frequency of gathering, salience in naming the various orchids, gathering knowledge acquisition and perceptions regarding the current state of abundance of the edible species. Methods Data was collected through interviews with 224 individuals in the Makete District of Tanzania close to the boarder of Zambia. Free-listings were conducted and Sutrup's Cultural Significance Index (CSI) constructed. The independent t-test was used to compare the differences in gathering frequencies between affected and non-affected gatherers. A multiple comparison of the 4 subgroups (affected adults and children, and non-affected adults and children) in gathering frequencies was done with a one way ANOVA test and its post hoc test. To examine the difference between affected and non-affected gatherers difference in source of gathering knowledge, a chi square test was run. Results Forty two vernacular names of gathered orchid species were mentioned corresponding to 7 botanical species belongs to genera Disa, Satyrium, Habenaria, Eulophia and Roeperocharis. Ninety-seven percent of HIV/AIDS affected households state that orchid gathering is their primary economic activity compared to non-HIV/AIDS affected households at 9.7 percent. The HIV/AIDS affected gathered significantly more often than the non-affected. AIDS orphans, however, gathered most frequently. Gatherers perceive a decreasing trend of abundance of 6 of the 7 species. Gathering activities were mainly performed in age based peer groups. The results revealed a

  18. Analysing and recommending options for maintaining universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets: the case of Tanzania in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tanzania achieved universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in October 2011, after three years of free mass net distribution campaigns and is now faced with the challenge of maintaining high coverage as nets wear out and the population grows. A process of exploring options for a continuous or “Keep-Up” distribution system was initiated in early 2011. This paper presents for the first time a comprehensive national process to review the major considerations, findings and recommendations for the implementation of a new strategy. Methods Stakeholder meetings and site visits were conducted in five locations in Tanzania to garner stakeholder input on the proposed distribution systems. Coverage levels for LLINs and their decline over time were modelled using NetCALC software, taking realistic net decay rates, current demographic profiles and other relevant parameters into consideration. Costs of the different distribution systems were estimated using local data. Results LLIN delivery was considered via mass campaigns, Antenatal Care-Expanded Programme on Immunization (ANC/EPI), community-based distribution, schools, the commercial sector and different combinations of the above. Most approaches appeared unlikely to maintain universal coverage when used alone. Mass campaigns, even when combined with a continuation of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS), would produce large temporal fluctuations in coverage levels; over 10 years this strategy would require 63.3 million LLINs and a total cost of $444 million USD. Community mechanisms, while able to deliver the required numbers of LLINs, would require a massive scale-up in monitoring, evaluation and supervision systems to ensure accurate application of identification criteria at the community level. School-based approaches combined with the existing TNVS would reach most Tanzanian households and deliver 65.4 million LLINs over 10 years at a total cost of $449 million USD and ensure

  19. The dependency on central government funding of decentralised health systems: experiences of the challenges and coping strategies in the Kongwa District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decentralised health systems in Tanzania depend largely on funding from the central government to run health services. Experience has shown that central funding in a decentralised system is not an appropriate approach to ensure the effective and efficient performance of local authorities due to several limitations. One of the limitations is that funds from the central government are not disbursed on a timely basis, which in turn, leads to the serious problem of shortage of financial resources for Council Health Management Teams (CHMT). This paper examines how dependency on central government funding in Tanzania affects health activities in Kongwa district council and the strategies used by the CHMT cope with the situation. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach and data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. One district in the central region of Tanzania was strategically selected. Ten key informants involved in the management of health service delivery at the district level were interviewed and one focus group discussion was held, which consisted of members of the council health management team. The data generated were analysed for themes and patterns. Results The results showed that late disbursement of funds interrupts the implementation of health activities in the district health system. This situation delays the implementation of some activities, while a few activities may not be implemented at all. However, based on their prior knowledge of the anticipated delays in financial disbursements, the council health management team has adopted three main strategies to cope with this situation. These include obtaining supplies and other services on credit, borrowing money from other projects in the council, and using money generated from cost sharing. Conclusion Local government authorities (LGAs) face delays in the disbursement of funds from the central government. This has necessitated introduction of

  20. Women's experiences and views about costs of seeking malaria chemoprevention and other antenatal services: a qualitative study from two districts in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. Objectives To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania. Methods Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology. Findings FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women's use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and 3) service providers' application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. Conclusion A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of

  1. HIV-1 drug resistance in recently HIV-infected pregnant mother’s naïve to antiretroviral therapy in Dodoma urban, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV resistance affects virological response to therapy and efficacy of prophylaxis in mother-to-child-transmission. The study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV primary resistance in pregnant women naïve to antiretrovirals. Methods Cross sectional baseline analysis of a cohort of HIV + pregnant women (HPW) enrolled in the study entitled Antiretroviral Management of Antenatal and Natal HIV Infection (AMANI, peace in Kiswahili language). The AMANI study began in May 2010 in Dodoma, Tanzania. In this observational cohort, antiretroviral treatment was provided to all women from the 28th week of gestation until the end of the breastfeeding period. Baseline CD4 cell count, viral load and HIV drug-resistance genotype were collected. Results Drug-resistance analysis was performed on 97 naïve infected-mothers. The prevalence of all primary drug resistance and primary non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors resistance was 11.9% and 7.5%, respectively. K103S was found in two women with no M184V detection. HIV-1 subtype A was the most commonly identified, with a high prevalence of subtype A1, followed by C, D, C/D recombinant, A/C recombinant and A/D recombinant. HIV drug- resistance mutations were detected in A1 and C subtypes. Conclusion Our study reports an 11.9% prevalence rate of primary drug resistance in naïve HIV-infected pregnant women from a remote area of Tanzania. Considering that the non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors are part of the first-line antiretroviral regimen in Tanzania and all of Africa, resistance surveys should be prioritized in settings where antiretroviral therapy programs are scaled up. PMID:24053581

