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1

Erika Smith, '08 Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania  

E-print Network

volunteering in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Dar es Salaam is the largest city and until recently was the capital running about the room and hitting other children. This was paradoxical. As a punishment for hitting

2

Impacts of urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban agriculturalists keeping mainly cross-bred dairy cattle in four different density areas in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were investigated as to whether they had information about the damaging effects of their animals on the environment. They responded to questions related to five issues of animal activity that damaged the urban environment. The findings revealed that, on average,

Malongo R. S. Mlozi

1997-01-01

3

Homicide of children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2005  

PubMed Central

Background Although data are sparse, it has been estimated that the highest rates of homicide death amongst children are in Africa. Little information is available on ages 0 -< 15 years. No reliable quantitative surveillance analysis of neonaticide (killed at less than one week) has been done. Methods A Violent Death Survey following WHO/CDC Guidelines was completed in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania (DSM) (population 2.845 million) in 2005. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered and analyzed using mixed methods techniques. Results The overall age adjusted rate of discarded and killed children in DSM was 2.05. The rate of neonaticide was 27.7 per 100,000) while the rate of homicide incidence for children > one day was Discussion The overall estimated homicide rate for Africa of children under age 15 was 4.53 per 100,000, whereas. The estimated global rate is 1.7 per 100,000 closer to DSM‘s rate. The results in DSM show that broad age groupings such as ” <1 year” or “0–4 years” or “0 – <15 years” may mask a high incidence of neonaticide and an otherwise low incidence of murdered children. The print media provided good in-depth coverage for a few cases but it is not known if the reported cases are representative. Conclusion Eighty percent of homicides of children in DSM are neonaticides. Since it is believed that the forces behind neonaticide are fundamentally different than homicides of older children, it is suggested that data of future surveys be parsed to include neonates, until the phenomenon is more clearly understood and addressed. Further understanding of the mother and father of the deceased is needed. Continued surveillance data collection is important to expand the sample size. PMID:22066333

Outwater, Anne; Mgaya, Edward; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Becker, Stan; Kinabo, Linna; Menick, Daniel Mbassa

2014-01-01

4

Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats. PMID:19440962

Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

2009-05-01

5

Balancing collective responsibility, individual opportunities and risks: a qualitative study on how police officers reason around volunteering in an HIV vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Results from HIV vaccine trials on potential volunteers will contribute to global efforts to develop an HIV vaccine. The purpose of this study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was to explore the underlying reasons that induce people to enrol in an HIV vaccine trial. METHODS: We conducted discussions with eight focus groups, containing a total of

Edith A. M. Tarimo; Anna Thorson; Thecla W. Kohi; Joachim Mwami; Muhammad Bakari; Eric Sandström; Asli Kulane

2010-01-01

6

Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities through interdisciplinary methods and analysis. Climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, droughts and heat waves has been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability provide insights how communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards; vulnerability of informal settlements to floods has been assessed for a case study area (Suna sub ward) and a GIS based identification of urban residential hotspots to flooding is completed. Furthermore, a set of indicators has been identified and the most relevant for Dar es Salaam has been selected by local stakeholders to identify particular vulnerable high risk areas and communities. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance system and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability has inter-alia suggested severe institutional deficits including over-centralized institutions for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. A multi-risk framework considering climate-related hazards, and physical and social fragilities has been set up.

Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

2013-04-01

7

Prevalence and determinants of obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity has increased dramatically and has become a public health concern worldwide. Childhood obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and may lead to early onset of NCDs. However, there is paucity of data on obesity among primary school children in Tanzania. This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among school age children in randomly selected schools in Dar es Salaam. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken using standard procedures. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters (kg/m2). Child obesity was defined as BMI at or above 95th percentile for age and sex. Socio-demographic characteristics of children were determined using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine association between independent variables with obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam. Results A total of 446 children were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 11.1±2.0 years and 53.1% were girls. The mean BMI, SBP and DBP were 16.6±4.0 kg/m2, 103.9±10.3mmHg and 65.6±8.2mmHg respectively. The overall prevalence of child obesity was 5.2% and was higher among girls (6.3%) compared to boys (3.8%). Obese children had significantly higher mean values for age (p=0.042), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (all p<0.001). Most obese children were from households with fewer children (p=0.019) and residing in urban areas (p=0.002). Controlling for other variables, age above 10 years (AOR=3.3, 95% CI=1.5-7.2), female sex (AOR=2.6, 95% CI=1.4-4.9), urban residence (AOR=2.5, 95% CI=1.2-5.3) and having money to spend at school (AOR=2.6, 95% CI=1.4-4.8) were significantly associated with child obesity. Conclusions The prevalence of childhood obesity in this population was found to be low. However, children from urban schools and girls were proportionately more obese compared to their counterparts. Primary preventive measures for childhood obesity should start early in childhood and address socioeconomic factors of parents contributing to childhood obesity. PMID:24094276

2013-01-01

8

Intimate Partner Violence and the Association with HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…

Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie

2010-01-01

9

Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8%) of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9%) had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431) and 55.7% (127/228) of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508). The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2%) or window screens (75.5%). Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake. PMID:19785779

Ogoma, Sheila B; Kannady, Khadija; Sikulu, Maggy; Chaki, Prosper P; Govella, Nicodem J; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Killeen, Gerry F

2009-01-01

10

Impact of Community-Based Larviciding on the Prevalence of Malaria Infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The use of larval source management is not prioritized by contemporary malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa despite historical success. Larviciding, in particular, could be effective in urban areas where transmission is focal and accessibility to Anopheles breeding habitats is generally easier than in rural settings. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a community-based microbial larviciding intervention to reduce the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. Methods and Findings Larviciding was implemented in 3 out of 15 targeted wards of Dar es Salaam in 2006 after two years of baseline data collection. This intervention was subsequently scaled up to 9 wards a year later, and to all 15 targeted wards in 2008. Continuous randomized cluster sampling of malaria prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics was carried out during 6 survey rounds (2004–2008), which included both cross-sectional and longitudinal data (N?=?64,537). Bayesian random effects logistic regression models were used to quantify the effect of the intervention on malaria prevalence at the individual level. Effect size estimates suggest a significant protective effect of the larviciding intervention. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of individuals living in areas treated with larviciding being infected with malaria were 21% lower (Odds Ratio?=?0.79; 95% Credible Intervals: 0.66–0.93) than those who lived in areas not treated. The larviciding intervention was most effective during dry seasons and had synergistic effects with other protective measures such as use of insecticide-treated bed nets and house proofing (i.e., complete ceiling or window screens). Conclusion A large-scale community-based larviciding intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in urban Dar es Salaam. PMID:23977099

Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Castro, Marcia C.

2013-01-01

11

Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

2008-12-01

12

Capture-recapture analysis of East Coast fever in smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.  

PubMed

The prevalence of and case fatality rate due to East Coast fever (ECF) were estimated in 1402 dairy cattle in 87 small herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania, from January 2003 to January 2005 using a capture-recapture method. Information on clinical cases and deaths due to ECF were obtained from farm records and from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey conducted between July 2003 and March 2005 as part of longitudinal studies of bovine mastitis in these herds. The number of clinical cases identified was 567 (from farm records) and 496 (from the questionnaire), and the number of deaths recorded were 305 (from farm records) and 251 (from the questionnaire). In all, 450 clinical cases and 191 deaths due to ECF were identified from the two sources, giving an observed prevalence of 32% (CI(95%) 30-35%) and observed case fatality rate of 42% (CI(95%) 38-47%). Following application of the capture-recapture method, the estimated number of clinical cases and deaths was 625 (CI(95%) 617-633) and 401 (CI(95%) 384-418), respectively. The respective prevalence and case fatality rates were 45% (CI(95%) 41-48%) and 64% (CI(95%) 60-68%). The estimates obtained using the capture-recapture method are higher than those identified by traditional cross-sectional studies conducted in the same study area, and probably provide a more accurate epidemiological picture of ECF in this region of Tanzania. PMID:19269202

Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M

2010-05-01

13

Maternal and neonatal colonisation of group B streptococcus at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS), which asymptomatically colonises the vaginal and rectal areas of women, is the leading cause of septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in neonates. In Tanzania no studies have been done on GBS colonisation of pregnant women and neonates. This study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to determine the prevalence of GBS colonisation among pregnant women,

Agricola Joachim; Mecky I Matee; Furaha A Massawe; Eligius F Lyamuya

2009-01-01

14

Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of Chinese migrants in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania toward HIV?AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices (KABPs) among Chinese mi- grant laborers in east African cities, and to examine the current status of access to AIDS-related healthcare services, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Of 121 male laborer partici- pants who spoke neither English nor Swahili, 109 (90.9%) had an education

Guoxi Cai; Kazuhiko Moji; Xiaonan Wu; Konglai Zhang

2007-01-01

15

Prevalence of enteropathogenic viruses and molecular characterization of group A rotavirus among children with diarrhea in Dar es Salaam Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Different groups of viruses have been shown to be responsible for acute diarrhea among children during their first few years of life. Epidemiological knowledge of viral agents is critical for the development of effective preventive measures, including vaccines. Methods In this study we determined the prevalence of the four major enteropathogenic viruses – rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus – was determined in 270 stool samples collected from children aged 0 – 60 months who were admitted with diarrhea in four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, using commercially available ELISA kits. In addition, the molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus was investigated using reverse transcriptase multiplex polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results At least one viral agent was detected in 87/270 (32.2%) of the children. The prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus was 18.1%, 13.7%, 2.6% and 0.4%, respectively. In most cases (62.1%) of viruses were detected in children aged 7–12 months. The G and P types (VP7 and VP4 genotypes respectively) were further investigated in 49 rotavirus ELISA positive samples. G9 was the predominant G type (81.6%), followed by G1 (10.2%) and G3 (0.2%). P[8] was the predominant P type (83.7%), followed by P[6] (0.4%) and P[4] (0.2%). The following G and P types were not detected in this study population; G2, G4, G8 G10, P[9], P[10] and P[11]. The dominating G/P combination was G9P[8], accounting for 39 (90.7%) of the 43 fully characterized strains. Three (6.1%) of the 49 rotavirus strains could not be typed. Conclusion Nearly one third of children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in Dar es Salaam had one of the four viral agents. The predominance of rotavirus serotype G9 may have implication for rotavirus vaccination in Tanzania. PMID:18162127

Moyo, Sabrina J; Gro, Njolstad; Kirsti, Vainio; Matee, Mecky I; Kitundu, Jesse; Maselle, Samwel Y; Langeland, Nina; Myrmel, Helge

2007-01-01

16

Habitat characterization and spatial distribution of Anopheles sp. mosquito larvae in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) during an extended dry period  

PubMed Central

Introduction By 2030, more than 50% of the African population will live in urban areas. Controlling malaria reduces the disease burden and further improves economic development. As a complement to treated nets and prompt access to treatment, measures targeted against the larval stage of Anopheles sp. mosquitoes are a promising strategy for urban areas. However, a precise knowledge of the geographic location and potentially of ecological characteristics of breeding sites is of major importance for such interventions. Methods In total 151 km2 of central Dar es Salaam, the biggest city of Tanzania, were systematically searched for open mosquito breeding sites. Ecologic parameters, mosquito larvae density and geographic location were recorded for each site. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key ecological factors explaining the different densities of mosquito larvae. Results A total of 405 potential open breeding sites were examined. Large drains, swamps and puddles were associated with no or low Anopheles sp. larvae density. The probability of Anopheles sp. larvae to be present was reduced when water was identified as "turbid". Small breeding sites were more commonly colonized by Anopheles sp. larvae. Further, Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae were found in highly organically polluted habitats. Conclusions Clear ecological characteristics of the breeding requirements of Anopheles sp. larvae could not be identified in this setting. Hence, every stagnant open water body, including very polluted ones, have to be considered as potential malaria vector breeding sites. PMID:15649333

Sattler, Michael A; Mtasiwa, Deo; Kiama, Michael; Premji, Zul; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Lengeler, Christian

2005-01-01

17

Predictors of breastfeeding cessation among HIV-infected women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

This paper examines predictors of breastfeeding cessation among a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. This was a prospective follow-up study of HIV-infected women who participated in a randomized micronutrient supplementation trial conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 795 HIV-infected Tanzanian women with singleton newborns were utilized from the cohort for this analysis. The proportion of women breastfeeding declined from 95% at 12 months to 11% at 24 months. The multivariate analysis showed breastfeeding cessation was significantly associated with increasing calendar year of delivery from 1995 to 1997 [risk ratio (RR), 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.63], having a new pregnancy (RR 1.33; 95% CI 1.10-1.61), overweight [body mass index (BMI) ?25 kg m(-2) ; RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.07-1.75], underweight (BMI <18.5kg m(-2) ; RR 1.29; 95% CI 1.00-1.65), introduction of cow's milk at infant's age of 4 months (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.04-1.63). Material and social support was associated with decreased likelihood of cessation (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.68-1.02). Demographic, health and nutritional factors among women and infants are associated with decisions by HIV-infected women to cease breastfeeding. The impact of breastfeeding counselling programs for HIV-infected African women should consider individual maternal, social and health contexts. PMID:21689270

Petraro, Paul; Duggan, Christopher; Msamanga, Gernard; Peterson, Karen E; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie

2011-07-01

18

Seasonal changes in the larvel populations of Aedes aegypti in two biotopes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The seasonal dynamics of larval populations of Aedes aegypti was studied in two different biotopes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The first biotope was located on the Msasani peninsula on the coast 6 km north of Dar es Salaam, where A. aegypti breeds exclusively in coral rock holes. The population dynamics was studied during both the rainy and the dry season. Seasonal changes in the density of A. aegypti larvae depend primarily on variation in rainfall. The population of larvae dropped to zero only for a short time during the driest period while the adult population was maintained at a low level. The second biotope was in an automobile dump in a Dar es Salaam suburb, where A. aegypti breeds in artificial containers such as tires, automobile parts, tins, coconut shells, and snail shells. The greater part of the A. aegypti population of this biotope is maintained in the egg stage during the dry season. It serves as a focal point for breeding during the dry season: with the coming of the rains, the population expands into the surrounding residential areas. More than 70% of the larval population developed in tires, 20% in tins, 5% in coconut shells, and 1% in snail shells. PMID:4539415

Trpis, Milan

1972-01-01

19

Roadside concentration of gaseous and particulate matter pollutants and risk assessment in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study used manual air sampling method to assess the contribution of road traffic to air pollution level in Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania. Samples were collected from 11 different sites. Parameters measured were: sulphur dioxide using pararosaniline method, nitrogen dioxide using saltzman method, particulate matter and particulate lead using filtration method and atomic absorption spectrometric method, respectively. Results showed that hourly average sulphur dioxide concentration range from 127 to 1385 microg/m3. The measured values of sulphur dioxide were above the recommended WHO guidelines with an hourly objective value of 350 microg/m3 at 87% of the sampling sites. The hourly average nitrogen dioxide concentration ranged from 18 to 53 microg/m3. The maximum hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration at 53 microg/m3 was below the WHO guideline value of 200 microg/m3. The hourly average suspended particulate matter (SPM) ranged from 98 to 1161 microg/m3, exceeding the recommended value of 230 microg/m3 by WHO at 87% of the sampling sites. The hourly average lead concentration was found to range from 0.60 to 25.6 microg/m3, exceeding again the WHO guideline value of 1.5 microg/m3 at 83% of the sampling sites. Results predicted by Gaussian model when compared with the measured values were found to have a correlation coefficient of 0.8, signifying a good correlation. The risk assessment was undertaken considering the people who spend a significant portion of their time near the roads, such as the Uhuru primary school pupils and the adult population who reside by the roadside. The unit risk realised was 18.2 x 10(-6) for adult population and 2.2 x 10(-6) for pupils, both scenarios showing risk higher than the United Sates of America Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) acceptable limit of 1 x 10(-6). Considering the magnitude of the problem at hand, this study recommends an introduction of mandatory emission tests of SPM, lead and sulphur dioxide (SO2). The study further recommends the introduction of continuous and/or regular air quality monitoring and the use non-leaded petrol in Tanzania. PMID:15931998

Jackson, Msafiri M

2005-05-01

20

Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al., 2012). Mean temperatures in the climate zone are estimated to increase by at least 1°C between 1971-2000 and 2021-2050(CSIR, 2012). Dar es Salaam is represented using around 1700 UMT units mapped across 43 UMT categories for the year 2008. Modelled surface temperature profiles for the city are presented, including an assessment of the potential impact of changing green structure cover within selected UMT categories. Provisional recommendations are made concerning the potential contribution of green structures as a climate adaptation response to the increasing temperatures in Dar es Salaam, which could be relevant for other African cities in similar climate zones. References Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Ouédraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D2.7 Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Accessed 18/12/12. CSIR (2012) CLUVA deliverable D1.5 Regional climate change simulations available for the selected areas http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.5.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13. Giugni, M., Adamo, P., Capuano, P., De Paola, F., Di Ruocco, A., Giordano, S., Iavazzo, P., Sellerino, M., Terracciano, S., Topa, M. E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D.1.2 Hazard scenarios for test cities using available data. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.2.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13

Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

2013-04-01

21

Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa. PMID:17784963

Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

2007-01-01

22

Urban lymphatic filariasis in the metropolis of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The last decades have seen a considerable increase in urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is estimated that over 50% of the population will live in urban areas by 2040. Rapid growth of cities combined with limited economic resources often result in informal settlements and slums with favorable conditions for proliferation of vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Dar es Salaam, which has grown more than 30 times in population during the past 55 years (4.4 million inhabitants in 2012), previous surveys have indicated high prevalences of LF. This study investigated epidemiological aspects of LF in Dar es Salaam, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Six sites with varying distance from the city center (3–30 km) and covering different population densities, socioeconomic characteristics, and water, sewerage and sanitary facilities were selected for the study. Pupils from one public primary school at each site were screened for circulating filarial antigen (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 (marker of exposure to transmission). Community members were examined for CFA, microfilariae and chronic manifestations. Structured questionnaires were administered to pupils and heads of community households, and vector surveys were carried out in selected households. Results The study indicated that a tremendous decrease in the burden of LF infection had occurred, despite haphazard urbanisation. Contributing factors may be urban malaria control targeting Anopheles vectors, short survival time of the numerous Culex quinquefasciatus vectors in the urban environment, widespread use of bed nets and other mosquito proofing measures, and mass drug administration (MDA) in 2006 and 2007. Although the level of ongoing transmission was low, the burden of chronic LF disease was still high. Conclusions The development has so far been promising, but continued efforts are necessary to ensure elimination of LF as a public health problem. These will include improving the awareness of people about the role of mosquitoes in transmission of LF, more thorough implementation of environmental sanitation to reduce Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding, continued MDA to high-risk areas, and set-up of programmes for management of chronic LF disease. PMID:24289718

2013-01-01

23

Groundwater exploitation and hydraulic parameter estimation for a Quaternary aquifer in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that groundwater exploitation has largely increased since 1997 in the Dar-es-Salaam aquifer, calls for a directed attention towards possible problems of aquifer overexploitation that may arise in the near future. Hydraulic parameters are important for developing local and regional water plans as well as developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource.

Ibrahimu Chikira Mjemah; Marc Van Camp; Kristine Walraevens

2009-01-01

24

Community-based urban water management in fringe neighbourhoods: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diminishing state resources coupled with inadequate urban management capacity and insufficiency of conventional approaches have rendered it impossible to provide basic infrastructure in urban areas in developing countries such as in the city of Dar es Salaam. In that situation fringe neighbourhoods are mostly hit. However, a notable phenomenon has emerged in informal and formal settlements where the communities, through

Alphonce G. Kyessi

2005-01-01

25

Neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A forensic autopsy study in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the neuropathological changes in the brain of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the Tanzanian capital Dar Es Salaam, and investigate whether the prevalence of different forms of HIV-related neuropathology varies from other countries. The subjects were patients with risk factors for HIV infection in whom forensic autopsies were performed

Paul M. Ng’walali; Kazuhiko Kibayashi; Martin P. Mbonde; Shinji Harada; Davis Mwakagile; James N. Kitinya; Shigeyuki Tsunenari

2005-01-01

26

Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments and biota from the coastal area of Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment and biota samples were collected from Msimbazi and Kizinga rivers and from the coastal marine environment of Dar es Salaam during both dry and wet seasons. The samples were analyzed for various organochlorine pesticide residues using GC-ECD and GC-MS. Dieldrin, p,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDE, p,p?-DDD, o,p?-DDT and ?-HCH were detected at significantly greater concentrations above the method detection limits. Recoveries of

Haji Mwevura; Othman C Othman; George L Mhehe

2002-01-01

27

Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study has the potential to provide empirical evidence to promote large scale monitoring and education campaigns in Africa to improve health and reduce the burden of waterborne disease.

Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

2008-12-01

28

Sexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates' students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions remain higher among university students. This calls for understanding the knowledge on contraceptive use and sexual behaviours among this high risk group if the incidence of unintended pregnancy, illegal abortions and high sexual risky behaviour are to be minimized. This study aimed to assess ssexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates’ students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among undergraduate female students in the two Universities located in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania. The study period was from June 2013 to October 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 281 students. Of these, 253 were retrieved, giving a response rate of 90%. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows version 17.0. Descriptive statistics were summarized. The chi square test was used to examine relationship between various sociodemographic and sexual behaviours variables with contraceptive use. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Results showed that majority (70.4%) of the students have had sexual intercourse. All participants had knowledge of contraception. More than half, 148 (58.5%) of sexually active women reported ever used contraception before while 105 (41.5%) were current contraceptive users. Majority (74.7%) of the sexually active group started sexual activity at young age (19–24 years). Condom, 221(24.3%) and pills, 153 (16.8%) were the known contraceptive methods. The most popular method of contraception used were condoms, withdrawal and periodic abstinence. The main sources of information about contraception were from friends, radio and school (39.5%, 36% and 24%) respectively. Forty (15.8%) women had pregnancies. Of these, 11 (27%) have had unwanted pregnancies among which 54.6% have had induced abortion. Marital status, age at first sex, ever had sex, ever been pregnant and unwanted pregnancies were associated with use of contraception. Conclusions Most of the student’s had knowledge of contraception. However, rate of contraception use is still low. Majority of the respondent were sexually active, with the majority started sexual activity at young age. This needs advocacy for adolescence reproductive health education to promote the use of the available contraceptive services amongst university students. PMID:25099502

2014-01-01

29

Groundwater exploitation and hydraulic parameter estimation for a Quaternary aquifer in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that groundwater exploitation has largely increased since 1997 in the Dar-es-Salaam aquifer, calls for a directed attention towards possible problems of aquifer overexploitation that may arise in the near future. Hydraulic parameters are important for developing local and regional water plans as well as developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource. The determination of aquifer parameters through pumping tests has become a standard step in the evaluation of groundwater resource potential. The pumping tests in the study area were conducted in August 2004 and August 2005, where 39 boreholes were tested out of 400 visited. In the study area there are over 1300 recorded boreholes drilled by Drilling and Dam Construction Agency (DDCA) by the year 2005. Total groundwater exploitation in the study area was estimated at 8.59 × 10 6 m 3/year, based on yield data collected during the 2004-2005 field campaigns. The pumping tests included single-well tests and tests with measurements on the pumping well and at least one observation well. The tests were conducted for 6 h and 30 min. The pump was shut down after 6 h of pumping and the remaining 30 min were used for recovery measurements. The pumping test analysis methods used include: Neuman type curve matching and Walton type curve matching, checked by specific well capacity assessment and Thiem-Dupuit/Thiem's method. The curve-matching results from the aquifer tests show the following parameters: an average transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of 34 m 2/d and 1.58 m/d, respectively for the unconfined aquifer; the semi-confined aquifer has an average value of 63 m 2/d and 2.14 m/d for transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity, respectively. For the case of the storativity, the unconfined aquifer has an average elastic early-time storativity of 0.01, while the lower aquifer has an average storativity of 3 × 10 -4. Specific well capacity method and Thiem-Dupuit/Thiem's method confirm results for transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the semi-confined aquifer, while values for the unconfined aquifer are somewhat larger (by a factor of 2-3). The hydraulic parameters calculated appear to reasonably agree with the geological formation of the aquifers, as deduced from borehole descriptions.

Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Van Camp, Marc; Walraevens, Kristine

30

Sexual Motivation, Sexual Transactions and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Men who have Sex with Men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Understanding the associations between sexual motivation and sexual risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) is critical for developing effective HIV prevention interventions. To examine these associations, we employed data from a survey of 200 MSM in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, recruited through respondent driven sampling. Results showed that 44.5 % of surveyed participants most often looked for love/affection when having sex, and 36.5 % most often looked for money. Money-motivated MSM were more likely to identify themselves as bisexual, more likely to have anal sex, and had significantly higher numbers of partners of both sexes. Those who most often looked for love/affection were less likely to ask for condom use, to actually use a condom, and to use lubrication in anal sex. MSM with different sexual motivations had dissimilar sexual risk behaviors. Tailored health interventions for each group to reduce these sexual risks for STIs/HIV prevention are needed. PMID:24890184

Bui, Thanh C; Nyoni, Joyce E; Ross, Michael W; Mbwambo, Jessie; Markham, Christine M; McCurdy, Sheryl A

2014-12-01

31

Modeling approaches and strategies for data-scarce aquifers: example of the Dar es Salaam aquifer in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of groundwater resources can be improved by using groundwater models to perform risk analyses and to improve development strategies, but a lack of extensive basic data often limits the implementation of sophisticated models. Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is an example of a city where increasing groundwater use in a Pleistocene aquifer is causing groundwater-related problems such as saline intrusion along the coastline, lowering of water-table levels, and contamination of pumping wells. The lack of a water-level monitoring network introduces a problem for basic data collection and model calibration and validation. As a replacement, local water-supply wells were used for measuring groundwater depth, and well-top heights were estimated from a regional digital elevation model to recalculate water depths to hydraulic heads. These were used to draw a regional piezometric map. Hydraulic parameters were estimated from short-time pumping tests in the local wells, but variation in hydraulic conductivity was attributed to uncertainty in well characteristics (information often unavailable) and not to aquifer heterogeneity. A MODFLOW model was calibrated with a homogeneous hydraulic conductivity field and a sensitivity analysis between the conductivity and aquifer recharge showed that average annual recharge will likely be in the range 80-100 mm/year.

Van Camp, Marc; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Al Farrah, Nawal; Walraevens, Kristine

2013-03-01

32

Condom Use among HIV-Positive Sexually Active Adults and Partner's HIV Status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Consistent and proper use of condoms has been found to be effective in preventing HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted diseases. We examined the predictors of condom use and knowledge of partner’s HIV status among 731 HIV-positive individuals who had sex in the past six months. Data are from an incoming service form administered to clients who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences’ Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between 1997–2008 (N=45,071). Sixteen percent reported always using a condom in the past six months. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, and knowledge of partner’s HIV status were the strongest predictors of consistent condom use. The risk of future HIV infections in this region remains high. Future efforts to prevent new HIV infections should aim to increase condom use, and prevention practices that facilitate HIV-positive individuals to communicate their HIV status with partners. PMID:22643471

Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Younge, Sinead; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary

2014-01-01

33

Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of adaptation can be reduced with prolonged exposure to high temperature and humidity. The expected persistence of long-lived heat waves lasting approximately 1.5-2 weeks is clearly longer with respect to the climatological period (1961-1990). During 100 years, short lived but more intense waves are more than doubled in duration. It is evident the needs for the national health services to develop strategies for the mitigation of the heat wave effects, to enhance the resilience of the population, particularly the elder people.

Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

34

A pilot study to evaluate incorporating eye care for children into reproductive and child health services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: a historical comparison study  

PubMed Central

Background Many blinding eye conditions of childhood are preventable or treatable, particularly in developing countries. However, primary eye care (PEC) for children is poorly developed, leading to unnecessary visual loss. Activities for control by health workers entail interventions for systemic conditions (measles, vitamin A deficiency), identification and referral of children with sight threatening conditions and health education for caregivers. This pilot study evaluated integrating a package of activities to promote child eye health into Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Design: historical comparison study. Fifteen Clinical Officers and 15 nurses in 15 randomly selected RCH clinics were trained in PEC for children in July 2010. They were given educational materials (poster and manual) and their supervisors were orientated. Knowledge and practices were assessed before and 3 weeks after training. One year later their knowledge and practices were compared with a different group of 15 Clinical Officers and 15 nurses who had not been trained. Results Before training staff had insufficient knowledge to identify, treat and refer children with eye diseases, even conjunctivitis. Some recommended harmful practices or did not know that cataract requires urgent referral. Eye examination, vitamin A supplementation of mothers after delivery and cleaning the eyes at birth with instillation of antibiotics (Crede’s prophylaxis) were not routine, and there were no eye-specific educational materials. Three weeks after training several clinics delivering babies started Crede’s prophylaxis, vitamin A supplementation of women after delivery increased from 83.7% to 100%, and all staff included eye conditions in health education sessions. At one year, trained staff were more likely to correctly describe, diagnose and treat conjunctivitis (z=2.34, p=0.04)(30%-vs-60.7%). Mystery mothers observed health education sessions in 7/10 RCH clinics with trained staff, five (71.4%) of which included eye conditions. Conclusions Primary eye care for children in Dar-es-Salaam is inadequate but training RCH staff can improve knowledge in the short term and change practices. Attendance by mothers and their children is high in RCH clinics, making them ideal for delivery of PEC. Ongoing supportive supervision is required to maintain knowledge and practices, as well as systems to track referrals. PMID:24932133

2014-01-01

35

Microbial Larvicide Application by a Large-Scale, Community-Based Program Reduces Malaria Infection Prevalence in Urban Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors. Methods and Findings Microbial larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti)) was applied weekly through programmatic, non-randomized community-based, but vertically managed, delivery systems in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Continuous, randomized cluster sampling of malaria infection prevalence and non-random programmatic surveillance of entomological inoculation rate (EIR) respectively constituted the primary and secondary outcomes surveyed within a population of approximately 612,000 residents in 15 fully urban wards covering 55 km2. Bti application for one year in 3 of those wards (17 km2 with 128,000 residents) reduced crude annual transmission estimates (Relative EIR [95% Confidence Interval]?=?0.683 [0.491–0.952], P?=?0.024) but program effectiveness peaked between July and September (Relative EIR [CI]?=?0.354 [0.193 to 0.650], P?=?0.001) when 45% (9/20) of directly observed transmission events occurred. Larviciding reduced malaria infection risk among children ?5 years of age (OR [CI]?=?0.284 [0.101 to 0.801], P?=?0.017) and provided protection at least as good as personal use of an insecticide treated net (OR [CI]?=?0.764 [0.614–0.951], P?=?0.016). Conclusions In this context, larviciding reduced malaria prevalence and complemented existing protection provided by insecticide-treated nets. Larviciding may represent a useful option for integrated vector management in Africa, particularly in its rapidly growing urban centres. PMID:19333402

Geissbuhler, Yvonne; Kannady, Khadija; Chaki, Prosper Pius; Emidi, Basiliana; Govella, Nicodem James; Mayagaya, Valeliana; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Lindsay, Steven William; Tanner, Marcel; Fillinger, Ulrike; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Killeen, Gerry Francis

2009-01-01

36

Balancing collective responsibility, individual opportunities and risks: a qualitative study on how police officers reason around volunteering in an HIV vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Results from HIV vaccine trials on potential volunteers will contribute to global efforts to develop an HIV vaccine. The purpose of this study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was to explore the underlying reasons that induce people to enrol in an HIV vaccine trial. Methods We conducted discussions with eight focus groups, containing a total of 66 police officers. The information collected was analyzed using interpretive description. Results The results showed that participants were motivated to participate in the trial by altruism, and that the participants experienced some concerns about their participation. They stated that altruism in the fight against HIV infection was the main reason for enrolling in the trial. However, young participants were seriously concerned about a possible loss of close relationships if they enrolled in the HIV vaccine trial. Both men and women feared the effect of the trial on their reproductive biology, and they feared interference with pregnancy norms. They were unsure about risks such as the risks of acquiring HIV infection and of suffering physical harm, and they were unsure of the intentions of the researchers conducting the trial. Further, enrolling in the trial required medical examination, and this led some participants to fear that unknown diseases would be revealed. Other participants, however, saw an opportunity to obtain free health services. Conclusions We have shown that specific fears are important concerns when recruiting volunteers to an HIV vaccine trial. More knowledge is needed to determine participants' views and to ensure that they understand the conduct of the trial and the reasons it is being carried out. PMID:20509908

2010-01-01

37

Informal support to first-parents after childbirth: a qualitative study in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care for the women and delimited male involvement. Men's involvement in reproductive and child health programmes has the potential for improving family health after childbirth. The discourses conveyed contradicting messages that may be a source of worry and confusion for the new parents. Recognition, respect and raising awareness for different social actors' competencies and limitations can potentially create a health-promoting environment among families after childbirth. PMID:22126899

2011-01-01

38

Masculine attitudes of superiority deter men from accessing antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background This article presents part of the findings from a larger study that sought to assess the role that gender relations play in influencing equity regarding access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Review of the literature has indicated that, in Southern and Eastern Africa, fewer men than women have been accessing ART, and the former start using ART late, after HIV has already been allowed to advance. The main causes for this gender gap have not yet been fully explained. Objective To explore how masculinity norms limit men's access to ART in Dar es Salaam. Design This article is based on a qualitative study that involved the use of focus group discussions (FGDs). The study employed a stratified purposive sampling technique to recruit respondents. The study also employed a thematic analysis approach. Results Overall, the study's findings revealed that men's hesitation to visit the care and treatment clinics signifies the superiority norm of masculinity that requires men to avoid displaying weakness. Since men are the heads of families and have higher social status, they reported feeling embarrassed at having to visit the care and treatment clinics. Specifically, male respondents indicated that going to a care and treatment clinic may raise suspicion about their status of living with HIV, which in turn may compromise their leadership position and cause family instability. Because of this tendency towards ‘hiding’, the few men who register at the public care and treatment clinics do so late, when HIV-related signs and symptoms are already far advanced. Conclusion This study suggests that the superiority norm of masculinity affects men's access to ART. Societal expectations of a ‘real man’ to be fearless, resilient, and emotionally stable are in direct conflict with expectations of the treatment programme that one has to demonstrate health-promoting behaviour, such as promptness in attending the care and treatment clinic, agreeing to take HIV tests, and disclosing one's status of living with HIV to at least one's spouse or partner. Hence, there is a need for HIV control agencies to design community-based programmes that will stimulate dialogue on the deconstruction of masculinity notions. PMID:24152373

Nyamhanga, Tumaini M.; Muhondwa, Eustace P.Y.; Shayo, Rose

2013-01-01

39

From Denis Burkitt to Dar es Salaam. What happened next in East Africa?--Tanzania's story.  

PubMed

East Africa was at the forefront of early achievements and discoveries in paediatric oncology thanks to Denis Burkitt's seminal work. Although these successes have been built upon and continued elsewhere, they were sadly not sustained in sub-Saharan Africa for a variety of reasons. In recent years however this situation is slowly changing in countries across the continent. Tanzania is one such African country. Until very recently, survival rates of 5-10% for all children's cancers were expected. However, change has been brought about thanks to the combined efforts and commitments of the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, non-governmental organizations--such as The International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research, and Children in Crossfire-- and the participation of the private sector. Services are rapidly developing and outcomes are continuing to improve with 1-year survival rates of approximately 60% achieved. Efforts to maintain this early progress are concentrated around providing high quality local subspecialty medical training and continued local ownership of the programme. PMID:22233461

Scanlan, Trish; Kaijage, Jane

2012-03-01

40

Institutional evolution of a community-based programme for malaria control through larval source management in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. Case description The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. Discussion and evaluation The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. Conclusions The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam’s City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes. PMID:24964790

2014-01-01

41

Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%), rotavirus (18.1%) and norovirus (13.7%). The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%). V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%), while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the most common type of diarrhoea in children under five years in Dar es Salaam and is predominantly due to DEC, C. parvum, rotaviruses and noroviruses. Constant antibiotic surveillance is warranted as bacteria were highly resistant to various antimicrobial agents including co-trimoxazole and erythromycin which are currently recommended for empiric treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21345186

2011-01-01

42

Determinants of previous HIV testing and knowledge of partner's HIV status among men attending a voluntary counseling and testing clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) remains low among men in sub-Saharan Africa. The factors associated with previous HIV testing and knowledge of partner's HIV status are described for 9,107 men who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences' VCT site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 1997 and 2008. Data are from intake forms administered to clients seeking VCT services. Most of the men (64.5%) had not previously been tested and 75% were unaware of their partner's HIV status. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, education, condom use, and knowledge of partner's HIV status were significant predictors of previous HIV testing. Education, number of sexual partners, and condom use were also associated with knowledge of partner's HIV status. The low rate of VCT use among men underscores the need for more intensive initiatives to target men and remove the barriers that prevent HIV disclosure. PMID:23221684

Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary

2013-11-01

43

Determinants of Previous HIV Testing and Knowledge of Partner's HIV Status Among Men Attending a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) remains low among men in sub-Saharan Africa. The factors associated with previous HIV testing and knowledge of partner’s HIV status are described for 9,107 men who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences’ VCT site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 1997 and 2008. Data are from intake forms administered to clients seeking VCT services. Most of the men (64.5%) had not previously been tested and 75% were unaware of their partner’s HIV status. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, education, condom use, and knowledge of partner’s HIV status were significant predictors of previous HIV testing. Education, number of sexual partners, and condom use were also associated with knowledge of partner’s HIV status. The low rate of VCT use among men underscores the need for more intensive initiatives to target men and remove the barriers that prevent HIV disclosure. PMID:23221684

Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary

2014-01-01

44

Risky behaviours among young people living with HIV attending care and treatment clinics in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania: implications for prevention with a positive approach  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to reduce new instances of HIV infection. Risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS are the cornerstone for this approach. Understanding the extent to which infected individuals practice risky behaviours is fundamental in designing appropriate population-specific interventions. With the HIV infection transmission rates remaining high among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, continued prevention among them remains a priority. This study therefore seeks to describe the magnitude and determinants of risky sexual behaviours among young people living with HIV. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and July 2010 in selected Care and Treatment Clinics (CTCs) in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 282 HIV-positive patients aged 15–24 were interviewed about their sexual behaviours using a questionnaire. Results Prevalence of unprotected sex was 40.0% among young males and 37.5% among young females (p<0.001). Multiple sexual partnerships were reported by 10.6% of males and 15.9% of females (p<0.005). More than 50% of the participants did not know about the HIV status of their sexual partners. A large proportion of participants had minimal knowledge of transmission (46.7% males vs. 60.4% females) and prevention (65.3% males vs. 73.4% females) of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Independent predictors of condom use included non-use of alcohol [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.40 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.17–0.84] and younger age (15–19 years) (AOR, 2.76, 95% CI: 1.05–7.27). Being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR, 0.38, 95% CI: 0.17–0.85) and not knowing partners’ HIV sero-status (AOR, 2.62, 95% CI: 1.14–5.10) predicted the practice of multiple sexual partnership. Conclusions Unprotected sex and multiple sexual partnerships were prevalent among young people living with HIV. Less knowledge on STI and lack of HIV disclosure increased the vulnerability and risk for HIV transmission among young people. Specific intervention measures addressing alcohol consumption, risky sexual behaviours, and STI transmission and prevention knowledge should be integrated in the routine HIV/AIDS care and treatment offered to this age group. PMID:24119708

Mhalu, Aisa; Leyna, Germana H; Mmbaga, Elia J

2013-01-01

45

Evaluation of buparvaquone (BUTA-Kel KELA, Belgium) as a treatment of East Coast fever in cattle, in the peri-urban of Dar Es Salaam city, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Evaluation trials of the efficacy of buparvaquone (BUTA-kel KELA Laboratoria, N.V. Belgium), as a treatment of field cases of Theileria parva infection (East Coast fever - ECF) were carried out on 63 cattle in the peri-urban of Dar Es Salaam city, Tanzania, during the period November 2004 to August 2005. Thirty-two cattle (56%) received single-dose treatment (2.5 mg buparvaquone per kg body weight), while two and three-dose treatment with interval(s) of 48 h was given to 33% and 11% of total treated cattle, respectively; 38 cattle (60.3%) were treated at an early stage of the disease, while 25 cattle (39.7%) were treated at an advanced stage of the disease. The rectal body temperature of 90.5% of buparvaquone-treated cattle dropped to normal values (37.5-39.5 degrees C) by day 7 of treatment, and by day 15 of treatment 96.8% of treated cattle showed normal values. Pulmonary signs were observed in 8/68 (11.8%) of total ECF diagnosed cattle and were successfully treated, albeit with parvaquone plus frusemide (Fruvexon); were not included in final evaluation of the efficacy of BUTA-kel. The present evaluation trials record a recovery rate of 95.2%. Buparvaquone (BUTA-kel KELA Laboratoria, N.V. Belgium), therefore, records another efficacious and valuable alternative treatment against East Coast fever in Tanzania. PMID:16567050

Mbwambo, H A; Magwisha, H B; Mfinanga, J M

2006-06-30

46

Risky sexual practices among youth attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Youth have been reported to be at a higher risk of acquiring STIs with significant adverse health and social consequences. Knowledge on the prevailing risky practices is an essential tool to guide preventive strategies. METHODS: Youth aged between 18 and 25 years attending an STI clinic were recruited. Social, sexual and demographic characteristics were elicited using a structured standard

Willy K Urassa; Candida Moshiro; G Chalamilla; Fred Mhalu; Eric Sandstrom

2008-01-01

47

Sexual behaviour among youths at high risk for HIV1 infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate sex specific sexual behaviour in youths visiting a youth clinic for sexual and reproductive health in Dar es Saalam.Methods: A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of youths between 10 and 24 years of age attending the youth health clinic in Dar es Saalam. The clinical investigation included testing for syphilis and HIV-1 antibodiesResults: 1423 youths

D Mwakagile; E Mmari; C Makwaya; J Mbwana; G Biberfeld; F Mhalu; E Sandstro?m

2001-01-01

48

Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. Methods A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR), logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Results Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05–0.3, p < 0.001). During the post-cleaning period, a higher risk of infection (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, p = 0.0069) was observed in neighbourhoods under no intervention compared to intervention ones. Eighteen months after the initial cleaning, one of the drains was still clean due to continued maintenance efforts (it contained no waste materials and the water was flowing at normal velocity). A three-month moving average of the percentage of water habitats in that drain containing pupae and/or Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Conclusion Although environmental management was historically coordinated by authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial resources for initial cleaning and structural repairs, and inter-sectoral collaboration. Such effort not only is expected to reduce malaria transmission, but has the potential to empower communities, improve health and environmental conditions, and ultimately contribute to poverty alleviation and sustainable development. PMID:19356246

Castro, Marcia C; Tsuruta, Atsuko; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sixbert

2009-01-01

49

Risk factors associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.  