  2. Indoor Air Pollution and Delayed Measles Vaccination Increase the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in Children: Results from a Case-Control Study in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    PrayGod, George; Mukerebe, Crispin; Magawa, Ruth; Jeremiah, Kidola; Török, M. Estée

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality due to severe pneumonia during childhood in resource-constrained settings is high, but data to provide basis for interventions to improve survival are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe pneumonia in children aged under five years old in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a case-control study of children aged 2 to 59 months at Sekou-Toure regional hospital in Mwanza City, north-western, Tanzania from May 2013 to March 2014. Cases were children with severe pneumonia and controls were children with other illnesses. Data on demography, social-economical status, nutritional status, environmental factors, vaccination status, vitamin A supplementation and deworming, and nasopharyngeal carriage were collected and analysed using logistic regression. Results 117 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45 were cases and 72 controls. Cases were younger than controls, but there were no differences in social-economic or nutritional status between the two groups. In multiple regression, we found that an increased risk of severe pneumonia was associated with cooking indoors (OR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.4, 22.1), and delayed measles vaccination (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 14.8). The lack of vitamin A supplementation in the preceding six month and Enterobacter spp nasopharyngeal carriage were not associated with higher risk of severe pneumonia. Age ≥24 months (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.8) and not receiving antibiotics before referral (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) were associated with lower risk for severe pneumonia. Conclusions Indoor air pollution and delayed measles vaccination increase the risk for severe pneumonia among children aged below five years. Interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and to promote timely administration of measles vaccination are urgently needed to reduce the burden of severe pneumonia in children in Tanzania PMID:27508389

  3. The Economic and Epidemiological Impact of Focusing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention on Specific Age Groups and Regions in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Program has focused efforts on males ages 10–34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM). A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20–34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10–24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted) targets men ages 15–34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa. Conclusions The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania’s current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10–34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups

  4. Predictors of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies among women of childbearing age in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While unintended pregnancies pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of families globally, characteristics of Tanzanian women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. This analysis identifies factors associated with unintended pregnancies—both mistimed and unwanted—in three rural districts of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2,183 random households was conducted in three Tanzanian districts of Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga in 2011 to assess women’s health behavior and service utilization patterns. These households produced 3,127 women age 15+ years from which 2,199 gravid women aged 15–49 were selected for the current analysis. Unintended pregnancies were identified as either mistimed (wanted later) or unwanted (not wanted at all). Correlates of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies were identified through Chi-squared tests to assess associations and multinomial logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results Mean age of the participants was 32.1 years. While 54.1% of the participants reported that their most recent pregnancy was intended, 32.5% indicated their most recent pregnancy as mistimed and 13.4% as unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (<20 years), and single marital status were significant predictors of both mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Lack of inter-partner communication about family planning increased the risk of mistimed pregnancy significantly, and multi-gravidity was shown to significantly increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Conclusions About one half of women in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania conceive unintentionally. Women, especially the most vulnerable should be empowered to avoid pregnancy at their own will and discretion. PMID:25102924

  5. Post exposure prophylaxis following occupational exposure to HIV: a survey of health care workers in Mbeya, Tanzania, 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    Mponela, Marcelina John; Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Abade, Ahmed; Kwesigabo, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately, 1,000 HIV infections are transmitted annually to health care workers (HCWs) worldwide from occupational exposures. Tanzania HCWs experience one to nine needle stick injuries (NSIs) per year, yet the use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is largely undocumented. We assessed factors influencing use of PEP among HCWs following occupational exposure to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mbeya Referral Hospital, Mbozi and Mbarali District Hospitals from December 2009 to January 2010 with a sample size of 360 HCWs. Participants were randomly selected from a list of eligible HCWs in Mbeya hospital and all eligible HCWs were enrolled in the two District Hospitals. Information regarding risk of exposure to body fluids and NSIs were collected using a questionnaire. Logistic regression was done to identify predictors for PEP use using Epi Info 3.5.1 at 95% confidence interval. Results Of 291 HCWs who participated in the study, 35.1% (102/291) were exposed to NSIs and body fluids, with NSIs accounting for 62.9% (64/102). Exposure was highest among medical attendants 38.8% (33/85). Out of exposed HCWs, (22.5% (23/102) used HIV PEP with females more likely to use PEP than males. Reporting of exposures (OR=21.1, CI: 3.85-115.62) and having PEP knowledge (OR =6.5, CI: 1.78-23.99) were significantly associated with using PEP. Conclusion Despite the observed rate of occupational exposure to HCWs in Tanzania, use of PEP is still low. Effective prevention from HIV infection at work places is required through proper training of HCWs on PEP with emphasis on timely reporting of exposures. PMID:26405468

  6. How Can Childbirth Care for the Rural Poor Be Improved? A Contribution from Spatial Modelling in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fogliati, Piera; Straneo, Manuela; Brogi, Cosimo; Fantozzi, Pier Lorenzo; Salim, Robert Mahimbo; Msengi, Hamis Mwendo; Azzimonti, Gaetano; Putoto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maternal and perinatal mortality remain a challenge in resource-limited countries, particularly among the rural poor. To save lives at birth health facility delivery is recommended. However, increasing coverage of institutional deliveries may not translate into mortality reduction if shortage of qualified staff and lack of enabling working conditions affect quality of services. In Tanzania childbirth care is available in all facilities; yet maternal and newborn mortality are high. The study aimed to assess in a high facility density rural context whether a health system organization with fewer delivery sites is feasible in terms of population access. Methods Data on health facilities’ location, staffing and delivery caseload were examined in Ludewa and Iringa Districts, Southern Tanzania. Geospatial raster and network analysis were performed to estimate access to obstetric services in walking time. The present geographical accessibility was compared to a theoretical scenario with a 40% reduction of delivery sites. Results About half of first-line health facilities had insufficient staff to offer full-time obstetric services (45.7% in Iringa and 78.8% in Ludewa District). Yearly delivery caseload at first-line health facilities was low, with less than 100 deliveries in 48/70 and 43/52 facilities in Iringa and Ludewa District respectively. Wide geographical overlaps of facility catchment areas were observed. In Iringa 54% of the population was within 1-hour walking distance from the nearest facility and 87.8% within 2 hours, in Ludewa, the percentages were 39.9% and 82.3%. With a 40% reduction of delivery sites, approximately 80% of population will still be within 2 hours’ walking time. Conclusions Our findings from spatial modelling in a high facility density context indicate that reducing delivery sites by 40% will decrease population access within 2 hours by 7%. Focused efforts on fewer delivery sites might assist strengthening delivery services

  7. What elements of the work environment are most responsible for health worker dissatisfaction in rural primary care clinics in Tanzania?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In countries with high maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, reliable access to quality healthcare in rural areas is essential to save lives. Health workers who are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to remain in rural posts. Understanding what factors influence health workers’ satisfaction can help determine where resources should be focused. Although there is a growing body of research assessing health worker satisfaction in hospitals, less is known about health worker satisfaction in rural, primary health clinics. This study explores the workplace satisfaction of health workers in primary health clinics in rural Tanzania. Methods Overall, 70 health workers in rural Tanzania participated in a self-administered job satisfaction survey. We calculated mean ratings for 17 aspects of the work environment. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to identify groupings of these variables. We then examined the bivariate associations between health workers demographics and clinic characteristics and each of the satisfaction scales. Results Results showed that 73.9% of health workers strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their job; however, only 11.6% strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their level of pay and 2.9% with the availability of equipment and supplies. Two categories of factors emerged from the PCA: the tools and infrastructure to provide care, and supportive interpersonal environment. Nurses and medical attendants (compared to clinical officers) and older health workers had higher satisfaction scale ratings. Conclusions Two dimensions of health workers’ work environment, namely infrastructure and supportive interpersonal work environment, explained much of the variation in satisfaction among rural Tanzanian health workers in primary health clinics. Health workers were generally more satisfied with supportive interpersonal relationships than with the infrastructure. Human resource policies should consider how to

  8. Inter-epidemic abundance and distribution of potential mosquito vectors for Rift Valley fever virus in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mweya, Clement N.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.; Mellau, Lesakit S. B.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588) were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226) Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9) Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095) of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225) of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78%) of C. pipiens complex and most (85%) of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. PMID:25613346

  9. Community Knowledge and Attitudes and Health Workers' Practices regarding Non-malaria Febrile Illnesses in Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Mayumana, Iddy; Amuri, Mbaraka; Makungu, Christina; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although malaria has been the leading cause of fever for many years, with improved control regimes malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality have decreased. Recent studies have increasingly demonstrated the importance of non-malaria fevers, which have significantly improved our understanding of etiologies of febrile illnesses. A number of non-malaria febrile illnesses including Rift Valley Fever, dengue fever, Chikungunya virus infection, leptospirosis, tick-borne relapsing fever and Q-fever have been reported in Tanzania. This study aimed at assessing the awareness of communities and practices of health workers on non-malaria febrile illnesses. Methods Twelve focus group discussions with members of communities and 14 in-depth interviews with health workers were conducted in Kilosa district, Tanzania. Transcripts were coded into different groups using MaxQDA software and analyzed through thematic content analysis. Results The study revealed that the awareness of the study participants on non-malaria febrile illnesses was low and many community members believed that most instances of fever are due to malaria. In addition, the majority had inappropriate beliefs about the possible causes of fever. In most cases, non-malaria febrile illnesses were considered following a negative Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) result or persistent fevers after completion of anti-malaria dosage. Therefore, in the absence of mRDTs, there is over diagnosis of malaria and under diagnosis of non-malaria illnesses. Shortages of diagnostic facilities for febrile illnesses including mRDTs were repeatedly reported as a major barrier to proper diagnosis and treatment of febrile patients. Conclusion Our results emphasize the need for creating community awareness on other causes of fever apart from malaria. Based on our study, appropriate treatment of febrile patients will require inputs geared towards strengthening of diagnostic facilities, drugs availability and optimal