PubMed

Smallholder dairy herds around the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania supply 86% of raw milk consumed by the city dwellers. Previous studies have indicated that clinical mastitis is an important disease affecting smallholder dairy cows and an 18-month questionnaire-based longitudinal field-study was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005 to elucidate risk factors associated with the incidence. A total of 6057 quarter-level observations from 317 lactating cows on 87 randomly selected smallholder dairy herds were analysed at the quarter and cow level using logistic and Poisson regression models, respectively. At the quarter level, the average incidence rate of clinical mastitis was 38.4 cases per 100 quarter-years at risk whereas at the cow level the incidence rate was 43.3 cases per 100 cow-years at risk. The incidence was significantly (P< or =0.001) associated with cow factors (body condition score, parity, stage of lactation, and udder consistency), housing (floor type) conditions and milking (cow and udder preparation) practices. It was concluded that the extrapolation of the classic ten-point mastitis control plan into smallholder dairy herds should be undertaken cautiously. An integrated approach to dairy extension should focus more on the creation of mastitis awareness among smallholder producers and on the improvement of animal nutrition and reproduction indices-factors that may also have a direct impact on milk yield. PMID:16516505

Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Msami, H M

2007-05-01

50

A retrospective study of the aetiology and temporal distribution of bovine clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.  

PubMed

A 31-year record-based retrospective study was carried out to determine the aetiology and temporal distribution of bovine clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania over the period November 1971-December 2002. Laboratory information on 1964 quarter samples from 1365 cows in 281 smallholder dairy herds were retrieved, compiled and studied. Eighty-eight percent of the quarter samples were culture-positive and the predominant mastitis pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (25.7%), Streptococcus agalactiae (15.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.3%) and Escherichia coli (14.1%). Other isolates included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.5%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (5.2%) and Streptococcus uberis (4.2%). Contagious mastitis pathogens were isolated from 45.6% of the culture-positive samples, whereas environmental and miscellaneous pathogens were isolated from 48.2% and 5.7%, respectively. Thirty percent of the miscellaneous mastitis pathogens were Candida species. The results demonstrate a steady increase in clinical Candida albicans mastitis. The prevalence of Candida albicans has increased from 1% in 1971 to 17.0% in November 2002. Conversely, despite some fluctuations, the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, E. coli and K. pneumoniae remain above 10%. The possible risk factors for these observations are discussed. PMID:16516507

Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M

2007-05-01

51

Breast Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, and Screening Practices among Women Seeking Care at District Hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Limited disease awareness among women may impact breast cancer stage-at-diagnosis in Tanzania, reducing survival. This study assessed breast cancer knowledge, screening practices, and educational preferences among outpatients at Tanzanian government-supported hospitals. METHODS A convenience sample of women was surveyed regarding (1) knowledge/beliefs of breast cancer etiology, risk factors, symptoms, treatment, (2) early detection knowledge/practice, and (3) educational preferences. RESULTS Among 225 respondents, 98.2% knew of breast cancer; 22.2% knew someone affected by breast cancer. On average, 30% of risk factors and 51% of symptoms were identified. Most accepted one or more breast cancer myths. Among 126 aware of breast self-exam, 40% did not practice it; only 0.9% underwent regular clinical breast examinations despite 68% being aware of the procedure. Among treatments, 87% recognized surgery, 70% radiation, and fewer systemic therapy. Preferred educational sources were group sessions, television/radio, and meetings with breast cancer survivors. CONCLUSIONS This work reveals incomplete breast cancer awareness among Tanzanian women and promises to inform development of user-focused educational resources. PMID:24855371

Morse, Emma Perry; Maegga, Bertha; Joseph, Gertrud; Miesfeldt, Susan

2014-01-01

52

Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in ambient PM10 and PM2.5 particles in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Ambient daytime and nighttime PM(10) and PM(2.5) samples were collected in parallel at a kerbside in Dar es Salaam in August and September 2005 (dry season) and in April and May 2006 (wet season). All samples were analyzed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM(10) and PM(2.5) mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 76+/-32microg/m(3) and 26+/-7microg/m(3) for the 2005 dry season and 52+/-27microg/m(3) and 19+/-10microg/m(3) for the 2006 wet season campaign. On average, TC accounted for 29% of the PM(10) mass and 49% of the PM(2.5) mass for the 2005 dry season campaign and the corresponding values for the 2006 wet season campaign were 35% and 59%. There was little difference between the two campaigns for the WSOC/OC ratios with the PM(2.5) fraction having higher ratios than the PM(10) fraction during each campaign. Also for EC/TC higher ratios were noted in PM(2.5) than in PM(10), but the ratios were substantially larger in the 2006 wet season than in the 2005 dry season. The large EC/TC ratios (means 0.22-0.38) reflect the substantial impact from traffic at Dar es Salaam, as was also apparent from the clear diurnal variation in OC levels, with higher values during the day. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to traffic and charcoal burning. On average, 70% of the PM(10) OC was attributed to traffic and 30% to charcoal burning in both campaigns. A definite explanation for the substantially larger EC/TC ratios in the 2006 campaign as compared to the 2005 campaign is not available. PMID:19906404

Mkoma, Stelyus L; Chi, Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

2010-02-15

53

Community response to artemisinin-based combination therapy for childhood malaria: a case study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®), popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) with \\

Vinay R Kamat; Daniel J Nyato

2010-01-01

54

Feasibility and strategies for anaerobic digestion of solid waste for energy production in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tanzania, the most serious solid waste management problem currently is disposal, but since the largest fraction of the waste is organics which are amenable to anaerobic digestion and composting, it makes environmental and economic sense to explore these options. This prompted the conception of the Taka (waste) Gas Project which is meant to utilise organic solid waste from Dar

Stephen E Mbuligwe; Gabriel R Kassenga

2004-01-01

55

Pattern of occurrence and treatment of impacted teeth at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Impacted teeth predispose to periodontal disease and dental caries of adjacent teeth resulting in pain, discomfort and loss of function. This study analyzed the pattern of occurrence of impacted teeth, associated symptoms, treatment and complications of treatment in patients who presented at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. Method This was a crossectional descriptive study which utilized notes and x rays of patients who were treated for impacted teeth at the Oral and Maxillofacial firm in Muhimbili National Hospital over five years, from January 2005 to August 2010. These records were retrieved and examined for the major complaint of the patient at presentation to hospital, demography, impacted tooth, type of impaction (for third molars), treatment offered and complications after treatment. Similar information was collected from all patients with impacted teeth attended in the same centre from 1st September 2010 to 31st August 2011. Results A total of 896 patients (496 males and 400 females) treated for complaints related to impacted teeth were recorded. The male to female ratio was 1.2:1, age range of 16 to 85 years and a mean age of 28.9 years (SD = 9.5). Slightly more than 84% of the patients presented with mandibular third molar impactions. Most (44.7%) of these patients had an impacted lower right third molar followed by those presenting with a lower left third molar impaction (39.7%). In 1.3% of the patients all the four third molars were impacted. Sixty nine (7.7%) patients had impacted upper 3rd molars while 2% had impacted upper canines. Of the mandibular 3rd molar impactions 738 (76%) were mesio-angular type, 87 (8.9%) horizontal type and 69 (7.1%) disto-angular. Patients presented with a variety of complaints. About 85% of the patients presented to hospital due to varying degrees of pain. In 4.9% the detection of the impacted tooth/teeth was coincidental after presenting to hospital for other reasons not related to the impaction. Majority of the patients with impacted mandibular third molars had carious lesions on the impacted teeth, neighbouring tooth or both. Four hundred and five (45.2%) patients had a carious lesion on one of the impacted teeth while 201(22.4%) patients had a carious lesion on the adjacent second molar. In 122 (13.6%) patients both the impacted third molar and the adjacent second molar were carious. In twelve patients who presented with a main complaint of fracture of the angle of the mandible there was an associated impacted 3rd molar. Eight hundred and fifteen (91%) patients with impacted teeth were treated by surgical removal. Among these only 15 (1.8%) had complications that ranged from excessive swellings, trismus and severe pain post operatively. One patient was reported to have fracture of the angle of the mandible sustained during surgical removal of an impacted 48. Conclusions The majority of patients with impacted teeth were young with an almost equal sex distribution. The most commonly impacted teeth were mandibular third molars followed by the maxillary third molars. Patients with impacted teeth reported for health care predominantly because of pain due to dental caries or infection. There is a need of creating appropriate programmes that would further raise peoples’ awareness to regular dental checkups so that appropriate measures are taken before complications arise. PMID:23914842

2013-01-01

56

Social venues that protect against and promote HIV risk for young men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Developing effective place-based health interventions requires understanding of the dynamic between place and health. The therapeutic landscape framework explains how place-based social processes and physical geography interact and influence health behavior. This study applied this framework to examine how venues, or social gathering places, influenced HIV risk behavior among young, urban men in Tanzania. Eighty-three public venues where men ages 15–19 met new sexual partners were identified by community informants in one city ward. The majority (86%) of the venues were called ‘camps’, social gathering places that had formal leaders and members. Observations were conducted at 23 camps and in-depth interviews were conducted with 36 camp members and 10 camp leaders in 15 purposively selected camps. Geographic and social features of camps were examined to understand their contributions to men’s behaviors. Camps were characterized by a geographic space claimed by members, a unique name and a democratic system of leadership and governance. Members were mostly men and socialized daily at their camp. They reported strong social bonds and engaging in health-promoting activities such as playing sports and generating income. Members also engaged in HIV risk behaviors, such as meeting new sexual partners and having sex in or around the camp at night. Some members promoted concurrent sexual partnerships with their friends and resisted camp leaders’ efforts to change their sexual risk behavior. We conclude that camps are strategic venues for HIV prevention programs for young Tanzanian men. They served as both protective and risk landscapes, illustrating three domains of the therapeutic landscape framework: the built environment; identities of landscape occupants; and sites for collective efficacy. The framework and data suggest HIV intervention components that might augment the protective features of the camps, while changing environmental features to reduce risk. PMID:20846768

Yamanis, Thespina Jeanne; Maman, Suzanne; Mbwambo, Jessie K.; Earp, JoAnne; Kajula, Lusajo

2010-01-01

57

Rural to urban migration and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: High levels of rural to urban migration are a feature of most African countries. Our aim was to investigate changes, and their determinants, in cardiovascular risk factors on rural to urban migration in Tanzania. METHODS: Men and women (15 to 59 years) intending to migrate from Morogoro rural region to Dar es Salaam for at least 6 months were

Nigel Unwin; Peter James; Dorothy McLarty; Harun Machybia; Peter Nkulila; Bushiri Tamin; Mkay Nguluma; Richard McNally

2010-01-01

58

Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study\\u000a also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness\\u000a (IMCI) guidelines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in

Sabrina J Moyo; Njolstad Gro; Mecky I Matee; Jesse Kitundu; Helge Myrmel; Haima Mylvaganam; Samuel Y Maselle; Nina Langeland

2011-01-01

59

Low utilization of health care services following screening for hypertension in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania): a prospective population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Drug therapy in high-risk individuals has been advocated as an important strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease in low income countries. We determined, in a low-income urban population, the proportion of persons who utilized health services after having been diagnosed as hypertensive and advised to seek health care for further hypertension management. Methods A population-based survey of 9254 persons aged 25–64 years was conducted in Dar es Salaam. Among the 540 persons with high blood pressure (defined here as BP ? 160/95 mmHg) at the initial contact, 253 (47%) had high BP on a 4th visit 45 days later. Among them, 208 were untreated and advised to attend health care in a health center of their choice for further management of their hypertension. One year later, 161 were seen again and asked about their use of health services during the interval. Results Among the 161 hypertensive persons advised to seek health care, 34% reported to have attended a formal health care provider during the 12-month interval (63% public facility; 30% private; 7% both). Antihypertensive treatment was taken by 34% at some point of time (suggesting poor uptake of health services) and 3% at the end of the 12-month follow-up (suggesting poor long-term compliance). Health services utilization tended to be associated with older age, previous history of high BP, being overweight and non-smoking, but not with education or wealth. Lack of symptoms and cost of treatment were the reasons reported most often for not attending health care. Conclusion Low utilization of health services after hypertension screening suggests a small impact of a patient-centered screen-and-treat strategy in this low-income population. These findings emphasize the need to identify and address barriers to health care utilization for non-communicable diseases in this setting and, indirectly, the importance of public health measures for primary prevention of these diseases. PMID:19087300

Bovet, Pascal; Gervasoni, Jean-Pierre; Mkamba, Mashombo; Balampama, Marianna; Lengeler, Christian; Paccaud, Fred

2008-01-01

60

Housing and building materials in low-income settlements in Dar es Salaam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) is one of the fastest growing cities in sub-Saharan Africa. As in other sub-Saharan cities, government housing programmes have reached only a tiny percentage of urban residents. The vast majority either build for themselves or live as tenants in swahili houses provided by others. This paper examines the process of house building in Dar es Salaam

Jill Wells; Sinda H Sinda; Fatiha Haddar

1998-01-01

61

The Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. Principal Findings More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%), and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149) of all culicine and 33% (320/976) of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001) times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001). The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. Conclusion Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between on-going control efforts of those diseases. PMID:20520797

Castro, Marcia C.; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sigsbert; Killeen, Gerry F.; Fillinger, Ulrike

2010-01-01

62

Sanitary inspection of wells using risk-of-contamination scoring indicates a high predictive ability for bacterial faecal pollution in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The sanitary inspection of wells was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures using risk-of-contamination (ROC) scoring to determine the capacity of ROC scoring to predict bacterial faecal pollution of well water in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The analysis was based on a selection of wells representing environments with low to high presumptive faecal pollution risk and a multi-parametric data set of bacterial indicators, generating a comprehensive picture of the level and characteristics of faecal pollution (such as vegetative Escherichia coli cells, Clostridium perfringens spores and human-associated sorbitol fermenting Bifidobacteria). ROC scoring demonstrated a remarkable ability to predict bacterial faecal pollution levels in the investigated well water (e.g. 87% of E. coli concentration variations were predicted by ROC scoring). Physicochemical characteristics of the wells were not reflected by the ROC scores. Our results indicate that ROC scoring is a useful tool for supporting health-related well water management in urban and suburban areas of tropical, developing countries. The outcome of this study is discussed in the context of previously published results, and future directions are suggested. PMID:22717748

Mushi, Douglas; Byamukama, Denis; Kirschner, Alexander K.T.; Mach, Robert L.; Brunner, K.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2012-01-01

63

Malaria control in Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

A review of the malaria control programs and the problem encountered in the United Republic of Tanzania since 1945 to the year 1986 is discussed. Buguruni, one of the squatter areas in the city of Dar es Salaam, is chosen as a case study in order to evaluate the economic advantage of engineering methods for the control of malaria infection. Although the initial capital cost of engineering methods may be high, the cost effectiveness requires a much lower financial burden of only about Tshs. 3 million compared with the conventional methods of larviciding and insecticiding which requires more than Tshs. 10 million. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of engineering methods are made concerning the upgrading of existing roads and footpaths in general with particular emphasis on drainage of large pools of water which serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes.

Yhdego, M.; Majura, P. (Ardhi Institute, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania))

1988-01-01

64

Adherence to anti-diabetic drugs among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania- A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Adherence to diabetes mellitus treatment regimens among Type 2 diabetes patients in Tanzania has not been well documented. This study sought to assess adherence to antidiabetic drugs and associated factors among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who were attending the Diabetic clinic of Muhimbili National hospital between May 2009 and February 2010. Assement ofadherence to antidiabetic medications was based on patients’ self-reported recall of skipped days without taking medications, over the past one week and three months. Data wereentered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois version 16). The crude and adjusted odds ratio (COR/ AOR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were performed to determine factors associated with anti-diabetic medications adherence and a p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results Adherence rates to antidiabetic drugs were found to be 60.2% and 71.2% at one week and three months respectively. High cost of medication was significantly associated with anti-diabetic non-adherence. Adherence to anti-diabetic drugs significantly increased with an increase in number of non-diabetic medications. Conclusion Adherence to antidiabetic drugs was found to be suboptimal. Patients with other medical conditions in addition to diabetes mellitus are more likely to adhere to anti-diabetic medications. There is a need for the responsible authorities to set policies that subsidize cost of anti-diabetic drugs to improve adherence and reduce associated complications.

Rwegerera, Godfrey Mutashambara

2014-01-01

65

Sociocultural factors that reduce risks of homicide in Dar es Salaam: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was performed to examine the potential contributions of sociocultural activities to reduce risks of death by homicide. Methods This study was designed as a case control study. Relatives of 90 adult homicide victims in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania, in 2005 were interviewed. As controls, 211 participants matched for sex and 5-year age group were randomly selected from the same region and interviewed regarding the same contents. Results Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between victims and controls regarding educational status, occupation, family structure, frequent heavy drinking, hard drug use and religious attendance. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly related to not becoming victims of homicide: being in employment (unskilled labour: OR=0.04, skilled labour: OR=0.07, others: OR=0.04), higher educational status (OR=0.02), residence in Dar es Salaam after becoming an adult (compared with those who have resided in Dar es Salaam since birth: OR=3.95), living with another person (OR=0.07), not drinking alcohol frequently (OR=0.15) and frequent religious service attendance (OR=0.12). Conclusions Frequent religious service attendance, living in the same place for a long time and living with another person were shown to be factors that contribute to preventing death by homicide, regardless of place of residence and neighbourhood environment. Existing non-structural community resources and social cohesive networks strengthen individual and community resilience against violence. PMID:23322260

Kibusi, Stephen Matthew; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Outwater, Anne; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito

2013-01-01

66

Tanzania.  

PubMed

Background notes on Tanzania present a profile of nationality, population count of 26 million, growth rate of 3.5%, ethnic groups (130), religions (33% Muslim, 33% animist, 33% Christian), languages, education (86% primary), literacy (79%), health (infant mortality of 106/1000), and work force (90% agriculture). Geographic data are given for the area, cities, terrain, and climate. The Tanzanian government is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There is 1 political party and everyone 18 years is eligible to vote. 4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) ($5.9 billion) is devoted to defense. Economic growth is 4.3%/year and person income is $240/capita. Natural resources, agriculture, industry, and trade are identified. $400 million has been received between 1970-92 in US economic aid. The 1992 official exchange rate is 300 Tanzanian shillings to the US dollar. Descriptive text is given for the population, the history of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the government, principal government officials (President, 1st Vice President [VP], 2nd VP and President of Zanzibar, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, Ambassador to the US, Ambassador to the UN, and US embassy address and phone number), political conditions, the economy, the defense, foreign relations, and US-Tanzanian relations. Principal US officials are identified for the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, USAID Director, and Public Affairs Officer; the US embassy address is given also. The population is 80% rural with a density of 1/sq km in arid areas, 51/sq km on the mainland, and 134/sq km on Zanzibar. The new capital will be Dodoma in central Tanzania. Most residents are of Bantu stock; nomadic groups are the Masai and the Luo. 1% are non-Africans. Government has a strong central executive. The current President is Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The Revolutionary Party is in the primary policymaking body and provides all government leaders. The government seeks to foster the Kiswahili concept of "ujamaa" or a kind of communal cooperation. 47% of GDP comes from agriculture. There is little foreign investment. Diversification of export crops is needed. Foreign policy is nonaligned, and friendly to the US. PMID:12178040

1992-05-01

67

Noise pollution associated with the operation of the Dar es Salaam International Airport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of airports results in environmental impacts associated with high levels of noises and vibrations. These may have severe negative effects to both workers and surrounding residents and their properties. Here we look at the noise impacts associated with the operation of the Dar es Salaam International Airport (DIA) in Tanzania. Field measurements were carried out to determine noise

Rubhera R. A. M Mato; T. S Mufuruki

1999-01-01

68

DNA Fingerprinting and Phenotyping ofMycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Patients in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the purpose of determining whether the risk of infection with a particular clone of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of the host, we analyzed and compared 68 mycobacterial isolates obtained from HIV-seropositive patients with tuberculosis (TB) in Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,with66mycobacterialisolatesobtainedfromHIV-seronegativepatientswithTBinthesame geographical region by using both DNAfingerprinting and classical phenotyping methods. One hundred one

Z. H. YANG; I. MTONI; M. CHONDE; M. MWASEKAGA; K. FUURSTED; D. S. ASKGÅRD; J. BENNEDSEN; P. E. W. DEHAAS; D. VANSOOLINGEN; J. D. A. VANEMBDEN; B. ANDERSEN

1995-01-01

69

Understanding Household Behavioral Risk Factors for Diarrheal Disease in Dar es Salaam: A Photovoice Community Assessment  

PubMed Central

Whereas Tanzania has seen considerable improvements in water and sanitation infrastructure over the past 20 years, the country still faces high rates of childhood morbidity from diarrheal diseases. This study utilized a qualitative, cross-sectional, modified Photovoice method to capture daily activities of Dar es Salaam mothers. A total of 127 photographs from 13 households were examined, and 13 interviews were conducted with household mothers. The photographs and interviews revealed insufficient hand washing procedures, unsafe disposal of wastewater, uncovered household drinking water containers, a lack of water treatment prior to consumption, and inappropriate toilets for use by small children. The interviews revealed that mothers were aware and knowledgeable of the risks of certain household practices and understood safer alternatives, yet were restricted by the perceived impracticality and financial constraints to make changes. The results draw attention to the real economic and behavioral challenges faced in reducing the spread of disease. PMID:21969836

Badowski, Natalie; Castro, Cynthia M.; Montgomery, Maggie; Pickering, Amy J.; Mamuya, Simon; Davis, Jennifer

2011-01-01

70

Artisan Training and Employment Outcomes in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the main findings of a tracer survey of graduates from two artisan training centres in Tanzania, which was undertaken in early 2002. The two institutions are the Chang'ombe Regional Vocational Training and Service Centre (RVTSC) in Dar es Salaam and the Iringa RVTSC, which are owned and managed by the Vocational Education and…

Bennell, Paul; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Kasogela, Maurice; Mutashubirwa, Francis; Klim, Mikkel

2006-01-01

71

Elemental Contents in Hair of Children from Two Regions in Dar Es Salaam  

PubMed Central

The work presented in this paper is part of the study which aims at determining the levels of elements in hair of children in Tanzania as a bioindicator of their nutrition and health. In this paper, the levels of trace elements in hair from children living in Dar es Salaam have been analysed. The analysis was carried out by long and short irradiation INAA at the reactor centre of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez Czech Republic. 22 samples were collected from children living at Kiwalani about 12 km from Dar es Salaam city and 16 samples from children living at Mlimani, the main campus of University of Dar es Salaam. A total of 34 elements were found in the hair of the children. There were no big differences between the concentration levels of the essential elements in hair samples collected from the children which might indicate the same food consumption habits. PMID:22505919

Mohammed, Najat K.

2012-01-01

72

Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention  

PubMed Central

Background Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Results and discussion Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. Conclusions To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological testing, preclinical testing, formulation and standardization, and related areas important to moving from basic research to applications. The private sector can be encouraged to innovate through improved access to financing, and incentives for R&D. The diaspora community represents an untapped source for partnerships and access to other developing world markets and technology. The government may wish to set up mechanisms to encourage south-south collaborations, and to bring the public and private sector together around specific projects to help realize the country’s innovation potential. PMID:21144075

2010-01-01

73

The early Acheulean in Peninj (Lake Natron, Tanzania)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to reassess the early Acheulean at Peninj, on the western shore of Lake Natron (Tanzania). This paper describes the archaeological contexts and technological strategies of two assemblages, RHS-Mugulud and MHS-Bayasi, dated to 1.5–1.1 myr ago. The study of lithic artefacts from Glynn Isaac’s excavations in 1960s–1980s, curated at the National Museum of Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania),

Ignacio de la Torre; Rafael Mora; Jorge Martínez-Moreno

2008-01-01

74

Prevalences of diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hindu Indian subcommunities in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To seek differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other coronary heart disease risk factors, and to identify factors associated with these differences within a Hindu Indian community. DESIGN--Population based cross sectional survey. SETTING--Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. SUBJECTS--Of 20 Hindu subcommunities categorised by caste in Dar-es-Salaam, seven were randomly selected. 1147 (76.7%) of 1495 subjects aged 15 or over participated. MAIN

K L Ramaiya; A B Swai; D G McLarty; R S Bhopal; K G Alberti

1991-01-01

75

Interpretation of California mastitis test scores using Staphylococcus aureus culture results for screening of subclinical mastitis in low yielding smallholder dairy cows in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.  

PubMed

Screening of subclinical mastitis under field conditions is done using the California mastitis test (CMT). CMT score of > or = 1 corresponding to > or = 500,000 somatic cells ml(-1) is commonly used as threshold of subclinical mastitis in temperate countries. However, given the innately high physiological level of somatic cells in low yielding dairy cows, this threshold may not apply to low yielding dairy cows. The current study was undertaken to investigate the clinical utility of CMT for screening of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis in low yielding smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania. A total of 1151 of quarter-milk samples were CMT tested, of these 914-originated from cows with a lactation period of 14-305 days. All samples were screened for subclinical mastitis by the CMT as well as microbiological culture of single, duplicate (two consecutive) and triplicate (three consecutive) samples as a gold standard. For the duplicate and triplicate quarter-samples, cows were considered positive for S. aureus subclinical mastitis if results of microbiologic culture for S. aureus were positive for two of two, and for at least two of the first three consecutive quarter-milk samples collected from that cow, respectively. Using a CMT score of > or = 1 would classify 78.6% of the 940 quarter-samples as positive. Eighty-two percent of the samples in which S. aureus was isolated had CMT scores > or = 2; this would classify 51.6% of the 940 quarter-samples as positive. For the single sample, this cut-off had sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio for S. aureus of 0.87, 0.83 and 4.24, respectively. For the duplicate quarter-milk samples this cut-off had sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio of 0.94, 0.86, and 5.19. While, for the triplicate quarter-milk samples this cut-off had sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio of 0.97, 0.92 and 7.47, respectively. Based on these results and practical considerations, it is concluded that CMT score of > or = 2 corresponding to > or = 800,000 somatic cells Ml(-1) is the best cut-off to correctly identify S. aureus intramammary infections in low yielding dairy cows in Tanzania. PMID:17137660

Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Nielen, M

2007-03-17

76

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: CONSTRAINED IMPROVEMENT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN DAR-ES-SALAAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public-private partnerships are increasingly being promoted in Tanzania and the central argument of this paper is that institutional framework of a given local authority determines the nature and character of the formation and operational performance of such partnerships. The paper focuses on the public-private partnerships established in the area of solid waste management in the City of Dar-es-Salaam, and more

Estomih J. Nkya

2004-01-01

77

Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Background Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. Methods This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60) times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89) times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Conclusions Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:22390254

2012-01-01

78

Urban mosquitoes, situational publics, and the pursuit of interspecies separation in Dar es Salaam  

PubMed Central

Recent work in anthropology points to the recognition of multispecies entanglements as the grounds for a more ethical politics. In this article, we examine efforts to control mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as an example of the laborious tasks of disentanglement that characterize public health interventions. The mosquito surveillance and larval elimination practices of an urban malaria control program offer an opportunity to observe how efforts to create distance between species relate to the physical and civic textures of the city. Seen in the particular context of the contemporary African metropolis, the work of public health appears less a matter of control than a commitment to constant urban maintenance and political mobilization.

KELLY, ANN H.; LEZAUN, JAVIER

2014-01-01

79

Trapped in decline: a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru mountains Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made a return visit to the area in November 1991 to look

Donge van J. K

1993-01-01

80

HIV\\/AIDS education in Tanzania: The experience of at-risk children in poorer communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has investigated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, attitudes and sexual at-risk behaviours of youths from disadvantaged communities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants were 800 youths aged 12–15 years within three youth subgroups in these poorer communities: those children attending school; children who were not attending school but who were still residing within their communities; and children who

Cyprian N. Maro; Glyn C. Roberts; Marit Sørensen

2009-01-01

81

Mercury pollution of effluent, air, and soil near a battery factory in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent, air, and soil samples near a battery factory in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where HgCl2 is used to prevent mold growth, were collected to explore the potential for pollution of the environment from industrial discharge of Hg. Flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for Hg determinations. The concentration of Hg in the effluent ranged from -1 and the Hg

E. Semu; B. R. Singh; A. R. Selmer-Olsen

1986-01-01

82

Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Results Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. Conclusion GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended. PMID:23467278

Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

2012-01-01

83

Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse--A Qualitative Interview Study with Representatives of the Socio-Legal System in Urban Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through in-depth interviews, this study explored perceptions and experiences of key players handling child sexual offense cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The informants included public police investigators, magistrates, legal workers, and social workers working with nongovernmental organizations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed…

Kisanga, Felix; Mbwambo, Jessie; Hogan, Norah; Nystrom, Lennarth; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla

2010-01-01

84

Broad and potent immune responses to a low dose intradermal HIV1 DNA boosted with HIV1 recombinant MVA among healthy adults in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe conducted a phase I\\/II randomized placebo-controlled trial with the aim of exploring whether priming with a low intradermal dose of a multiclade, multigene HIV-1 DNA vaccine could improve the immunogenicity of the same vaccine given intramuscularly prior to boosting with a heterologous HIV-1 MVA among healthy adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Muhammad Bakari; Said Aboud; Charlotta Nilsson; Joel Francis; Deus Buma; Candida Moshiro; Eric A. Aris; Eligius F. Lyamuya; Mohamed Janabi; Karina Godoy-Ramirez; Agricola Joachim; Victoria R. Polonis; Andreas Bråve; Patricia Earl; Merlin Robb; Mary Marovich; Britta Wahren; Kisali Pallangyo; Gunnel Biberfeld; Fred Mhalu; Eric Sandström

2011-01-01

85

The implementation of an external quality assurance method for point- of- care tests for HIV and syphilis in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background External quality assurance (EQA) programmes, which are routinely used in laboratories, have not been widely implemented for point-of- care tests (POCTs). A study was performed in ten health centres in Tanzania, to implement the use of dried blood spots (DBS) as an EQA method for HIV and syphilis (POCTs). Method DBS samples were collected for retesting at a reference laboratory and the results compared to the POCT results obtained at the clinic. In total, 2341 DBS samples were collected from 10 rural health facilities over a period of nine months, of which 92.5% were correctly collected and spotted. Results The EQA method was easily implemented by healthcare workers under routine conditions in Northern Tanzania. For HIV, 967 out of 972 samples (99.5%) were concordant between DBS and POCT results. For syphilis, the sensitivity of syphilis tests varied between clinics with a median of 96% (25th and 75th quartile; 95-98%). The specificity of syphilis POCT was consistent compared to laboratory based test using DBS, with a median of 96% (25th and 75th quartiles; 95-98%). Conclusion Overall, the quality of testing varied at clinics and EQA results can be used to identify clinics where healthcare workers require remedial training, suggesting the necessity for stringent quality assurance programmes for POC testing. As Tanzania embarks on scaling up HIV and syphilis testing, DBS can be a useful and robust tool to monitor the quality of testing performed by healthcare workers and trigger corrective action to ensure accuracy of test results. PMID:24206624

2013-01-01

86

[AIDS in Tanzania].  

PubMed

The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

Barstad, S

1993-04-20

87

Knowledge among drug dispensers and antimalarial drug prescribing practices in public health facilities in Dar es Salaam  

PubMed Central

Background Irrational prescribing and dispensing of antimalarials has been identified as a contributing factor in the emergence of malaria parasites resistant to existing antimalarial drugs. Factors that contribute to such irrational prescribing and dispensing should therefore be identified to address this problem. The aim of this study was to assess irrational antimalarial drug dispensing and prescribing practices in public health facilities. Methods A descriptive-retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2011 in order to assess prescribing and dispensing practices for antimalarial drugs in three public hospitals and nine health centers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Thirty-two drug dispensers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 4,320 prescriptions for the period January to December 2010 were collected and assessed for antimalarial drug prescribing patterns. Results The majority (84.6%) of drug dispensers had poor knowledge regarding the basic information required from patients before dispensing artemether-lumefantrine. Seventeen of 32 drug dispensers did not know the basic information that should be given to patients in order to increase absorption of artemether-lumefantrine after oral intake. Most drug dispensers also showed limited knowledge about the dosage and contraindications for artemether-lumefantrine. Eighty-seven percent of all prescriptions contained artemether-lumefantrine as the only antimalarial drug, 77.1% contained at least one analgesic, and 26.9% contained at least one antibiotic, indicating unnecessary use of analgesics and antibiotics with antimalarial drugs. A substantial number of prescriptions contained antimalarial drugs that have already been declared ineffective for the treatment of malaria in Tanzania, providing additional evidence of inadequate knowledge among health care workers concerning treatment policy. Conclusion Despite the government’s efforts to increase public awareness regarding use of artemether-lumefantrine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, there is still irrational prescribing, dispensing, and use of this combination. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that regular on-the-job training and continuing education be provided to drug dispensers and prescribers in public health facilities. PMID:24039454

Kamuhabwa, Appolinary AR; Silumbe, Richard

2013-01-01

88

Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other hand, 12.4% of agricultural land and 16.1% of green areas would be lost in the low density development scenario of unplanned settlements of max. 150 persons per hectare. Relocating the population living in flood prone areas in the case of Addis Ababa and keeping those areas free from further settlements in the case of Dar es Salaam would result in even lower losses (agricultural land: -10.0%, green areas: -5.6%) as some flood prone areas overlap with agricultural/ green areas. The scenario models introduced in this research can be used by planners as tools to understand and manage the different outcomes of distinctive urban development strategies on growth patterns and how they interact with different climate change drivers such as loss of green infrastructure and effects such as frequent flooding hazards. Due to the relative simplicity of their structure and the single modeling environment, the models can be transferred to similar cities with minor modifications accommodating the different conditions of each city. Already, in Addis Ababa the results of the model will be used in the current revision of the Master plan of the city. Keywords: GIS, modeling, Urban Dynamics, Dar es Salaam, Addis Ababa, urbanization

Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

2013-04-01

89

Coping with urban growth and development through environmental planning and management (EPM): the sustainable Dar es Salaam project.  

PubMed

This article discusses the Urban Management Program (UMP) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The UMP is a joint effort of UNCHS (Habitat), UNDP, and the World Bank. The UMP established the Sustainable Cities Program (SCP) in August 1990. The aim was to provide city officials and their partners in private, public, and popular sectors with improved environmental planning and management capacity. Dar es Salaam has 4 major land formations that constrain management options. About 70% of urban population live in unplanned areas with marginal access to piped water, sanitation, drainage, or basic social services. Improper waste disposal has contributed to water pollution. Under 3% of the city's solid waste is collected. Low lying areas along the coast become flooded, and poor drainage causes continually flooded road systems. SCP began a 4-stage process to identify issues, develop and implement strategy and action plans, and institutionalize the process. An environmental profile was established in 1992. Plans were developed for solid waste management, upgrading unplanned settlements, servicing planned land and city center renewal, and managing open spaces, wastes, and petty trading. These efforts were institutionalized. The efforts are noteworthy for their active participation in plan preparation by key urban managers, multisectoral coordination on environmental issues, involvement of the private sector, establishment of priorities, and detailed action plans. Political support at the highest levels combined with community participation were key to program success. The lessons learned are identified. PMID:12178488

Majani, B B

1996-03-01

90

Human bite injuries in the oro-facial region at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Human bites in the maxillofacial region compromise function and aesthetics, resulting in social and psychological effects. There is paucity of information regarding human bite injuries in Tanzania. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence, treatment modalities and prognosis of human bite injuries in the oro-facial region at the Muhimbili National Hospital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In a prospective study the details of patients with human bite injuries in the oro-facial region who attended at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Muhimbili National Hospital between January 2001 and December 2005 were recorded. Data included information on age, sex, site, duration of the injury at the time of reporting to hospital, reasons, details of treatment offered and outcome after treatment. Results A total of 33 patients, 13 males and 20 females aged between 12 and 49 years with human bite injuries in the oro-facial region were treated. Thirty patients presented with clean uninfected wounds while 3 had infected wounds. The most (45.5%) frequently affected site was the lower lip. Treatment offered included thorough surgical cleansing with adequate surgical debridement and primary suturing. Tetanus prophylaxis and a course of broad-spectrum antibiotics were given to all the patients. In 90% of the 30 patients who were treated by suturing, the healing was uneventful with only 10% experiencing wound infection or necrosis. Three patients who presented with wounds that had signs of infection were treated by surgical cleansing with debridement, antibiotics and daily dressing followed by delayed primary suturing. Conclusion Most of the human bite injuries in the oro-facial region were due to social conflicts. Although generally considered to be dirty or contaminated they could be successfully treated by surgical cleansing and primary suture with a favourable outcome. Management of such injuries often need multidisciplinary approach. PMID:18447929

Shubi, Farrid M; Hamza, Omar JM; Kalyanyama, Boniphace M; Simon, Elison NM

2008-01-01

91

Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. METHODS: Qualitative

Ronak Shah; Peter A Singer; Abdallah S Daar

2010-01-01

92

Comparison of intervention methods for reducing human exposure to Mycobacterium bovis through milk in pastoralist households of Tanzania.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease of zoonotic concern, especially in countries with no control programs in livestock and where routine pasteurization of milk is not practiced. In Tanzania, bTB is widespread in livestock and has been diagnosed in humans; however, herd bTB testing is primarily carried out for bTB-free certification in commercial dairy herds at the expense of the dairy cattle owner. For rural livestock holders, such an expense is prohibitive, and consequently there is no control of bTB in most areas. Although effective long-term solutions to control bTB in livestock are desirable, there is a need to assess the effect of preventive measures on reducing human exposure to bTB in such settings. We utilized locally relevant cattle herd characteristics and management data from the Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement (HALI) project in south-central Tanzania to build a Reed-Frost model that compared the efficacy of alternative methods aimed at reducing the exposure of humans to infectious milk from a typical pastoralist cattle herd. During a 10-year simulation period, the model showed that boiling milk 80% of the time is necessary to obtain a reduction in liters of infectious milk approximately equivalent to what would be obtained with a standard 2-year testing and removal regimen, and that boiling milk was more effective than animal test and removal early in the time period. In addition, even with testing and removing infected cattle, a residual risk of exposure to infectious milk remained due to imperfect sensitivity of the skin test and a continuous risk of introduction of infectious animals from other herds. The model was sensitive to changes in initial bTB prevalence but not to changes in herd size. In conclusion, continuous complimentary treatment of milk may be an effective strategy to reduce human exposure to M. bovis-infected milk in settings where bTB is endemic and a comprehensive bTB control program is yet to be implemented. PMID:24853050

Roug, Annette; Perez, Andres; Mazet, Jonna A K; Clifford, Deana L; VanWormer, Elizabeth; Paul, Goodluck; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Smith, Woutrina A

2014-08-01

93

Residents’ perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city.