  10. Deciphering the Complex Distribution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes among Different Cohorts in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Njai, Harr F.; Ewings, Fiona M.; Lyimo, Eric; Foulongne, Vincent; Ngerageza, Dhamira; Mongi, Aika; Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Andreasen, Aura; Nyombi, Balthazar; Ao, Tony; Michael, Denna; Urassa, Mark; Todd, Jim; Zaba, Basia; Changalucha, John; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased understanding of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 is challenging but important in the development of an effective vaccine. We aimed to describe the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in northern Tanzania among women enrolled in studies preparing for HIV-1 prevention trials (hospitality facility-worker cohorts), and among men and women in an open cohort demographic surveillance system (Kisesa cohort). Methods The polymerase encompassing partial reverse transcriptase was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed and subtype determined. Questionnaires documented demographic data. We examined factors associated with subtype using multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for study, age, and sex. Results Among 140 individuals (125 women and 15 men), subtype A1 predominated (54, 39%), followed by C (46, 33%), D (25, 18%) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) (15, 11%). There was weak evidence to suggest different subtype frequencies by study (for example, 18% URFs in the Kisesa cohort versus 5–9% in the hospitality facility-worker cohorts; adjusted relative-risk ratio (aRR) = 2.35 [95% CI 0.59,9.32]; global p = 0.09). Compared to men, women were less likely to have subtype D versus A (aRR = 0.12 [95% CI 0.02,0.76]; global p = 0.05). There was a trend to suggest lower relative risk of subtype D compared to A with older age (aRR = 0.44 [95% CI 0.23,0.85] per 10 years; global p = 0.05). Conclusions We observed multiple subtypes, confirming the complex genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in northern Tanzania, and found some differences between cohorts and by age and sex. This has important implications for vaccine design and development, providing opportunity to determine vaccine efficacy in diverse HIV-1 strains. PMID:24349139

  11. Vitamin D Status and its Association with Morbidity Including Wasting and Opportunistic Illnesses in HIV-Infected Women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mugusi, Ferdinand M.; Spiegelman, Donna; Villamor, Eduardo; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Hertzmark, Ellen; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Msamanga, Gernard I.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin D has a potential role in preventing HIV-related complications, based on its extensive involvement in immune and metabolic function, including preventing osteoporosis and premature cardiovascular disease. However, this association has not been examined in large studies or in resource-limited settings. Vitamin D levels were assessed in 884 HIV-infected pregnant women at enrollment in a trial of multivitamin supplementation (excluding vitamin D) in Tanzania. Information on HIV related complications was recorded during follow-up (median, 70 months). Proportional hazards models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship of vitamin D status with these outcomes. Women with low vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<32 ng/mL) had 43% higher risk of reaching a body mass index (BMI) less than 18 kg/m2 during the first 2 years of follow-up, compared to women with adequate vitamin D levels (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.43; 95% confidence intervals: [1.03–1.99]). The relationship between continuous vitamin D levels and risk of BMI less than 18 kg/m2 during follow-up was inverse and linear (p=0.03). Women with low vitamin D levels had significantly higher incidence of acute upper respiratory infections (HR: 1.27 [1.04–1.54]) and thrush (HR: 2.74 [1.29-5.83]) diagnosed during the first 2 years of follow-up. Low vitamin D status was a significant risk factor for wasting and HIV-related complications such as thrush during follow-up in this prospective cohort in Tanzania. If these protective associations are confirmed in randomized trials, vitamin D supplementation could represent a simple and inexpensive method to improve health and quality of life of HIV-infected patients, particularly in resource-limited settings. PMID:21916603

  12. Historical Perspective and Risk of Multiple Neglected Tropical Diseases in Coastal Tanzania: Compositional and Contextual Determinants of Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Frederick Ato; Quansah, Reginald; Luginaah, Isaac; Chuenpagdee, Ratana; Hambati, Herbert; Campbell, Gwyn

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decade, research on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has intensified in response to the need to enhance community participation in health delivery, establish monitoring and surveillance systems, and integrate existing disease-specific treatment programs to control overlapping NTD burdens and detrimental effects. In this paper, we evaluated the geographical distribution of NTDs in coastal Tanzania. Methods and Findings We also assessed the collective (compositional and contextual) factors that currently determine risks to multiple NTDs using a cross sectional survey of 1253 individuals in coastal Tanzania. The results show that the effect size in decreasing order of magnitude for non-binary predictors of NTD risks is as follows: NTD comorbidities > poverty > educational attainment > self-reported household quality of life > ethnicity. The multivariate analysis explained 95% of the variance in the relationship between NTD risks and the theoretically-relevant covariates. Compositional (biosocial and sociocultural) factors explained more variance at the neighbourhood level than at the regional level, whereas contextual factors, such as access to health services and household quality, in districts explained a large proportion of variance at the regional level but individually had modest statistical significance, demonstrating the complex interactions between compositional and contextual factors in generating NTD risks. Conclusions NTD risks were inequitably distributed over geographic space, which has several important policy implications. First, it suggests that localities of high burden of NTDs are likely to diminish within statistical averages at higher (regional or national) levels. Second, it indicates that curative or preventive interventions will become more efficient provided they can be focused on the localities, particularly as populations in these localities are likely to be burdened by several NTDs simultaneously, further increasing

  13. Sources and seasonal variation of coliform bacteria abundance in groundwater around the slopes of Mount Meru, Arusha, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N N

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the groundwater along the slopes of Mount Meru, Tanzania, is poorly understood. Water access and sanitation practices may pose health risks to communities. This study was undertaken to assess the sources, abundance and seasonal variation of coliform bacteria in groundwater and factors contributing to such variations along slopes of Mount Meru, Tanzania. Water samples collected from 67 randomly selected water sources (springs, shallow wells which ranged from 4 to 35 m deep and Boreholes above 40 m deep) during dry and wet seasons were analysed for total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and faecal streptococci (FS), using the membrane filtration method. The fraction of springs and shallow wells contaminated was generally higher compared to the fraction of boreholes. The highest TC, FC, E. coli and FS counts were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the wet than the dry season owing to rising of water table and leaching during rainy season. Water sources that were located within 10 m of pit latrines had the highest coliform counts relative to those located beyond 10 m. Similarly, the highest coliform counts were observed in all shallow wells that (i) had low well head above the ground, (ii) were not covered, (iii) had casing materials which were not concrete and (iv) utilised traditional pumping (bucket/pulley) systems. This was due to contaminated storm water access, inoculation of microbes by exposed buckets and inefficiency of the casing material. Furthermore, the counts decreased with depths of boreholes and shallow wells during the two seasons probably due to retention and die-off. It is recommended that groundwater in this area be treated against coliform contamination prior to utilisation as portable water. PMID:27270483

  14. Gendered norms, sexual exploitation and adolescent pregnancy in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Douglas, Zayid; Rwehumbiza, Annagrace; Hamisi, Aziza; Mabala, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy places girls at increased risk for poor health and educational outcomes that limit livelihood options, economic independence, and empowerment in adulthood. In Tanzania, adolescent pregnancy remains a significant concern, with over half of all first births occurring before women reach the age of 20. A participatory research and action project (Vitu Newala) conducted formative research in a rural district on the dynamics of sexual risk and agency among 82 girls aged 12-17. Four major risk factors undermined girls' ability to protect their own health and well-being: poverty that pushed them into having sex to meet basic needs, sexual expectations on the part of older men and boys their age, rape and coercive sex (including sexual abuse from an early age), and unintended pregnancy. Transactional sex with older men was one of the few available sources of income that allowed adolescent girls to meet their basic needs, making this a common choice for many girls, even though it increased the risk of unintended (early) pregnancy. Yet parents and adult community members blamed the girls alone for putting themselves at risk. These findings were used to inform a pilot project aimed to engage and empower adolescent girls and boys as agents of change to influence powerful gender norms that perpetuate girls' risk. PMID:23684192

  15. Language promotion for educational purposes: The example of Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubagumya, Casmir M.

    1991-03-01

    Kiswahili is one of the most widely used languages in East and Central Africa. In Tanzania, where it is the national language, attempts have been made to develop it so that it can be used as an efficient tool of communication in all sectors of the society, including education. This paper shows that although Kiswahili has successfully been promoted as the medium of primary and adult education, at secondary and tertiary levels of education, its position is still precarious. The notion that English and Kiswahili are in complementary distribution is rejected. It is argued that the two languages are in conflict, and that those who are in a better socio-political/economic position have more control of, and better access to, English. In such a situation the right question to ask is not in which domains English is used, but why it is used in such domains and who uses it. The paper further argues that the present sociolinguistic environment makes the use of English as a viable medium unsustainable. For this reason, insistence on the use of English adversely affects the learning process. It is suggested that if Kiswahili became the medium of education at secondary school level and English was taught well as a foreign language, this would help to promote both languages without jeopardising the learning process.

  16. Human and animal Campylobacteriosis in Tanzania: A review.

    PubMed

    Komba, Erick V G; Mdegela, Robinson H; Msoffe, Peter L M; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    The thermotolerant species of Campylobacter have become very important in public health, particularly as agents of infectious diarrhoea in human beings. Though the mechanism by which they cause disease is yet to be fully explained, they have been recognized as the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in both developed and developing countries. The organisms colonize different animal species without causing any symptoms of disease; and humans acquire infections through contact with or consumption of contaminated meat especially raw/undercooked poultry meat. The growing trend of antibiotic resistant Campylobacter isolates continues to pose significant public health challenges. In this review we present the available information generated in Tanzania about Campylobacter infections in humans and animals. We conducted a structured literature search of PUBMED and ScienceDirect electronic databases and identified 15 articles. Studies on humans reported Campylobacter infections in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects; with higher prevalence in children under the age of five years. Studies on animals found colonization of both domestic and wild species. Among isolates, some demonstrated antimicrobial resistance. The available information for both human and animal Campylobacteriosis in the country is sparse. It however provides an insight of the bacteriological and epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter infections in the country and eventually creates more awareness on the need to develop control strategies. Since the organism is zoonotic its control strategies should adopt the "One Health" approach involving collaborative efforts from veterinary and human medicine. PMID:26591672