Mwakalila, Shadrack

94

Genetic Diversity of Circulating Rotavirus Strains in Tanzania Prior to the Introduction of Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Background Tanzania currently rolls out vaccination against rotavirus-diarrhea, a major cause of child illness and death. As the vaccine covers a limited number of rotavirus variants, this study describes the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under two years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, prior to implementation of vaccination. Methods Stool specimens, demographic and clinical information, were collected from 690 children admitted to hospital due to diarrhea (cases) and 545 children without diarrhea (controls) during one year. Controls were inpatient or children attending child health clinics. Rotavirus antigen was detected using ELISA and positive samples were typed by multiplex semi-nested PCR and sequencing. Results The prevalence of rotavirus was higher in cases (32.5%) than in controls (7.7%, P<0.001). The most common G genotypes were G1 followed by G8, G12, and G4 in cases and G1, G12 and G8 in controls. The Tanzanian G1 variants displayed 94% similarity with the Rotarix vaccine G1 variant. The commonest P genotypes were P[8], P[4] and P[6], and the commonest G/P combination G1 P[8] (n?=?123), G8 P[4] and G12 P[6]. Overall, rotavirus prevalence was higher in cool (23.9%) than hot months (17.1%) of the year (P?=?0.012). We also observed significant seasonal variation of G genotypes. Rotavirus was most frequently found in the age group of four to six months. The prevalence of rotavirus in cases was lower in stunted children (28.9%) than in non-stunted children (40.1%, P?=?0.003) and lower in HIV-infected (15.4%, 4/26) than in HIV-uninfected children (55.3%, 42/76, P<0.001). Conclusion This pre-vaccination study shows predominance of genotype G1 in Tanzania, which is phylogenetically distantly related to the vaccine strains. We confirm the emergence of genotype G8 and G12. Rotavirus infection and circulating genotypes showed seasonal variation. This study also suggests that rotavirus may not be an opportunistic pathogen in children infected with HIV. PMID:24844631

Moyo, Sabrina J.; Blomberg, Bj?rn; Hanevik, Kurt; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Langeland, Nina

2014-01-01

95

Stroke risk factors in an incident population in urban and rural Tanzania: a prospective, community-based, case-control study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The burden of stroke on health systems in low-income and middle-income countries is increasing. However, high-quality data for modifiable stroke risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce, with no community-based, case-control studies previously published. We aimed to identify risk factors for stroke in an incident population from rural and urban Tanzania. Methods Stroke cases from urban Dar-es-Salaam and the rural Hai district were recruited in a wider study of stroke incidence between June 15, 2003, and June 15, 2006. We included cases with first-ever and recurrent stroke. Community-acquired controls recruited from the background census populations of the two study regions were matched with cases for age and sex and were interviewed and assessed. Data relating to medical and social history were recorded and blood samples taken. Findings We included 200 stroke cases (69 from Dar-es-Salaam and 131 from Hai) and 398 controls (138 from Dar-es-Salaam and 260 from Hai). Risk factors were similar at both sites, with previous cardiac event (odds ratio [OR] 7·39, 95% CI 2·42–22·53; p<0·0001), HIV infection (5·61, 2·41–13·09; p<0·0001), a high ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (4·54, 2·49–8·28; p<0·0001), smoking (2·72, 1·49–4·96; p=0·001), and hypertension (2·14, 1·09–4·17; p=0·026) identified as significant independent risk factors for stroke. In Hai, additional risk factors of diabetes (4·04, 1·29–12·64) and low HDL cholesterol (9·84, 4·06–23·84) were also significant. Interpretation We have identified many of the risk factors for stroke already reported for other world regions. HIV status was an independent risk factor for stroke within an antiretroviral-naive population. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of stroke in people with HIV, even in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. Funding The Wellcome Trust. PMID:24748275

Walker, Richard W; Jusabani, Ahmed; Aris, Eric; Gray, William K; Unwin, Nigel; Swai, Mark; Alberti, George; Mugusi, Ferdinand

2013-01-01

96

Why give birth in health facility? Users' and providers' accounts of poor quality of birth care in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In Tanzania, half of all pregnant women access a health facility for delivery. The proportion receiving skilled care at birth is even lower. In order to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, the government has set out to increase health facility deliveries by skilled care. The aim of this study was to describe the weaknesses in the provision of acceptable and adequate quality care through the accounts of women who have suffered obstetric fistula, nurse-midwives at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities and local community members. Methods Semi-structured interviews involving 16 women affected by obstetric fistula and five nurse-midwives at maternity wards at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities, and Focus Group Discussions with husbands and community members were conducted between October 2008 and February 2010 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania and Temeke hospitals in Dar es Salaam, and Mpwapwa district in Dodoma region. Results Health care users and health providers experienced poor quality caring and working environments in the health facilities. Women in labour lacked support, experienced neglect, as well as physical and verbal abuse. Nurse-midwives lacked supportive supervision, supplies and also seemed to lack motivation. Conclusions There was a consensus among women who have suffered serious birth injuries and nurse midwives staffing both BEmOC and CEmOC maternity wards that the quality of care offered to women in birth was inadequate. While the birth accounts of women pointed to failure of care, the nurses described a situation of disempowerment. The bad birth care experiences of women undermine the reputation of the health care system, lower community expectations of facility birth, and sustain high rates of home deliveries. The only way to increase the rate of skilled attendance at birth in the current Tanzanian context is to make facility birth a safer alternative than home birth. The findings from this study indicate that there is a long way to go. PMID:23663299

2013-01-01

97

Electrocardiographic Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease and Stroke Risk Factors in Rural and Urban Tanzania: A Case-control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although the association between cerebrovascular and coronary artery disease (CAD) is well known in high-income countries, this association is not well documented in black Africans. Aims The aim of this study was to document electrocardiographic (ECG) evidence of CAD in stroke cases and controls and to identify other common ECG abnormalities related to known stroke risk factors in a community-based population of incident stroke cases in Tanzania, East Africa. Methods This was a case–control study. Incident stroke cases were identified by the Tanzanian Stroke Incidence Project. Age- and sex-matched controls were randomly selected from the background population. Electrocardiograms were manually analyzed using the Minnesota Coding System, looking for evidence of previous myocardial infarction (MI), atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFl), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Results In Hai, there were 93 cases and 241 controls with codable electrocardiograms, and in Dar-es-Salaam, there were 39 cases and 72 controls with codable electrocardiograms. Comparing cases and controls, there was a higher prevalence of MI and AF or AFl (but not LVH) in cases compared with controls. Conclusions This is the first published study of ECG assessment of CAD and other stroke risk factors in an incident population of stroke cases in sub-Saharan Africa. It suggests that concomitant CAD in black African stroke cases is more common than previously suggested. PMID:23545320

Walker, Richard W.; Dewhurst, Matthew; Gray, William K.; Jusabani, Ahmed; Aris, Eric; Unwin, Nigel; Swai, Mark; Adams, Philip C.; Mugusi, Ferdinand

2014-01-01

98

Lessons from Tanzania on the integration of HIV and tuberculosis treatments into methadone assisted treatment.  

PubMed

To successfully address HIV and TB in the world, we must address the healthcare needs of key populations, such as drug users, and we must do this urgently. Currently in Tanzania, as in many countries, the care for these medical disorders is separated into disease specific clinical environments. Our consortium began working to integrate HIV and TB clinical services into the methadone program in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We present the key lessons learned in this process of integration and the importance of integrating HIV/TB into the methadone program, which serves as a critical anchor for adherence to clinical services. Integrated healthcare for people who use drugs is clearly a long-term goal and different health systems will progress upon this continuum at different rates. What is clear is that every health system that interacts with drug users must aspire to achieve some level of integrated healthcare if the incidence rates of HIV and TB are to decline. PMID:24210295

Bruce, R Douglas; Lambdin, Barrot; Chang, Olivia; Masao, Frank; Mbwambo, Jessie; Mteza, Ibrahim; Nyandindi, Cassian; Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; Buma, Deus; Dunbar, Megan S; Kilonzo, Gad

2014-01-01

99

Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including “mwarobaini” (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), “mtopetope” (Annona spp) (20.8%), “mchungwa/mlimau” (Citrus spp) (8.3%), “mvumbashi/uvumbati” (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), “mkorosho” (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), “mwembe” (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), “mpera” (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and “maganda ya nazi” (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in insect control. Conclusion This survey has indicated some knowledge gap among community members in managing mosquito vectors using plant. The communities need a basic health education and sensitization for effective exploitation of this valuable tool for reducing mosquitoes and associated disease burdens. On the other hand, the government of Tanzania should strengthen advocacy of botanical pesticides development, registration and regulation for public health benefits because they are source of pest control tools people rely on them. PMID:25015092

2014-01-01

100

Waiting for attention and care: birthing accounts of women in rural Tanzania who developed obstetric fistula as an outcome of labour  

PubMed Central

Background Obstetric fistula is a physically and socially disabling obstetric complication that affects about 3,000 women in Tanzania every year. The fistula, an opening that forms between the vagina and the bladder and/or the rectum, is most frequently caused by unattended prolonged labour, often associated with delays in seeking and receiving appropriate and adequate birth care. Using the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care (AAAQ) concept and the three delays model, this article provides empirical knowledge on birth care experiences of women who developed fistula after prolonged labour. Methods We used a mixed methods approach to explore the birthing experiences of women affected by fistula and the barriers to access adequate care during labour and delivery. Sixteen women were interviewed for the qualitative study and 151 women were included in the quantitative survey. All women were interviewed at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania in Dar es Salaam and Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza. Results Women experienced delays both before and after arriving at a health facility. Decisions on where to seek care were most often taken by husbands and mothers-in-law (60%). Access to health facilities providing emergency obstetric care was inadequate and transport was a major obstacle. About 20% reported that they had walked or were carried to the health facility. More than 50% had reported to a health facility after two or more days of labour at home. After arrival at a health facility women experienced lack of supportive care, neglect, poor assessment of labour and lack of supervision. Their birth accounts suggest unskilled birth care and poor referral routines. Conclusions This study reveals major gaps in access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. It illustrates how poor quality of care at health facilities contributes to delays that lead to severe birth injuries, highlighting the need to ensure women's rights to accessible, acceptable and adequate quality services during labour and delivery. PMID:22013991

2011-01-01

101

Patterns of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Syndromic management of STIs has been advocated as simplified and cheap approach. Youth have been reported to be at increased risk of acquiring STIs which can facilitate HIV transmission. We have investigated the relationship between the syndromic management and specific aetiology diagnosis and its relationship with HIV infection and health seeking behaviour among youth attending a reproductive health clinic

Guerino Chalamilla; Judica Mbwana; Fred Mhalu; Eunice Mmari; Mtebe Majigo; Andrew Swai; Willy Urassa; Eric Sandstrom

2006-01-01

102

Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality

Hussein L. Kidanto; Ingrid Mogren; Jos van Roosmalen; Siriel N. Massawe; Lennarth Nystrom; Gunilla Lindmark

2009-01-01

103

Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research

A. Pickering; A. Boehm; J. Davis

2008-01-01

104

Informal Urban Settlements and Cholera Risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAs a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living

Katherine Penrose; Marcia Caldas de Castro; Japhet Werema; Edward T. Ryan

2010-01-01

105

Breeding places and seasonal incidence of Aedes aegypti, as assessed by the single-larva survey method*  

PubMed Central

The single-larva survey method was employed to study the breeding places and seasonal incidence of Aedes aegypti in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. From May 1968 to May 1969, 28 462 containers of water—located in approximately equal numbers indoors and outdoors—were investigated. The highest frequency of breeding (8.0%) of A. aegypti was observed in tires and motor parts. Drums, barrels, water-pots, and other receptacles left outdoors showed a higher frequency (3.1%) than those kept indoors (0.6%). Metal containers were infested to a greater extent than those made of mud, wood, or other materials; 2.5% of coconut shells, snail shells, etc. and 1.3% of tree holes, plant axils, and cut bamboos were infested. The seasonal prevalence, expressed as a container index, closely followed and paralleled the fluctuations in rainfall. The value of this survey method for both ecological studies and practical control purposes is discussed. PMID:4544149

Rao, T. Ramachandra; Trpis, M.; Gillett, J. D.; Teesdale, C.; Tonn, R. J.

1973-01-01

106

STD rapid assessment in Rwandan refugee camps in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To obtain baseline information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the Rwandan refugees camps in Tanzania, prior to establishment of STD services. SETTING: The largest camps of Rwandan refugees in the Ngara District of Tanzania (estimated population 300,000). The study was carried out in 8 days in August 1994. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A rapid assessment technique was used to

P. Mayaud; W Msuya; J Todd; G Kaatano; G Begkoyian; H Grosskurth; D Mabey

1997-01-01

107

An Overview of HIV Prevention Interventions for People Who Inject Drugs in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, Tanzania has seen a rapid rise in the number of people who inject drugs (PWID), specifically heroin. While the overall HIV prevalence in Tanzania has declined recently to 5.6%, in 2009, the HIV prevalence among PWID remains alarmingly high at 35%. In this paper, we describe how the Tanzania AIDS Prevention Program (TAPP), Médecins du Monde France (MdM-F), and other organisations have been at the forefront of addressing this public health issue in Africa, implementing a wide array of harm reduction interventions including medication-assisted treatment (MAT), needle and syringe programs (NSP), and “sober houses” for residential treatment in the capital, Dar es Salaam, and in Zanzibar. Looking toward the future, we discuss the need to (1) extend existing services and programs to reach more PWID and others at risk for HIV, (2) develop additional programs to strengthen existing programs, and (3) expand activities to include structural interventions to address vulnerabilities that increase HIV risk for all Tanzanians. PMID:23346410

Ratliff, Eric A.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Mbwambo, Jessie K. K.; Lambdin, Barrot H.; Voets, Ancella; Pont, Sandrine; Maruyama, Haruka; Kilonzo, Gad P.

2013-01-01

108

Solar Power for Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

Condensed list of products and activities: 8 educational posters and 1 informational brochure (all original illustrations and text); a business plan with micro-agreements; corporation created called Tanzanian Power, LLC; business feasibility study developed with the University of Albany; Hampshire College collaborated in project development; research conducted seeking similar projects in underdeveloped countries; Citibank proposal submitted (but rejected); cleaned and sent PV panels to Tanzania; community center built in Tanzania; research and list provided to Robinson for educational TV videos and product catalogs; networked with Chase Manhattan Bank for new solar panels; maintained flow of information among many people (stateside and Tanzania); wrote and sent press releases and other outreach information. Several families purchased panels.

Chen, Christine; Gerace, Jay; Mehner, Nicole; Mohamed, Sharif; Reiss, Kelly

1999-12-06

109

Genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in a population of Anopheles arabiensis, the primary malaria vector in Lower Moshi, north-eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Pyrethroid resistance has been slower to emerge in Anopheles arabiensis than in An. gambiae s.s and An. funestus and, consequently, studies are only just beginning to unravel the genes involved. Permethrin resistance in An. arabiensis in Lower Moshi, Tanzania has been linked to elevated levels of both P450 monooxygenases and ?-esterases. We have conducted a gene expression study to identify specific genes linked with metabolic resistance in the Lower Moshi An. arabiensis population. Methods Microarray experiments employing an An. gambiae whole genome expression chip were performed on An. arabiensis, using interwoven loop designs. Permethrin-exposed survivors were compared to three separate unexposed mosquitoes from the same or a nearby population. A subsection of detoxification genes were chosen for subsequent quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Microarray analysis revealed significant over expression of 87 probes and under expression of 85 probes (in pairwise comparisons between permethrin survivors and unexposed sympatric and allopatric samples from Dar es Salaam (controls). For qRT-PCR we targeted over expressed ABC transporter genes (ABC ‘2060’), a glutathione-S-transferase, P450s and esterases. Design of efficient, specific primers was successful for ABC ‘2060’and two P450s (CYP6P3, CYP6M2). For the CYP4G16 gene, we used the primers that were previously used in a microarray study of An. arabiensis from Zanzibar islands. Over expression of CYP4G16 and ABC ‘2060’ was detected though with contrasting patterns in pairwise comparisons between survivors and controls. CYP4G16 was only up regulated in survivors, whereas ABC ‘2060’ was similar in survivors and controls but over expressed in Lower Moshi samples compared to the Dar es Salaam samples. Increased transcription of CYP4G16 and ABC ‘2060’ are linked directly and indirectly respectively, with permethrin resistance in Lower Moshi An. arabiensis. Conclusions Increased transcription of a P450 (CYP4G16) and an ABC transporter (ABC 2060) are linked directly and indirectly respectively, with permethrin resistance in Lower Moshi An. arabiensis. Our study provides replication of CYP4G16 as a candidate gene for pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis, although its role may not be in detoxification, and requires further investigation. PMID:24946780

2014-01-01

110

Access and use of agricultural information and knowledge in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to assess access to and use of agricultural knowledge and information in the rural areas of Tanzania. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Mixed quantitative, qualitative and participatory methods were deployed. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect qualitative and quantitative data from 181 farmers in six districts of Tanzania. Focus groups and participatory techniques (i.e. information

Edda Tandi Lwoga; Christine Stilwell; Patrick Ngulube

2011-01-01

111

Marine fisheries in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals. PMID:12572817

Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

2002-12-01

112

Comparing patterns of sexual risk among adolescent and young women in a mixed-method study in Tanzania: implications for adolescent participation in HIV prevention trials  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite the disproportionate impact of HIV on women, and adolescents in particular, those below age 18 years are underrepresented in HIV prevention trials due to ethical, safety and logistical concerns. This study examined and compared the sexual risk contexts of adolescent women aged 15–17 to young adult women aged 18–21 to determine whether adolescents exhibited similar risk profiles and the implications for their inclusion in future trials. Methods We conducted a two-phase, mixed-method study to assess the opportunities and challenges of recruiting and retaining adolescents (aged 15–17) versus young women (18–21) in Tanzania. Phase I, community formative research (CFR), used serial in-depth interviews with 11 adolescent and 12 young adult women from a range of sexual risk contexts in preparation for a mock clinical trial (MCT). For Phase II, 135 HIV-negative, non-pregnant adolescents and young women were enrolled into a six-month MCT to assess and compare differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour, incident pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and HIV. Results In both research phases, adolescents appeared to be at similar, if not higher, risk than their young adult counterparts. Adolescents reported earlier sexual debut, and similar numbers of lifetime partners, pregnancy and STI/RTI rates, yet had lower perceived risk. Married women in the CFR appeared at particular risk but were less represented in the MCT. In addition, adolescents were less likely than their older counterparts to have accessed HIV testing, obtained gynaecological exams or used protective technologies. Conclusions Adolescent women under 18 are at risk of multiple negative SRH outcomes and they underuse preventive services. Their access to new technologies such as vaginal microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may similarly be compromised unless greater effort is made to include them in clinical trial research. PMID:25224611

Tolley, Elizabeth E; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kaale, Anna; Minja, Anna; Bangapi, Doreen; Kalungura, Happy; Headley, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Joy Noel

2014-01-01

113

"I am nothing": experiences of loss among women suffering from severe birth injuries in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increased attention on maternal mortality during recent decades, which has resulted in maternal health being defined as a Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Continuous leaking of urine and the physical, emotional and social suffering associated with it, has a profound impact on women's quality of life. This study seeks to explore the physical, cultural and psychological dimensions of living with obstetric fistula, and demonstrate how these experiences shape the identities of women affected by the condition. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was used to explore the experiences of Tanzanian women living with obstetric fistula and those of their husbands. The study was conducted at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania hospital in Dar es Salaam, Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, and Mpwapwa district, in Dodoma region. Conveniently selected samples of 16 women were interviewed, and 151 additional women responded to a questionnaire. In addition, 12 women affected by obstetric fistula and six husbands of these affected women participated in a focus group discussions. Data were analysed using content data analysis framework and statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 15 for Microsoft windows. Results The study revealed a deep sense of loss. Loss of body control, loss of the social roles as women and wives, loss of integration in social life, and loss of dignity and self-worth were located at the core of these experiences. Conclusion The women living with obstetric fistula experience a deep sense of loss that had negative impact on their identity and quality of life. Acknowledging affected women's real-life experiences is important in order to understand the occurrence and management of obstetric fistula, as well as prospects after treatment. This knowledge will help to improve women's sense of self-worth and maintain their identity as women, wives, friends and community members. Educational programmes to empower women socially and economically and counselling of families of women living with obstetric fistula may help these women receive medical and social support that is necessary. PMID:22082132

2011-01-01

114

Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E) or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations<11 g/dL and severe anaemia<8.5 g/dL. Results Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03), 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004), and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02) of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.99; p=0.03). The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56–0.92; p=0.008), but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.79–1.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007). One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children are warranted in the context of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23948440

Liu, Enju; Duggan, Christopher; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Bosch, Ronald J; Kisenge, Rodrick R; Okuma, James; Fawzi, Wafaie W

2013-01-01

115

Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. METHODS: This was

John Kunda; Julie Fitzpatrick; Rudovic Kazwala; Nigel P French; Gabriel Shirima; Alastair MacMillan; Dominic Kambarage; Mark Bronsvoort; Sarah Cleaveland

2007-01-01

116

Predictors of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam  

PubMed Central

Background Tanzania has recently experienced a significant rise in the burden of diabetes, and it is estimated that more than 400,000 people are living with diabetes. A major concern in the management of diabetes is the occurrence of diabetic complications that occur as a result of poor glycemic control. Identification of the factors associated with poor glycemic control is important in order to institute appropriate interventions for the purpose of improving glycemic control and prevention of chronic complications. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the level of glycemic control and explore the factors associated with poor glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methodology A cross-sectional study was carried out at the diabetic clinics for T2DM patients at the national and municipal hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A total of 469 patients were enrolled over a period of 8 weeks from March 2013 to May 2013. Patients’ information such as sociodemographic characteristics, self-care management behaviors, and medication adherence were obtained through interviews. Blood pressure, weight, and height were measured during the day of the interview. All available last readings for fasting blood glucose (FBG) measurements, lipid profile, and other clinical characteristics were obtained from patients’ records. Results The mean age of patients was 54.93 years. The majority (63.5%) of patients were females and only eight patients had records of lipid profile measurements. Out of 469 patients, 69.7% had FBG of ?7.2 mmol/L, indicating poor glycemic control. Females aged between 40 years and 59 years had significantly higher poor glycemic control (76.1%) as compared with their male counterparts. Thirty-eight percent of patients had poor medication adherence, which was associated with poor glycemic control. The proportion of poor glycemic control increased with age. A significantly high proportion of poor glycemic control was observed in patients who had had the disease for more than 20 years since diagnosis. Factors associated with poor glycemic control included lack of health insurance, using more than one oral hypoglycemic agent, normal body mass index, obesity, and nonadherence to diabetic medications. Conclusion Patients in this study had generally poor glycemic control. From these findings it is recommended that diabetic patients should be routinely screened for lipid profile to determine levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins, which are risk factors for cardiovascular events. An education program should be developed to educate patients on the importance of medication adherence and weight management for better glycemic control. PMID:25368533

Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R; Charles, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

117

Recycling — an environmentally friendly and income generating activity towards sustainable solid waste management. Case study — Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally solid waste management has evolved as mainly the removal of municipal wastes by hauling them out of the city boundaries and dumping them ‘there’. This is in conformity with the ‘out of sight out of mind’ philosophy. However, with the ever increasing tonnage of refuse due to the expansion of urban centers, which implies increased collection, transportation and disposal

M. E. Kaseva; S. K. Gupta

1996-01-01

118

Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct marketing research, identify opportunities for use of this technology, and to the extent possible, secure an agreement leading to a pre-commercialization demonstration or prototype plant. This was accomplished with the agreement to conduct the Noor al Salaam program as a tri-lateral project between Egypt, Israel, and the U.S. The tri-lateral project was led by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH); this included the Egyptian New and Renewable Energy Authority and the Israeli USISTC participants. This project, known was Noor al Salaam, was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Department of Energy (DOE). The Egyptian activity was under the auspices of the Egyptian Ministry of Energy and Electricity, New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) as part of Egypt's plans for renewable energy development. The objective of the Noor al Salaam project was to develop the conditions necessary to obtain funding and construct and operate an approximately 10 to 20 Megawatt hybrid solar/natural gas demonstration power plant in Zaafarana, Egypt that could serve both as a test bed for advanced solar technology evaluations, and as a forerunner to commercial plant designs. This plant, termed Noor Al Salaam, or “Light of Peace”, reached the initial phase of system definition before being curtailed, in part by changes in USAID objectives, coupled with various delays that were beyond the scope of the program to resolve. The background of the USISTF technology development and pre-commercialization effort is provided in this report, together with documentation of the technology developments conducted under the Noor al Salaam program. It should be noted that only a relatively small part of the Noor al Salaam funding was expended over the approximately five years for which UAH was prime contractor before the program was ordered closed (Reference 1) so that the remaining funds could be returned to USAID.

Blackmon, James B

2008-03-31

119

Morbidity in Tanzania.  

PubMed

This paper discusses data collection from hospital returns, both inpatient and outpatient, from a health center and a dispensary in an attempt to provide a picture of problems encountered in gathering reliable information. From the information obtained, the utilization of these health center facilities by age and sex, and the causes and patterns of morbidity at the center are examined. Data is based on 117 hospitals in Tanzania which send monthly reports of admissions and deaths for new admissions and new spells of illness for outpatients to the government. Also surveyed is the Kibaha Health Center (KHC) in Kisarawe, a rural area, and the Soga Dispensary, a satellite of the KHC 20 miles away. Estimated utilization rates of the hospitals are 4.35-47.7 inpatient admissions and 582.2-725.8 outpatient visits/1000 population/year. The KHC had an average attendance of 3 times/person/year. Sources of error in data application are explored. A survey of distance traveled by each patient from home indicates that 91% came from 41 villages within a 15 mile radius of the health center. Other distance/use figures are calculated. The data on utilization of the KHC by age group indicates higher usage by school age children, although they are a minority population in the area and have the least risk of developing serious disease and the lowest age specific mortality. From these results there emerges the need to examine the "demand" component of morbidity as a basis for a rational allocation of resources. The question of what morbidity statistics are needed and how they are collected is considered real and vital to planning organization and evaluation of health services. The data indicate some direction being explored by current studies of health services in Tanzania. PMID:12264820

Mccusker, J

1976-09-01

120

The Environmental Planning and Management Process and the Conflict over Outputs in Dar-Es-Salaam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process is a consultative, not technocratic, approach to urban development planning. Urban development stakeholders in Dar-es-Salaam have engaged in the EPM process since 1992. We learn from this case that there are conflicting conceptions on what is the most logical planning output of the process. Land-use planners insist on having the conventional long-term blueprint

FRANCOS HALLA; BITURO MAJANI

1999-01-01

121

Condom use and sexuality communication with adults: a study among high school students in South Africa and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Fostering adolescents’ communication on sexuality issues with their parents and other significant adults is often assumed to be an important component of intervention programmes aimed at promoting healthy adolescent sexual practices. However, there are few studies describing the relationship between such communication and sexual practices, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the relationships between adolescents’ communication with significant adults and their condom use in three sites in this region. Methods Data stem from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a school-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Only data from comparison schools were used. The design is therefore a prospective panel study with three waves of data collections. Data were collected in 2004 from 6,251 participants in 40 schools. Associations between adolescents’ communication with adults about sexuality issues and their use of condoms were analysed cross-sectionally using analysis of variance, as well as prospectively using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that consistent condom users had significantly higher mean scores on communication (across topics and communication partners) than both occasional users and never-users, who had the lowest scores. After controlling for condom use at the first data collection occasion in each model as well as for possible confounders, communication scores significantly predicted consistent condom use prospectively in all three ordinal logistic regression models (Model R2 = .23 to .31). Conclusion The findings are consistent with the assertion that communication on sexuality issues between adolescents and significant adults results in safer sexual practices, as reflected by condom use, among in-school adolescents. The associations between communication variables and condom use might have been stronger if we had measured additional aspects of communication such as whether or not it was initiated by the adolescents themselves, the quality of advice provided by adults, and if it took place in a context of positive adult-adolescent interaction. Studies with experimental designs are needed in order to provide stronger evidence of causality. PMID:24053420

2013-01-01

122

Monitoring mosquitoes in urban Dar es Salaam: Evaluation of resting boxes, window exit traps, CDC light traps, Ifakara tent traps and human landing catches  

PubMed Central

Background Ifakara tent traps (ITT) are currently the only sufficiently sensitive, safe, affordable and practical method for routine monitoring host-seeking mosquito densities in Dar es Salaam. However, it is not clear whether ITT catches represent indoors or outdoors biting densities. ITT do not yield samples of resting, fed mosquitoes for blood meal analysis. Methods Outdoors mosquito sampling methods, namely human landing catch (HLC), ITT (Design B) and resting boxes (RB) were conducted in parallel with indoors sampling using HLC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps (LT) and RB as well as window exit traps (WET) in urban Dar es Salaam, rotating them thirteen times through a 3 × 3 Latin Square experimental design replicated in four blocks of three houses. This study was conducted between 6th May and 2rd July 2008, during the main rainy season when mosquito biting densities reach their annual peak. Results The mean sensitivities of indoor RB, outdoor RB, WET, LT, ITT (Design B) and HLC placed outdoor relative to HLC placed indoor were 0.01, 0.005, 0.036, 0.052, 0.374, and 1.294 for Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (96% An. gambiae s.s and 4% An. arabiensis), respectively, and 0.017, 0.053, 0.125, 0.423, 0.372 and 1.140 for Culex spp, respectively. The ITT (Design B) catches correlated slightly better to indoor HLC (r2 = 0.619, P < 0.001, r2 = 0.231, P = 0.001) than outdoor HLC (r2 = 0.423, P < 0.001, r2 = 0.228, P = 0.001) for An. gambiae s.l. and Culex spp respectively but the taxonomic composition of mosquitoes caught by ITT does not match those of the indoor HLC (?2 = 607.408, degrees of freedom = 18, P < 0.001). The proportion of An. gambiae caught indoors was unaffected by the use of an LLIN in that house. Conclusion The RB, WET and LT are poor methods for surveillance of malaria vector densities in urban Dar es Salaam compared to ITT and HLC but there is still uncertainty over whether the ITT best reflects indoor or outdoor biting densities. The particular LLIN evaluated here failed to significantly reduce house entry by An. gambiae s.l. suggesting a negligible repellence effect. PMID:21418622

2011-01-01

123

Health and survival of young children in southern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: With a view to developing health systems strategies to improve reach to high-risk groups, we present information on health and survival from household and health facility perspectives in five districts of southern Tanzania. METHODS: We documented availability of health workers, vaccines, drugs, supplies and services essential for child health through a survey of all health facilities in the area.

Joanna RM Armstrong Schellenberg; Mwifadhi Mrisho; Fatuma Manzi; Kizito Shirima; Conrad Mbuya; Adiel K Mushi; Sosthenes Charles Ketende; Pedro L Alonso; Hassan Mshinda; Marcel Tanner; David Schellenberg

2008-01-01

124

The Effects of Informational Interventions on Household Water Management, Hygiene Behaviors, Stored Drinking Water Quality, and Hand Contamination in Peri-Urban Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Safe water storage and hand hygiene have been shown to reduce fecal contamination and improve health in experimental settings; however, triggering and sustaining such behaviors is challenging. This study investigates the extent to which personalized information about Escherichia coli contamination of stored water and hands influenced knowledge, reported behaviors, and subsequent contamination levels among 334 households with less than 5-year-old children in peri-urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. One-quarter of the study participants received information about strategies to reduce risk of water- and sanitation-related illness. Respondents in another three study cohorts received this same information, along with their household's water and/or hand-rinse test results. Findings from this study suggest that additional work is needed to elucidate the conditions under which such testing represents a cost-effective strategy to motivate improved household water management and hand hygiene. PMID:21292883

Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J.; Rogers, Kirsten; Mamuya, Simon; Boehm, Alexandria B.

2011-01-01

125

Food prices, tax reforms and consumer Welfare in Tanzania 1991–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the effect of observed food price changes on household consumption (welfare) in Tanzania and from this\\u000a simulates the welfare effect attributable to tax (tariffs and VAT) reforms. The three rounds of the Tanzania Household Budget\\u000a Survey (1991\\/92, 2000\\/01 and 2007) are used to apply Deaton’s method based on median unit values (prices) and household budget\\u000a shares. The

Vincent Leyaro; Oliver Morrissey; Trudy Owens

2010-01-01

126

Rationale and design of the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial.  

PubMed

We present the rationale and design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin supplements among HIV-positive pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Higher levels of intake of vitamins A, B, C, and E may decrease the risk of vertical transmission and progression of HIV infection by enhancing maternal and infant immune function; by reducing viral load in the blood, breast milk, or lower genital tract secretions; and/or by strengthening the placental barrier to infection. Eligible pregnant women were randomized to receive vitamin A, multivitamins excluding A, vitamin A and multivitamins, or placebo. The main endpoints include vertical transmission of HIV infection, as assessed by examination of infection in infants using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and progression of HIV disease as measured by the WHO clinical staging system. Over a period of 2 years, 13,876 women were tested for HIV infection, with appropriate pre- and posttest counseling, to enroll 1085 consenting HIV-positive women. The trial assesses women and their children once a month for a minimum of 18 months after delivery or up to the end of this 5-year study. We examine recruitment strategies and means of enhancing cohort retention in long-term follow-up. We assess compliance with the use of supplements by direct questioning, by counting pills, and biochemically by using serum beta-carotene and urine riboflavin levels. Briefly, we discuss ethical issues related to the conduct of AIDS prevention trials in this setting. In sub-Saharan Africa, most HIV-infected persons lack access to the relevant antiretroviral and prophylactic drugs, and the region urgently needs low-cost treatments and preventive strategies. The Tanzania trial should provide valuable data to address the effect of vitamin supplements in the transmission and progression of HIV infection. PMID:10027501

Fawzi, W W; Msamanga, G I; Spiegelman, D; Urassa, E J; Hunter, D J

1999-02-01

127

Reforming Teacher Education in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…

Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax

2012-01-01

128

Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal level for viable compost production. This paper presents a multidisciplinary analysis of factors influencing the success and failure of the composting initiative of KIWODET, a community based organization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results show that despite the ready availability and good compostability of the waste stream, not all fractions of municipal organic wastes qualify as feedstock. Negative consumer attitude hindered the acceptance of compost produced from residential wastes. KIWODET did manage to successfully implement a composting operation for commercial organic wastes. Their additional waste collection and sorting activities also contributed to an increased feedstock control as well as the integration of informal waste collecting activities. When KIWODET was forced to suspend its composting activities because of land use issues, their diversified waste sector activities proved crucial in reducing the negative financial impact on their overall performance. This paper emphasizes that successful composting initiatives can arise from local capacity in developing countries. However, the lack of municipal integration and support leaves such technically viable initiatives strongly vulnerable to external factors. PMID:21558081

Oberlin, Aisa S; Szántó, Gábor L

2011-10-01

129

Effect of multivitamin supplements on weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-negative women in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Multivitamin supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of low birthweight. This effect could be mediated through gestational weight gain. However, the effect of multivitamin supplementation on weight gain during pregnancy has not been fully studied. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of multivitamins on pregnancy weight gain. We enrolled 8468 HIV-negative women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of multivitamins on birth outcomes. Women were randomly assigned to receive either a daily oral dose of multivitamin tablets or a placebo and were weighed every 4?weeks from enrolment until the last visit before delivery. Intent-to-treat analyses were carried out to examine the effects of multivitamins on pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate linear and binomial regression models with the log-link function were used to examine the association of weight gain during pregnancy to birthweight. The overall total weight gain was 253?g (SE: 69, P: 0.0003) more, while the overall 4?weekly weight gain was 59?g greater (SE: 18, P: 0.005) among women who received multivitamins compared to placebo. Women in the lowest quartile of gestational weight gain had babies with an average birthweight of 3030?g (SD: 524), while women in the highest quartile had babies weighing 3246?g (SD: 486), on average. Prenatal multivitamin supplements increased gestational weight gain, which was a significant predictor of birthweight. PMID:23253638

Changamire, Freeman T; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Peterson, Karen E; Msamanga, Gernard I; Spiegelman, Donna; Petraro, Paul; Urassa, Willy; Fawzi, Wafaie W

2012-12-17

130

Risk indicators associated with subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Smallholder dairy farmers in Tanzania appear to be unaware of the subclinical mastitis situation in their cows. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and September 2002 on smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region. The study objectives were to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and related risk indicators, and to assess their contribution to the occurrence of subclinical mastitis. Three field procedures based on the principles of herd health and production management were followed: clinical, farm and data inspection. The California mastitis test (CMT) was carried out on quarter milk samples to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. A total of 182 lactating cows from 62 herds were investigated. Clinical inspection indicated that 3.8% of the lactating cows had clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 90.3% of lactating cows screened. Farm inspection revealed that water scarcity, barn size, residual suckling, single udder-towel and dairy labourers as the most substantial (p < 0.05) risk indicators. Although most of the risk indicators studied were not found to be statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, possibly owing to sample size and the presence of confounders, the epidemiological need to address such risk indicators cannot be overemphasized. PMID:15560518

Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

2004-08-01

131

Measuring cataract surgical services in children: an example from Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Childhood cataract is becoming increasingly recognised as a priority for reducing childhood blindness in developing countries. However, there have been no standard methods to monitor progress in providing this service, besides sporadic reports of surgeries performed.Methods:Information on all children receiving surgery for congenital\\/developmental cataract in the two Child Eye Health Tertiary Facilities (CEHTF) in Tanzania was collected for 2004–6. An

P Courtright; T Williams; C Gilbert; E Kishiki; S Shirima; R Bowman; S Lewallen

2008-01-01

132

HIV transmission within marriage : findings from Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the influence of marriage on HIV transmission and factors associated with HIV transmission among married people in Tanzania, and to suggest possible and feasible solutions. The study questions are: 1) What are the reasons for HIV transmission among married people in Tanzania, 2) How Marriage influences the spread of HIV?, 3) What are the perceptions of

H. A. Diggos

2007-01-01

133

"Hakuna Matata": Lakeside Literacy in Tanzania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins by telling the story of Edward, a preacher/teacher in Tanzania who, although poor and uneducated himself, managed to teach his parishioners how to read. The paper describes the experience of one man and his wife who spent 4 years at Katoke Teachers College in northwest Tanzania during the early 1970s, after which they returned to…

Watson, Alan J.

134

Who gets prompt access to artemisinin-based combination therapy? A prospective community-based study in children from rural Kilosa, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Effective and timely case management remains one of the fundamental pillars for control of malaria. Tanzania introduced artemisinin-combination therapy [ACT] for uncomplicated malaria; however, the policy change is challenged by limited availability of ACTs due to high cost. This study aimed to determine factors influencing prompt access to ACTs among febrile children in rural Kilosa, Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS:

Daudi O. Simba; Marian Warsame; Deodatus Kakoko; Zakayo Mrango; Goran Tomson; Zul Premji; Max Petzold

2010-01-01

135

Fighting FGM in Dodoma, Tanzania.  