  17. Occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle in Monduli district, northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Haji, Isihaka J; Malele, Imna; Namangala, Boniface

    2014-01-01

    Haemoparasite infections are among the most economically important cattle diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study investigated the occurrence of haemoparasites in 295 indigenous cattle from five villages (Mswakini, Lake Manyara, Naitolia, Makuyuni and Nanja) of the Monduli district, a wildlife-domestic animal-human interface area in northern Tanzania. The data showed that the overall occurrence of haemoparasites in the sampled cattle was 12.5% (95% CI: 8.7% - 16.3%), involving single and mixed infections with Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei. The highest haemoparasite occurrence was recorded in Lake Manyara (18.3%; 95% CI: 8.5% - 28.1%), and the lowest was recorded in Nanja (6.5%; 95% CI: 0.4% - 12.6%). This preliminary study, furthermore, provided evidence of the possible arthropod vectors (ticks and tsetse flies) that may be involved in the transmission of haemoparasites to cattle in the Monduli district. It is envisaged that this survey will stimulate more studies to determine the prevalence of haemoparasites in livestock by using more sensitive molecular techniques. PMID:25685864

  18. The Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania - A volcanological review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Williamson, David; Mbede, Evelyne; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Rungwe Volcanic Province in SW Tanzania is a densely populated area that is considered volcanically active. As part of the East African Rift System, a significant control of tectonic activity seems to exist on the location and also potential destabilization of volcanic edifices. Three large volcanoes, Ngozi, Rungwe, and Kyejo, dominate the landscape and all show contrasting eruptive behaviour in the recent geological past. Kyejo volcano is a flow-dominated volcano that had a historic lava flow eruption. Lake sediment cores, drilled in Lakes Malawi, Masoko, Rukwa, and Tanganyika, provide a record of frequent explosive eruptions in the last few tens of thousands of years. In combination with on-land stratigraphic observations, they constrain the minimum eruptive frequency of especially Rungwe and Ngozi volcanoes. Both volcanoes had Plinian-style eruptions in the Holocene. The most striking documented Rungwe eruption, the ca. 4 ka Rungwe Pumice, is a rare case of a Plinian eruption in near-wind-free conditions. Furthermore, the Rungwe Pumice, just like any other Rungwe tephra deposit, does not show any evidence of pyroclastic density current deposits. Apart from explosive eruptions at a range of scales happening every few hundred years at Rungwe, the volcano also experienced at least two sector collapse events generating debris avalanches. All existing evidence shows that the Rungwe Volcanic Province is prone to future significant explosive eruptions. To further assess, quantify and mitigate volcanic hazard risks, extensive and systematic multidisciplinary geological research, and both volcanic and tectonic monitoring are needed.

  19. Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18–49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis. Results Four themes emerged during the study. First, “risks and costs” which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, “male involvement” as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, “gender relations and communication” as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, “urban–rural differences”, life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence. Conclusion Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use. PMID:23721196

  20. Heterogeneous HIV Testing Preferences in an Urban Setting in Tanzania: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Jan; Njau, Bernard; Brown, Derek S.; Mühlbacher, Axel; Thielman, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission through treatment rely on HIV testing programs that are acceptable to broad populations. Yet, testing preferences among diverse at-risk populations in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) to evaluate factors that influence HIV-testing preferences in a low-resource setting. Methods Using formative work, a pilot study, and pretesting, we developed a DCE survey with five attributes: distance to testing, confidentiality, testing days (weekday vs. weekend), method for obtaining the sample for testing (blood from finger or arm, oral swab), and availability of HIV medications at the testing site. Cluster-randomization and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) sampling methodology were used to enroll 486 community members, ages 18–49, in an urban setting in Northern Tanzania. Interviewer-assisted DCEs, presented to participants on iPads, were administered between September 2012 and February 2013. Results Nearly three of five males (58%) and 85% of females had previously tested for HIV; 20% of males and 37% of females had tested within the past year. In gender-specific mixed logit analyses, distance to testing was the most important attribute to respondents, followed by confidentiality and the method for obtaining the sample for the HIV test. Both unconditional assessments of preferences for each attribute and mixed logit analyses of DCE choice patterns suggest significant preference heterogeneity among participants. Preferences differed between males and females, between those who had previously tested for HIV and those who had never tested, and between those who tested in the past year and those who tested more than a year ago. Conclusion The findings suggest potentially significant benefits from tailoring HIV testing interventions to match the preferences of specific populations, including males and females and those who