PubMed

This paper reports the aims of the Training and Information Program of Inter-Africa Committee (IAC) to eradicate the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Dodoma, Tanzania. Dodoma is one of the 25 regions chosen for this pilot project because of the high prevalence of FGM, its proximity to Dar-es-Salam, and relative access to local transportation. The campaign was based on the active participation of concerned communities. Two coordinators were identified in 1993 who started to make a series of visits to the surrounding villages to discuss the situation of FGM with the local authorities and explain the objectives of IAC. Each village was requested to nominate one candidate as a Village Facilitator. 32 participants attended the first workshop that was organized by the IAC. Furthermore, the media collaborated with weekly radio programs and information that was provided to the Tanzania Midwifery School and to the primary school teachers. In 1995, the IAC in Dodoma had gained recognition among wider circles and had collaborated with the Ministry of Health in the training of traditional birth attendants and in creating awareness about FGM. The initiative sparked a very strong interest among other villagers in the area. The IAC-Dodoma team had plans to extending its services to other regions in 1997. PMID:12349589

1996-01-01

136

Tobacco smoking in Tanzania, East Africa: population based smoking prevalence using expired alveolar carbon monoxide as a validation tool  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of tobacco smoking in an urban East African population while using a simple validation procedure to examine the degree of under reporting in men and women. Design: A cross sectional population based study in adults (15 years and over) with sampling from a well maintained census register. Setting: Ilala Ilala, a middle income district of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: An age and sex stratified random sample of 973 men and women. Main outcome measures: Self reported smoking status with correction by exhaled alveolar carbon monoxide (EACO). Results: From the 605 participants (response rate 67.9%) age standardised (new world population) smoking prevalence, based on questionnaire and EACO, was 27.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8% to 33.2%) in males and 5.0% (95% CI 2.8% to 7.2%) in females. The age specific prevalence of smoking was highest in the age group 35–54 years (34.3%) for men and in the over 54 years group (16%) for women. Of those classified as smokers, 7.3% of men and 27.3% of women were reclassified as current smokers based on EACO (? 9 parts per million), after they had reported themselves to be an ex- or non-smoker in the questionnaire. Conclusions: The data suggest: (1) high rates of smoking among men in an urban area of East Africa; and (2) the importance of validating self reports of smoking status, particularly among women. PMID:12198270

Jagoe, K; Edwards, R; Mugusi, F; Whiting, D; Unwin, N

2002-01-01

137

Knowledge, risk perception of AIDS and reported sexual behaviour among students in secondary schools and colleges in Tanzania.  

PubMed

A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1041 students in secondary schools and colleges in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania to evaluate the relationship between HIV-risky sexual behaviour and anti-condom bias, as well as with AIDS-related information, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes. Self-reportedly, 54% of students (75% of the boys and 40% of the girls) were sexually active, 39% had a regular sexual partner and 13% had multiple partners in the previous year. The condom use rate was higher than previous reports. However, 30% of sexually active respondents did not always use condoms (Risk-1 behaviour) and 35% of those with multiple partners in the previous year did not always use condoms (Risk-2 behaviour). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that 'sex partner hates condom' had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.58-3.85) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.10-5.48). 'Use of condom prevents HIV infection' also had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.19-3.67) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 3.73; 95% CI 1.28-11.03). Students engaging in risky behaviour were aware of the risk, even though they failed to change their behaviour. Reasons for the AIDS epidemic among Tanzanian students and the importance of more effective AIDS education are also discussed. PMID:10387499

Maswanya, E S; Moji, K; Horiguchi, I; Nagata, K; Aoyagi, K; Honda, S; Takemoto, T

1999-04-01

138

The Culture of Rabbitfish 'Siganus' spp in Tanzania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tanzania has vast areas of aquatic resources. This study reports on attempts to culture the rabbitfish (Siganus) which earlier investigations showed could have high potential in Tanzania's marine waters. The report gives a description of the different rab...

P. O. J. Bwathondi

1981-01-01

139

Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR Methods for the Detection of Light-Intensity Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis Infections in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato–Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato–Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato–Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A.; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A.; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

2014-01-01

140

Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

2014-03-01

141

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs\\/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. METHODS: Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654) were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March

Sia E Msuya; Jacqueline Uriyo; Akhtar Hussain; Elizabeth M Mbizvo; Stig Jeansson; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

2009-01-01

142

Participatory wildlife surveys in communal lands: a case study from Simanjiro, Tanzania  

E-print Network

method for monitoring wildlife populations over time. We stress the importance of involving local´ge´es. Introduction There is a growing need for reliable monitoring of wildlife populations in the communal landsParticipatory wildlife surveys in communal lands: a case study from Simanjiro, Tanzania Fortunata U

143

Quality of antenatal care in rural Tanzania: counselling on pregnancy danger signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The high rate of antenatal care attendance in sub-Saharan Africa, should facilitate provision of information on signs of potential pregnancy complications. The aim of this study was to assess quality of antenatal care with respect to providers' counselling of pregnancy danger signs in Rufiji district, Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 18 primary health facilities. Thirty two

Andrea B Pembe; Anders Carlstedt; David P Urassa; Gunilla Lindmark; Lennarth Nyström; Elisabeth Darj

2010-01-01

144

Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+) approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania METHODS: We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and

Honorati Masanja; Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg; Hassan M Mshinda; Meera Shekar; Joseph KL Mugyabuso; Godwin D Ndossi; Don de Savigny

2006-01-01

145

Virological efficacy and emergence of drug resistance in adults on antiretroviral treatment in rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Virological response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Africa is poorly described. We examined virological efficacy and emergence of drug resistance in adults receiving first-line ART for up to 4 years in rural Tanzania. METHODS: Haydom Lutheran Hospital has provided ART to HIV-infected patients since October 2003. A combination of stavudine or zidovudine with lamivudine and either nevirapine or

Asgeir Johannessen; Ezra Naman; Sokoine L Kivuyo; Mabula J Kasubi; Mona Holberg-Petersen; Mecky I Matee; Svein G Gundersen; Johan N Bruun

2009-01-01

146

Religion and HIV in Tanzania: influence of religious beliefs on HIV stigma, disclosure, and treatment attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. METHODS: A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438) attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in

James Zou; Yvonne Yamanaka; Muze John; Melissa Watt; Jan Ostermann; Nathan Thielman

2009-01-01

147

AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN TANZANIA: THE POLICY AND OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE COOPERATIVE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the performance of the Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (CRDB), an agricultural credit institution in Tanzania, in financing smallholder agricultural production and other rural development activities. Assessment is largely based on available institutional information between 1971 and 1989. Criteria employed in assessing the performance of the credit institution include: credit allocation methods, operational costs and revenues from

Anacleti K. Kashuliza

1992-01-01

148

Patient's dissatisfaction with the public and private laboratory services in conducting HIV related testing in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patient's satisfaction with both private and public laboratory services is important for the improvement of the health care delivery in any country. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 24 randomly selected health facilities with laboratories that are conducting HIV related testing, in Mainland Tanzania. The study assessed patient's satisfaction with the laboratory services where by a total of

SG Mfinanga; A Kahwa; G Kimaro; A Kilale; S Kivuyo; M Senkoro; B Ngowi; R Mtandu; B Mutayoba; E Ngadaya; K Mashoto

2008-01-01

149

Comparing data of different survey methods for sustainable wildlife management in hunting areas: the case of Tarangire–Manyara ecosystem, northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost–benefit considerations of wildlife monitoring are essential, particularly, in areas outside national park boundaries,\\u000a where resources for conducting wildlife censuses are scarce, but that, at the same time, are subject to high pressure for\\u000a wildlife utilization, such as hunting. Large mammal survey data from various sources were collated and analyzed to investigate\\u000a which methods are best suited for monitoring purposes

Fortunata Msoffe; Fatina A. Mturi; Valeria Galanti; Wilma Tosi; Lucas A. Wauters; Guido Tosi

2007-01-01

150

The potential role of mother-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a mixed methods study from the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In the Kilimanjaro region the mother-in-law has traditionally had an important role in matters related to reproduction and\\u000a childcare. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the mothers-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission\\u000a (PMTCT) service utilization and adherence to infant feeding guidelines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study was conducted during 2007-2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi district

Eli Fjeld Falnes; Karen Marie Moland; Thorkild Tylleskär; Marina Manuela de Paoli; Sebalda Charles Leshabari

2011-01-01

151

HIV-1 drug mutations in children from northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Objectives In resource-limited settings, it is a challenge to get quality clinical specimens due to poor infrastructure for their collection, transportation, processing and storage. Using dried blood spots (DBS) might be an alternative to plasma for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in this setting. The objectives of this study were to determine mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance among children <18 months old born to HIV-1-infected mothers enrolled in prevention of mother-to-child transmission services in northern Tanzania. Patients and methods Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC) Clinical Laboratory is the zonal centre for early infant diagnosis using DBS in northern Tanzania. DBS were collected from January 2011 to December 2012. Mothers were kept on triple therapy and single-dose nevirapine before pregnancy and during labour, respectively. Infants were given single-dose nevirapine and most of them were breastfed. Genotypic resistance was determined in those with a viral load of >400 copies/mL. Results Genotypic resistance mutations were detected in 13 of 46 children (28%). HIV-1 genotypes were A1 (n?=?27), C (n?=?10), A/D (n?=?4), D (n?=?3) and CRF10_CD (n?=?2). The median age was 12 weeks (IQR 6–28). The mean log10 viral load was 3.87 copies/mL (SD 0.995). All major mutations were detected in the reverse transcriptase gene and none in the protease gene region. The most frequent mutations were Y181C (n?=?8) and K103N (n?=?4), conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Conclusions One-third of infants newly diagnosed with HIV in northern Tanzania harboured major drug resistance mutations to currently used antiretroviral regimens. These mutations were detected from DBS collected from the field and stored at room temperature. Surveillance of drug resistance among this population in resource-limited settings is warranted. PMID:24729604

Shao, Elichilia R.; Kifaro, Emmanuel G.; Chilumba, Innocent B.; Nyombi, Balthazar M.; Moyo, Sikhulile; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Musonda, Rosemary; Johannessen, Asgeir; Kibiki, Gibson; Essex, Max

2014-01-01

152

A Postcolonial Approach to Urban Studies: Interviews, Mental Maps, and Photo Voices on the Urban Farms of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine a postcolonial approach to urban experience is to inquire about how cities and people operate beyond the structures and analytical frameworks that have emerged from Western urban theory. Much of the emerging research in the field is looking for ways to valorize the myriad efforts that residents put forth to live and thrive in the city. Many methodological

Leslie McLees

2012-01-01

153

Post-colonial migration: virtual culture, urban farming and new peri-urban growth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1975“2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Using ethnographic and historical approaches, this article examines unplanned, peri-urban settlements on Dar es Salaam’s northern and western fringe, where urban farming is central to many residents’ household economy. Contrasting with conventional models of African urban migration, these new districts were established by a vanguard of educated urban professionals, utilizing farming as an economic diversification strategy. Despite disjunctures arising

Geoffrey Ross Owens

2010-01-01

154

Post-colonial migration: virtual culture, urban farming and new peri-urban growth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1975“2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ethnographic and historical approaches, this article examines unplanned, peri-urban settlements on Dar es Salaam’s northern and western fringe, where urban farming is central to many residents’ household economy. Contrasting with conventional models of African urban migration, these new districts were established by a vanguard of educated urban professionals, utilizing farming as an economic diversification strategy. Despite disjunctures arising through

Geoffrey Ross Owens

2010-01-01

155

Socioeconomic factors critical for intensification of fish farming technology. A case of selected villages in Morogoro and Dar es Salaam regions, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensification of farm technologies has shown high potential in improving farm production and enhancing rural food and income\\u000a security. Intensification, however, is commodity-specific with high-value crops intensively produced. Farmed fish is one of\\u000a the high-value crops introduced in the study area to meet the above ends. The problem, however, is that the level of intensifying\\u000a fish farming technology has been

Kitojo Wetengere

2011-01-01

156

Privatizing Public Health: Social Marketing for HIV Prevention in Tanzania, East Africa.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation explores U.S. commercial marketing's influence on HIV prevention programming in Tanzania, particularly the practice of social marketing. Social marketing NGOs in Tanzania uphold… (more)

Mahaffey, Erin Elizabeth

2012-01-01

157

Who Gets Prompt Access to Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy? A Prospective Community-Based Study in Children from Rural Kilosa, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEffective and timely case management remains one of the fundamental pillars for control of malaria. Tanzania introduced artemisinin-combination therapy [ACT] for uncomplicated malaria; however, the policy change is challenged by limited availability of ACTs due to high cost. This study aimed to determine factors influencing prompt access to ACTs among febrile children in rural Kilosa, Tanzania.Methods and FindingsIn a community-based

Daudi O. Simba; Marian Warsame; Deodatus Kakoko; Zakayo Mrango; Goran Tomson; Zul Premji; Max Petzold; Abdisalan M. Noor

2010-01-01

158

Societal Incentives for Work: Lessons from Tanzania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of work and economics, technology, and culture in Tanzania reveals that (1) material returns to rural workers were barely life sustaining; (2) people live dignified lives without consuming much; (3) simpler technological solutions were better; (4) tension exists between competitiveness and humaneness; and (5) tribal traditions contribute…

Bjorkquist, David C.

1993-01-01

159

Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Tanzania: Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

CBPP reappeared in Arusha, Northern Tanzania in 1990, having been introduced from Kenya. The disease spread rapidly to Mara region through rustling of sick or infected animals. In November 1992, an unrelated outbreak occurred in Kagera, having spread from Southern Uganda. Up to the end of December 1994, the disease appeared to be confined to Kagera and Arusha. In January

H. M. Msami; T. Ponela-Mlelwa; B. J. Mtei; A. M. Kapaga

2001-01-01

160

Secondary Education Is Vocational Education in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational trend in Tanzania, Africa, is the changing of secondary schools to vocational schools to accelerate social and economic development. About 30 percent of secondary schools will become agricultural boarding schools which emphasize practical work on school farms and a community approach. (EA)

Anderson, Eugene

1974-01-01

161

Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.  

PubMed

A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123

Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

2014-06-01

162

Appropriate deflouridation technology for use in flourotic areas in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High fluoride in drinking water is a problem found in both ground and surface water in various parts of Tanzania. Several defluoridation methods have been tested and detailed studies have been carried on bone-char method, alum/lime method and the combination of the two methods. In bone char method, the bones are charred in special kilns fuelled by wood charcoal. Different sizes of the kiln have been fabricated and tested. Crushing and sieving devices have been developed. The effectiveness of bone char particles sizes in fluoride removal has been studied and the results favoured small particle sizes. However, experimental conditions discouraged the use of very fine particles sizes of bone char due easy clogging. Household and institutional levels bone char defluoridation systems have been developed and tested. Filter columns packed with heat-activated bones are found to be more effective than fill and draw bucket type defluoridator. The bone char media used has the capability of producing water with a residual fluoride concentration of less than 0.1 mg/l from an initial fluoride of 12.0 mg/l. Use of alum and lime in fluoride removal from waters with excessive fluoride has been experimented upon. A plant with an automatic chemical dosing and mixing system for use at institutional levels has been developed and tested. The method was able to treat water with an initial fluoride concentration of 12 mg/l to a residual fluoride concentration ranging from 2 to 3 mg/l. During the study it was established, that the bone char method is appropriate for use in rural areas of Tanzania due its simplicity, local availability of materials and the possibility of processing the material locally.

Mjengera, H.; Mkongo, G.

163

Antimicrobial susceptibility, auxotype and plasmid content of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in northern Tanzania: emergence of high level plasmid mediated tetracycline resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid content, auxotype and serogroup of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from an urban population of STD clinic attenders in Northern Tanzania. METHODS--The minimum inhibitory concentrations of nine common antimicrobial agents were measured by the agar dilution method against 130 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in a free government STD clinic in Mwanza town. The

J Changalucha; H Grosskurth; P Mayaud; R M Gabone; G Ka-Gina; D Mabey

1995-01-01

164

Assessment of maternal mortality in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The results from a prospective community survey, a sisterhood method survey, and a hospital survey were compared in order to ascertain a reliable and inexpensive method for estimating direct deaths from obstetric complications of pregnancy. The maternal mortality ratio was used to express risk of dying during pregnancy. The surveys were conducted in Kwimba District in Mwanza region of northwestern Tanzania: in August 1989 to March 1991 in the community study within the primary health care area of Sumve Hospital, which supplied data on maternal mortality between 1986 and 1990. The sisterhood survey was conducted in 2 villages in 1990, of which 1 village was included in the community survey. The village study included 447 women, of whom 421 remained in the survey and delivered 427 infants (415 live born); there was 1 maternal death. The sisterhood method engaged 2865 respondents and the lifetime risk of maternal death was estimated at 297 and the proportional maternal mortality rate was 13.9%. There were 82 maternal deaths and 589 deaths from all causes among sisters aged 15 years and older. 7526 women were included in the hospital survey, of which 7335 births were represented; there were 62 maternal deaths. The maternal mortality risk was 845 among hospital admissions. 69% of all maternal deaths were accounted for by direct causes. Most deaths were attributed to the top 5 worldwide causes: obstructed labor, puerperal sepsis, postpartum hemorrhage, complications of abortion, and preeclampsia. There were few reports of abortions and abortion-related mortality. Relapsing fever or Borrelia infection was an indirect cause of death common to the region and particularly hazardous to pregnant women. Many hospital deaths were emergency admissions. The conclusion was that the sisterhood method provided a better indication of the extent of maternal mortality within the community. Other advantages were the small sample and the speed, quickness, and low cost. Hospital data provided more detailed causes of death and substandard care factors. Community data would require a very large sample in order to achieve greater reliability. PMID:8018613

Walraven, G E; Mkanje, R J; van Roosmalen, J; van Dongen, P W; Dolmans, W M

1994-05-01

165

A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

2013-08-01

166

Tobias tackles high risk in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Sarah Haspel, Africa desk officer, visited Tanzania where Population Concern is assisting the Tanzania Family Planning Association in funding its fourth community-based distribution program. Volunteers, who have been chosen by their villages, are trained as distributors of health and family planning services and information. 48 villages around Iringa town in the southern highlands are included in the program. Because of Catholic missionary schools and Tanzania's education program, the literacy rate is high. More than 60% of the population is Catholic. Tobias Makendi, a 30-year-old husband and father who is currently a farmer in Ibangamoyo, was one of the volunteers interviewed. He had previously worked in the rural development bank in Iringa. After a 3-week training program, Tobias had registered 19 clients (two of whom were 15-year-old girls, one of whom was married and had a child) within two weeks. He had also discussed high-risk sexual behavior with a married, middle-aged man who had been taking several partners in order to father a child. Tobias's goals include reduction of the number of women dying due to childbirth, assistance in family planning of wanted children, and prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). He works long hours and has met with resistance from the local priest. PMID:12318992

Haspel, S

1994-01-01

167

www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia  

E-print Network

1 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia Development and Energy in Africa countries · Senegal to Tanzania · Ethiopia to South Africa · Plus 14 in between! · Wide selection of energy (DEA) Regional Workshop, Arusha, 16-18 Oct. 2007 #12;2 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal

168

A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF BUSINESS ETHICS IN TANZANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited business ethics research in Africa focused exclusively on the Republic of South Africa. Our research attempts to gain an exploratory view of the role of business ethics in Tanzania, and in future projects explore these views in detail. Our current project will introduce the reader to Tanzania, their economy, and the ethical climate in Africa. We then examine

Marty Ludlum; Germain Pichop

169

Adoption of the new antimalarial drug policy in Tanzania - a cross-sectional study in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the diffusion of the change of first line antimalarial drug from chloroquine (CQ) to sulphadoxine\\/pyrimethamine (SP) at household level in a rural district of Tanzania less than a year after the policy implementation. Methods Caretakers in 729 households were interviewed on knowledge of the new policy, home stocking of antimalarials, home-treatment practices of children younger than 5

Jaran Eriksen; Stephen E. D. Nsimba; Omary M. S. Minzi; Anku J. Sanga; Max Petzold; Lars L. Gustafsson; Marian Y. Warsame; Goran Tomson

2005-01-01

170

The identification, diversity and prevalence of trypanosomes in field caught tsetse in Tanzania using ITS-1 primers and  

E-print Network

to identify the trypanosome species carried by individual tsetse flies. The first method is basedThe identification, diversity and prevalence of trypanosomes in field caught tsetse in Tanzania School of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4PS, UK c Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis

Tyler, Charles

171

Anemia in pregnancy in rural Tanzania: associations with micronutrients status and infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We studied the association between anemia in pregnancy and characteristics related to nutrition and infections.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Four antenatal clinics in rural northern Tanzania.Subjects\\/methods: A total of 2547 women were screened for hemoglobin (Hb) and malaria plasmodia in capillary blood and for infections in urine. According to their Hb, they were assigned to one of five groups and selected

SG Hinderaker; BE Olsen; RT Lie; PB Bergsjø; P Gasheka; GT Bondevik; R Ulvik; G Kvåle

2002-01-01

172

Estimating numbers of blind children for planning services: findings in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:Childhood blindness is included in the VISION 2020 initiative. However, childhood blindness is rare, so there is limited population-based evidence to assist with the planning of services. We carried out a survey of childhood blindness in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, to generate information needed for planning eye care services.Methods:The study was carried out in parallel with a Rapid Assessment of Avoidable

S Shirima; S Lewallen; G Kabona; C Habiyakare; P Massae; P Courtright

2009-01-01

173

Lipid-soluble vitamins A, D, and E in HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:There is limited published research examining lipid-soluble vitamins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women, particularly in resource-limited settings.Subjects\\/Methods:This is an observational analysis of 1078 HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a trial of vitamin supplementation in Tanzania. Baseline data on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory parameters were used to identify correlates of low plasma vitamin

S Mehta; D Spiegelman; S Aboud; E L Giovannucci; G I Msamanga; E Hertzmark; F M Mugusi; D J Hunter; W W Fawzi

2010-01-01

174

Scale reliability and construct validity: a pilot study among primary school children in Northern Tanzania.  

PubMed

Based on the World Health Organization's standardized survey inventories assessing AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) for adolescents, a written questionnaire was developed and pilot tested among primary school children in Northern Tanzania. Subjects included 472 fifth and sixth graders at four schools in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions. Results indicated that the large majority of the students understood the questions and were able and willing to complete the survey. Non-response patterns did not seem to be related to the sensitivity of included questions. AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes toward engaging in sexual behavior had acceptable reliability and construct validity when compared with similar surveys in Western countries, while perceived social norms and self-efficacy need further development. KABP questionnaires may serve as a useful method in AIDS-related surveys and evaluation studies among school children in Tanzania if survey instruments are adapted to reflect the local social and cultural context. PMID:7702963

Seha, A M; Klepp, K I; Ndeki, S S

1994-12-01

175

A Randomized Trial of Multivitamin Supplements and HIV Disease Progression and Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Results from observational studies suggest that micronutrient status is a determinant of the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. methods We enrolled 1078 pregnant women infected with HIV in a double-blind, placebo-con- trolled trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to examine the effects of daily supplements of vitamin A (preformed vitamin A and beta carotene), multivitamins (vitamins B,

Wafaie W. Fawzi; Gernard I. Msamanga; Donna Spiegelman; Ruilan Wei; Saidi Kapiga; Eduardo Villamor; Davis Mwakagile; Ferdinand Mugusi; Ellen Hertzmark; Max Essex; David J. Hunter

2004-01-01

176

Post-Circumcision Urethro-Cutaneous Fistula: The Key to Successful Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Routine circumcision of boys is a common practice in Tanzania. Because sometimes it is performed by persons with no surgical training, complications, including urethro-cutaneous fistula (UCF), are not uncommon. Methods: Five boys whose ages ranged between 4 and 12 years with UCF were seen at four Dar es Salaam hospitals between 2002 and 2005. Personal particulars, the personnel doing

C. A. Mkony; M. Aboud

177

Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe: Service Delivery Intensity and Modality and Their Influence on the Age of Clients  

PubMed Central

Background Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to 80% of men aged 15–49 within five years could avert 3.4 million new HIV infections in Eastern and Southern Africa by 2025. Since 2009, Tanzania and Zimbabwe have rapidly expanded VMMC services through different delivery (fixed, outreach or mobile) and intensity (routine services, campaign) models. This review describes the modality and intensity of VMMC services and its influence on the number and age of clients. Methods and Findings Program reviews were conducted using data from implementing partners in Tanzania (MCHIP) and Zimbabwe (PSI). Key informant interviews (N?=?13 Tanzania; N?=?8 Zimbabwe) were conducted; transcripts were analyzed using Nvivo. Routine VMMC service data for May 2009–December 2012 were analyzed and presented in frequency tables. A descriptive analysis and association was performed using the z-ratio for the significance of the difference. Key informants in both Tanzania and Zimbabwe believe VMMC scale-up can be achieved by using a mix of service delivery modality and intensity approaches. In Tanzania, the majority of clients served during campaigns (59%) were aged 10–14 years while the majority during routine service delivery (64%) were above 15 (p<0.0001). In Zimbabwe, significantly more VMMCs were done during campaigns (64%) than during routine service delivery (36%) (p<0.00001); the difference in the age of clients accessing services in campaign versus non-campaign settings was significant for age groups 10–24 (p<0.05), but not for older groups. Conclusions In Tanzania and Zimbabwe, service delivery modalities and intensities affect client profiles in conjunction with other contextual factors such as implementing campaigns during school holidays in Zimbabwe and cultural preference for circumcision at a young age in Tanzania. Formative research needs to be an integral part of VMMC programs to guide the design of service delivery modalities in the face of, or lack of, strong social norms. PMID:24801882

Ashengo, Tigistu Adamu; Hatzold, Karin; Mahler, Hally; Rock, Amelia; Kanagat, Natasha; Magalona, Sophia; Curran, Kelly; Christensen, Alice; Castor, Delivette; Mugurungi, Owen; Dhlamini, Roy; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

178

Estimated direct economic costs associated with tick-borne diseases on cattle in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Tick-borne diseases, namely, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theileriosis, constrain cattle production and improvement in Tanzania, leading to considerable economic losses. A simple spreadsheet model was used to estimate the economic losses resulting from production losses, treatment and control costs associated with tick-borne diseases (TBD) in Tanzania. Model parameters included the national cattle population, reported TBD morbidity, fatality risk, and chemotherapy and control measures used. The total annual national loss due TBD was estimated to be 364 million USD, including an estimated mortality of 1.3 million cattle. Theileriosis accounted for 68% of the total loss, while anaplasmosis and babesiosis each accounted for 13% and cowdriosis accounted for 6% of the total loss. Costs associated with mortality, chemotherapy and acaricide application accounted for 49%, 21% and 14% of the total estimated annual TBD losses, respectively, infection and treatment method milk loss and weight loss accounted for 1%, 6% and 9% of the total annual loss, respectively. Despite the inadequacies of the data used, the results give evidence that tick-borne diseases inflict substantial economic losses on cattle production and resource use in Tanzania. PMID:17137131

Kivaria, F M

2006-05-01

179

Structure and performance of infectious disease surveillance and response, United Republic of Tanzania, 1998.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the structure and performance of and support for five infectious disease surveillance systems in the United Republic of Tanzania: Health Management Information System (HMIS); Infectious Disease Week Ending; Tuberculosis/Leprosy; Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; and Acute Flaccid Paralysis/Poliomyelitis. METHODS: The systems were assessed by analysing the core activities of surveillance and response and support functions (provision of training, supervision, and resources). Data were collected using questionnaires that involved both interviews and observations at regional, district, and health facility levels in three of the 20 regions in the United Republic of Tanzania. FINDINGS: An HMIS was found at 26 of 32 health facilities (81%) surveyed and at all 14 regional and district medical offices. The four other surveillance systems were found at <20% of health facilities and <75% of medical offices. Standardized case definitions were used for only 3 of 21 infectious diseases. Nineteen (73%) health facilities with HMIS had adequate supplies of forms; 9 (35%) reported on time; and 11 (42%) received supervision or feedback. Four (29%) medical offices with HMIS had population denominators to use for data analyses; 12 (86%) were involved in outbreak investigations; and 11 (79%) had conducted community prevention activities. CONCLUSION: While HMIS could serve as the backbone for IDSR in the United Republic of Tanzania, this will require supervision, standardized case definitions, and improvements in the quality of reporting, analysis, and feedback. PMID:11984605

Nsubuga, Peter; Eseko, Nicholas; Tadesse, Wuhib; Ndayimirije, Nestor; Stella, Chungong; McNabb, Scott

2002-01-01

180

The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania should therefore maintain its commitment to encouraging women to space their births at least two years apart and delay childbearing beyond the teenage years. Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies. Whilst lack of socioeconomic differentials can be considered an achievement of government policies, mortality remains high so there is still a long way to go before Tanzania achieves its stated goal of 'Health for All'. PMID:10154361

Mturi, A J; Curtis, S L

1995-12-01

181

Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Initiatives in Tanzania and Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.

Jeffery, Bill; Parthesius, Robert

2013-06-01

182

The economic costs of malaria in children in three sub-Saharan countries: Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria causes significant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), especially among children less than five years of age (U5 children). Although the economic burden of malaria in this region has been assessed previously, the extent and variation of this burden remains unclear. This study aimed to estimate the economic costs of malaria in U5 children in three countries (Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya). Methods Health system and household costs previously estimated were integrated with costs associated with co-morbidities, complications and productivity losses due to death. Several models were developed to estimate the expected treatment cost per episode per child, across different age groups, by level of severity and with or without controlling for treatment-seeking behaviour. Total annual costs (2009) were calculated by multiplying the treatment cost per episode according to severity by the number of episodes. Annual health system prevention costs were added to this estimate. Results Household and health system costs per malaria episode ranged from approximately US$ 5 for non-complicated malaria in Tanzania to US$ 288 for cerebral malaria with neurological sequelae in Kenya. On average, up to 55% of these costs in Ghana and Tanzania and 70% in Kenya were assumed by the household, and of these costs 46% in Ghana and 85% in Tanzania and Kenya were indirect costs. Expected values of potential future earnings (in thousands) lost due to premature death of children aged 0–1 and 1–4 years were US$ 11.8 and US$ 13.8 in Ghana, US$ 6.9 and US$ 8.1 in Tanzania, and US$ 7.6 and US$ 8.9 in Kenya, respectively. The expected treatment costs per episode per child ranged from a minimum of US$ 1.29 for children aged 2–11 months in Tanzania to a maximum of US$ 22.9 for children aged 0–24 months in Kenya. The total annual costs (in millions) were estimated at US$ 37.8, US$ 131.9 and US$ 109.0 nationwide in Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya and included average treatment costs per case of US$ 11.99, US$ 6.79 and US$ 20.54, respectively. Conclusion This study provides important insight into the economic burden of malaria in SSA that may assist policy makers when designing future malaria control interventions. PMID:24004482

2013-01-01

183

Productivity analysis and technology adoption for livestock in Tanzania  

E-print Network

2 and 1 had the least. The dry zone 3 was the second most commercialized. To determine milk productivity, an assumption was made that each cow in the herd produced 570 litres per annum at a price of Tsh. 1. 00/litre. Iqilk productivity per head.... Gross Domestic Product per Capita, Tanzania; by Region, Selected Year (Tsh at Current Prices). . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 2. Projected Nutrient Consumption, Recommended Consumption, and Nutrient Deficit, Tanzania 1972, 1975 and 1980...

Njukia, James Wambugu

2012-06-07

184

Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Tanzania; 1930 to 2007  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like disease was first reported in Tanzania more than eight decades ago and the last large outbreak of the disease occurred in 2006–07. This study investigates the spatial and temporal pattern of RVF outbreaks in Tanzania over the past 80 years in order to guide prevention and control strategies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out based on disease reporting data from Tanzania at district or village level. The data were sourced from the Ministries responsible for livestock and human health, Tanzania Meteorological Agency and research institutions involved in RVF surveillance and diagnosis. The spatial distribution of outbreaks was mapped using ArcGIS 10. The space-time permutation model was applied to identify clusters of cases, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of outbreaks in the district. Principal Findings RVF outbreaks were reported between December and June in 1930, 1947, 1957, 1960, 1963, 1968, 1977–79, 1989, 1997–98 and 2006–07 in 39.2% of the districts in Tanzania. There was statistically significant spatio-temporal clustering of outbreaks. RVF occurrence was associated with the eastern Rift Valley ecosystem (OR?=?6.14, CI: 1.96, 19.28), total amount of rainfall of >405.4 mm (OR?=?12.36, CI: 3.06, 49.88), soil texture (clay [OR?=?8.76, CI: 2.52, 30.50], and loam [OR?=?8.79, CI: 2.04, 37.82]). Conclusion/Significance RVF outbreaks were found to be distributed heterogeneously and transmission dynamics appeared to vary between areas. The sequence of outbreak waves, continuously cover more parts of the country. Whenever infection has been introduced into an area, it is likely to be involved in future outbreaks. The cases were more likely to be reported from the eastern Rift Valley than from the western Rift Valley ecosystem and from areas with clay and loam rather than sandy soil texture. PMID:24586433

Sindato, Calvin; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kivaria, Fredrick; Dautu, George; Bernard, Bett; Paweska, Janusz T.

2014-01-01

185

Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance  

PubMed Central

Population genetic structures of the two major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, differ markedly across Sub-Saharan Africa, which could reflect differences in historical demographies or in contemporary gene flow. Elucidation of the degree and cause of population structure is important for predicting the spread of genetic traits such as insecticide resistance genes or artificially engineered genes. Here the population genetics of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in the central, eastern and island regions of Tanzania were compared. Microsatellite markers were screened in 33 collections of female An. gambiae s.l., originating from 22 geographical locations, four of which were sampled in two or three years between 2008 and 2010. An. gambiae were sampled from six sites, An. arabiensis from 14 sites, and both species from two sites, with an additional colonised insectary sample of each species. Frequencies of the knock-down resistance (kdr) alleles 1014S and 1014F were also determined. An. gambiae exhibited relatively high genetic differentiation (average pairwise FST?=?0.131), significant even between nearby samples, but without clear geographical patterning. In contrast, An. arabiensis exhibited limited differentiation (average FST?=?0.015), but strong isolation-by-distance (Mantel test r?=?0.46, p?=?0.0008). Most time-series samples of An. arabiensis were homogeneous, suggesting general temporal stability of the genetic structure. An. gambiae populations from Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo were found to have high frequencies of kdr 1014S (around 70%), with almost 50% homozygote but was at much lower frequency on Unguja Island, with no. An. gambiae population genetic differentiation was consistent with an island model of genetic structuring with highly restricted gene flow, contrary to An. arabiensis which was consistent with a stepping-stone model of extensive, but geographically-restricted gene flow. PMID:25353688

Maliti, Deodatus; Ranson, Hilary; Magesa, Stephen; Kisinza, William; Mcha, Juma; Haji, Khamis; Killeen, Gerald; Weetman, David

2014-01-01

186

Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

2013-01-01

187

Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged.\\u000a Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants\\u000a of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health\\u000a workers' antenatal care practices with

Karin Gross; Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg; Flora Kessy; Constanze Pfeiffer; Brigit Obrist

2011-01-01

188

Effect of large-scale social marketing of insecticide-treated nets on child survival in rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Insecticide-treated nets have proven efficacy as a malaria-control tool in Africa. However, the transition from efficacy to effectiveness cannot be taken for granted. We assessed coverage and the effect on child survival of a large- scale social marketing programme for insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of southern Tanzania with high perennial malaria transmission. Methods Socially marketed insecticide-treated

Joanna RM Armstrong Schellenberg; Salim Abdulla; Rose Nathan; Oscar Mukasa; Tanya J Marchant; Nassor Kikumbih; Adiel K Mushi; Haji Mponda; Happiness Minja; Hassan Mshinda; Marcel Tanner; Christian Lengeler

2001-01-01

189

Maternal oral health status and preterm low birth weight at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study examined the relationship between oral health status (periodontal disease and carious pulpal exposure (CPE)) and preterm low-birth-weight (PTLBW) infant deliveries among Tanzanian-African mothers at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Tanzania. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted, involving 373 postpartum mothers aged 14–44 years (PTLBW – 150 cases) and at term normal-birth-weight (TNBW) – 223 controls), using structured

Elifuraha GS Mumghamba; Karim P Manji

2007-01-01

190

The silent HIV epidemic among pregnant women within rural Northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many national antenatal clinics (ANC) based HIV surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa have limited coverage of remote\\u000a rural sites, a weakness that compromises adequate estimation, monitoring and development of effective preventive and care\\u000a programmes. To address this void in rural Manyara and Singida within Northern Tanzania, we conducted antenatal clinic-based\\u000a sentinel surveillance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We consecutively enrolled 1377 counselled and consenting pregnant

Khadija I Yahya-Malima; Bjørg E Olsen; Mecky I Matee; Knut Fylkesnes

2006-01-01

191

Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a\\u000a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community\\u000a and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner\\u000a violence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A qualitative study

Rose M Laisser; Lennarth Nyström; Helen I Lugina; Maria Emmelin

2011-01-01

192

Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.  

PubMed Central

A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7704932

Stephens, C.; Masamu, E. T.; Kiama, M. G.; Keto, A. J.; Kinenekejo, M.; Ichimori, K.; Lines, J.

1995-01-01

193

Observation-centered approach to ASD assessment in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Abstract In many lower-income countries, there is a paucity of assessment services for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)., Guidelines will be provided for conducting cross-cultural assessments in the context of limited validated resources in Tanzania. By examining behavioral, social, and adaptive differences we were able to provide differential diagnostic evaluations aligning with best practice standards for 41 children in Tanzania age 2-21 years. We describe the utility of a flexible, behavioral observation instrument, the Childhood Autism Rating Scales, Second Edition (CARS2), to gather diagnostic information in a culturally sensitive manner. We observed that the ASD group was characterized by significantly higher scores on the CARS2, F ?=? 21.09, p < .001, ?(2) ?=? .37, than the general delay comparison group. Additional recommendations are provided for making cultural adaptations to current assessment instruments for use in a country without normed instruments, such as Tanzania. PMID:25247726

Harrison, Ashley J; Zimak, Eric H; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Manji, Karim P; Morrow, Eric M

2014-10-01

194

The Archaeology and Early Peoples of the Highlands of Kenya and Northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dr. Sutton is now a Lecturer at University College, Dar es Salaam, and was formerly a Research Student of the Institute, when he carried out extensive field-work mainly in the western highlands of Kenya. In this important article, based largely on that work, he reviews our knowledge of the Late Stone Age, Iron Age, and histories of the peoples of

J. E. G. Sutton

1966-01-01

195

Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation  

PubMed Central

Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP) and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8) of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0) in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4), n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s) to 12.3% (2004). The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215) ?g/L. Only 25% of children had UIC <100 ?g/L and 35% were ? 300 ?g/L, indicating low and excess iodine intake, respectively. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive. Particular attention is needed in improving quality control at production level and perhaps the national salt iodation regulations may need to be reviewed. PMID:19728863

Assey, Vincent D; Peterson, Stefan; Kimboka, Sabas; Ngemera, Daniel; Mgoba, Celestin; Ruhiye, Deusdedit M; Ndossi, Godwin D; Greiner, Ted; Tylleskär, Thorkild

2009-01-01

196

Obesity as a public health problem among adult women in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: For many developing countries, obesity and its sequelae have become a challenge of a magnitude similar to hunger and undernutrition. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the weight status of women in rural Tanzania with reference to season as well as the link between women's weight, food consumption, and attitudes toward obesity. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys in 3 different seasons within 1 year interviewed the same 210 women, ages 17–45 years, from 3 rural districts of northeastern and central Tanzania. These surveys assessed body mass index (BMI), food intake, and dietary diversity through 24-hour recalls, women's attitudes toward obesity, vegetable production, and socioeconomic status. Results: Although 71% of the women had a normal BMI, 7% were underweight, 16% overweight, and 6% obese. The BMI was correlated with the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), the Food Variety Score (FVS), with the consumption of foods from the food groups “bread/cakes,” “sugar,” and “tea,” and with the production of exotic vegetables. In a multiple regression model, FVS was directly associated with BMI. When asked to describe the typical characteristics of an obese person, women mentioned more negative than positive characteristics. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 3 times higher than that of underweight. Apparently, even in rural areas of Tanzania, a nutrition transition is underway. No direct association was identified between vegetable consumption and BMI. Although this study did not assess behavioral factors, such behavioral factors as activity levels as well as attitudes need to be considered, even in rural settings, to address all facets of malnutrition. PMID:25276549

Keding, Gudrun B; Msuya, John M; Maass, Brigitte L; Krawinkel, Michael B

2013-01-01

197

Ending open defecation in rural Tanzania: which factors facilitate latrine adoption?  

PubMed

Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households' sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95-11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063-0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

2014-09-01

198

Sources of community health worker motivation: a qualitative study in Morogoro Region, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background There is a renewed interest in community health workers (CHWs) in Tanzania, but also a concern that low motivation of CHWs may decrease the benefits of investments in CHW programs. This study aimed to explore sources of CHW motivation to inform programs in Tanzania and similar contexts. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 CHWs in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded prior to translation and thematic analysis. The authors then conducted a literature review on CHW motivation and a framework that aligned with our findings was modified to guide the presentation of results. Results Sources of CHW motivation were identified at the individual, family, community, and organizational levels. At the individual level, CHWs are predisposed to volunteer work and apply knowledge gained to their own problems and those of their families and communities. Families and communities supplement other sources of motivation by providing moral, financial, and material support, including service fees, supplies, money for transportation, and help with farm work and CHW tasks. Resistance to CHW work exhibited by families and community members is limited. The organizational level (the government and its development partners) provides motivation in the form of stipends, potential employment, materials, training, and supervision, but inadequate remuneration and supplies discourage CHWs. Supervision can also be dis-incentivizing if perceived as a sign of poor performance. Conclusions Tanzanian CHWs who work despite not receiving a salary have an intrinsic desire to volunteer, and their motivation often derives from support received from their families when other sources of motivation are insufficient. Policy-makers and program managers should consider the burden that a lack of remuneration imposes on the families of CHWs. In addition, CHWs’ intrinsic desire to volunteer does not preclude a desire for external rewards. Rather, adequate and formal financial incentives and in-kind alternatives would allow already-motivated CHWs to increase their commitment to their work. PMID:24112292

2013-01-01

199

Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption?  

PubMed Central

Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

2014-01-01

200

Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms, decentralisation and emerging democratic sentiments. Such a historic contextualisation enhances our understanding of the strong sentiments of unfairness revealed in this study and assists us in considering potential ways forward. PMID:21314985

2011-01-01

201

Estimating Leptospirosis Incidence Using Hospital-Based Surveillance and a Population-Based Health Care Utilization Survey in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of leptospirosis, a neglected zoonotic disease, is uncertain in Tanzania and much of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in scarce data on which to prioritize resources for public health interventions and disease control. In this study, we estimate the incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a population-based household health care utilization survey in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania and identified leptospirosis cases at two hospital-based fever sentinel surveillance sites in the Kilimanjaro Region. We used multipliers derived from the health care utilization survey and case numbers from hospital-based surveillance to calculate the incidence of leptospirosis. A total of 810 households were enrolled in the health care utilization survey and multipliers were derived based on responses to questions about health care seeking in the event of febrile illness. Of patients enrolled in fever surveillance over a 1 year period and residing in the 2 districts, 42 (7.14%) of 588 met the case definition for confirmed or probable leptospirosis. After applying multipliers to account for hospital selection, test sensitivity, and study enrollment, we estimated the overall incidence of leptospirosis ranges from 75–102 cases per 100,000 persons annually. Conclusions/Significance We calculated a high incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, where leptospirosis incidence was previously unknown. Multiplier methods, such as used in this study, may be a feasible method of improving availability of incidence estimates for neglected diseases, such as leptospirosis, in resource constrained settings. PMID:24340122

Biggs, Holly M.; Hertz, Julian T.; Munishi, O. Michael; Galloway, Renee L.; Marks, Florian; Saganda, Wilbrod; Maro, Venance P.; Crump, John A.

2013-01-01

202

Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Wooste?s scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over smaller fires with fewer observations yields unstable results due to undersampling issues and uncertainty in the start and end time of the fire events. Options for mitigating these issues using ancillary data such as fire weather information are discussed.

Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

2013-04-01

203

Surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine associated Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 gene polymorphisms in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance to anti-malarials is a major public health problem worldwide. After deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) there have been reports of reduced sensitivity to ACT by malaria parasites in South-East Asia. In Tanzania, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) is the recommended first-line drug in treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study surveyed the distribution of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased parasite tolerance to ALu, in Tanzania. Methods A total of 687 Plasmodium falciparum positive dried blood spots on filter paper and rapid diagnostic test strips collected by finger pricks from patients attending health facilities in six regions of Tanzania mainland between June 2010 and August 2011 were used. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to detect Pfmdr1 SNPs N86Y, Y184F and D1246Y. Results There were variations in the distribution of Pfmdr1 polymorphisms among regions. Tanga region had exceptionally high prevalence of mutant alleles, while Mbeya had the highest prevalence of wild type alleles. The haplotype YFY was exclusively most prevalent in Tanga (29.6%) whereas the NYD haplotype was the most prevalent in all other regions. Excluding Tanga and Mbeya, four, most common Pfmdr1 haplotypes did not vary between the remaining four regions (?2 =?2.3, p =?0.512). The NFD haplotype was the second most prevalent haplotype in all regions, ranging from 17% - 26%. Conclusion This is the first country-wide survey on Pfmdr1 mutations associated with ACT resistance. Distribution of individual Pfmdr1 mutations at codons 86, 184 and 1246 varies throughout Tanzanian regions. There is a general homogeneity in distribution of common Pfmdr1 haplotypes reflecting strict implementation of ALu policy in Tanzania with overall prevalence of NFD haplotype ranging from 17 to 26% among other haplotypes. With continuation of ALu as first-line drug this haplotype is expected to keep rising, thus there is need for continued pharmacovigilance studies to monitor any delayed parasite clearance by the drug. PMID:25007802

2014-01-01

204

Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23256530

2012-01-01

205

Nature, extent and implications of belief in Kikombe cha babu and other herbal HIV cures in Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study's objective was to describe awareness of, access to, belief in, and utilization of the healing tea Kikombe cha babu and other alternative treatments for HIV in Tanzania. Associations with HIV testing, treatment, and prevention behaviors are also explored. A survey with questions about alternative medicine was administered to a sample in Tanzania using a stratified, multistage random selection method. Adults were interviewed face-to-face. Items concerning alternative HIV treatments addressed awareness, access, beliefs, and treatment-seeking behaviors. Questions about HIV prevention and treatment were also asked. Results showed participants indicated a high awareness of alternative treatments available in Tanzania, with 95.3% of 2313 adults having heard of these treatments. Of those, 6.0% had actually sought the treatment, and 46.8% had an acquaintance seek it. However, 81.0% indicated these treatments were not easily accessible. There is a high level of belief in the ability of these alternative treatments to cure HIV, with 44.0% of people who had heard of these treatments indicating they believe such treatments can cure HIV. Additionally, many people indicated having these alternative treatments available would result in decreased condom use (15.6%), no need to use condoms (94.9%), and no need to take antiretroviral therapy (81.7%). However, 57.4% indicated they would be more likely to get tested for HIV if alternative treatments were available. Belief in the ability of alternative treatments to cure HIV in Tanzania is high and should be further explored due to its implications for potentially sidelining HIV prevention and treatment initiatives. PMID:25024091

Kaufman, Michelle R; Ioerger, Michael; Harman, Jennifer J; Modarres, Najmeh

2014-12-01

206

Health worker motivation in the context of HIV care and treatment challenges in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. The HIV pandemic has placed additional strain on health service provision through the extra burden of increased testing and counselling, treating opportunistic infections and providing antiretroviral treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the challenges generated by HIV care and treatment and their impact on health worker motivation in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with health workers across the range of health care professions in health facilities in two high HIV-prevalence districts of Mbeya Region, Tanzania. A qualitative framework analysis was adopted for data analysis. Results The negative impact of HIV-related challenges on health worker motivation was confirmed by this study. Training seminars and workshops related to HIV contributed to the shortage of health workers in the facilities. Lower status workers were frequently excluded from training and were more severely affected by the consequent increase in workload as seminars were usually attended by higher status professionals who controlled access. Constant and consistent complaints by clients have undermined health workers' expectations of trust and recognition. Health workers were forced to take responsibility for dealing with problems arising from organisational inefficiencies within the health system. Conclusion HIV-related challenges undermine motivation among health workers in Mbeya, Tanzania with the burden falling most heavily on lower status workers. Strained relations between health workers and the community they serve, further undermine motivation of health workers. PMID:21992700

2011-01-01

207

Costs of Inaction on Maternal Mortality: Qualitative Evidence of the Impacts of Maternal Deaths on Living Children in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the interconnectedness of maternal deaths and impacts on children, beyond infants, or the mechanisms through which this interconnectedness is established. A study was conducted in rural Tanzania to provide qualitative insight regarding how maternal mortality affects index as well as other living children and to identify shared structural and social factors that foster high levels of maternal mortality and child vulnerabilities. Methods and Findings Adult family members of women who died due to maternal causes (N?=?45) and key stakeholders (N?=?35) participated in in-depth interviews. Twelve focus group discussions were also conducted (N?=?83) among community leaders in three rural regions of Tanzania. Findings highlight the widespread impact of a woman’s death on her children’s health, education, and economic status, and, by inference, the roles that women play within their families in rural Tanzanian communities. Conclusions The full costs of failing to address preventable maternal mortality include intergenerational impacts on the nutritional status, health, and education of children, as well as the economic capacity of families. When setting priorities in a resource-poor, high maternal mortality country, such as Tanzania, the far-reaching effects that reducing maternal deaths can have on families and communities, as well as women’s own lives, should be considered. PMID:23990971

Yamin, Alicia Ely; Boulanger, Vanessa M.; Falb, Kathryn L.; Shuma, Jane; Leaning, Jennifer

2013-01-01

208

High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity. PMID:23347529

Dill, Tatjana; Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Elias; Machibya, Harun; Maboko, Leonard; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael

2013-01-01

209

Impact Assessment of a Disease Vaccination Project in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the socioeconomic impact of the Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Control Research Project, a chicken vaccination project designed by the GL-CRSP Avian Flu School (AFS), on villagers and households in rural Iringa, Tanzania. Findings showed that households in project villages kept significantly more chickens than households in control villages, however, there was

Danielle Knueppel

210

General Characteristics of Temperature and Humidity Variability on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  

E-print Network

General Characteristics of Temperature and Humidity Variability on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania W. J from loggers ranging in elevation from 1890 to 5800 m a.s.l. up the southwestern slope of Kilimanjaro the gradient and the snow-ice line enhancing it. On average, moisture availability (both relative humidity

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

211

The status of wind energy development in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy development in Tanzania started about 3 decades ago when some windmills were installed at several locations in the country to pump water for human and animal consumption and in a few cases for irrigation. There were some attempts to manufacture the windmills locally but these were never successful. In 1980 there were some attempts to generate electricity from

R. R. M. Kainkwa

2002-01-01

212

Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines farmers’ livelihood responses and vulnerability to climate variability and other stressors in Morogoro, Tanzania, to understand their implications for adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in developing world more generally. In Morogoro, agricultural households have extended cultivation, intensified agriculture, diversified livelihoods and migrated to gain access to land, markets and employment as a response to climatic

Jouni Paavola

2008-01-01

213

School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

2012-01-01

214

Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…

Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant

2012-01-01

215

Geochemical characteristics of bitumens and seeps from Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of bitumen extracts from prospective source rocks and oil seeps of potential oil-producing areas in Tanzania have been characterized by a variety of geochemical techniques. The data obtained from this study have provided additional insight into the source rock potential of these areas. However, in this paper it is proposed to discuss in detail the results from two

F. Mpanju; P. Philp

1991-01-01

216

Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of climate change for agriculture and food security in developing countries are of serious concern. Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are generally considered to be most vulnerable to climate change. Here, we estimate the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate

Channing Arndt; Ken Strzepek; James Thurlow

2011-01-01

217

Child Sexual Abuse: Community Concerns in Urban Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of hopelessness, "lack of…

Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

2011-01-01

218

Investigating Motivations for Women's Skin Bleaching in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…

Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol

2011-01-01

219

Returns to smallholder dairying in the Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanzania is a net importer of dairy products despite its large cattle herd and successive government efforts to promote dairying. This paper draws on survey data to examine the financial attractiveness of dairying to smallholders in an area of high dairy potential on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro. On mixed farms in which coffee and bananas are the other main

Ntengua Mdoe; Steve Wiggins

1997-01-01

220

Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

Johnson, Megan Patricia

2011-01-01

221

The Control of Rinderpest in Tanzania between 1997 and 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 1997, Tanzania requested international assistance against rinderpest on the grounds that the virus had probably entered the country from southern Kenya. Over the next few months, a variety of attempts were made to determine the extent of the incursion by searching for serological and clinical evidence of the whereabouts of the virus. At the clinical level, these attempts

W. P. Taylor; P. L. Roeder; M. M. Rweyemamu; J. N. Melewas; P. Majuva; R. T. Kimaro; J. N. Mollel; B. J. Mtei; P. Wambura; J. Anderson; P. B. Rossiter; R. Kock; T. Melengeya; R. Van den Ende

2002-01-01

222

Financial Crisis, Structural Adjustment, and Education Policy in Tanzania. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses educational planning in Tanzania as moving from one of hope to despair as the country becomes more reliant upon foreign aid. As the country moved from colonialism, basic education was to be accessible to all children and adult illiteracy was to be eliminated. By the 1980s financial crisis and the conditions that accompanied…

Samoff, Joel; Sumra, Suleman

223

Is Tanzania a Success Story? A Long Term Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the reform process initiated in Tanzania in 1986, and deepened in 1996. In order to do this I concentrate mostly on the period spanning from 1967, when the Arusha Declaration was adopted by the official political party the TANU, and 1996, when a new approach towards foreign aid

Sebastian Edwards

2012-01-01

224

Appetite Sensations in Pregnancy among Agropastoral Women in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women all over the globe report physical and appetite sensations in early pregnancy, and this study contributes to this growing literature by reporting on the appetite sensations experienced by pregnant women from rural Tanzania. Appetite changes associated with 545 pregnancies were compiled from surveys conducted to report on the prevalence of appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, joint pain, cravings, aversions,

Crystal L. Patil

2012-01-01

225

Successful Community Nutrition Programming: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on the key findings from a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000. The aim of the assessments was to identify key lessons learned from the successful processes and outcomes in these programs. The report is divided into eight chapters: (1)…

Iannotti, Lora; Gillespie, Stuart

226

The Past, Present and Future of Domestic Equines in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Equines are minor species in Tanzania’s array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

WILSON, R. Trevor

2013-01-01

227

Parasitic Nematodes in the Chimpanzee Population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified 3 nematodes not previously reported in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) introduced on Rubondo Island, Tanzania: Protospirura muricola, Subulura sp., and Anatrichosoma sp. Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), rodents, and intermediate insect hosts might maintain Protospirura muricola and Subulura sp., and indigenous monkeys on the island might also maintain Anatrichosoma sp. Low prevalence of Subulura sp. and Anatrichosoma sp. suggests

Klara J. Petrzelkova; Hideo Hasegawa; Liza R. Moscovice; Taranjit Kaur; Mwanahamissi Issa; Michael A. Huffman

2006-01-01

228

Orphanhood, child fostering and the AIDS epidemic in rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AIDS epidemic has caused an increase in adult mortality and consequently an increase in the numbers of orphaned children. Data were used from the Kisesa Community Study in northwest Tanzania, to assess the prevalence and consequences of orphanhood in the context of existing child care practices in a rural area with moderately high HIV-prevalence. This study was carried out

Mark Urassaa; J. Ties; Yusufu Kumogolad

229

Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf ?13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific ?13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ?29 and ?33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ?29 and ?33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ?29 and ?33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and ?13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2013-12-01

230

Estimating human rabies mortality in the United Republic of Tanzania from dog bite injuries.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To make quantitative predictions about the magnitude of underreporting of human rabies deaths in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Human rabies deaths were estimated by using a series of probability steps to calculate the likelihood of rabies developing after the bite of a suspected rabid dog, incorporating field data on the incidence of animal bite injuries, the accuracy of rabies recognition, the distribution of bite wounds, and post-exposure treatment. FINDINGS: Predicted human rabies mortality was estimated to be (a) 1499 deaths per year (95% confidence interval 891-2238), equivalent to an annual incidence of 4.9 (2.9-7.2) deaths/100,000, when active surveillance data on bite incidence were used, and (b) 193 deaths per year (32-409), corresponding to an annual incidence of 0.62 (0.1-1.32) deaths/100,000, when national bite statistics were used. The annual mean number of rabies deaths officially recorded for the same period was 10.8 (7.7-14.0). CONCLUSION: In the United Republic of Tanzania, cases of rabies in humans have been greatly underreported. Dog bite injuries are an accessible source of epidemiological data that may be used to estimate the public health burden of rabies and to monitor epidemiological trends in developing countries. PMID:12075367

Cleaveland, Sarah; Fevre, Eric M.; Kaare, Magai; Coleman, Paul G.

2002-01-01

231

Distribution and spread of pyrethroid and DDT resistance among the Anopheles gambiae complex in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The development of insecticide resistance is a threat to the control of malaria in Africa. We report the findings of a national survey carried out in Tanzania in 2011 to monitor the susceptibility of malaria vectors to pyrethroid, organophosphate, carbamate and DDT insecticides, and compare these findings with those identified in 2004 and 2010. Standard World Health Organization (WHO) methods were used to detect knock-down and mortality rates in wild female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) collected from 14 sentinel districts. Diagnostic doses of the pyrethroids deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin, the carbamate propoxur, the organophosphate fenitrothion and the organochlorine DDT were used. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to permethrin in Muleba, where a mortality rate of 11% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6-19%] was recorded, Muheza (mortality rate of 75%, 95% CI 66-83%), Moshi and Arumeru (mortality rates of 74% in both). Similarly, resistance was reported to lambdacyhalothrin in Muleba, Muheza, Moshi and Arumeru (mortality rates of 31-82%), and to deltamethrin in Muleba, Moshi and Muheza (mortality rates of 28-75%). Resistance to DDT was reported in Muleba. No resistance to the carbamate propoxur or the organophosphate fenitrothion was observed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. is becoming resistant to pyrethoids and DDT in several parts of Tanzania. This has coincided with the scaling up of vector control measures. Resistance may impair the effectiveness of these interventions and therefore demands close monitoring and the adoption of a resistance management strategy. PMID:24192019

Kabula, B; Tungu, P; Malima, R; Rowland, M; Minja, J; Wililo, R; Ramsan, M; McElroy, P D; Kafuko, J; Kulkarni, M; Protopopoff, N; Magesa, S; Mosha, F; Kisinza, W

2014-09-01

232

Potential Climate Change Impacts on Direct Economic Values From Wildlife in the Kilombero Ramsar Site, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tanzania is one of the world’s leading nations in terms of wildlife conservation, with rich and diverse wildlife resources.\\u000a Game controlled areas in Tanzania are used for wildlife conservation and most of them were set aside when human populations\\u000a were low and global climate was stable. Under the climate change scenario realised for Tanzania for the next few decades,\\u000a a

Siima Bakengesa; Pantaleo Munishi; Stale Navrud

233

Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. PMID:23543222

Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

2014-05-01

234

Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.  

PubMed

This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania. PMID:23829829

Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

2013-01-01

235

Epidemiology and control of human schistosomiasis in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

In Tanzania, the first cases of schistosomiasis were reported in the early 19th century. Since then, various studies have reported prevalences of up to 100% in some areas. However, for many years, there have been no sustainable control programmes and systematic data from observational and control studies are very limited in the public domain. To cover that gap, the present article reviews the epidemiology, malacology, morbidity, and the milestones the country has made in efforts to control schistosomiasis and discusses future control approaches. The available evidence indicates that, both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are still highly endemic in Tanzania and cause significant morbidity.Mass drug administration using praziquantel, currently used as a key intervention measure, has not been successful in decreasing prevalence of infection. There is therefore an urgent need to revise the current approach for the successful control of the disease. Clearly, these need to be integrated control measures. PMID:23192005

2012-01-01

236

General Characteristics of Temperature and Humidity Variability on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hourly temperature and humidity observations were obtained over 16 months from loggers ranging in elevation from 1890 to 5800 m a.s.l. up the southwestern slope of Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. The vertical gradient in mean air temperature is non-linear, with the treeline weakening the gradient and the snow-ice line enhancing it. On average, moisture availability (both relative humidity and absolute vapor pressure)

W. J. Duane; N. C. Pepin; M. L. Losleben; D. R. Hardy

2008-01-01

237

Agrogeology in East Africa: the Tanzania-Canada project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fertilizer self sufficiency is a necessary prerequisite for food security in a nation. In promoting this, the role of the geologist is to find raw materials farmers can use to increase the productivity of their soils. The Tanzania-Canada agrogeology project is the first of its kind wherein geologists, soil scientist and agronomists are working together to find and test materiaks of a geological provenance, that small scale farmers can use to improve the food carrying capacity of their land.

Chesworth, W.; van Straaten, P.; Semoka, J. M. R.

238

Pesticide use among smallholder rice farmers in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an interview study conducted among smallholder rice farmers in Rufiji, Tanzania coastal mainland, and in Cheju, Zanzibar,\\u000a farmer’s pesticide use and risk awareness were assessed. The farmers generally lacked knowledge or possibilities to manage\\u000a the pesticides as prescribed by the manufacturers. Few farmers knew what kind of pesticides they were using and had never\\u000a seen the original packages, as

Nadja Stadlinger; Aviti J. Mmochi; Sonja Dobo; Emma Gyllbäck; Linda Kumblad

2011-01-01

239

Etiologies of Autism in a Case-series from Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most autism has a genetic cause although post-encephalitis cases are reported. In a case-series (N = 20) from Tanzania, 14 met research criteria for autism. Three (M:F = 1:2) had normal development to age 22, 35, and 42 months,\\u000a with onset of autism upon recovery from severe malaria, attended by prolonged high fever, convulsions, and in one case prolonged\\u000a loss of consciousness. In four other

Raymond E. Mankoski; Martha Collins; Noah K. Ndosi; Ella H. Mgalla; Veronica V. Sarwatt; Susan E. Folstein

2006-01-01

240

Democratising Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses work-in-progress on the ESRC-DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (www.sussex.ac.uk\\/education\\/wideningparticipation). This project is examining patterns of inclusion and exclusion in higher education in two African countries with a view to interrogating the role that universities play in poverty reduction and achievement of the Millennium Development

Louise Morley; Fiona Leach; Rosemary Lugg

241

Male Involvement in PMTCT Services in Mbeya Region, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout all stages of programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT), high dropout rates\\u000a are common. Increased male involvement and couples’ joint HIV counselling\\/testing during antenatal care (ANC) seem crucial\\u000a for improving PMTCT outcomes. Our study assessed male attitudes regarding partner involvement into ANC\\/PMTCT services in Mbeya\\u000a Region, Tanzania, conducting 124 individual interviews and six focus group discussions.

Stefanie Theuring; Paulina Mbezi; Hebel Luvanda; Brigitte Jordan-Harder; Andrea Kunz; Gundel Harms

2009-01-01

242

The past, present and future of domestic equines in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Equines are minor species in Tanzania's array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

Wilson, R Trevor

2013-01-01

243

Focal mechanisms and the stress regime in NE and SW Tanzania, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 12 new focal mechanisms from earthquakes in NE and SW Tanzania where the stress regime within the East African rift system is not well constrained. Focal mechanisms for events at the intersection of the Lake Tanganyika and Rukwa rifts in SW Tanzania indicate a complicated stress pattern with possible dextral strike-slip motion on some faults but oblique motion

Richard A. Brazier; Andrew A. Nyblade; Juliette Florentin

2005-01-01

244

Thermal remote sensing of the low-intensity carbonatite volcanism of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia contain a number of active and potentially hazardous volcanoes, none of them are routinely or continuously monitored. Of these, Tanzania's Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) has been active almost continuously over the past two decades (since 1983). Recent activity has been confined to small?scale effusive and explosive eruptions of natrocarbonatite within the summit crater, with lava flows

M. Kervyn; G. G. J. Ernst; A. J. L. Harris; F. Belton; E. Mbede; P. Jacobs

2008-01-01

245

Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through

Eliningaya J Kweka; Franklin Mosha; Asanterabi Lowassa; Aneth M Mahande; Jovin Kitau; Johnson Matowo; Michael J Mahande; Charles P Massenga; Filemoni Tenu; Emmanuel Feston; Ester E Lyatuu; Michael A Mboya; Rajabu Mndeme; Grace Chuwa; Emmanuel A Temu

2008-01-01

246

Implementing Educational Policies in Tanzania. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 86. Africa Technical Department Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the three East African British colonies (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania), Tanzania was the least well off at the time of independence in 1961. At that time, only 16,691 students were enrolled in secondary schools, and all general education at higher levels was provided outside the country. Thus, the goals of post-independence educational policy…

Galabawa, C. J.

247

Effect of electric power shedding on economic dispatch: Case study Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most developing countries' electric power supply generators are limited. Tanzania for example, electric power system operates a relatively small electricity utility dominated mainly by hydropower plants and thermal power plants running on fossil fuels (diesel and natural gas). The demand for electricity in Tanzania is however growing at a relatively fast rate. This growth rate has been achieved despite long

Anant Oonsivilai; Kenedy A. Greyson

2009-01-01

248

Improving motivation among primary health care workers in Tanzania: a health worker perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tanzania access to urban and rural primary health care is relatively widespread, yet there is evidence of considerable bypassing of services; questions have been raised about how to improve functionality. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of health workers working in the primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation

Rachel N Manongi; Tanya C Marchant; Ib Christian Bygbjerg

2006-01-01

249

Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC) remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC) in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania.

Yusufu Kumogola; Emma Slaymaker; Basia Zaba; Julius Mngara; Raphael Isingo; John Changalucha; Patrick Mwidunda; Daniel Kimaro; Mark Urassa

2010-01-01

250

Piloting the Global Subsidy: The Impact of Subsidized Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies Distributed through Private Drug Shops in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWHO estimates that only 3% of fever patients use recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), partly reflecting their high prices in the retail sector from where many patients seek treatment. To overcome this challenge, a global ACT subsidy has been proposed. We tested this proposal through a pilot program in rural Tanzania.Methods\\/Principal FindingsThree districts were assigned to serve either as a

Oliver J. Sabot; Alex Mwita; Justin M. Cohen; Yahya Ipuge; Megumi Gordon; David Bishop; Moses Odhiambo; Lorrayne Ward; Catherine Goodman; Laurent Rénia

2009-01-01

251

Incidence and Predictors of Adolescent’s Early Sexual Debut after Three Decades of HIV Interventions in Tanzania: A Time to Debut Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine the incidence and predictors of adolescent’s early sexual debut after three decades of HIV interventions in Tanzania.MethodsIn a cross-section study of adolescents aged 16–19 residing in Morogoro Municipality, information on socio-demographic, parental-and-peer communication, and sexual behaviors were collected. Cox-regression analysis was used to examine predictors of time to sexual debut.ResultsA total of 316 adolescents with mean age of

Elia John Mmbaga; Frida Leonard; Germana Henry Leyna

2012-01-01

252

Introduction of a portable ultrasound unit into the health services of the Lugufu refugee camp, Kigoma District, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Diagnostic imaging services are scarce in much of the developing world. Ultrasound is a low-cost, safe, and widely applicable\\u000a imaging modality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  We delivered a portable ultrasound machine to the Lugufu refugee camp in Tanzania and conducted a course on its use in order\\u000a to assess the feasibility of introducing this technology into a very low-resource setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted an intensive

David Adler; Katanga Mgalula; Daniel Price; Opal Taylor

2008-01-01

253

Using propensity score matching to estimate an "unbiased effect-size" between women's employment and partner violence in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Estimates of the effect of employment on women's risk of partner violence in cross-sectional studies are subject to potential "self-selection bias." Women's personal choice of whether to pursue employment or not may create fundamental differences between the group of women who are employed and those who are not employed that standard regression methods cannot account for even after adjusting for confounding. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of propensity score matching (PSM), a technique used widely in econometrics, to address this bias in cross-sectional studies. We use PSM to estimate an unbiased effect-size of women's employment on their risk of experiencing partner violence in urban and rural Tanzania using data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Three different measures of women's employment were analyzed: whether they had engaged in any productive work outside of the home in the past year, whether they received payment in cash for this productive work, and whether their employment was stable. Women who worked outside of the home were significantly different from those who did not. In both urban and rural Tanzania, women's risk of violence appears higher among women who worked in the past year than among those who did not, even after using PSM to account for underlying differences in these two groups of women. Being paid in cash reversed this effect in rural areas whereas stability of employment reduced this risk in urban centers. The estimated size of effect varied by type of matching estimator, but the direction of the association remained largely consistent. This study's findings suggest substantial self-selection into employment. PSM methods, by compensating for this bias, appear to be a useful tool for estimating the relationship between women's employment and partner violence in cross-sectional studies. PMID:24729130

Vyas, Seema; Heise, Lori

2014-11-01

254

Frequent Intra-Subtype Recombination among HIV-1 Circulating in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR) of 38 (28–50) sequences per subject). Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ?0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84%) subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60%) subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69%) to 36 (82%) over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:23940702

Kiwelu, Ireen E.; Novitsky, Vladimir; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Essex, M.

2013-01-01

255

Children's Medicines in Tanzania: A National Survey of Administration Practices and Preferences  

PubMed Central

Objective The dearth of age-appropriate formulations of many medicines for children poses a major challenge to pediatric therapeutic practice, adherence, and health care delivery worldwide. We provide information on current administration practices of pediatric medicines and describe key stakeholder preferences for new formulation characteristics. Patients and Methods We surveyed children aged 6–12 years, parents/caregivers over age 18 with children under age 12, and healthcare workers in 10 regions of Tanzania to determine current pediatric medicine prescription and administration practices as well as preferences for new formulations. Analyses were stratified by setting, pediatric age group, parent/caregiver education, and healthcare worker cadre. Results Complete data were available for 206 children, 202 parents/caregivers, and 202 healthcare workers. Swallowing oral solid dosage forms whole or crushing/dissolving them and mixing with water were the two most frequently reported methods of administration. Children frequently reported disliking medication taste, and many had vomited doses. Healthcare workers reported medicine availability most significantly influences prescribing practices. Most parents/caregivers and children prefer sweet-tasting medicine. Parents/caregivers and healthcare workers prefer oral liquid dosage forms for young children, and had similar thresholds for the maximum number of oral solid dosage forms children at different ages can take. Conclusions There are many impediments to acceptable and accurate administration of medicines to children. Current practices are associated with poor tolerability and the potential for under- or over-dosing. Children, parents/caregivers, and healthcare workers in Tanzania have clear preferences for tastes and formulations, which should inform the development, manufacturing, and marketing of pediatric medications for resource-limited settings. PMID:23484012

Adams, Lisa V.; Craig, Sienna R.; Mmbaga, Elia John; Naburi, Helga; Lahey, Timothy; Nutt, Cameron T.; Kisenge, Rodrick; Noel, Gary J.; Spielberg, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

256

The challenge to avoid anti-malarial medicine stock-outs in an era of funding partners: the case of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Between 2007 and 2013, the Tanzanian public sector received 93.1 million doses of first-line anti-malarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the form of artemether-lumefantrine entirely supplied by funding partners. The introduction of a health facility ACT stock monitoring system using SMS technology by the National Malaria Control Programme in mid 2011 revealed a high frequency of stock-outs of ACT in primary care public health facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of availability of ACT and possible causes of observed stock-outs across public health facilities in Tanzania since mid-2011. Methods Data were collected weekly by the mobile phone reporting tool SMS for Life on ACT availability from over 5,000 public health facilities in Tanzania starting from September 2011 to December 2012. Stock data for all four age-dose levels of ACT across health facilities were summarized and supply of ACT at the national level was also documented. Results Over the period of 15 months, on average 29% of health facilities in Tanzania were completely stocked out of all four-age dose levels of the first-line anti-malarial with a median duration of total stock-out of six weeks. Patterns of total stock-out by region ranged from a low of 9% to a high of 52%. The ACT stock-outs were most likely caused by: a) insufficient ACT supplies entering Tanzania (e.g. in 2012 Tanzania received 10.9 million ACT doses compared with a forecast demand of 14.4 million doses); and b) irregular pattern of ACT supply (several months with no ACT stock). Conclusion The reduced ACT availability and irregular pattern of supply were due to cumbersome bureaucratic processes and delays both within the country and from the main donor, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Tanzania should invest in strengthening both the supply system and the health information system using mHealth solutions such as SMS for Life. This will continue to assist in tracking ACT availability across the country where all partners work towards more streamlined, demand driven and accountable procurement and supply chain systems. PMID:24885420

2014-01-01

257

Comparing actual and perceived causes of fever among community members in a low malaria transmission setting in northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare actual and perceived causes of fever in northern Tanzania. Methods In a standardized survey, heads of households in 30 wards in Moshi, Tanzania, were asked to identify the most common cause of fever for children and for adults. Responses were compared to data from a local hospital-based fever etiology study that used standard diagnostic techniques. Results Of 810 interviewees, the median (range) age was 48 (16, 102) years and 62.8% were females. Malaria was the most frequently identified cause of fever, cited by 56.7% and 43.6% as the most common cause of fever for adults and children, respectively. In contrast, malaria accounted for 2.0% of adult and 1.3% of pediatric febrile admissions in the fever etiology study. Weather was the second-most frequently cited cause of fever. Participants who identified a non-biomedical explanation such as weather as the most common cause of fever were more likely to prefer a traditional healer for treatment of febrile adults (OR 2.7, p<0.001). Bacterial zoonoses were the most common cause of fever among inpatients, but no interviewees identified infections from animal contact as the most common cause of fever for adults; 0.2% identified these infections as the most common cause of fever for children. Conclusions Malaria is perceived to be a much more common cause of fever than hospital studies indicate whereas other important diseases are under-appreciated in northern Tanzania. Belief in non-biomedical explanations of fever is common locally and has important public health consequences. PMID:24103083

Hertz, Julian T.; Munishi, O. Michael; Sharp, Joanne P.; Reddy, Elizabeth A.; Crump, John A.

2013-01-01

258

Reasons for Receiving or Not Receiving HPV Vaccination in Primary Schoolgirls in Tanzania: A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background There are few data on factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the characteristics of receivers and non-receivers of HPV vaccination in Tanzania and identified reasons for not receiving the vaccine. Methods We conducted a case control study of HPV vaccine receivers and non-receivers within a phase IV cluster-randomised trial of HPV vaccination in 134 primary schools in Tanzania. Girls who failed to receive vaccine (pupil cases) and their parents/guardians (adult cases) and girls who received dose 1 (pupil controls) of the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™) and their parents/guardians (adult controls) were enrolled from 39 schools in a 1?1 ratio and interviewed about cervical cancer, HPV vaccine knowledge and reasons why they might have received or not received the vaccine. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with not receiving HPV vaccine. Results We interviewed 159 pupil/adult cases and 245 pupil/adult controls. Adult-factors independently associated with a daughter being a case were older age, owning fewer household items, not attending a school meeting about HPV vaccine, and not knowing anyone with cancer. Pupil-factors for being a case included having a non-positive opinion about the school de-worming programme, poor knowledge about the location of the cervix, and not knowing that a vaccine could prevent cervical cancer. Reasons for actively refusing vaccination included concerns about side effects and infertility. Most adult and pupil cases reported that they would accept the HPV vaccine if it were offered again (97% and 93% respectively). Conclusions Sensitisation messages, especially targeted at older and poorer parents, knowledge retention and parent meetings are critical for vaccine acceptance in Tanzania. Vaccine side effects and fertility concerns should be addressed prior to a national vaccination program. Parents and pupils who initially decline vaccination should be given an opportunity to reconsider their decision. PMID:23115621

Watson-Jones, Deborah; Tomlin, Keith; Remes, Pieter; Baisley, Kathy; Ponsiano, Riziki; Soteli, Selephina; de Sanjose, Silvia; Changalucha, John; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J.