  1. Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania after switch to artemisinin combination therapy and the introduction of accredited drug dispensing outlets - a provider perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO) was created in Tanzania. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) in 2007. Subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on access to malaria treatment was studied in rural Tanzania. Methods The study was carried out in the villages of Kilombero and Ulanga Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) and in Ifakara town. Data collection consisted of: 1) yearly censuses of shops selling drugs; 2) collection of monthly data on availability of anti-malarials in public health facilities; and 3) retail audits to measure anti-malarial sales volumes in all public, mission and private outlets. The data were complemented with DSS population data. Results Between 2004 and 2008 access to malaria treatment greatly improved and the number of anti-malarial treatment doses dispensed increased by 78%. Particular improvements were observed in the availability (from 0.24 shops per 1,000 people in 2004 to 0.39 in 2008) and accessibility (from 71% of households within 5 km of a shop in 2004 to 87% in 2008) of drug shops. Despite no improvements in affordability this resulted in an increase of the market share from 49% of anti-malarial sales 2005 to 59% in 2008. The change of treatment policy from SP to ALu led to severe stock-outs of SP in health facilities in the months leading up to the introduction of ALu (only 40% months in stock), but these were compensated by the wide availability of SP in shops. After the introduction of ALu stock levels of the drug were relatively high in public health facilities (over 80% months in stock), but the drug could only be found in 30% of drug shops and in no general shops. This resulted in a low overall utilization of the drug (19% of all anti-malarial sales) Conclusions

  2. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. Results The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65) and 89.4% (n=143) not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9%) than females (n=36, 22.5%) with regard to mercury (x2=3.99, p<0.05). An individual’s occupation category was associated with level of knowledge (x2=22.82, p=<0.001). Individuals involved in mining (n=63, 73.2%) were more knowledgeable about the negative health effects of mercury than individuals in other occupations. Of the few individuals (n=17, 10.6%) who knew about arsenic toxicity, the majority (n=10, 58.8%) were miners. Conclusions The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health

  3. Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among 10–19 year-old adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV/AIDS pandemic remains a leading challenge for global health. Although condoms are acknowledged for their key role on preventing HIV transmission, low and inappropriate use of condoms persists in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa. This study assesses factors affecting acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania. Methods Data were collected in 2011 as part of a larger cross-sectional survey on condom use among 10–19 year-olds in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Associations between acceptability of condom promotion and distribution and each of the explanatory variables were tested using Chi Square. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent predictors of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution using STATA (11) statistical software at 5% significance level. Results Mean age of the 1,327 adolescent participants (50.5% being males) was 13.5 years (SD = 1.4). Acceptance of condom promotion and distribution was found among 37% (35% in Mpwapwa and 39% in Mbeya rural) of the adolescents. Being sexually active and aged 15–19 was the strongest predictor of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution (OR = 7.78, 95% CI 4.65-12.99). Others were; not agreeing that a condom is effective in preventing transmissions of STIs including HIV (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.56), being a resident of Mbeya rural district (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.19), feeling comfortable being seen by parents/guardians holding/buying condoms (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.46) and living with a guardian (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.04). Conclusion Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural is low. Effect of sexual activity on the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution is age-dependent and was the strongest. Feeling comfortable being

  4. Factors affecting uptake of optimal doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in six districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with optimal doses (two+) of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) protects pregnant women from malaria-related adverse outcomes. This study assesses the extent and predictors of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP in six districts of Tanzania. Methods The data come from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in six districts in Tanzania in 2012. A total of 1,267 women, with children aged less than two years and who had sought antenatal care (ANC) at least once during pregnancy, were selected for the current analysis. Data analysis involved the use of Chi-Square (χ2) for associations and multivariate analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Results Overall, 43.6% and 28.5% of the women received optimal (two+) and partial (one) doses of IPTp-SP respectively during pregnancy. Having had been counseled on the dangers of malaria during pregnancy was the most pervasive determinant of both optimal (RRR = 6.47, 95% CI 4.66-8.97) and partial (RRR = 4.24, 95% CI 3.00-6.00) uptake of IPTp-SP doses. Early ANC initiation was associated with a higher likelihood of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP (RRR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.18-3.57). Also, women with secondary or higher education were almost twice as likely as those who had never been to school to have received optimal SP doses during pregnancy (RRR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.56). Being married was associated with a 60% decline in the partial uptake of IPTp-SP (RRR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). Inter-district variations in the uptake of both optimal and partial IPTp-SP doses existed (P < 0.05). Conclusion Counseling to pregnant women on the dangers of malaria in pregnancy and formal education beyond primary school is important to enhance uptake of optimal doses of SP for malaria control in pregnancy in Tanzania. ANC initiation in the first trimester should be promoted to enhance coverage of optimal doses of IPTp

  5. Promoting Life Skills and Preventing Tobacco Use among Low-Income Mumbai Youth: Effects of Salaam Bombay Foundation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Glorian; Gupta, Prakash C.; Nagler, Eve; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-01-01

    Background In response to India's growing tobacco epidemic, strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use among Indian youth, particularly among those who are economically disadvantaged. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based life-skills tobacco control program for youth of low socio-economic status in Mumbai and the surrounding state of Maharashtra. We hypothesized that compared to youth in control schools, youth exposed to the program would have greater knowledge of effects of tobacco use; be more likely to take action to prevent others from using tobacco; demonstrate more positive life skills and attitudes; and be less likely to report tobacco use. Methods/Findings Using a quasi-experimental design, we assessed program effectiveness by comparing 8th and 9th grade students in intervention schools to 8th grade students in comparable schools that did not receive the program. Across all schools, 1851 students completed a survey that assessed core program components in early 2010. The program consisted of activities focused on building awareness about the hazards of tobacco, developing life skills, and advocacy development. The primary outcome measure was self-reported tobacco use in the last 30 days. Findings indicate that 4.1% of 8th grade intervention students (OR = 0.51) and 3.6% of 9th grade intervention students (OR = 0.33) reported using tobacco at least once in the last 30 days, compared to 8.7% of students in the control schools. Intervention group students were also significantly more knowledgeable about tobacco and related legislation, reported more efforts to prevent tobacco use among others, and reported stronger life skills and self-efficacy than students in control schools. Limitations to the study include schools not being randomly assigned to condition and tobacco use being measured by self-report. Conclusions This program represents an effective model of school-based tobacco use prevention that low