2012-01-01

259

Care-Seeking and Management of Common Childhood Illnesses in Tanzania - Results from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea continue to kill millions of children in Africa despite the available and effective treatments. Correct diagnosis and prompt treatment with effective drugs at the first option consulted for child care is crucial for preventing severe disease and death from these illnesses. Using the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey data, the present study aims to assess care-seeking and management of suspected malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at various health care facilities in Tanzania. Methods We analyzed data for 8176 children born within a 5 years period preceding the survey.The information was collected by interviewing 5519 women aged 15–49 years in 10,300 households selected from 475 sample points throughout Tanzania. Results The most common first option for child care was PHC facilities (54.8%), followed by private pharmacies (23.4%). These were more commonly utilized in rural compared to urban areas: 61.2% versus 34.5% for PHC facilities, and 26.5% versus 17.7% for pharmacies. Women in urban areas and those with higher level of education more commonly utilized higher level hospitals and private facilities as their first option for child care. Only one in four children with fever had received a blood test during the illness with lowest proportion being reported among children solely attended at PHC facilities. Use of abandoned antimalarial drugs for the treatment of suspected malaria was also observed in public health facilities and antibiotics use for diarrhoea treatment was high (49.0%). Conclusions PHC facilities and pharmacies most commonly provided sub-optimal care. These facilities were more commonly utilized as the first option for child care in rural areas and among the poor and non-educated families. These are groups with the highest child mortality, which calls for interventions’ targeting improvement of care at these facilities to further reduce child mortality from treatable illnesses in Tanzania. PMID:23554926

Kahabuka, Catherine; Kvale, Gunnar; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund

2013-01-01

260

The challenges of achieving high training coverage for IMCI: case studies from Kenya and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Health worker training is a key component of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). However, training coverage remains low in many countries. We conducted in-depth case studies in two East African countries to examine the factors underlying low training coverage 10 years after IMCI had been adopted as policy. A document review and in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at facility, district, regional/provincial and national levels in two districts in Kenya (Homa Bay and Malindi) and Tanzania (Bunda and Tarime) were carried out in 2007–08. Bunda and Malindi achieved higher levels of training coverage (44% and 25%) compared with Tarime and Homa Bay (5% and 13%). Key factors allowing the first two districts to perform better were: strong district leadership and personal commitment to IMCI, which facilitated access to external funding and encouraged local-level policy adaptation; sensitization and training of district health managers; and lower staff turnover. However, IMCI training coverage remained well below target levels across all sites. The main barrier to expanding coverage was the cost of training due to its duration, the number of facilitators and its residential nature. Mechanisms for financing IMCI also restricted district capacity to raise funds. In Tanzania, districts could not spend more than 10% of their budgets on training. In Kenya, limited financial decentralization meant that district managers had to rely on donors for financial support. Critically, the low priority given to IMCI at national and international levels also limited the expansion of training. Levels of domestic and donor support for IMCI have diminished over time in favour of vertical programmes, partly due to the difficulty in monitoring and measuring the impact of an integrated intervention like IMCI. Alternative, lower cost methods of IMCI training need to be promoted, and greater advocacy for IMCI is needed both nationally and internationally. PMID:21047808

Mushi, Hildegalda P; Mullei, Kethi; Macha, Janet; Wafula, Frank; Borghi, Josephine; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

2011-01-01

261

Parity and institutional delivery in rural Tanzania: a multilevel analysis and policy implications  

PubMed Central

Objectives We assess the extent to which the use of healthcare facilities for childbirth varies by parity, conditional on socio-economic, psychological and health characteristics. We also assess differences in the determinants of institutionalized delivery for first-time mothers and multiparous, and explore village-level variations in observed relationships. Methods Survey data from a three-stage cross-sectional cluster sample of 1205 women from a rural district of Tanzania were analysed using random-intercept multilevel models. Results Use of health facilities for delivery was low (39%), with odds of institutionalized delivery three times higher among nulliparous women (0 children prior to current delivery) compared with women with one to four children; and 30% lower among women with five or more children compared with those with one to four children. In parity group analyses, women with at least some education and women with more than three antenatal care visits had higher odds of institutionalized delivery among nulliparous. Belief in the importance of institutionalized delivery increased the odds of delivering in a facility among multiparous women; so did health insurance for women with five or more children. We found a significant variation in institutionalized delivery among multiparous women based on their village of residence (one to four and five or more children), but these variations were not observed among nulliparous women. Conclusion Parity is a pivotal determinant of the use of health facilities for delivery, and its significance varies by village of residence; hence, interventions targeting women according to parity may increase the use of facilities for delivery in rural Tanzania. Future research should focus on the village-level characteristics that influence institutionalized delivery in multiparous. PMID:23132915

Ndao-Brumblay, S Khady; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Kruk, Margaret E

2013-01-01

262

Lipid-soluble vitamins A, D, and E in HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives There is limited published research examining lipid-soluble vitamins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women, particularly in resource-limited settings. Subjects/Methods This is an observational analysis of 1078 HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a trial of vitamin supplementation in Tanzania. Baseline data on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory parameters were used to identify correlates of low plasma vitamin A (<0.7 ?mol/l), vitamin D (<80 nmol/l) and vitamin E (<9.7 ?mol/l) status. Binomial regression was used to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Approximately 35, 39 and 51% of the women had low levels of vitamins A, D and E, respectively. Severe anemia (hemoglobin <85 g/l; P<0.01), plasma vitamin E (P=0.02), selenium (P=0.01) and vitamin D (P=0.02) concentrations were significant correlates of low vitamin A status in multivariate models. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was independently related to low vitamin A status in a nonlinear manner (P=0.01). The correlates of low vitamin D status were CD8 cell count (P=0.01), high ESR (ESR >81 mm/h; P<0.01), gestational age at enrollment (nonlinear; P=0.03) and plasma vitamins A (P=0.02) and E (P=0.01). For low vitamin E status, the correlates were money spent on food per household per day (P<0.01), plasma vitamin A concentration (nonlinear; P<0.01) and a gestational age <16 weeks at enrollment (P<0.01). Conclusions Low concentrations of lipid-soluble vitamins are widely prevalent among HIV-infected women in Tanzania and are correlated with other nutritional insufficiencies. Identifying HIV-infected persons at greater risk of poor nutritional status and infections may help inform design and implementation of appropriate interventions. PMID:20517330

Mehta, S; Spiegelman, D; Aboud, S; Giovannucci, EL; Msamanga, GI; Hertzmark, E; Mugusi, FM; Hunter, DJ; Fawzi, WW

2010-01-01

263

Human resources for health care delivery in Tanzania: a multifaceted problem  

PubMed Central

Background Recent years have seen an unprecedented increase in funds for procurement of health commodities in developing countries. A major challenge now is the efficient delivery of commodities and services to improve population health. With this in mind, we documented staffing levels and productivity in peripheral health facilities in southern Tanzania. Method A health facility survey was conducted to collect data on staff employed, their main tasks, availability on the day of the survey, reasons for absenteeism, and experience of supervisory visits from District Health Teams. In-depth interview with health workers was done to explore their perception of work load. A time and motion study of nurses in the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) clinics documented their time use by task. Results We found that only 14% (122/854) of the recommended number of nurses and 20% (90/441) of the clinical staff had been employed at the facilities. Furthermore, 44% of clinical staff was not available on the day of the survey. Various reasons were given for this. Amongst the clinical staff, 38% were absent because of attendance to seminar sessions, 8% because of long-training, 25% were on official travel and 20% were on leave. RCH clinic nurses were present for 7 hours a day, but only worked productively for 57% of time present at facility. Almost two-third of facilities had received less than 3 visits from district health teams during the 6 months preceding the survey. Conclusion This study documented inadequate staffing of health facilities, a high degree of absenteeism, low productivity of the staff who were present and inadequate supervision in peripheral Tanzanian health facilities. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of decentralized health care in Tanzania. PMID:22357353

2012-01-01

264

Predictors of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners among HIV-positive pregnant women in Morogoro, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has been scaled, to more than 90% of health facilities in Tanzania. Disclosure of HIV results to partners and their participation is encouraged in the program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, patterns and predictors of HIV sero-status disclosure to partners among HIV positive pregnant women in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in March to May 2010 among HIV-positive pregnant women who were attending for routine antenatal care in primary health care facilities of the municipality and had been tested for HIV at least one month prior to the study. Questionnaires were used to collect information on possible predictors of HIV disclosure to partners. Results A total of 250 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled. Forty one percent (102) had disclosed their HIV sero-status to their partners. HIV-disclosure to partners was more likely among pregnant women who were?

2013-01-01

265

Systematic Monitoring of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up: Adoption of Efficiency Elements in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background SYMMACS, the Systematic Monitoring of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up, tracked the implementation and adoption of six elements of surgical efficiency— use of multiple surgical beds, pre-bundled kits, task shifting, task sharing, forceps-guided surgical method, and electrocautery—as standards of surgical efficiency in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Methods and Findings This multi-country study used two-staged sampling. The first stage sampled VMMC sites: 73 in 2011, 122 in 2012. The second stage involved sampling providers (358 in 2011, 591 in 2012) and VMMC procedures for observation (594 in 2011, 1034 in 2012). The number of VMMC sites increased significantly between 2011 and 2012; marked seasonal variation occurred in peak periods for VMMC. Countries adopted between three and five of the six elements; forceps-guided surgery was the only element adopted by all countries. Kenya and Tanzania routinely practiced task-shifting. South Africa and Zimbabwe used pre-bundled kits with disposable instruments and electrocautery. South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe routinely employed multiple surgical bays. Conclusions SYMMACS is the first study to provide data on the implementation of VMMC programs and adoption of elements of surgical efficiency. Findings have contributed to policy change on task-shifting in Zimbabwe, a review of the monitoring system for adverse events in South Africa, an increased use of commercially bundled VMMC kits in Tanzania, and policy dialogue on improving VMMC service delivery in Kenya. This article serves as an overview for five other articles following this supplement. PMID:24801374

Bertrand, Jane T.; Rech, Dino; Omondi Aduda, Dickens; Frade, Sasha; Loolpapit, Mores; Machaku, Michael D.; Oyango, Mathews; Mavhu, Webster; Spyrelis, Alexandra; Perry, Linnea; Farrell, Margaret; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

266

Disease patterns and clinical outcomes of patients admitted in intensive care units of tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa the availability of intensive care unit (ICU) services is limited by a variety of factors, including lack of financial resources, lack of available technology and well-trained staff. Tanzania has four main referral hospitals, located in zones so as to serve as tertiary level referral centers. All the referral hospitals have some ICU services, operating at varying levels of equipment and qualified staff. We analyzed and describe the disease patterns and clinical outcomes of patients admitted in ICUs of the tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of ICU patient records, for three years (2009 to 2011) from all tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania, namely Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Mbeya Referral Hospital (MRH) and Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). Results MNH is the largest of the four referral hospitals with 1300 beds, and MRH is the smallest with 480 beds. The ratio of hospital beds to ICU beds is 217:1 at MNH, 54:1 at BMC, 39:1 at KCMC, and 80:1 at MRH. KCMC had no infusion pumps. None of the ICUs had a point-of-care (POC) arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer. None of the ICUs had an Intensive Care specialist or a nutritionist. A masters-trained critical care nurse was available only at MNH. From 2009–2011, the total number of patients admitted to the four ICUs was 5627, male to female ratio 1.4:1, median age of 34 years. Overall, Trauma (22.2%) was the main disease category followed by infectious disease (19.7%). Intracranial injury (12.5%) was the leading diagnosis in all age groups, while pneumonia (11.7%) was the leading diagnosis in pediatric patients (<18 years). Patients with tetanus (2.4%) had the longest median length ICU stay: 8 (5,13) days. The overall in-ICU mortality rate was 41.4%. Conclusions The ICUs in tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania are severely limited in infrastructure, personnel, and resources, making it difficult or impossible to provide optimum care to critically ill patients and likely contributing to the dauntingly high mortality rates. PMID:25245028

2014-01-01

267

Epidemiology and control of human schistosomiasis in Tanzania  

E-print Network

bilharziasis [3,4]. The early studies in the Lake Victoria province (Tanzania mainland) by Cook in 1905 at Kwimba identified and described the distribu- tion of S. mansoni and S. haematobium in the region [3,5]. Over 50% of individuals examined had urogenital... .2% (approximate 3.9 million people) had urogenital and intestinal schistosomaisis, respectively [36,37]. The nationwide survey conducted in 1980 among schoolchildren (aged between 9 and 14 years old) showed that more than 50% had S. haemato- bium infection...

Mazigo, Humphrey D; Nuwaha, Fred; Kinung’hi, Safari M; Morona, Domenica; de Moira, Angela Pinot; Wilson, Shona; Heukelbach, Jorg; Dunne, David W

2012-11-28

268

African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

Ishengoma, Johnson M.

2005-05-01

269

Do malaria vector control measures impact disease-related behaviour and knowledge? Evidence from a large-scale larviciding intervention in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Recent efforts of accelerated malaria control towards the long-term goal of elimination had significant impacts in reducing malaria transmission. While these efforts need to be sustained over time, a scenario of low transmission could bring about changes in individual disease risk perception, hindering adherence to protective measures, and affecting disease-related knowledge. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential impact of a successful malaria vector control intervention on bed net usage and malaria-related knowledge. Methods Dar es Salaam’s Urban Malaria Control Program was launched in 2004 with the aim of developing a sustainable larviciding intervention. Larviciding was scaled-up using a stepped-wedge design. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were collected using a randomized cluster sampling design (2004–2008). Prevalence ratios (PR) for the effect of the larviciding intervention on bed net usage (N?=?64,537) and household heads’ knowledge of malaria symptoms and transmission (N?=?11,254) were obtained from random effects regression models. Results The probability that individuals targeted by larviciding had used a bed net was reduced by 5% as compared to those in non-intervention areas (PR?=?0.95; 95% credible intervals (CrI): 0.94-0.97) and the magnitude of this effect increased with time. Larviciding also led to a decline in household heads’ knowledge of malaria symptoms (PR?=?0.88; 95% CrI: 0.83-0.92) but no evidence of effect on knowledge of malaria transmission was found. Conclusion Successful control interventions could bring about further challenges to sustaining gains in reducing malaria transmission if not accompanied by strategies to avoid changes in individual knowledge and behaviour. This study points to two major research gaps. First, there is an urgent need to gather more evidence on the extent to which countries that have achieved significant decline in malaria transmission are also observing changes in individual behaviour and knowledge. Second, multidisciplinary assessments that combine quantitative and qualitative data, utilizing theories of health behaviour and theories of knowledge, are needed to optimize efforts of national malaria control programmes, and ultimately contribute to sustained reduction in malaria transmission. PMID:24237682

2013-01-01

270

Dichapetalum spp toxicity in cattle at a farm in Tanzania.  

PubMed

An investigation was carried out to establish the cause of mortalities during the dry season in cattle at a state livestock replacement farm at Kibaha in the Coast Region of Tanzania. Studies included a thorough review of the farm records, interviews with the farm staff, screening for parasites through examination of blood and lymph node smears, clinical examination of sick animals, and a survey of the grazing lands as well as postmortem examinations of the dead cattle. Circumstances incriminated plant poisoning as the cause of the deaths. A systematic survey of the pastures indicated a preponderance of Dichapetalum spp poisonous plants in areas in which most of the affected cattle had been grazing. Leaves of these plants were collected, dried, powdered and fed or drenched to 6 goats and 24 wistar rats. Lesions in animals that died resembled those seen in dead cows--pulmonary congestion and edema, froth in the airways, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, and variable quantities of serous effusions into serous cavities. Although Dichapetalum spp occur especially in coastal regions, previous cases of poisoning by this plant in Tanzania have not been published. This report documents a systematic toxicological trial to verify the poisonous potency of this plant. PMID:7631495

Ngomuo, A J; Kambarage, D M; Mwamengele, G L; Matovelo, J A

1995-04-01

271

Brucellosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ? 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ? 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ? 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

2012-01-01

272

Tanzania marks 10 years of progress in safe motherhood.  

PubMed

The 19th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood Initiative was marked in Tanzania this year. In addition to special celebrations, the anniversary was also marked by the launching of a campaign to eliminate female genital mutilation. The celebrations, which lasted several weeks, were inaugurated by a statement from the Minister of Health, Dr. Aaron Chiduo. The events included the showing of video films on sexual and reproductive health in 7 primary and 8 secondary schools, as well as public showings. Traditional birth attendants and nurse-midwives in one district were shown the safe motherhood film "Why did Mrs. X die?" Panel discussions on safe motherhood were broadcast on the radio in both English and Swahili. Posters and leaflets were distributed on various aspects of reproductive health. A press conference with representatives of the Tanzanian Ministry of Women's Affairs and Ministry of Health, together with representatives of WHO and UNICEF, focused on safe motherhood and female genital mutilation. The meeting attracted 100 journalists. The celebrations ended with a day of traditional dances and songs to mark the 10th anniversary of safe motherhood. A statement from the Minister of Health stressed that female genital mutilation "has no religious or scientific value" and needs to be stopped. The practice has been officially banned in Tanzania since the 1970s but is still prevalent in certain regions of the country. PMID:12321358

1997-01-01

273

Leptospirosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

We enrolled consecutive febrile admissions to two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as a ? 4-fold increase in microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titer; probable leptospirosis as reciprocal MAT titer ? 800; and exposure to pathogenic leptospires as titer ? 100. Among 870 patients enrolled in the study, 453 (52.1%) had paired sera available, and 40 (8.8%) of these met the definition for confirmed leptospirosis. Of 832 patients with ? 1 serum sample available, 30 (3.6%) had probable leptospirosis and an additional 277 (33.3%) had evidence of exposure to pathogenic leptospires. Among those with leptospirosis the most common clinical diagnoses were malaria in 31 (44.3%) and pneumonia in 18 (25.7%). Leptospirosis was associated with living in a rural area (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, P < 0.001). Among those with confirmed leptospirosis, the predominant reactive serogroups were Mini and Australis. Leptospirosis is a major yet underdiagnosed cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania, where it appears to be endemic. PMID:21813847

Biggs, Holly M.; Bui, Duy M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Onyango, Jecinta J.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Crump, John A.

2011-01-01

274

Origins and development of adult education innovations in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of adult education innovations were introduced in Tanzania in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This article analyzes the context of three innovations, namely functional literacy, workers' education and the programme of the Folk Development Colleges. The analysis reveals that these innovations had firm roots within the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country in the 1960s and 1970s, Nyerere's influence as President and Party leader, Tanzania's ideology of development, the policy of popular participation, the roots of educational policy in a humanistic philosophy of education, and indigenous education. Some of the factors which affected their implementation included lack of trained educators, inadequate financial resources, ineffective evaluation mechanisms, and a mis-match between participants' needs and actual programmes. It is suggested that there is a need to introduce economic innovations alongside educational innovations, to involve participants in determining their training needs, and to train and retain adult educators with a view to improving adult education initiatives in the country.

Mushi, Philemon A. K.

1991-09-01

275

Seroprevalence of Alphavirus Antibodies in a Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Tanzania Suggests Endemic Circulation of Chikungunya  

PubMed Central

Background To date, Alphavirus infections and their most prominent member, chikungunya fever, a viral disease which first became apparent in Tanzania in 1953, have been very little investigated in regions without epidemic occurrence. Few data exist on burden of disease and socio-economic and environmental covariates disposing to infection. Methods A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was undertaken in 1,215 persons from Mbeya region, South-Western Tanzania, to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Alphavirus IgG antibodies, and to investigate associated risk factors. Results 18% of 1,215 samples were positive for Alphavirus IgG. Seropositivity was associated with participant age, low to intermediate elevation, flat terrain and with IgG positivity for Rift Valley fever, Flaviviridae, and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group. When comparing the geographical distribution of Alphavirus seropositivity to that of Rift Valley fever, it was obvious that Alphaviruses had spread more widely throughout the study area, while Rift Valley fever was concentrated along the shore of Lake Malawi. Conclusion Alphavirus infections may contribute significantly to the febrile disease burden in the study area, and are associated with several arthropod-borne infections. Their spread seems only limited by factors affecting mosquitoes, and seems less restricted than that of Rift Valley fever. PMID:25079964

Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Nyanda Elias; Maboko, Leonard; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert

2014-01-01

276

Starting out - A boy's death in Tanzania taught me that avoidable errors cost lives.  

PubMed

In my final year of nurse training, I undertook a seven-week elective placement in Mbeya, Tanzania, where I worked in a maternity hospital and on a children's ward in a general hospital. PMID:25294471

Penn, Sarah

2014-10-01

277

Focal mechanisms and the stress regime in NE and SW Tanzania, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report 12 new focal mechanisms from earthquakes in NE and SW Tanzania where the stress regime within the East African rift system is not well constrained. Focal mechanisms for events at the intersection of the Lake Tanganyika and Rukwa rifts in SW Tanzania indicate a complicated stress pattern with possible dextral strike-slip motion on some faults but oblique motion on others (either sinistral on NW striking faults or dextral on NE striking faults). Within the Rukwa rift, focal mechanisms indicate normal dip-slip motion with NE-SW opening. In NE Tanzania where the Eastern rift impinges on the margin of the Tanzania Craton, fault motions are consistent with a zone of distributed block faults and sub E-W extension. All twelve earthquakes likely nucleated within the crust.

Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Florentin, Juliette

2005-07-01

278

A new freshwater crab (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamonautidae) from the Paleogene of Tanzania, Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery of numerous fragmentary remains of freshwater crab in Paleogene, probably Oligocene, sediments in Tanzania, Africa, permits the description of a new genus and species, Tanzanonautes tuerkai. The fossils represent the oldest freshwater crabs known.

Rodney M. Feldmann; Patrick M. O'Connor; Nancy J. Stevens; Michael D. Gottfried; Eric M. Roberts; Sifa Ngasala; Erin L. Rasmusson; Saidi Kapilima

2007-01-01

279

Evaluation of Tanzania Energy Sector Project: Updated Design Report. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes Mathematica's evaluation design for the Millennium Challenge Corporation's energy sector project to improve living standards and reduce poverty in Tanzania by investing in and improving energy-related infrastructure.

Duncan Chaplin; Arif Mamun; Thomas Fraker; Kathy Buek; Minki Chatterji; Denzel Hankinson

2011-01-01

280

Essays on Dynamics of Cattle Prices in Three Developing Countries of Mali, Kenya, and Tanzania  

E-print Network

countries of Mali, Kenya, and Tanzania. One way of assessing the efficiency of market and the impacts of liberalization policies is to test for market integration and price transmission. We also analyzed price leadership among the markets in each...

Bizimana, Jean-Claude

2012-07-16

281

A Large Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study of Newborn Care Practices in Southern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent improvements in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa, neonatal mortality rates remain largely unchanged. This study aimed to determine the frequency of delivery and newborn-care practices in southern Tanzania, where neonatal mortality is higher than the national average. All households in five districts of Southern Tanzania were approached to participate. Of 213,220 female residents aged 13–49 years, 92% participated.

Suzanne Penfold; Zelee Hill; Mwifadhi Mrisho; Fatuma Manzi; Marcel Tanner; Hassan Mshinda; David Schellenberg; Joanna R. M. Armstrong Schellenberg; Abdisalan Mohamed Noor

2010-01-01

282

Blessing or curse? The political economy of tourism development in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses how tourism development in Tanzania is shaped in fundamental ways by the political–economic forces governing many post-colonial African states. Politics in Tanzania are characterized by a highly centralized and weakly accountable state, a prevalence of informal rent-seeking interests, institutionalized corruption in government at all levels and the intermingling of a developmentalist discourse built on foreign and private

Fred Nelson

2012-01-01

283

Blessing or curse? The political economy of tourism development in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses how tourism development in Tanzania is shaped in fundamental ways by the political–economic forces governing many post-colonial African states. Politics in Tanzania are characterized by a highly centralized and weakly accountable state, a prevalence of informal rent-seeking interests, institutionalized corruption in government at all levels and the intermingling of a developmentalist discourse built on foreign and private

Fred Nelson

2011-01-01

284

Factors associated with inappropriate complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Inappropriate complementary feeding is one of the major causes of undernutrition among young children in Tanzania. Prevalence of newly developed World Health Organization complementary feeding indicators and their associated factors were determined among 2402 children aged 6-23 months in Tanzania using data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. The survey used a multistage cluster sample of 10?300 households from the eight geographical zones in the country. The prevalence of the introduction of soft, semi-solid or solid foods among infants aged 6-8 months was 92.3%. Of all the children aged 6-23 months, the prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and acceptable diet were 38.2%, 38.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Results from multivariate analyses indicated that the main risk factors for inappropriate complementary feeding practices in Tanzania include young child's age (6-11 months), lower level of paternal/maternal education, limited access to mass media, lack of post-natal check-ups, and poor economic status. Overall, complementary feeding practices in Tanzania, as measured by dietary diversity, meal frequency and acceptable diet, are not adequately met, and there is a need for interventions to improve the nutritional status of young children in Tanzania. PMID:22925557

Victor, Rose; Baines, Surinder K; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J

2014-10-01

285

INDIANA UNIVERSITY GEO-PALEOANTHROPOLOGY FIELD COURSE IN TANZANIA G349/549 2014 APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION  

E-print Network

INDIANA UNIVERSITY GEO-PALEOANTHROPOLOGY FIELD COURSE IN TANZANIA G349/549 2014 APPLICATION/549: Introductory Level Geology Sedimentology Paleo-Anthropology Introductory Level Anthropology Stratigraphy

Polly, David

286

Trends in availability and prices of subsidized ACT over the first year of the AMFm: evidence from remote regions of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a pilot supra-national subsidy program that aims to increase access and affordability of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in public sector clinics and private retail shops. It is unclear to what extent the AMFm model will translate into wide scale availability and price reductions in ACT, particularly for rural, remote areas where disparities in access to medicines often exist. This study is the first to rigorously examine the availability and price of subsidized ACT during the first year of the AMFm, measured through retail audits in remote regions of Tanzania. Methods Periodic retail audits of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) were conducted in two remote regions of Tanzania (Mtwara and Rukwa). Temporal and spatial variation in ACT availability and pricing were explored. A composite measure of ADDO remoteness, using variables, such as distance to suppliers and towns, altitude and population density, was used to explore whether ACT availability and price vary systematically with remoteness. Results Between February 2011 and January 2012, the fraction of ADDOs stocking AMFm-ACT increased from 25% to 88% in Mtwara and from 3% to 62% in Rukwa. Availability was widespread, though diffusion throughout the region was achieved more quickly in Mtwara. No significant relationship was found between ACT availability and remoteness. Adult doses of AMFm-ACT were much more widely available than any other age/weight band. Average prices fell from 1529 TZS (1.03 USD) to 1272 TZS (0.81 USD) over the study period, with prices in Rukwa higher than Mtwara. The government recommended retail price for AMFm- ACT is 1,000 TZS ($0.64 USD). The median retail ACT price in the final round of data collection was 1,000 TZS. Conclusions The AMFm led to large increases in availability of low priced ACT in Tanzania, with no significant variation in availability based on remoteness. Availability did remain lower and prices remained higher in Rukwa, which is a more remote region overall. Low availability of child and adolescent ACT doses could be due in part to lower quantities of non-adult packs imported into Tanzania. Future research will explore whether increased availability and affordability persists and whether it translates into higher ACT use in Tanzania. PMID:22929587

2012-01-01

287

Predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14 carrying CTX-M-15 causing neonatal sepsis in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae strains expressing ESBLs are a predominant cause of hospital acquired infections. Here we describe the molecular epidemiology of these isolates in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania, as potential pathogens for neonatal infections. Methods Between April 2009 and March 2010 all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with phenotypic expression Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) were collected and characterized. Identification was done using in house biochemical tests in case of ambiguous results confirmation was done using API 20E. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disc diffusion method followed by specific PCR and sequencing to determine ESBL genes. Phylogenetic analysis, Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus sequence typing (MLST) to PFGE clusters representative isolates were performed to determine clones of the isolates. Conjugation and hybridization were performed to determine the location of blaCTX-M-15 gene. Results A total of 92 non- repetitive ESBL producing K. pneumoniae representing 50.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were characterized. These isolates were from blood 61 (66%), wound swab 13 (14%), urine 12 (13%) and pus 6 (7%) were analyzed. Most blood culture strains originated from neonatal unit 39/61(64%) and 22 (36%) of the blood culture isolates were from neonatal ICU. All isolates were resistant to gentamicin and 54% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a similarity index of 80%, the isolates were assigned to thirteen clusters based on PFGE patterns and contained sub-clusters with identical strains indicating clonal outbreaks. Cluster X5, X7 and X8, and X9 were grouped into ST48, ST14 and ST348 respectively. Based on gyrA PCR- RFLP phylogenetic analysis all isolates were grouped as KpI. The predominant ESBL allele detected was blaCTX-M-15 which was found in 76% of isolates, followed by blaTEM-104 (19%), blaSHV-11 (3.2%) and blaTEM-176 (2%). The blaCTX-M-15 gene was located in multiple conjugative IncF plasmids ranging from 25 kb-485 kb in size. Conclusion The high prevalence of blaCTX-M-15 observed among ESBL producing K. pneumoniae in Tanzania, is possibly due to the spread of a common IncFII 145 kb plasmid and of certain clones such as ST14 and ST48. Furthermore the 485 kb plasmid detected is the largest plasmid reported to carry blaCTX-M-15 todate. PMID:24099282

2013-01-01

288

Factors influencing implementation of the Community Health Fund in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Although prepayment schemes are being hailed internationally as part of a solution to health care financing problems in low-income countries, literature has raised problems with such schemes. This paper reports the findings of a study that examined the factors influencing low enrollment in Tanzania's health prepayment schemes (Community Health Fund). The paper argues that district managers had a direct influence over the factors explaining low enrollment and identified in other studies (inability to pay membership contributions, low quality of care, lack of trust in scheme managers and failure to see the rationale to insure). District managers' actions appeared, in turn, to be at least partly a response to the manner of this policy's implementation. In order better to achieve the objectives of prepayment schemes, it is important to focus attention on policy implementers, who are capable of re-shaping policy during its implementation, with consequences for policy outcomes. PMID:17299023

Kamuzora, Peter; Gilson, Lucy

2007-03-01

289

East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa) (Fritz et al., 2009). Majority of data suggest an anticlockwise P-T loop and prolonged, slow cooling at deep crustal levels without significant exhumation. Isobaric cooling is explained by horizontal flow with rates faster than thermal equilibration of the lower crust. Those settings are found in domains of previously thinned lithosphere such as extended passive margins. Such rheolgically weak plate boundaries do not produce self-sustaining one-sided subduction but large areas of magmatic underplating that enable melt enhanced lateral flow of the lower crust. Western Granulites deformed by high-vorticity westwards thrusting at c. 550 Ma (Kuunga orogeny). Rocks exhibit clockwise P-T paths and experienced significant exhumation during isothermal decompression. Overprint between Kuungan structures and 620 Ma East African fabrics resulted in complex interference pattern within the Eastern Granulites. The three orogen portions that converge in Tanzania / Southern Kenya have different orogen styles. The southern ANS formed by transcurrent deformation of an island arc root; the Eastern Granulites by lower crustal channelized flow of a hot inverted passive margin; the Western Granulites by lower to mid crustal stacking of old and cold crustal fragments. Collins, A.S., Pisarevsky, S.A. (2005). Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: The evolution of the Circum-Indian Orogens. Earth-Science Reviews, 71, 229-270. De Waele, B., Kampunzu, A.B., Mapani, B.S.E., Tembo, F. (2006). The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt of Zambia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 46, 36-70 Fritz, H., Tenczer, V., Hauzenberger, C., Wallbrecher, E., Muhongo, S. (2009). Hot granulite nappes — Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa. Tectonophysics, 477, 160-173.

Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

2012-04-01

290

Epidemiological study of Rift Valley fever virus in Kigoma, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an acute, zoonotic viral disease caused by a Phlebovirus, which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. Among livestock, outbreaks of the disease are economically devastating. They are often characterised by large, sweeping abortion storms and have significant mortality in adult livestock. The aim of the current study was to investigate RVFV infection in the Kigoma region, which is nestled under the hills of the western arm of the Great Rift Valley on the edge of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. A region-wide serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated small ruminants (sheep and goats, n = 411). Sera samples were tested for the presence of anti-RVFV antibodies and viral antigen, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The overall past infections were detected in 22 of the 411 animals, 5.4% (Confidence Interval (CI) 95% = 3.5% - 8.1%). The Kigoma rural area recorded the higher seroprevalence of 12.0% (CI 95% = 7.3% - 18.3%; p < 0.0001), followed by Kibondo at 2.3% (CI 95% = 0.5% - 6.5%; p > 0.05) and the Kasulu district at 0.8% (CI 95% = 0.0% - 4.2%; p > 0.05). The prevalence was 12.5% and 4.7% for sheep and goats, respectively. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that only eight samples were found to be positive (n = 63). This study has confirmed, for the first time, the presence of the RVFV in the Kigoma region four years after the 2007 epizootic in Tanzania. The study further suggests that the virus activity exists during the inter-epizootic period, even in regions with no history of RVFV. PMID:25005550

Kifaro, Emmanuel G; Nkangaga, Japhet; Joshua, Gradson; Sallu, Raphael; Yongolo, Mmeta; Dautu, George; Kasanga, Christopher J

2014-01-01

291

Doing Better? Religion, the Virtue-Ethics of Development, and the Fragmentation of Health Politics in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, relationships among religion, development, and globalization have been discussed critically with regard to the potentially beneficial as well as detrimental opportunities that the work of faith-based organizations (FBOs) presents in relation to HIV\\/AIDS. Drawing on the case studies of two neo-Pentecostal congregations in Dar es Salaam, this article describes how religious actors in urban Tanzania—including those who

HansjÃrg Dilger

2009-01-01

292

Relationship between household socio-economic status and under-five mortality in Rufiji DSS, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Disparities in health outcomes between the poor and the better off are increasingly attracting attention from researchers and policy makers. However, policies aimed at reducing inequity need to be based on evidence of their nature, magnitude, and determinants. Objectives The study aims to investigate the relationship between household socio-economic status (SES) and under-five mortality, and to measure health inequality by comparing poorest/least poor quintile mortality rate ratio and the use of a mortality concentration index. It also aims to describe the risk factors associated with under-five mortality at Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS), Tanzania. Methods This analytical cross sectional study included 11,189 children under-five residing in 7,298 households in RDSS in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to construct household SES. Kaplan–Meier survival incidence estimates were used for mortality rates. Health inequality was measured by calculating and comparing mortality rates between the poorest and least poor wealth quintile. We also computed a mortality concentration index. Risk factors of child mortality were assessed using Poisson regression taking into account potential confounders. Results Under-five mortality was 26.9 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) (23.7–30.4)]. The poorest were 2.4 times more likely to die compared to the least poor. Our mortality concentration index [?0.16; 95% CI (?0.24, ?0.08)] indicated considerable health inequality. Least poor households had a 52% reduced mortality risk [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.48; 95% CI 0.30–0.80]. Furthermore, children with mothers who had attained secondary education had a 70% reduced risk of dying compared to mothers with no education [IRR = 0.30; 95% CI (0.22–0.88)]. Conclusion Household socio-economic inequality and maternal education were associated with under-five mortality in the RDSS. Targeted interventions to address these factors may contribute towards accelerating the reduction of child mortality in rural Tanzania. PMID:23364083

Nattey, Cornelius; Masanja, Honorati; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

2013-01-01

293

Transfer of newborns to neonatal care unit: a registry based study in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in neonatal mortality has been slower than anticipated in many low income countries including Tanzania. Adequate neonatal care may contribute to reduced mortality. We studied factors associated with transfer of babies to a neonatal care unit (NCU) in data from a birth registry at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Tanzania. Methods A total of 21 206 singleton live births registered from 2000 to 2008 were included. Multivariable analysis was carried out to study neonatal transfer to NCU by socio-demographic factors, pregnancy complications and measures of the condition of the newborn. Results A total of 3190 (15%) newborn singletons were transferred to the NCU. As expected, neonatal transfer was strongly associated with specific conditions of the baby including birth weight above 4000 g (relative risk (RR) = 7.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.5-8.0) or below 1500 g (RR = 3.0; 95% CI: 2.3-4.0), five minutes Apgar score less than 7 (RR = 4.0; 95% CI: 3.4-4.6), and preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation (RR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.1). However, pregnancy- and delivery-related conditions like premature rupture of membrane (RR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7), preeclampsia (RR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), other vaginal delivery (RR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9) and caesarean section (RR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.8-2.1) were also significantly associated with transfer. Birth to a first born child was associated with increased likelihood of transfer (relative risk (RR) 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5), while the likelihood was reduced (RR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) when the father had no education. Conclusions In addition to strong associations between neonatal transfer and classical neonatal risk factors for morbidity and mortality, some pregnancy-related and demographic factors were predictors of neonatal transfer. Overall, transfer was more likely for babies with signs of poor health status or a complicated pregnancy. Except for a possibly reduced use of transfer for babies of non-educated fathers and a high transfer rate for first born babies, there were no signs that transfer was based on non-medical indications. PMID:21970789

2011-01-01

294

The sexual health of pupils in years 4 to 6 of primary schools in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: There is an urgent need for effective interventions to improve the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Reliable data on the sexual health of adolescents are needed to guide the development of such interventions. The aim was to describe the sexual health of pupils in years 4 to 6 of 121 rural primary schools in north western Tanzania, before the implementation of an innovative sexual health intervention in 58 of the schools. Methods: A cross sectional survey of primary school pupils in rural Tanzania was carried out. The study population comprised pupils registered in years 4 to 6 of 121 primary schools in 20 rural communities in 1998. Basic demographic information was collected from all pupils seen. Those born before 1 January 1985 (aged approximately 14 years and over) were invited to participate in the survey, and asked about their knowledge and attitudes towards sexual health issues, and their sexual experience. A urine specimen was requested and tested for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and, for females, pregnancy. Results: 9283 pupils born before 1 January 1985 were enrolled and provided demographic information and a urine sample. Male pupils were significantly older than females (mean age 15.5 years v 14.8 years, p<0.001), but all other demographic characteristics were similar between the sexes. 14 (0.2%) of the enrolled pupils (four male and 10 female) were HIV positive, 83 (0.9%) were positive for CT, and 12 (0.1%) for NG. 32 female pupils (0.8%) were positive by pregnancy test. Sexual experience was reported by one fifth of primary school girls, and by almost half of boys. Only 45/114 (39%) girls with biological markers of sexual activity reported having had sex. Conclusions: HIV, CT, NG, and pregnancy were present though at relatively low levels among pupils in years 4 to 6 of primary school. A high proportion of pupils with a biological marker of sexual activity denied ever having had sex. Alternative ways of collecting sensitive data about the sexual behaviour of school pupils should be explored. PMID:14755033

Todd, J; Changalucha, J; Ross, D; Mosha, F; Obasi, A; Plummer, M; Balira, R; Grosskurth, H; Mabey, D; Hayes, R

2004-01-01

295

Aetiology of Acute Febrile Episodes in Children Attending Korogwe District Hospital in North-Eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although the burden of malaria in many parts of Tanzania has declined, the proportion of children with fever has not changed. This situation underscores the need to explore the possible causes of febrile episodes in patients presenting with symptoms at the Korogwe District Hospital (KDH). Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted at KDH, north-eastern Tanzania. Patients aged 2 to 59 months presenting at the outpatient department with an acute medical condition and fever (measured axillary temperature ?37.5°C) were enrolled. Blood samples were examined for malaria parasites, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and bacterial infections. A urine culture was performed in selected cases to test for bacterial infection and a chest radiograph was requested if pneumonia was suspected. Diagnosis was based on both clinical and laboratory investigations. Results A total of 867 patients with a median age of 15.1 months (Interquartile range 8.6–29.9) were enrolled from January 2013 to October 2013. Respiratory tract infections were the leading clinical diagnosis with 406/867 (46.8%) of patients diagnosed with upper respiratory tract infection and 130/867 (15.0%) with pneumonia. Gastroenteritis was diagnosed in 184/867 (21.2%) of patients. Malaria infection was confirmed in 72/867 (8.3%) of patients. Bacterial infection in blood and urine accounted for 26/808 (3.2%) infections in the former, and 66/373 (17.7%) infections in the latter. HIV infection was confirmed in 10/824 (1.2%) of patients. Respiratory tract infections and gastroenteritis were frequent in patients under 36 months of age (87.3% and 91.3% respectively). Co-infections were seen in 221/867 (25.5%) of patients. The cause of fever was not identified in 65/867 (7.5%) of these patients. Conclusions The different proportions of infections found among febrile children reflect the causes of fever in the study area. These findings indicate the need to optimise patient management by developing malaria and non-malaria febrile illnesses management protocols. PMID:25090651

Mahende, Coline; Ngasala, Billy; Lusingu, John; Butichi, Allvan; Lushino, Paminus; Lemnge, Martha; Premji, Zul

2014-01-01

296

Citywide trauma experience in Mwanza, Tanzania: a need for urgent intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Trauma remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in resource limited countries. There is paucity of published reports on trauma care in Tanzania, particularly the study area. This study was carried out to describe our experiences in trauma management outlining the etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of trauma patients at our local setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. Methods A descriptive prospective study of trauma patients was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre from April 2010 to March 2012. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Results A total of 5672 trauma patients were enrolled in the study. The male to female ratio was 2.3: 1. The majority of patients were in the 2nd decade of life. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of trauma accounting for 60.7% of cases. The majority of patients (76.6%) sustained blunt injuries. Musculoskeletal (68.5%) and head/neck (52.6%) were the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (open wounds) and fractures were the most common injuries accounting for 82.8% and 76.8% respectively. Majority of patients (74.4%) were treated surgically with wound debridement (94.0%) being the most frequently performed procedure. Postoperative complications were recorded in 31.5% of cases. The overall median duration of hospitalization was 26 days (range 1 day to 144 days). Mortality rate was 16.7%. Patients who had polytrauma, burn injuries and those who had tetanus and long bone fractures stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (P??65 years, severe trauma, admission Systolic Blood Pressure?Tanzania. Urgent preventive measures targeting at reducing the occurrence of road traffic accidents is necessary to reduce the incidence of trauma in this region. PMID:24499566

2013-01-01

297

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania. PMID:23516650

Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

2013-01-01

298

Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their risk. Rather than simply focusing on knowledge-based strategies, comprehensive interventions are needed to reduce both exposure and health risks, including training, improvements in labeling, measures to reduce cost barriers to the adoption of safe behaviours, , promotion of control measures other than PPE and support for Integrated Pest Management (IPM). PMID:24754959

2014-01-01

299

Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern Tanzania: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the paucity of epidemiological information on maternal deaths, and the high maternal mortality estimates found earlier in the study area, our objective was to assess determinants of maternal deaths in a rural setting in the highlands of northern Tanzania by comparing the women dying of

Bjørg Evjen-Olsen; Sven Gudmund Hinderaker; Rolv Terje Lie; Per Bergsjø; Peter Gasheka; Gunnar Kvåle

2008-01-01

300

HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654), attending primary health clinics for routine

Sia E Msuya; Elizabeth Mbizvo; Akhtar Hussain; Jacqueline Uriyo; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

2006-01-01

301

SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN A NATURAL FOREST AND A CUPRESSUS LUSITANICA PLANTATION AT WEST KILIMANJARO, NORTHERN TANZANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barat, Tanzania utara. Satu perbandingan cirian kimia tanah ladang Cupressus lusitanica dan hutan asal yang berhampiran telah dijalankan di Kilimanjaro Barat, Tanzania utara. Keputusan telah menunjukkan bahawa hutan asal mempunyai jumlah bahan organik, jumlah nitrogen dan sodium yang boleh ditukar yang lebih tinggi di beberapa ufuk tanah berbanding hutan ladang. Paras posforus yang boleh didapati serta kalsium dan potassium yang

R. S. Maro; S. A. O. Chamshama; V. R. Nsolomo; S. M. Maliondo

302

Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

2013-01-01

303

Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed. PMID:23307198

Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

2013-04-01

304

Sexual and reproductive health and HIV in border districts affected by migration and poverty in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives To assess HIV knowledge, attitudes, sexual practices and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service delivery in border areas of Tanzania, with a view to support the prioritisation of SRH interventions in border areas. Methods The target sample comprised randomly selected people living near the border, aged 15 to 49 years. To gather information, we utilised: (i) a standardised questionnaire (n = 86; 42 men and 44 women) previously used in national household surveys conducted by the Tanzanian government; (ii) focus group discussions (ten male groups, n = 47; ten female groups, n = 51); and (iii) semi-structured interviews with service providers (n = 37). Results The mean number of sexual partners, frequency of multiple concurrent partnerships and engagement in transactional sex were significantly higher in the border community than in the national population. Knowledge about HIV was comparable with that in the general population. Access to SRH services was limited in the border areas. Conclusion Efforts to reduce HIV transmission and to improve SRH in the border areas should focus on gaps in service delivery rather than education and information activities alone. In addition, multi-sectorial efforts spanning the health, social, legal and private sectors addressing gender imbalances and poverty alleviation are imperative for reducing poverty-driven unsafe transactional sex. PMID:25112145

Obel, Josephine; Larsson, Markus; Sodemann, Morten

2014-12-01

305

Association of geophagia with Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Summary Geophagia may be harmful as a method for the transmission of geohelminths. In this study, we pose two questions in a representative sample of 970 pregnant women from Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Can consumed earth be a vector for geohelminth infection? And do geophagists have differential parasitic infection? The parasitological content of 59 non-food substance samples was analysed. Cross-sectional data regarding pica behaviour were collected through interviews conducted by local researchers. Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm status was ascertained through Kato–Katz smears. The prevalence of geophagia at baseline was 5.6% and the overall prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection was 5.6%, 33.2% and 32.9%, respectively. No consumed soil samples contained infectious parasitic stages, and only one of the consumed pica substances (charcoal) contained parasites of potential risk to human health. Neither the prevalence nor the intensity of infection with Ascaris, Trichuris or hookworm differed significantly by geophagia status. Furthermore, in multivariate models, geophagia was not a significant predictor of helminth infection status. We conclude that geophagia is not a source of Trichuris or hookworm infection among pregnant women in Pemba (insufficient power to evaluate the effect of Ascaris), which is in contrast to existing findings of helminth infection and geophagia. PMID:17568644

Young, Sera L.; Goodman, Dave; Farag, Tamer H.; Ali, Said M.; Khatib, Mzee R.; Khalfan, Sabra S.; Tielsch, James M.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

2007-01-01

306

CONCENTRATION AND DRUG PRICES IN THE RETAIL MARKET FOR MALARIA TREATMENT IN RURAL TANZANIA  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition. The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care seekers obtaining appropriate treatment. Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. PMID:19301420

GOODMAN, CATHERINE; KACHUR, S. PATRICK; ABDULLA, SALIM; BLOLAND, PETER; MILLS, ANNE

2009-01-01

307

Neonatal Deaths in Rural Southern Tanzania: Care-Seeking and Causes of Death  

PubMed Central

Introduction. We report cause of death and care-seeking prior to death in neonates based on interviews with relatives using a Verbal Autopsy questionnaire. Materials and Methods. We identified neonatal deaths between 2004 and 2007 through a large household survey in 2007 in five rural districts of southern Tanzania. Results. Of the 300 reported deaths that were sampled, the Verbal Autopsy (VA) interview suggested that 11 were 28 days or older at death and 65 were stillbirths. Data was missing for 5 of the reported deaths. Of the remaining 219 confirmed neonatal deaths, the most common causes were prematurity (33%), birth asphyxia (22%) and infections (10%). Amongst the deaths, 41% (90/219) were on the first day and a further 20% (43/219) on day 2 and 3. The quantitative results matched the qualitative findings. The majority of births were at home and attended by unskilled assistants. Conclusion. Caregivers of neonates born in health facility were more likely to seek care for problems than caregivers of neonates born at home. Efforts to increase awareness of the importance of early care-seeking for a premature or sick neonate are likely to be important for improving neonatal health. PMID:22518328

Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Schellenberg, David; Manzi, Fatuma; Tanner, Marcel; Mshinda, Hassan; Shirima, Kizito; Msambichaka, Beverly; Abdulla, Salim; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong

2012-01-01

308

Genome Wide Association Study of Fetal Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is an important modulator of sickle cell disease (SCD). HbF has previously been shown to be affected by variants at three loci on chromosomes 2, 6 and 11, but it is likely that additional loci remain to be discovered. Methods and Findings We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,213 SCA (HbSS/HbS?0) patients in Tanzania. Genotyping was done with Illumina Omni2.5 array and imputation using 1000 Genomes Phase I release data. Association with HbF was analysed using a linear mixed model to control for complex population structure within our study. We successfully replicated known associations for HbF near BCL11A and the HBS1L-MYB intergenic polymorphisms (HMIP), including multiple independent effects near BCL11A, consistent with previous reports. We observed eight additional associations with P<10?6. These associations could not be replicated in a SCA population in the UK. Conclusions This is the largest GWAS study in SCA in Africa. We have confirmed known associations and identified new genetic associations with HbF that require further replication in SCA populations in Africa. PMID:25372704

Rooks, Helen; Mgaya, Josephine; Mariki, Harvest; Soka, Deogratius; Mmbando, Bruno; Msaki, Evarist; Kolder, Iris; Thein, Swee Lay; Menzel, Stephan; Cox, Sharon E.; Makani, Julie; Barrett, Jeffrey C.

2014-01-01

309

Equity of inpatient health care in rural Tanzania: a population- and facility-based survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the equity of utilization of inpatient health care at rural Tanzanian health centers through the use of a short wealth questionnaire. Methods Patients admitted to four rural health centers in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania from May 2008 to May 2009 were surveyed about their illness, asset ownership and demographics. Principal component analysis was used to compare the wealth of the inpatients to the wealth of the region's general population, using data from a previous population-based survey. Results Among inpatients, 15.3% were characterized as the most poor, 19.6% were characterized as very poor, 16.5% were characterized as poor, 18.9% were characterized as less poor, and 29.7% were characterized as the least poor. The wealth distribution of all inpatients (p < 0.0001), obstetric inpatients (p < 0.0001), other inpatients (p < 0.0001), and fee-exempt inpatients (p < 0.001) were significantly different than the wealth distribution in the community population, with poorer patients underrepresented among inpatients. The wealth distribution of pediatric inpatients (p = 0.2242) did not significantly differ from the population at large. Conclusion The findings indicated that while current Tanzanian health financing policies may have improved access to health care for children under five, additional policies are needed to further close the equity gap, especially for obstetric inpatients. PMID:22333044

2012-01-01

310

Women's Preferences for Place of Delivery in Rural Tanzania: A Population-Based Discrete Choice Experiment  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) in rural western Tanzania, where only one third of women deliver children in a health facility, to evaluate health-system factors that influence women's delivery decisions. Methods. Women were shown choice cards that described 2 hypothetical health centers by means of 6 attributes (distance, cost, type of provider, attitude of provider, drugs and equipment, free transport). The women were then asked to indicate which of the 2 facilities they would prefer to use for a future delivery. We used a hierarchical Bayes procedure to estimate individual and mean utility parameters. Results. A total of 1203 women completed the DCE. The model showed good predictive validity for actual facility choice. The most important facility attributes were a respectful provider attitude and availability of drugs and medical equipment. Policy simulations suggested that if these attributes were improved at existing facilities, the proportion of women preferring facility delivery would rise from 43% to 88%. Conclusions. In regions in which attended delivery rates are low despite availability of primary care facilities, policy experiments should test the effect of targeted quality improvements on facility use. PMID:19608959

Paczkowski, Magdalena; Mbaruku, Godfrey; de Pinho, Helen; Galea, Sandro

2009-01-01

311

Sustaining water resource use in the degraded environment of the Irangi Hills, central Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Irangi Hills in the semiarid central Tanzania are known for their severe land degradation, particularly through soil erosion. This study aims at investigating the dynamics in the local resource management and adaptive farming strategies. A combination of conventional survey methods, participatory analysis, soil description and aerial photo interpretations were used in the analysis of spatial and temporal land-use patterns. Results from the study showed that farmers utilised all possible niches in the landscape with the agricultural practices varying considerably, depending on spatial variations in soil conditions, water availability and retention capacity of the soil. The hard clayey soils were often ploughed at the end of the rainy season, before the soil dried out, to facilitate timeliness of planting in the following growing season, and to enhance water infiltration at the onset of the rainy season. Seasonally waterlogged soils were intensively cultivated and planted late during the growing season, with crops maturing only from groundwater resource. To make effective use of available groundwater resources during the dry season, the droughty and often infertile sands in ephemeral watercourses are used for growing vegetables or sugarcane in sunken holes without additional fertilisers/manure. This suggests that the crops grown obtain sufficient nutrients only from groundwater resources. However, the sustainability of cultivation in these ephemeral waterways is still questionable.

Kangalawe, Richard Y. M.

312

Endangered edible orchids and vulnerable gatherers in the context of HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Tanzania is a wild orchid biodiversity hotspot and has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The wild orchids in the study are endemic and protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Every year, however, between 2.2 and 4.1 million orchid plants consumed in Zambia are estimated as originating from Tanzania. This research examines the differences between HIV/AIDS wild edible orchid gatherers and non-HIV/AIDS gatherers with regards to the frequency of gathering, salience in naming the various orchids, gathering knowledge acquisition and perceptions regarding the current state of abundance of the edible species. Methods Data was collected through interviews with 224 individuals in the Makete District of Tanzania close to the boarder of Zambia. Free-listings were conducted and Sutrup's Cultural Significance Index (CSI) constructed. The independent t-test was used to compare the differences in gathering frequencies between affected and non-affected gatherers. A multiple comparison of the 4 subgroups (affected adults and children, and non-affected adults and children) in gathering frequencies was done with a one way ANOVA test and its post hoc test. To examine the difference between affected and non-affected gatherers difference in source of gathering knowledge, a chi square test was run. Results Forty two vernacular names of gathered orchid species were mentioned corresponding to 7 botanical species belongs to genera Disa, Satyrium, Habenaria, Eulophia and Roeperocharis. Ninety-seven percent of HIV/AIDS affected households state that orchid gathering is their primary economic activity compared to non-HIV/AIDS affected households at 9.7 percent. The HIV/AIDS affected gathered significantly more often than the non-affected. AIDS orphans, however, gathered most frequently. Gatherers perceive a decreasing trend of abundance of 6 of the 7 species. Gathering activities were mainly performed in age based peer groups. The results revealed a significant difference between affected and non-affected individuals in terms of their source of gathering knowledge. Conclusions HIV/AIDS is related to increased reliance on the natural environment. This appears even more so for the most vulnerable, the AIDS orphaned children followed by HIV/AIDS widows. PMID:20021656

2009-01-01

313

Malaria diagnosis and treatment practices following introduction of rapid diagnostic tests in Kibaha District, Coast Region, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The success of the universal parasite-based malaria testing policy for fever patients attending primary health care (PHC) facilities in Tanzania will depend highly on health workers’ perceptions and practices. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the present use of malaria diagnostics (rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy), prescription behaviour and factors affecting adherence to test results at PHC facilities in Kibaha District, Coast Region, Tanzania. Methods Exit interviews were conducted with fever patients at PHC facilities and information on diagnostic test performed and treatment prescribed were recorded. Interviews with prescribers to assess their understanding, perceptions and practices related to RDTs were conducted, and health facility inventory performed to assess availability of staff, diagnostics and anti-malarial drugs. Results The survey was undertaken at ten governmental PHC facilities, eight of which had functional diagnostics. Twenty health workers were interviewed and 195 exit interviews were conducted with patients at the PHC facilities. Of the 168 patients seen at facilities with available diagnostics, 105 (63%) were tested for malaria, 31 (30%) of whom tested positive. Anti-malarial drugs were prescribed to all patients with positive test results, 14% of patients with negative results and 28% of patients not tested for malaria. Antibiotics were more likely to be prescribed to patients with negative test results compared to patients with positive results (81 vs 39%, p?Tanzania despite the universal malaria testing policy of fever patients. The use of malaria diagnostics was also associated with higher prescription of antibiotics among patients with negative results. Strategies to address health system factors and health worker perceptions associated with these practices are needed. PMID:23977904

2013-01-01

314

Sero-positivity rate of rubella and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Sero-positivity rates of the rubella virus among pregnant women vary widely throughout the world. In Tanzania, rubella vaccination is not included in the national immunization schedule and there is therefore no antenatal screening for this viral disease. So far, there are no reports on the sero-prevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Tanzania. As a result, this study was undertaken to establish the sero-positivity rate of rubella and rubella risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods From November 2012 to May 2013 a total of 350 pregnant women were enrolled and their serum samples collected and analyzed using the AXSYM anti-rubella virus IgG/IgM-MEIA test. Demographic and clinical data were collected using a standardized data collection tool. Data analysis was done using STATA version 12. Results Of 342 pregnant women tested for rubella antibodies, 317 (92.6%) were positive for anti-rubella IgG while only 1 (0.3%) was positive for IgM. Higher sero-positivity rates were found in the age group of 25–44 years. Furthermore, it was observed that with each year increase in age, the risk of contracting rubella increases by 12% (OR?=?1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22, P?=?0.019). Women involved in farming and business women were at a higher risk of contracting rubella infection compared to formally employed women (OR: 4.9, P?=?0.011; OR 7.1, p?=?0.003 respectively). In univariate analysis, the risk of contracting rubella virus infection was found to increase with gestational age with a statistical significance. Conclusions Sero-positivity rates of rubella are high in Mwanza and are significantly associated with an increase in age and being a farmer or a business woman. Screening of rubella and immunization of women at risk are highly recommended in this area with a high non-immune rate against rubella virus. PMID:24589180

2014-01-01

315

Feasibility of introducing compulsory community health fund in low resource countries: views from the communities in Liwale district of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In 1995, Tanzania introduced the voluntary Community Health Fund (CHF) with the aim of ensuring universal health coverage by increasing financial investment in the health sector. The uptake of the CHF is low, with an enrolment of only 6% compared to the national target of 75%. Mandatory models of community health financing have been suggested to increase enrolment and financial capacity. This study explores communities’ views on the introduction of a mandatory model, the Compulsory Community Health Fund (CCHF) in the Liwale district of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study which involved 387 participants in a structured face to face survey and 33 in qualitative interviews (26 in focus group discussions (FGD) and 7 in in-depth interviews (IDI). Structured survey data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 to produce descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results 387 people completed a survey (58% males), mean age 38 years. Most participants (347, 89.7%) were poor subsistence farmers and 229 (59.2%) had never subscribed to any form of health insurance scheme. The idea of a CCHF was accepted by 221 (57%) survey participants. Reasons for accepting the CCHF included: reduced out of pocket expenditure, improved quality of health care and the removal of stigma for those who receive waivers at health care delivery points. The major reason for not accepting the CCHF was the poor quality of health care services currently offered. Participants suggested that enrolment to the CCHF be done after harvesting when the population were more likely to have disposable income, and that the quality care of care and benefits package be improved. Conclusions The CHF is acceptable to the most of study participants and feasible in rural Tanzania as an alternative mechanism to finance health care for the rural poor. Community members are willing to join the scheme provided they are well informed, involved in the design and implementation, and assured quality health care. Strong political will and a supportive environment are key ingredients for the success of the CCHF. PMID:23924271

2013-01-01

316

The costs of introducing artemisinin-based combination therapy: evidence from district-wide implementation in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The development of antimalarial drug resistance has led to increasing calls for the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However, little evidence is available on the full costs associated with changing national malaria treatment policy. This paper presents findings on the actual drug and non-drug costs associated with deploying ACT in one district in Tanzania, and uses these data to estimate the nationwide costs of implementation in a setting where identification of malaria cases is primarily dependant on clinical diagnosis. Methods Detailed data were collected over a three year period on the financial costs of providing ACT in Rufiji District as part of a large scale effectiveness evaluation, including costs of drugs, distribution, training, treatment guidelines and other information, education and communication (IEC) materials and publicity. The district-level costs were scaled up to estimate the costs of nationwide implementation, using four scenarios to extrapolate variable costs. Results The total district costs of implementing ACT over the three year period were slightly over one million USD, with drug purchases accounting for 72.8% of this total. The composite (best) estimate of nationwide costs for the first three years of ACT implementation was 48.3 million USD (1.29 USD per capita), which varied between 21 and 67.1 million USD in the sensitivity analysis (2003 USD). In all estimates drug costs constituted the majority of total costs. However, non-drug costs such as IEC materials, drug distribution, communication, and health worker training were also substantial, accounting for 31.4% of overall ACT implementation costs in the best estimate scenario. Annual implementation costs are equivalent to 9.5% of Tanzania's recurrent health sector budget, and 28.7% of annual expenditure on medical supplies, implying a 6-fold increase in the national budget for malaria treatment. Conclusion The costs of implementing ACT are substantial. Although drug purchases constituted a majority of total costs, non-drug costs were also considerable. It is clear that substantial external resources will be required to facilitate and sustain effective ACT delivery across Tanzania and other malaria-endemic countries. PMID:18179716

Njau, Joseph D; Goodman, Catherine A; Kachur, S Patrick; Mulligan, Jo; Munkondya, John S; Mchomvu, Naiman; Abdulla, Salim; Bloland, Peter; Mills, Anne

2008-01-01

317

Temporal trends of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Development and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) constitutes a major threat to recent global malaria control achievements. Surveillance of molecular markers could act as an early warning system of ACT-resistance before clinical treatment failures are apparent. The aim of this study was to analyse temporal trends of established genotypes associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance before and after its deployment as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Tanzania 2006. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) N86Y, Y184F, D1246Y and P. falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) K76T were analysed from dried blood spots collected during six consecutive studies from children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Fukayosi village, Bagamoyo District, Tanzania, between 2004–2011. Results There was a statistically significant yearly increase of pfmdr1 N86, 184F, D1246 and pfcrt K76 between 2006–2011 from 14% to 61% (yearly OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.25-1.52] p < 0.0001), 14% to 35% (OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.07-1.30] p = 0.001), 54% to 85% (OR = 1.21 [95% CI 1.03-1.42] p = 0.016) and 49% to 85% (OR = 1.33 [95% CI 1.17-1.51] p < 0.0001), respectively. Unlike for the pfmdr1 SNP, a significant increase of pfcrt K76 was observed already between 2004–2006, from 26% to 49% (OR = 1.68 [95% CI 1.17-2.40] p = 0.005). From 2006 to 2011 the pfmdr1 NFD haplotype increased from 10% to 37% (OR = 1.25 [95% CI 1.12-1.39] p < 0.0001), whereas the YYY haplotype decreased from 31% to 6% (OR = 0.73 [95% CI 0.56-0.98] p = 0.018). All 390 successfully analysed samples had one copy of the pfmdr1 gene. Conclusion The temporal selection of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance may represent an early warning sign of impaired future drug efficacy. This calls for stringent surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine efficacy in Tanzania and emphasizes the importance of molecular surveillance as a complement to standard in vivo trials. PMID:23506218

2013-01-01

318

Maternal near miss and mortality in a rural referral hospital in northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa remains high despite global efforts to reduce it. In order to lower maternal morbidity and mortality in the immediate term, reduction of delay in the provision of quality obstetric care is of prime importance. The aim of this study is to assess the occurrence of severe maternal morbidity and mortality in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania as proposed by the WHO near miss approach and to assess implementation levels of key evidence-based interventions in women experiencing severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed from November 2009 until November 2011 in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. All maternal near misses and maternal deaths were included. As not all WHO near miss criteria were applicable, a modification was used to identify cases. Data were collected from medical records using a structured data abstraction form. Descriptive frequencies were calculated for demographic and clinical variables, outcome indicators, underlying causes, and process indicators. Results In the two-year period there were 216 maternal near misses and 32 maternal deaths. The hospital-based maternal mortality ratio was 350 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (95% CI 243–488). The maternal near miss incidence ratio was 23.6 per 1,000 live births, with an overall case fatality rate of 12.9%. Oxytocin for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage was used in 96 of 201 women and oxytocin for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage was used in 38 of 66 women. Furthermore, eclampsia was treated with magnesium sulphate in 87% of all cases. Seventy-four women underwent caesarean section, of which 25 women did not receive prophylactic antibiotics. Twenty-eight of 30 women who were admitted with sepsis received parenteral antibiotics. The majority of the cases with uterine rupture (62%) occurred in the hospital. Conclusion Maternal morbidity and mortality remain challenging problems in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. Key evidence-based interventions are not implemented in women with severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Progress can be made through up scaling the use of evidence-based interventions, such as the use of oxytocin for prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. PMID:23826935

2013-01-01

319

Knowledge and attitude towards zoonoses among animal health workers and livestock keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Zoonoses are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. An exploratory questionnaire-based survey of animal health workers(n=36) and livestock keepers(n=43) was carried out from April 2001 to March 2002 in Tanga and Arusha regions, northern Tanzania, to assess local knowledge, attitudes and public awareness for animal zoonoses. A combination of closed and open-ended questions, focus group discussions and ranking techniques were employed to gather information on perceptions concerning the type of zoonotic diseases prevalent in the study area, level of risk, mode of transmission and methods of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans. The results demonstrated that rabies, tuberculosis and anthrax were considered the three most common zoonotic diseases. Sharing living accommodation with animals, consumption of un-treated livestock products (i.e. milk, meat or eggs) and attending to parturition were perceived as routes of transmission. Knowledge about zoonosis was higher in smallholder dairy (92%; 33/36) than traditional livestock keepers (P<0.05). On the contrary, the perceived risk of contracting a zoonosis was significantly higher in traditional livestock (86%; 6/7) than smallholder dairy keepers (P<0.05). Stratification of the risk of zoonosis by farm location revealed that rural farms (85%; 7/8) were considered significantly at a higher risk when compared to peri or urban located farms (P<0.05). Most of the respondents stated cooking of meat or boiling of milk as a way to prevent transmission. However, there was a significant difference in the perception of the risk posed by contact with potentially infected animals /or animal products with animal health workers having a much higher level of perception compared to livestock keepers. These results suggest that in the Tanga and Arusha, Tanzania, patchy awareness and knowledge of zoonoses, combined with food consumption habits and poor animal husbandry are likely to expose respondents to an increased risk of contracting zoonoses. Public health promotion on education and inter-disciplinary one-health collaboration between vets, public health practitioners and policy makers should result in a more efficient and effective joint approach to the diagnosis and control of zoonoses in Tanzania. PMID:24409636

Swai, Emanuel S; Schoonman, Luuk; Daborn, Chris J

2010-10-01

320

Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern Tanzania: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the paucity of epidemiological information on maternal deaths, and the high maternal mortality estimates found earlier in the study area, our objective was to assess determinants of maternal deaths in a rural setting in the highlands of northern Tanzania by comparing the women dying of maternal causes with women from the same population who had attended antenatal clinics in the same time period. Methods A case-control study was done in two administrative divisions in Mbulu and Hanang districts in rural Tanzania. Forty-five cases of maternal death were found through a comprehensive community- and health-facility based study in 1995 and 1996, while 135 antenatal attendees from four antenatal clinics in the same population, geographical area, and time-span of 1995–96 served as controls. The cases and controls were compared using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, were used as an approximation of relative risk, and were adjusted for place of residence (ward) and age. Further adjustment was done for potentially confounding variables. Results An increased risk of maternal deaths was found for women from 35–49 years versus 15–24 years (OR 4.0; 95%CI 1.5–10.6). Women from ethnic groups other than the two indigenous groups of the area had an increased risk of maternal death (OR 13.6; 95%CI 2.5–75.0). There was an increased risk when women or husbands adhered to traditional beliefs, (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.0–4.5) and (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.2–5.7), respectively. Women whose husbands did not have any formal education appeared to have an increased risk (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.0–5.0). Conclusion Increasing maternal age, ethnic and religious affiliation, and low formal education of the husbands were associated with increased risk of maternal death. Increased attention needs to be given to formal education of both men and women. In addition, education of the male decision-makers should be given high priority in the community, especially in matters concerning pregnancy and delivery preparedness, since their choice greatly affects the survival of the pregnant and delivering women. PMID:18257937

Evjen-Olsen, Bj?rg; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Lie, Rolv Terje; Bergsj?, Per; Gasheka, Peter; Kvale, Gunnar

2008-01-01

321

Field evaluation of the photo-induced electron transfer fluorogenic primers (PET) real-time PCR for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate diagnosis of malaria infections remains challenging, especially in the identification of submicroscopic infections. New molecular diagnostic tools that are inexpensive, sensitive enough to detect low-level infections and suitable in laboratory settings of resource-limited countries are required for malaria control and elimination programmes. Here the diagnostic potential of a recently developed photo-induced electron transfer fluorogenic primer (PET) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) called PET-PCR was investigated. This study aimed to (i) evaluate the use of this assay as a method for the detection of both Plasmodium falciparum and other Plasmodium species infections in a developing country’s diagnostic laboratory; and, (ii) determine the assay’s sensitivity and specificity compared to a nested 18S rRNA PCR. Methods Samples used in this study were obtained from a previous study conducted in the region of Iringa, Tanzania. A total of 303 samples from eight health facilities in Tanzania were utilized for this evaluation. All samples were screened using the multiplex PET-PCR assay designed to detect Plasmodium genus and P. falciparum initially in laboratory in Tanzania and then repeated at a reference laboratory at the CDC in the USA. Microscopy data was available for all the 303 samples. A subset of the samples were tested in a blinded fashion to find the sensitivity and specificity of the PET-PCR compared to the nested 18S rRNA PCR. Results Compared to microscopy, the PET-PCR assay was 59% more sensitive in detecting P. falciparum infections. The observed sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% confidence interval (CI0.95)?=?94-100%) and (CI0.95?=?96-100%), respectively, for the PET-PCR assay when compared to nested 18S rRNA PCR. When compared to 18S rRNA PCR, microscopy had a low sensitivity of 40% (CI0.95?=?23-61%) and specificity of 100% (CI0.95?=?96-100%). The PET-PCR results performed in the field laboratory in Tanzania were in 100% concordance with the results obtained at the reference laboratory in the USA. Conclusion The PET-PCR is a new molecular diagnostic tool with similar performance characteristics as commonly used PCR methods that is less expensive, easy to use, and amiable to large scale-surveillance studies in developing country settings. PMID:24467985

2014-01-01

322

Domestic water supply, competition for water resources and IWRM in Tanzania: a review and discussion paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the historical development of domestic water supplies in Tanzania, the consequences of major policy shifts during the last seven decades, and some of the reasons for the failure of water supply systems. It considers the extent to which water resource issues are constraints in meeting the water supply needs of rural and urban populations, and the relevance of integrated water resources management to the WSS sector. Drawing upon case-study material from two major river basins, the Pangani and Rufiji, it reviews some of the practical steps being taken to implement IWRM principles in Tanzania.

Maganga, Faustin P.; Butterworth, John A.; Moriarty, Patrick

323

Prosecuting child abusers, respecting victims: a contrast of approaches in the UK, Tajikistan and Tanzania.  

PubMed

This article summarises child abuse as a global problem of increasing breadth and complexity. It reviews the development of procedures for prosecuting alleged abusers and treating complainants appropriately in the course of investigations, medical examinations and court hearings. It contrasts the diverse environments of the UK, Tajikistan and Tanzania. The author draws on his experience of practising criminal law since 1984 in England and Wales and working as a consultant in 2011 with the Girls Support Service in Tajikistan, a European-and UN-funded NGO, and with UNICEF in Tanzania in 2012. PMID:24069954

Owen, David M

2013-11-01

324

Progress in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Three Regions of Tanzania: A Retrospective Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 remains an important problem in sub-Saharan Africa where most new pediatric HIV-1 infections occur. Early infant diagnosis of HIV-1 using dried blood spot (DBS) PCR among exposed infants provides an opportunity to assess current MTCT rates. Methods We conducted a retrospective data analysis on mother-infant pairs from all PMTCT programs in three regions of northern Tanzania to determine MTCT rates from 2008–2010. Records of 3,016 mother-infant pairs were assessed to determine early transmission among HIV-exposed infants in the first 75 days of life. Results Of 2,266 evaluable infants in our cohort, 143 had a positive DBS PCR result at ?75 days of life, for an overall transmission rate of 6.3%. Transmission decreased substantially over the period of study as more effective regimens became available. Transmission rates were tightly correlated to maternal regimen: 14.9% (9.5, 20.3) of infants became infected when women received no therapy; 8.8% (6.9, 10.7) and 3.6% (2.4, 4.8) became infected when women received single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) or combination prophylaxis, respectively; the lowest MTCT rates occurred when women were on HAART, with 2.1% transmission (0.3, 3.9). Treatment regimens changed dramatically over the study period, with an increase in combination prophylaxis and a decrease in the use of sdNVP. Uptake of DBS PCR more than tripled over the period of study for the three regions surveyed. Conclusions Our study demonstrates significant reductions in MTCT of HIV-1 in three regions of Tanzania coincident with increased use of more effective PMTCT interventions. The changes we demonstrate for the period of 2008–2010 occurred prior to major changes in WHO PMTCT guidelines. PMID:24551134

Buchanan, Ann M.; Dow, Dorothy E.; Massambu, Charles G.; Nyombi, Balthazar; Shayo, Aisa; Musoke, Rahma; Feng, Sheng; Bartlett, John A.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Schimana, Werner

2014-01-01

325

cART prescription trends in a prospective HIV cohort in rural Tanzania from 2007 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines discourage using stavudine in first-line regimens due to frequent and severe side effects. This study describes the implementation of this recommendation and trends in usage of antiretroviral therapy combinations in a cohort of HIV-positive patients in rural Tanzania. Methods We analyzed longitudinal, prospectively collected clinical data of HIV-1 infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy within the Kilombero Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in Ifakara, Tanzania from 2007-2011. Results This analysis included data of 3008 patients. Median age was 38 (interquartile range [IQR] 31-45) years, 1962 (65.2%) of all subjects were female, and median CD4+ cell count at enrollment was 168 cells/mm3 (IQR 81-273). The percentage of prescriptions containing stavudine in initial regimens fell from a maximum of 75.3% in 2008 to 10.7% in 2011. TDF/FTC/EFV became available in 2009 and was used in 41.9% of patients initiating cART in 2011. An overall on-treatment analysis revealed that d4T/3TC/NVP and AZT/3TC/EFV were the most prescribed combinations in each year, including 2011 (674 [36.5%] and 641 [34.7%] patients, respectively). Of those receiving stavudine in 2011, 659 (89.1%) initiated it before 2011. Conclusions Initial cART with stavudine declined to low levels according to recommendations but the overall use of stavudine remained substantial, as individuals already on cART containing stavudine were not changed to alternative drugs. Our findings highlight the critical need to exchange stavudine in treatment regimens of patients who initiated therapy in earlier years. PMID:24552395

2014-01-01

326

Application of quantitative second-line drug susceptibility testing at a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis hospital in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Lack of rapid and reliable susceptibility testing for second-line drugs used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) may limit treatment success. Methods Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients referred to Kibong’oto National TB Hospital in Tanzania for second-line TB treatment underwent confirmatory speciation and susceptibility testing. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing on MYCOTB Sensititre plates was performed for all drugs available in the second-line formulary. We chose to categorize isolates as borderline susceptible if the MIC was at or one dilution lower than the resistance breakpoint. M. tuberculosis DNA was sequenced for resistance mutations in rpoB (rifampin), inhA (isoniazid, ethionamide), katG (isoniazid), embB (ethambutol), gyrA (fluoroquinolones), rrs (amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin), eis (kanamycin) and pncA (pyrazinamide). Results Of 22 isolates from patients referred for second-line TB treatment, 13 (59%) were MDR-TB and the remainder had other resistance patterns. MIC testing identified 3 (14%) isolates resistant to ethionamide and another 8 (36%) with borderline susceptibility. No isolate had ofloxacin resistance, but 10 (45%) were borderline susceptible. Amikacin was fully susceptible in 15 (68%) compared to only 11 (50%) for kanamycin. Resistance mutations were absent in gyrA, rrs or eis for all 13 isolates available for sequencing, but pncA mutation resultant in amino acid change or stop codon was present in 6 (46%). Ten (77%) of MDR-TB patients had at least one medication that could have logically been modified based on these results (median 2; maximum 4). The most common modifications were a change from ethioniamide to para-aminosalicylic acid, and the use of higher dose levofloxacin. Conclusions In Tanzania, quantitative second-line susceptibility testing could inform and alter MDR-TB management independent of drug-resistance mutations. Further operational studies are warranted. PMID:24034230

2013-01-01

327

Predictors of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies among women of childbearing age in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background While unintended pregnancies pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of families globally, characteristics of Tanzanian women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. This analysis identifies factors associated with unintended pregnancies—both mistimed and unwanted—in three rural districts of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2,183 random households was conducted in three Tanzanian districts of Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga in 2011 to assess women’s health behavior and service utilization patterns. These households produced 3,127 women age 15+?years from which 2,199 gravid women aged 15–49 were selected for the current analysis. Unintended pregnancies were identified as either mistimed (wanted later) or unwanted (not wanted at all). Correlates of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies were identified through Chi-squared tests to assess associations and multinomial logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results Mean age of the participants was 32.1 years. While 54.1% of the participants reported that their most recent pregnancy was intended, 32.5% indicated their most recent pregnancy as mistimed and 13.4% as unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (<20 years), and single marital status were significant predictors of both mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Lack of inter-partner communication about family planning increased the risk of mistimed pregnancy significantly, and multi-gravidity was shown to significantly increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Conclusions About one half of women in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania conceive unintentionally. Women, especially the most vulnerable should be empowered to avoid pregnancy at their own will and discretion. PMID:25102924

2014-01-01

328

What elements of the work environment are most responsible for health worker dissatisfaction in rural primary care clinics in Tanzania?  

PubMed Central

Background In countries with high maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, reliable access to quality healthcare in rural areas is essential to save lives. Health workers who are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to remain in rural posts. Understanding what factors influence health workers’ satisfaction can help determine where resources should be focused. Although there is a growing body of research assessing health worker satisfaction in hospitals, less is known about health worker satisfaction in rural, primary health clinics. This study explores the workplace satisfaction of health workers in primary health clinics in rural Tanzania. Methods Overall, 70 health workers in rural Tanzania participated in a self-administered job satisfaction survey. We calculated mean ratings for 17 aspects of the work environment. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to identify groupings of these variables. We then examined the bivariate associations between health workers demographics and clinic characteristics and each of the satisfaction scales. Results Results showed that 73.9% of health workers strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their job; however, only 11.6% strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their level of pay and 2.9% with the availability of equipment and supplies. Two categories of factors emerged from the PCA: the tools and infrastructure to provide care, and supportive interpersonal environment. Nurses and medical attendants (compared to clinical officers) and older health workers had higher satisfaction scale ratings. Conclusions Two dimensions of health workers’ work environment, namely infrastructure and supportive interpersonal work environment, explained much of the variation in satisfaction among rural Tanzanian health workers in primary health clinics. Health workers were generally more satisfied with supportive interpersonal relationships than with the infrastructure. Human resource policies should consider how to improve these two aspects of work as a means for improving health worker morale and potentially rural attrition. Trial registration (ISRCTN 17107760) PMID:25086596

2014-01-01

329

Why are pro-poor exemption policies in Tanzania better implemented in some districts than in others?  

PubMed Central

Background Like other African countries, Tanzania has in recent years, been implementing various exemptions and targeting programmes to protect and ensure equitable access to health care by poorer segments of the population. A body of evidence indicates that exemption policies, while potentially effective in principle, are ineffective in implementation. However, there is evidence that some districts, despite the challenges, perform better than others in terms of identifying the poor and allocating funds for the poor and vulnerable groups. Methods Drawing from the review of minutes, health facility visits, and key informant interviews with the community representatives and the district health managers, the study explored why exemption policies in Tanzania are relatively better implemented in some districts than in others. Results The findings indicate that in Lindi district the pro-poor exemption mechanism was ineffective in implementation. There were no clear ways of identifying and protecting the poor household members. In contrast, in Iramba district the policy was relatively better implemented. The poor were identified at the village, ward, health facility and district levels. In some villages, the poor were grouped in 10s to form one household. Then, using the village funds, the Community Health Fund cards were purchased for them. Personal initiatives of the key district leaders, commitment of the district health management team and local government officials, regular supervisory visits, as well as incentives to the health facility committees and boards were the main factors that facilitated the implementation of the pro-poor exemption policy. Conclusions It is concluded from this study that management and leadership practices including personal initiatives of the key district leaders, effective supervision mechanisms, commitment of the district health management team and local government officials, as well as incentives for the health facility committees and board members are pivotal for the implementation of the pro-poor exemption policies. PMID:24069940

2013-01-01

330

Unfulfilled expectations to services offered at primary health care facilities: Experiences of caretakers of underfive children in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that patients frequently bypass primary health care (PHC) facilities in favour of higher level hospitals regardless of substantial additional time and costs. Among the reasons given for bypassing are poor services (including lack of drugs and diagnostic facilities) and lack of trust in health workers. The World Health Report 2008 “PHC now more than ever” pointed to the importance of organizing health services around people’s needs and expectations as one of the four main issues of PHC reforms. There is limited documentation of user’s expectations to services offered at PHC facilities. The current study is a community extension of a hospital-based survey that showed a high bypassing frequency of PHC facilities among caretakers seeking care for their underfive children at two district hospitals. We aimed to explore caretakers’ perceptions and expectations to services offered at PHC facilities in their area with reference to their experiences seeking care at such facilities. Methods We conducted four community-based focus group discussions (FGD’s) with 47 caretakers of underfive children in Muheza district of Tanga region, Tanzania in October 2009. Results Lack of clinical examinations and laboratory tests, combined with shortage of drugs and health workers, were common experiences. Across all the focus group discussions, unpleasant health workers’ behaviors, lack of urgency and unnecessary delays were major complaints. In some places, unauthorized fees reduced access to services. Conclusion The study revealed significant disappointments among caretakers with regard to the quality of services offered at PHC facilities in their areas, with implications for their utilization and proper functioning of the referral system. Practices regarding partial drugs administrations, skipping of injections, unofficial payments and consultations by unskilled health care providers need urgent action. There is also a need for proper accountability mechanisms to govern appropriate allocation and monitoring of health care resources and services in Tanzania. PMID:22697458

2012-01-01

331

Spatially Explicit Burden Estimates of Malaria in Tanzania: Bayesian Geostatistical Modeling of the Malaria Indicator Survey Data  

PubMed Central

A national HIV/AIDS and malaria parasitological survey was carried out in Tanzania in 2007–2008. In this study the parasitological data were analyzed: i) to identify climatic/environmental, socio-economic and interventions factors associated with child malaria risk and ii) to produce a contemporary, high spatial resolution parasitaemia risk map of the country. Bayesian geostatistical models were fitted to assess the association between parasitaemia risk and its determinants. Bayesian kriging was employed to predict malaria risk at unsampled locations across Tanzania and to obtain the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation methods were employed for model fit and prediction. Parasitaemia risk estimates were linked to population data and the number of infected children at province level was calculated. Model validation indicated a high predictive ability of the geostatistical model, with 60.00% of the test locations within the 95% credible interval. The results indicate that older children are significantly more likely to test positive for malaria compared with younger children and living in urban areas and better-off households reduces the risk of infection. However, none of the environmental and climatic proxies or the intervention measures were significantly associated with the risk of parasitaemia. Low levels of malaria prevalence were estimated for Zanzibar island. The population-adjusted prevalence ranges from in Kaskazini province (Zanzibar island) to in Mtwara region. The pattern of predicted malaria risk is similar with the previous maps based on historical data, although the estimates are lower. The predicted maps could be used by decision-makers to allocate resources and target interventions in the regions with highest burden of malaria in order to reduce the disease transmission in the country. PMID:22649486

Gosoniu, Laura; Msengwa, Amina; Lengeler, Christian; Vounatsou, Penelope

2012-01-01

332

Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. Methods In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007 2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. Results There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. Conclusion The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria. PMID:24884786

2014-01-01

333

Boys' and Young Men's Perspectives on Violence in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The challenge of violence for youth in low-income countries includes a range of experiences from witnessing to experiencing to participating in violence. Although boys and young men are often the perpetrators of such violence, they may also be its victims. Yet little evidence exists from the voiced experiences of boys themselves on perceptions and interpretations of the violence around them. Given the numerous negative health implications of violence for boys, for the girls and other boys with whom they interact, and for the health of their future partners and families, we conducted an in-depth study in rural and urban Tanzania with adolescent boys on the masculinity norms shaping their transitions through puberty that might be contributing to high-risk behaviours, including engagement in violence. The findings identified underlying societal gendered norms influencing the enactment of violence, and recommendations from the boys on how to diminish the violence around them. Additional research is needed with boys on the social norms and structural factors influencing their engagement in violence. PMID:23586440

Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

2013-01-01

334

Gendered norms, sexual exploitation and adolescent pregnancy in rural Tanzania.  