  6. Stakeholders’ participation in planning and priority setting in the context of a decentralised health care system: the case of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV programme in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, decentralisation processes and reforms in the health sector aimed at improving planning and accountability in the sector. As a result, districts were given authority to undertake local planning and set priorities as well as allocate resources fairly to promote the health of a population with varied needs. Nevertheless, priority setting in the health care service has remained a challenge. The study assessed the priority setting processes in the planning of the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme at the district level in Tanzania. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in Mbarali district, south-western Tanzania. The study applied in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in the data collection. Informants included members of the Council Health Management Team, regional PMTCT managers and health facility providers. Results Two plans were reported where PMTCT activities could be accommodated; the Comprehensive Council Health Plan and the Regional PMTCT Plan that was donor funded. As donors had their own globally defined priorities, it proved difficult for district and regional managers to accommodate locally defined PMTCT priorities in these plans. As a result few of these were funded. Guidelines and main priority areas of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) also impacted on the ability of the districts and regions to act, undermining the effectiveness of the decentralisation policy in the health sector. Conclusion The challenges in the priority setting processes revealed within the PMTCT initiative indicate substantial weaknesses in implementing the Tanzania decentralisation policy. There is an urgent need to revive the strategies and aims of the decentralisation policy at all levels of the health care system with a view to improving health service delivery. PMID:23849730

  7. Emergency care capacity in Africa: A clinical and educational initiative in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Teri A; Mfinanga, Juma A; Sawe, Hendry R; Runyon, Michael S; Mwafongo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Even though sub-Saharan Africa faces a disproportionate burden of acute injury and illness, few clinical facilities are configured to take an integrated approach to resuscitation and stabilization. Emergency care is a high-impact and cost-effective form of secondary prevention; disease surveillance at facilities delivering acute and emergency care is essential to guide primary prevention. Barriers to emergency care implementation in the region include limited documentation of the acute disease burden, a lack of consensus on regionally appropriate metrics to facilitate impact evaluation, and the lack of coordinated advocacy for acute disease prevention and emergency care. Despite these challenges, interest in creating dedicated acute care facilities and emergency training programs is rapidly expanding in Africa. We describe one such initiative at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, with a focus on the development of the emergency medicine residency program. PMID:23254838

  8. Trematode infections in cattle in Arumeru District, Tanzania are associated with irrigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between the environment and infection of cattle with trematodes was studied at Arumeru District, Arusha Region, northern Tanzania. Randomly selected villages were grouped into three cattle management strata, (i) zero-grazing (ZZ) (ii) communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) and (iii) communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI). Methods Faecal samples were collected from 241 cattle, and processed using the Flukefinder® method. Snail intermediate hosts were collected with a snail scoop from the water bodies in the study villages and identified morphologically. Results The overall prevalence of F. gigantica, paramphistomes and S. bovis were 33%, 37% and 2% respectively. Prevalence for F. gigantica, paramphistomes, and S. bovis for each stratum were, zero-grazing (ZZ) (29.7%, 36.0% and 0%), communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) (6.3%, 15.0% and 3.8%) and communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI) (57.7%, 56.7% and 1.0%) respectively. The differences between strata were significant for F. gigantica (p < 0.001) and paramphistomes (p < 0.05) but not for S. bovis. Irrigation could account for the high prevalence of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZCI stratum as compared to the ZZ and ZC strata. The higher prevalences of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZZ stratum compared with the ZC stratum were unexpected and attributed to the practice of farmers in some ZZ stratum villages buying fodder for their cattle obtained from pastures in ZCI villages. Conclusion Trematode infections in cattle are prevalent in Arumeru District. Fasciola gigantica and paramphistomes are associated with grazing in areas with irrigation of crops. Zero-grazing of cattle does not necessarily prevent the risk of infection. PMID:24650420

  9. ICT Use in Science and Mathematics Teacher Education in Tanzania: Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Jules; Voogt, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Currently, teacher education colleges in Tanzania are being equipped with computers to prepare teachers who can integrate technology in teaching. Despite these efforts, teachers are not embracing the use of technology in their teaching. This study adopted Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) as a framework for describing the…

  10. Learning to Negotiate Sexual Relationships: A Girls' School in Tanzania as a Restrictive and Agentic Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Laura Wangsness; DeJaeghere, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Literature on schooling in Africa often frames sexual relationships as threatening girls' educational participation, health, and general well-being. Schooling practices aimed at sheltering girls reflect the prevalence of discourses emphasising danger and abstinence. This article presents the case of one all-girls school in Tanzania which provides…

  11. Exploring Levels of Job Satisfaction among Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msuya, Ombeni William

    2016-01-01

    A case study on the role of