PubMed

Adolescent pregnancy places girls at increased risk for poor health and educational outcomes that limit livelihood options, economic independence, and empowerment in adulthood. In Tanzania, adolescent pregnancy remains a significant concern, with over half of all first births occurring before women reach the age of 20. A participatory research and action project (Vitu Newala) conducted formative research in a rural district on the dynamics of sexual risk and agency among 82 girls aged 12-17. Four major risk factors undermined girls' ability to protect their own health and well-being: poverty that pushed them into having sex to meet basic needs, sexual expectations on the part of older men and boys their age, rape and coercive sex (including sexual abuse from an early age), and unintended pregnancy. Transactional sex with older men was one of the few available sources of income that allowed adolescent girls to meet their basic needs, making this a common choice for many girls, even though it increased the risk of unintended (early) pregnancy. Yet parents and adult community members blamed the girls alone for putting themselves at risk. These findings were used to inform a pilot project aimed to engage and empower adolescent girls and boys as agents of change to influence powerful gender norms that perpetuate girls' risk. PMID:23684192

McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Douglas, Zayid; Rwehumbiza, Annagrace; Hamisi, Aziza; Mabala, Richard

2013-05-01

335

Anthelmintic usage of extracts of Embelia schimperi from Tanzania.  

PubMed

Embelia schimperi Vatke, belonging to the family Myrsinaceae, is used among the traditional Masai people of Tanzania and Kenya since it is believed to eliminate adult Taenia saginata, the beef tapeworm. In the present study, the anthelmintic effect of an extract of the dried fruits of Embelia schimperi was studied in experimental parasite/rodent models. In two experiments, rats with 10 adult tapeworms of Hymenolepis diminuta were treated with a diammonium salt of embelin (DE), isolated from the fruits. Significant lower numbers and total worm biomass of Hymenolepis diminuta were observed in rats treated with 100 mg DE/kg. Furthermore, clear indications of the occurrence of destrobilation was observed in faeces after treatment and in 16% of the worms found at autopsy. The killing effect shown in vivo was corroborated by in vitro studies, which showed that all adult Hymenolepis diminuta were killed when incubated in a culture medium containing as little as 0.08 mg DE/ml. No significant in vivo effect of DE was observed against Hymenolepis microstoma, the trematode Echinostoma caproni and the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice, although the worms could be killed in vitro. These results indicate that the crushed seeds of Embelia schimperi taken orally by the Masai people indeed have an anthelmintic effect against human intestinal tapeworms. PMID:8778505

Bøgh, H O; Andreassen, J; Lemmich, J

1996-01-01

336

Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18–49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis. Results Four themes emerged during the study. First, “risks and costs” which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, “male involvement” as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, “gender relations and communication” as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, “urban–rural differences”, life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence. Conclusion Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use. PMID:23721196

2013-01-01

337

Factors affecting uptake of optimal doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in six districts of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with optimal doses (two+) of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) protects pregnant women from malaria-related adverse outcomes. This study assesses the extent and predictors of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP in six districts of Tanzania. Methods The data come from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in six districts in Tanzania in 2012. A total of 1,267 women, with children aged less than two years and who had sought antenatal care (ANC) at least once during pregnancy, were selected for the current analysis. Data analysis involved the use of Chi-Square (?2) for associations and multivariate analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Results Overall, 43.6% and 28.5% of the women received optimal (two+) and partial (one) doses of IPTp-SP respectively during pregnancy. Having had been counseled on the dangers of malaria during pregnancy was the most pervasive determinant of both optimal (RRR?=?6.47, 95% CI 4.66-8.97) and partial (RRR?=?4.24, 95% CI 3.00-6.00) uptake of IPTp-SP doses. Early ANC initiation was associated with a higher likelihood of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP (RRR?=?2.05, 95% CI 1.18-3.57). Also, women with secondary or higher education were almost twice as likely as those who had never been to school to have received optimal SP doses during pregnancy (RRR?=?1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.56). Being married was associated with a 60% decline in the partial uptake of IPTp-SP (RRR?=?0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). Inter-district variations in the uptake of both optimal and partial IPTp-SP doses existed (P?Tanzania. ANC initiation in the first trimester should be promoted to enhance coverage of optimal doses of IPTp-SP. Programmes should aim to curb geographical barriers due to place of residence to enhance optimal coverage of IPTp-SP in Tanzania. PMID:24423279

2014-01-01

338

Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among 10-19 year-old adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV/AIDS pandemic remains a leading challenge for global health. Although condoms are acknowledged for their key role on preventing HIV transmission, low and inappropriate use of condoms persists in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa. This study assesses factors affecting acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania. Methods Data were collected in 2011 as part of a larger cross-sectional survey on condom use among 10–19?year-olds in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Associations between acceptability of condom promotion and distribution and each of the explanatory variables were tested using Chi Square. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent predictors of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution using STATA (11) statistical software at 5% significance level. Results Mean age of the 1,327 adolescent participants (50.5% being males) was 13.5?years (SD?=?1.4). Acceptance of condom promotion and distribution was found among 37% (35% in Mpwapwa and 39% in Mbeya rural) of the adolescents. Being sexually active and aged 15–19 was the strongest predictor of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution (OR?=?7.78, 95% CI 4.65-12.99). Others were; not agreeing that a condom is effective in preventing transmissions of STIs including HIV (OR?=?0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.56), being a resident of Mbeya rural district (OR?=?1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.19), feeling comfortable being seen by parents/guardians holding/buying condoms (OR?=?2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.46) and living with a guardian (OR?=?1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.04). Conclusion Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural is low. Effect of sexual activity on the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution is age-dependent and was the strongest. Feeling comfortable being seen by parents/guardians buying or holding condoms, perceived ability of condoms to offer protection against HIV/AIDS infections, district of residence and living arrangements also offered significant predictive effect. Knowledge of these factors is vital in designing successful and sustainable condom promotion and distribution programs in Tanzania. PMID:22892205

2012-01-01

339

Stakeholders' participation in planning and priority setting in the context of a decentralised health care system: the case of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV programme in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In Tanzania, decentralisation processes and reforms in the health sector aimed at improving planning and accountability in the sector. As a result, districts were given authority to undertake local planning and set priorities as well as allocate resources fairly to promote the health of a population with varied needs. Nevertheless, priority setting in the health care service has remained a challenge. The study assessed the priority setting processes in the planning of the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme at the district level in Tanzania. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in Mbarali district, south-western Tanzania. The study applied in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in the data collection. Informants included members of the Council Health Management Team, regional PMTCT managers and health facility providers. Results Two plans were reported where PMTCT activities could be accommodated; the Comprehensive Council Health Plan and the Regional PMTCT Plan that was donor funded. As donors had their own globally defined priorities, it proved difficult for district and regional managers to accommodate locally defined PMTCT priorities in these plans. As a result few of these were funded. Guidelines and main priority areas of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) also impacted on the ability of the districts and regions to act, undermining the effectiveness of the decentralisation policy in the health sector. Conclusion The challenges in the priority setting processes revealed within the PMTCT initiative indicate substantial weaknesses in implementing the Tanzania decentralisation policy. There is an urgent need to revive the strategies and aims of the decentralisation policy at all levels of the health care system with a view to improving health service delivery. PMID:23849730

2013-01-01

340

Bacterial vaginosis in female facility workers in north-western Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine prevalence of, and risk factors for, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 seropositive Tanzanian women at enrolment into a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of HSV suppressive treatment. Methods: 1305 HSV-2 seropositive women aged 16–35 years working in bars, guesthouses and similar facilities were interviewed, examined and tested for HIV, syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, BV, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Factors associated with BV were analysed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: BV prevalence was 62.9%; prevalence of Nugent score 9–10 was 16.1%. Independent risk factors for BV were work facility type, fewer dependents, increasing alcohol consumption, sex in the last week (adjusted OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.62), using cloths or cotton wool for menstrual hygiene, HIV (adjusted OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.83) and Trichomonas vaginalis infection. There was no association between BV and the frequency or method of vaginal cleansing. However, BV was less prevalent among women who reported inserting substances to dry the vagina for sex (adjusted OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.75). Conclusion: BV was extremely prevalent among our study population of HSV-2 positive female facility workers in North-western Tanzania. Although recent sex was associated with increased BV prevalence, vaginal drying was associated with lower BV prevalence. Further studies of the effects of specific practices on vaginal flora are warranted. PMID:19473997

Baisley, K; Changalucha, J; Weiss, H A; Mugeye, K; Everett, D; Hambleton, I; Hay, P; Ross, D; Tanton, C; Chirwa, T; Hayes, R; Watson-Jones, D

2009-01-01

341

Trematode infections in cattle in Arumeru District, Tanzania are associated with irrigation  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between the environment and infection of cattle with trematodes was studied at Arumeru District, Arusha Region, northern Tanzania. Randomly selected villages were grouped into three cattle management strata, (i) zero-grazing (ZZ) (ii) communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) and (iii) communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI). Methods Faecal samples were collected from 241 cattle, and processed using the Flukefinder® method. Snail intermediate hosts were collected with a snail scoop from the water bodies in the study villages and identified morphologically. Results The overall prevalence of F. gigantica, paramphistomes and S. bovis were 33%, 37% and 2% respectively. Prevalence for F. gigantica, paramphistomes, and S. bovis for each stratum were, zero-grazing (ZZ) (29.7%, 36.0% and 0%), communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) (6.3%, 15.0% and 3.8%) and communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI) (57.7%, 56.7% and 1.0%) respectively. The differences between strata were significant for F. gigantica (p < 0.001) and paramphistomes (p < 0.05) but not for S. bovis. Irrigation could account for the high prevalence of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZCI stratum as compared to the ZZ and ZC strata. The higher prevalences of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZZ stratum compared with the ZC stratum were unexpected and attributed to the practice of farmers in some ZZ stratum villages buying fodder for their cattle obtained from pastures in ZCI villages. Conclusion Trematode infections in cattle are prevalent in Arumeru District. Fasciola gigantica and paramphistomes are associated with grazing in areas with irrigation of crops. Zero-grazing of cattle does not necessarily prevent the risk of infection. PMID:24650420

2014-01-01

342

"Workhood"-a useful concept for the analysis of health workers' resources? an evaluation from Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background International debates on improving health system performance and quality of care are strongly coined by systems thinking. There is a surprising lack of attention to the human (worker) elements. Although the central role of health workers within the health system has increasingly been acknowledged, there are hardly studies that analyze performance and quality of care from an individual perspective. Drawing on livelihood studies in health and sociological theory of capitals, this study develops and evaluates the new concept of workhood. As an analytical device the concept aims at understanding health workers' capacities to access resources (human, financial, physical, social, cultural and symbolic capital) and transfer them to the community from an individual perspective. Methods Case studies were conducted in four Reproductive-and-Child-Health (RCH) clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania, using different qualitative methods such as participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews to explore the relevance of the different types of workhood resources for effective health service delivery. Health workers' ability to access these resources were investigated and factors facilitating or constraining access identified. Results The study showed that lack of physical, human, cultural and financial capital constrained health workers' capacity to act. In particular, weak health infrastructure and health system failures led to the lack of sufficient drug and supply stocks and chronic staff shortages at the health facilities. However, health workers' capacity to mobilize social, cultural and symbolic capital played a significant role in their ability to overcome work related problems. Professional and non-professional social relationships were activated in order to access drug stocks and other supplies, transport and knowledge. Conclusions By evaluating the workhood concept this study highlights the importance of understanding health worker performance by looking at their resources and capacities. Rather than blaming health workers for health system failures, applying a strength-based approach offers new insights into health workers' capacities and identifies entry points for target actions. PMID:22401037

2012-01-01

343

Soft targets or partners in health? Retail pharmacies and their role in Tanzania's malaria control program.  

PubMed

The retail sector has been at the center of recent policy debates concerning its role in malaria control programs in Africa. This article closely examines the perspectives of owners and managers of retail pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, toward the dominant public health discourse and practices surrounding the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a way forward in malaria control. Drawing on fieldwork conducted between May-August 2007, and July-August 2009, involving in-depth interviews and participant observation in pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, the article describes the social realities facing people who manage retail pharmacies, the nature of their interactions with customers, the kinds of antimalarials they sell, and their perspective on how the new malaria treatment guidelines have affected their business. Findings suggest that for most pharmacy owners and managers, it is 'business as usual' concerning the sale of conventional antimalarials, with a majority reporting that the introduction of ACT in public health facilities had not negatively affected their business. Implications of the research findings are examined in the context of proposed interventions to make pharmacy owners and managers more socially responsible and adhere to government health regulations. The article makes a case for actively involving pharmacy owners and managers in decision making processes surrounding the implementation of new treatment guidelines, and training programs that have an impact on their business, social responsibility, and community health. In considering regulatory interventions, health planners must explicitly address the concern that retail pharmacies fill an important role in the country's health care system, and that the complex nexus that drives the global pharmaceutical market often governs their operations at the local level. PMID:20621751

Kamat, Vinay R; Nyato, Daniel J

2010-08-01

344

Effectiveness of phosphate rock on Ferralsols in Tanzania and the influence of within-field variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop yields in Tanzania are often limited by P deficiency. Direct application of the locally mined Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) is considered a possible option in addressing the problem. Being poorly soluble, it is more effective in low pH soils with sizeable P and Ca sinks. In soils rather high in pH, mechanisms are required to promote its dissolution. This

J. G. Mowo

2000-01-01

345

Shore Morphology and Sediment Characteristics South of Pangani River, Coastal Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shore morphology and nearshore sediments between the Pangani and Kipumbwi rivers were investigated to describe the shore and the reef platform sediments characteristics and also to update information on recent shoreline changes along the Tanzania mainland coast. The information gathered during this study comes from field observations, sediment sampling of the area and interviews with Pangani residents. The investigated

Y. W. Shaghude

346

Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania  

E-print Network

the health risks to humans, sewage pollution also threatens community structure, biodiversity, and services, 1985). Such deleterious effects of sewage pollution on coral reefs can have a strong impactIsotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania Molly A

Harvell, Catherine Drew

347

Acknowledgement prize 2008 Africa Middle East TunaHAKI integrated theater and orphanage, Moshi, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program for the TunaHAKI Center located in Moshi, Tanzania, is at the same time both ordinary and spectacular, an or- phanage and a public theatre. As opposed to the conventional approach of accommodating orphaned children in facilities isolated from the rest of the community, the orphanage is conceptualized as a communal focal point anchoring other com- munity activities. This

Hollmén Reuter; Sandman Architects; Saija Hannele; Helena Elisabeth

2008-01-01

348

Energybalance model validation on the top of Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, using eddy covariance data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eddy covariance data collected over a horizontal surface on the largest ice body on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, over 26-29 July 2005 were used to assess the uncertainty of calculating sublimation with a surface energy balance (SEB) model. Data required for input to the SEB model were obtained from an existing automatic weather station. Surface temperatures that were solved iteratively by the

Nicolas J. Cullen; Thomas Mölg; Georg Kaser; Konrad Steffen; Douglas R. Hardy

2007-01-01

349

Protective Status, Ecology and Strategies for Improving Conservation of Cercocebus sanjei in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanje mangabeys (Cercocebus sanjei), first described in 1981, are among the most endangered primates in the world. They are endemic to the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, in a biogeographic region designated one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. Conservation research since 1997 has documented the presence of the mangabey in only 3 of the relict montane forest blocks of the Udzungwas.

Carolyn L. Ehardt; Trevor P. Jones; Thomas M. Butynski

2005-01-01

350

Floristic, structural and seed bank diversity of a dry Afromontane forest at Mafai, central Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flora, vegetation and seed bank were studied in a dry Afromontane forest in the Kondoa Irangi Hills, Tanzania with the objective to obtain information necessary for the promotion of conservation of this forest, which is rapidly degenerating due to human pressure. A preliminary checklist of 104 vascular plants occurring in the forest is provided. Based on 27 plots, each of

Herbert V. Lyaruu; Shadrack Eliapenda; Ingvar Backéus

2000-01-01

351

Information extraction from very high resolution satellite imagery over Lukole refugee camp, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses information extraction from IKONOS imagery over the Lukole refugee camp in Tanzania. More specific, it describes automatic image analysis procedures for a rapid and reliable identification of refugee tents as well as their spatial extent. From the identified tents, the number of refugees can be derived and a map of the camp can be generated, which can

S. Giada; T. de Groeve; D. Ehrlich; P. Soille

2003-01-01

352

"Nipe Nikupe": Dependency, Reciprocity, and Paradoxes of Food Aid in Lugufu Refugee Camp Kigoma, Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on primary fieldwork conducted in Lugufu refugee camp in the rural Kigoma Region of western Tanzania. It is an anthropological inquiry into the paradox of refugee food aid based on the prevailing dynamic of domination and submission currently advanced by the international aid community. This inquiry asks fundamental questions…

Hoyer, Brian

2005-01-01

353

International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) Tanzania Distance Education Manager  

E-print Network

Experience with developing, implementing, and/or evaluating mobile learning (mLearning) or mobile health (mHealthInternational Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) Tanzania Distance Education Manager Background The International Education and Training Centre for Health (I-TECH) is a collaboration between

Mullins, Dyche

354

Adult Literacy in Africa--Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania. Literacy Bibliographies 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 200 items are listed in this bibliography of materials pertaining to adult literacy in Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, the Sudan, and Tanzania. The listed materials are categorized according to country and deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) adult education and adaptation to change in Nigeria; (2) adult…

International Inst. for Adult Literacy Methods, Teheran (Iran).

355

The ST Site Complex at Peninj, West Lake Natron, Tanzania: Implications for Early Hominid Behavioural Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assemblage of 1·5Ma Oldowan sites situated on a paleosol of Maritanane, Peninj (Tanzania) presents a new type of archaeological record characterized by abundant faunal remains associated to a small amount of stone tools over an extensive area. The widespread nature of the archaeological materials, together with different weathering stages of the fauna and articulated clusters of bones suggests that

Manuel Dom??nguez-Rodrigo; Ignacio de La Torre; Luis de Luque; Luis Alcalá; Rafael Mora; Jordi Serrallonga; Victoria Medina

2002-01-01

356

Challenges for Water Governance in Rural Water Supply: Lessons Learned from Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the identification and analysis of key issues that impact the governance of rural water services in sub-Saharan Africa. Tanzania was selected as a representative case study. The analysis was based on a combination of relevant literature review, extensive fieldwork and action research case studies, which were carried out between 2005 and 2009. A number of weaknesses

A. Jiménez; A. Pérez-Foguet

2010-01-01

357

Human exposure to mercury due to small scale gold mining in northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Tanzania large numbers of small scale miners use mercury in the gold extraction process causing contamination of the environment and risks to human health. Human exposure to Hg was assessed in populations in and around small scale gold mining camps by means of human hair and urine surveys. We also determined Hg concentration in fish in aquatic bodies

Peter van Straaten

2000-01-01

358

The potential of agro-industrial residues for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country's big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues with a large potential for anaerobic conversion into

Amelia K. Kivaisi; M. S. T. Rubindamayugi

1996-01-01

359

Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) . PMID:20825444

Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

2011-02-01

360

The geology and mineralisation at the Golden Pride gold deposit, Nzega Greenstone Belt, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Pride gold deposit (˜3 Moz) is located in the central part of the Nzega Greenstone Belt at the southern margin of the Lake Victoria Goldfields in Tanzania. It represents an inferred Late Archaean, orogenic gold deposit and is hosted in intensely deformed meta-sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the approximately E-W striking Golden Pride Shear Zone. The

I. M. A. Vos; F. P. Bierlein; J. S. Standing; G. Davidson

2009-01-01

361

Case Series of Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate Associated with Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

In endemic areas, schistosomiasis has been associated with the pathogenesis of bladder, prostate, colorectal and renal carcinoma. However, the relationship between prostate cancer and schistosomiasis infection remains controversial. Here we present a series of three cases from Tanzania of prostatic adenocarcinoma associated with urinary schistosomiasis. PMID:20927294

Mazigo, Humphrey D; Zinga, Maria; Heukelbach, Jorg; Rambau, Peter

2010-01-01

362

The "Acquired Income Deficiency Syndrome": School Fees and Sexual Risk in Northern Tanzania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of structural adjustment policies on young women's educational opportunities and reproductive health in Kimimanjaro (Tanzania). Begins with a discussion of the economic, education, and reproductive health conditions. Describes the questionnaire and essay task used in the study. Reports findings from analysis of the quantitative…

Vavrus, Frances

2003-01-01

363

Potential for Rabies Control through Dog Vaccination in Wildlife-Abundant Communities of Tanzania  

E-print Network

for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute for Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, CollegePotential for Rabies Control through Dog Vaccination in Wildlife-Abundant Communities of Tanzania States of America Abstract Canine vaccination has been successful in controlling rabies in diverse

Myers, Lauren Ancel

364

The Poverty Demography Trap in Third World Countries: Empirical Evidence from Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study suggests that reducing fertility should be a primary policy variable used in concert with macroeconomic policies and poverty reduction strategies. It empirically verifies the existence of a poverty demography trap by analyzing survey data from two regions in northern Tanzania. It first summarizes the macro and microeconomic issues of the relationship between GDP and population growth, highlighting poverty

Asmerom Kidane

2010-01-01

365

Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 429..447  

E-print Network

price insulation. Indeed,the food price crisis of 2007­2008 saw several countries erect export global heterogeneity in climate-induced agricultural variability,Tanzania has the potential to substan- tially increase its maize exports to other countries. If global maize production is lower than usual

Pittendrigh, Barry

366

Affirmative Action, Gender Equity and University Admissions--Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines the outcomes of affirmative action policies aimed at improving access for women students to university education in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Different interpretations of affirmative action are found in the three countries. These include lower entry scores, remedial pre-university programmes and financial assistance. There…

Onsongo, Jane

2009-01-01

367

Critical elements in sustaining participatory planning: Bagamoyo strategic urban development planning framework in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, generally, and in Tanzania, particularly, urban development planning has in the 1990s become participatory and strategic and less technocratic and comprehensive. The shift has involved the preparation and implementation of general planning schemes rather than detail planning schemes. Inability to sustain technocratic and comprehensive urban planning, which is widely published, has prompted the shift to participatory and strategic urban

Francos Halla

2005-01-01

368

Sex, grades and power in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have naturalised a sexual contract in which some male academics consider

Louise Morley

2011-01-01

369

Improving household incomes and reducing deforestation using rotational woodlots in Tabora district, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing smallholder incomes and improving the environment are often viewed as conflicting objectives. Rotational woodlots in Tanzania appear to help farmers generate substantial income while at the same time conserving forest area. In the rotational woodlot system, farmers intercrop food crops with leguminous trees during the first 2–3 years, leave the trees to grow, harvest the trees in the 5th

T. Ramadhani; R. Otsyina; S. Franzel

2002-01-01

370

Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry Morogoro virus, although a large proportion shows specific antibodies. PMID:19961688

Hoofd, Guy; Charrel, Remi; Roser, Christina; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Lloyd, Graham; Sabuni, Christopher; Verhagen, Ron; van der Groen, Guido; Kennis, Jan; Katakweba, Abdul; Makundi, Rhodes; Leirs, Herwig

2009-01-01

371

Fatal canine distemper infection in a pack of African wild dogs in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, disease related mortality occurred in one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack close to the north-eastern boundary of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Histopathological examination of tissues from six animals revealed that the main pathologic changes comprised interstitial pneumonia and suppurative to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. Respiratory epithelial cells contained numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and multiple syncytial cells were

Katja V. Goller; Robert D. Fyumagwa; Veljko Nikolin; Marion L. East; Morris Kilewo; Stephanie Speck; Thomas Müller; Martina Matzke; Gudrun Wibbelt

2010-01-01

372

RABIES IN AFRICAN WILD DOGS (LYCAON PICTUS) IN THE SERENGETI REGION, TANZANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies was confirmed as the cause of death of one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Serengeti region, Tanzania. One adult African wild dog in the same pack showed central nervous signs consistent with rabies infection. Inactivated rabies vaccine was administered intra- muscularly to African wild dogs in two packs, by dart or by hand following anesthesia. These individuals

S. C. Gascoyne; M. K. Laurenson; M. Bomer

1993-01-01

373

The political economy of nation formation in modern Tanzania: explaining stability in the face of diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanzania's success in nation formation and ethnic conflict prevention is a striking refutation of the prevalence of state failure across post-colonial Africa. However, the Tanzanian case has heretofore never been examined in comparative perspective. This article reviews the existing set of literature claiming to explain Tanzanian exceptionalism – focusing, in particular, on ethnic diversity, nation-building and ethnic conflict management policies,

Elliott Green

2011-01-01

374

Seronera: Excavations at a Stone Bowl Site in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excavations at six localities at Seronera in the Serengeti National Park of northern Tanzania have revealed traces of prehistoric occupation from the “Middle Stone Age” to within the present millennium. A stratigraphical sequence of pottery styles was established; the earliest ware being of Gumban A type, here dated to around the first century B.C. Subsequent and perhaps partly contemporary with

John R. F. Bower

1973-01-01

375

A new vertebrate fauna from the Cretaceous Red Sandstone Group, Rukwa Rift Basin, Southwestern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rukwa Rift Basin Project was initiated to conduct exploratory field paleontology in poorly sampled terrestrial strata in southern and western Tanzania. Here we report the discovery of a series of new fossiliferous localities from Red Sandstone Group deposits in the Rukwa Rift Basin. These localities contain a diverse Cretaceous terrestrial\\/freshwater vertebrate fauna that consists of members of several major

Patrick M. O’Connor; Michael D. Gottfried; Nancy J. Stevens; Eric M. Roberts; Sifa Ngasala; Saidi Kapilima; Remigius Chami

2006-01-01

376

Converting to rice: urbanization, Islamization and crops on Pemba Island, Tanzania, ad 700–1500  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to Arab and European imperialism, the farmers of eastern Africa's Swahili coast engaged in a mixed economy, including fishing, animal husbandry and trade in the Indian Ocean's early global economy. This trade network also exposed eastern Africans to new Asian foodways. Botanical data from archaeological sites on northern Pemba Island, Tanzania, show that ancient Pembans first relied heavily on

Sarah C. Walshaw

2010-01-01

377

Weed populations and agronomic practices at wheat farms on the Hanang plains in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weed species and densities of weeds present on the wheat farms at the Hanang plains in northern Tanzania were surveyed just before wheat harvest in May, 1986. The dominant weed was Setaria spp. mainly, Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv., which occurred at an average density of 58 shoots\\/m. Additional weed species which occurred at average densities of greater than 1 plant\\/m

J. R. Moyer; Z. J. Owenya; S. P. Kibuwa

1989-01-01

378

Uranium-series dating of bone from the Isimila prehistoric site, Tanzania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EXCAVATIONS in 1957 and 1958 at the Isimila prehistoric site, in Tanzania1, sampled Acheulian occurrences in horizons at various levels in the Isimila Beds which are approximately 18 m thick. No significant breaks were observed in the sedimentary sequence, although there are numerous local hiatuses. ?? 1972 Nature Publishing Group.

Howell, F.C.; Cole, G.H.; Kleindienst, M.R.; Szabo, B. J.; Oakley, K.P.

1972-01-01

379

Making Distinctions: Privatisation and the (un)Educated Girl on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines effects of privatization policies on rural girls' education in Tanzania's Kilimanjaro region. Results of a study of parent wealth and education, surveys of female secondary students, and interviews with out-of-school young women show that privatization has made secondary school attendance more difficult for poor girls. Such attendance has…

Vavrus, Frances

2002-01-01

380

The sexual health of pupils in years 4 to 6 of primary schools in rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives: There is an urgent need for effective interventions to improve the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Reliable data on the sexual health of adolescents are needed to guide the development of such interventions. The aim was to describe the sexual health of pupils in years 4 to 6 of 121 rural primary schools in north western Tanzania, before

J Todd; J Changalucha; D A Ross; F Mosha; A I N Obasi; M Plummer; R Balira; H Grosskurth; D C W Mabey; R Hayes

2004-01-01

381

The Cultural Politics of Constructivist Pedagogies: Teacher Education Reform in the United Republic of Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected…

Vavrus, Frances

2009-01-01

382

Torches in the Night. Educational Experiences in Tanzania and the Ivory Coast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes two educational projects financed by the World Bank in cooperation with UNESCO. Tanzania was the site of one project, where agricultural training at the intermediate and farmer levels was the focus. The second project was in the Ivory Coast and involved construction of technical, vocational, agricultural, teacher training…

Muncie, Peter C.

383

Ideologies of sexuality, menstruation and risk: girls' experiences of puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines girls' voiced experiences of menstruation, puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted in Moshi and Rombo Districts of Kilimanjaro, a predominantly Chagga region with historically strong support for girls' education. The major question explored was how the onset of menses and puberty may be impacting on girls' school participation, given societal implications of pubertal

Marni Sommer

2009-01-01

384

A Bibliography on Rural Development in Tanzania. MSU Rural Development Paper No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural development is understood to mean both the increased productivity of agriculture and other rural economic activities and the enhancement of the material well-being of the rural people (who comprise about 90% of Tanzania's 16 million population) through education, improved health, and better nutrition. Seven hundred and sixty-one books,…

Kocher, James E.; Fleisher, Beverly

385

Indian Ocean World Cinema: Viewing the History of Race, Diaspora and Nationalism in Urban Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This essay considers the role of Hindi films in urban Tanzania in writing new chronologies of Indian Ocean world history. Examining films and movie theatres through overlapping local, national and transnational lenses, the article contributes to our understandings of the encounter between the Indian diaspora and nationalism in East Africa, and extends the history of Indian Ocean world connections into

Ned Bertz

2011-01-01

386

Indian Ocean World Cinema: Viewing the History of Race, Diaspora and Nationalism in Urban Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay considers the role of Hindi films in urban Tanzania in writing new chronologies of Indian Ocean world history. Examining films and movie theatres through overlapping local, national and transnational lenses, the article contributes to our understandings of the encounter between the Indian diaspora and nationalism in East Africa, and extends the history of Indian Ocean world connections into

Ned Bertz

2011-01-01

387

Freshwater management and climate change adaptation: Experiences from the Great Ruaha River catchment in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation to anthropogenic climate change is becoming vital to freshwater ecosystems and resource management, but climate adaptation can be purposeful or unintentional. This paper presents lessons from an assessment of an autonomous adaptation in the Great Ruaha River catchment in Tanzania following WWF intervention. The project was designed to address challenges resulting from natural resource use and existing levels of

JAPHET J. KASHAIGILI; KOSSA RAJABU; PETRO MASOLWA

2009-01-01

388

Towards the Social and Economic Promotion of Rural Women in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report describes the changing image of women in rural Tanzania and the various agencies responsible for their social, economic, cultural, and political promotion in rural areas, including the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), and the Union of Women in Tanganyika (UWT). (LH)

Kokuhirwa, Hilda

1975-01-01

389

Sources of Financial Assistance for Households Suffering an Adult Death in Kagera, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AIDS crisis in Africa and elsewhere compels us to design appropriate assistance policies for households experience a death. Policies should take into account and strengthen existing household coping strategies, rather than duplicate or undermine them. The authors investigate the nature of coping mechanisms among a sample of households in Kagera, Tanzania in 1991-1994. They estimate the magnitude and timing

Mattias Lundberg; Mead Over; Phare Mujinja

2000-01-01

390

Predicting the distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Tanzania using satellite sensor data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this paper, remotely sensed (RS) satellite sensor environmental data, using logistic regression, are used to develop prediction maps of the probability of having infection prevalence exceeding 50%, and warranting mass treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The model was developed using data from one area of coastal Tanzania and validated with independent data from different areas

Simon Brooker; Simon I. Hay; Wahab Issae; Andrew Hall; Charles M. Kihamia; Nicholas J. S. Lwambo; William Wint; David J. Rogers; Don A. P. Bundy

2001-01-01

391

Effects of Cooking Fuels on Acute Respiratory Infections in Children in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene are the most used cooking fuels in Tanzania. Biomass fuel use has been linked to Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in children. It is not clear whether the use of charcoal and kerosene has health advantage over biomass fuels. In this study, the effects of biomass fuels, charcoal/kerosene on ARI in children under five years old in Tanzania are quantified and compared based on data from Tanzania Demographic and Health survey conducted between 2004 and 2005. Approximately 85% and 15% of children were from biomass fuels and charcoal/kerosene using homes respectively. Average ARI prevalence was about 11%. The prevalence of ARI across various fuel types used for cooking did not vary much from the national prevalence. Odds ratio for ARI, adjusting for child’s sex, age and place of residence; mother’s education, mother’s age at child birth and household living standard, indicated that the effect of biomass fuels on ARI is the same as the effect of charcoal/kerosene (OR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.78–1.42). The findings suggest that to achieve meaningful reduction of ARI prevalence in Tanzania, a shift from the use of biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene for cooking to clean fuels such as gas and electricity may be essential. Further studies, however, are needed for concrete policy recommendation. PMID:18180538

Kilabuko, James H.; Nakai, Satoshi

2007-01-01

392

Movements and group structure of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movements and group structure of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis were studied in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. The giraffe population in Manyara had increased from 60 to 85 individuals between the early 1980s and 1991. This increase may have been the result of an increase in browse availability as a result of a dramatic decline in elephant numbers, and bush

Jeugd van der H. P; Herbert H. T. Prins

2000-01-01

393

Potential mammalian reservoirs in a bubonic plague outbreak focus in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania, in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated mammalian involvement in an outbreak of bubonic plague in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania, in March 2007. Plague is a rodent-borne zoo- notic disease that spreads to humans through fleas infected with Yersinia pestis. Live trapping of rodents and shrews was conducted in fallow and crop fields, peri- domestic areas, houses and the neighboring forest reserve. Serum was

Rhodes H. Makundi; Loth S. Mulungu; Abdul Katakweba; Thomas J. Mbise; Georgies Mgode

2008-01-01

394

Truck Drivers' Opinion On Road Safety In Tanzania—A Questionnaire Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Even though the traffic fatality risk (fatalities per 100 000 inhabitants) in Tanzania is quite low, the fatality rate (fatalities per 10 000 vehicles) is one of the highest in the world. With increasing vehicle density this means that the number of people dying in traffic will increase dramatically in the near future. Therefore it is important to implement

Katja Kircher; Jan Andersson

2012-01-01

395

Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

2005-04-01

396

Epidemiological studies on Schistosoma bovis in Iringa Region, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Various aspects of the epidemiology of Schistosoma bovis were studied over a one-year period in Iringa Region, Tanzania. An abattoir survey revealed an overall prevalence rate of 30.8% in cattle and 3.8% in goats in the area, and field studies on two dairy farms both providing good opportunities for schistosome transmission provided information concerning the transmission ecology of S. bovis in relation to different types of grazing and water supply. The traditional management system on one farm with a large number of cattle utilizing a limited water resource highly suitable for sustaining populations of the snail host Bulinus africanus resulted in intensive transmission as evidenced by uptake of massive infections in calves and development of resistance to S. bovis challenge in dairy cows. On another farm, appropriate management comprising watering of cattle at a B. africanus-free pond provided the background for less intensive transmission in that transmission risk was confined to occasional contact with water contact sites of secondary importance. Besides, the transmission pattern as regards intensity and seasonality was affected markedly by the geographical and seasonal distribution of the host snail B. africanus. Thus, transmission in canals and temporary ponds was limited mainly to the dry season and the end of the rainy season, respectively, while transmission in permanent ponds occurred intermittently throughout at least most of the year. It is concluded that prevention of severe loss of productivity in domestic ruminants due to schistosome infections should be possible using strategic management procedures provided that essential information is available concerning the pattern of transmission in the particular area. PMID:2874712

Kassuku, A; Christensen, N O; Monrad, J; Nansen, P; Knudsen, J

1986-06-01

397

Geochemical characteristics of bitumens and seeps from Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

A number of bitumen extracts from prospective source rocks and oil seeps of potential oil-producing areas in Tanzania have been characterized by a variety of geochemical techniques. The data obtained from this study have provided additional insight into the source rock potential of these areas. However, in this paper it is proposed to discuss in detail the results from two of the more unusual samples in this region, namely Wingayongo and Pemba. The Wingayongo bitumens isolated from an exposed Neocomian-aged sandstone, possibly a paleoreservoir, are almost totally devoid of n-alkanes and steranes and dominated by hopane-type biomarkers with the so-called immature {beta}{beta}-stereochemistry at the C{sub 17} and C{sub 21} positions. There is no typical evidence of biodegradation having occurred leading to the proposal of an unusual source material or maturity history for this sample. The Pemba seep samples were also characterized by relatively high concentrations of hopanes with the immature stereochemistry at the C{sub 17} and C{sub 21} positions and a virtual absence of n-alkanes and steranes. The aromatic fractions contained relatively high concentrations of hopanic acids, with the immature stereochemistry at C{sub 17} and C{sub 21} positions and a virtual absence of n-alkanes and steranes. The aromatic fractions contained relatively high concentrations of hopanic acids, with the immature stereochemistry at C{sub 17} and C{sub 21}. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the seeps in the Pemba region are not true oil seeps. Rather they are formed as a result of extremely high levels of bacterial activity with the bacteria utilizing natural gas in the region as the substrate. The net result is a material referred to in other areas of the world as paraffin dirt whose occurrence results from extensive microbial activity in the region and not directly from seepage of products having a thermal origin.

Mpanju, F. (Tanzanian Petroleum Development Corp., Dar Es Sallam (Tanzania)); Philp, P. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States))

1991-03-01

398

Predictability of anthrax infection in the Serengeti, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Summary Anthrax is endemic throughout Africa, causing considerable livestock and wildlife losses and severe, sometimes fatal, infection in humans. Predicting the risk of infection is therefore important for public health, wildlife conservation and livestock economies. However, because of the intermittent and variable nature of anthrax outbreaks, associated environmental and climatic conditions, and diversity of species affected, the ecology of this multihost pathogen is poorly understood. We explored records of anthrax from the Serengeti ecosystem in north-west Tanzania where the disease has been documented in humans, domestic animals and a range of wildlife. Using spatial and temporal case-detection and seroprevalence data from wild and domestic animals, we investigated spatial, environmental, climatic and species-specific associations in exposure and disease. Anthrax was detected annually in numerous species, but large outbreaks were spatially localized, mostly affecting a few focal herbivores. Soil alkalinity and cumulative weather extremes were identified as useful spatial and temporal predictors of exposure and infection risk, and for triggering the onset of large outbreaks. Interacting ecological and behavioural factors, specifically functional groups and spatiotemporal overlap, helped to explain the variable patterns of infection and exposure among species. Synthesis and applications. Our results shed light on ecological drivers of anthrax infection and suggest that soil alkalinity and prolonged droughts or rains are useful predictors of disease occurrence that could guide risk-based surveillance. These insights should inform strategies for managing anthrax including prophylactic livestock vaccination, timing of public health warnings and antibiotic provision in high-risk areas. However, this research highlights the need for greater surveillance (environmental, serological and case-detection-orientated) to determine the mechanisms underlying anthrax dynamics. PMID:22318563

Hampson, Katie; Lembo, Tiziana; Bessell, Paul; Auty, Harriet; Packer, Craig; Halliday, Jo; Beesley, Cari A.; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hoare, Richard; Ernest, Eblate; Mentzel, Christine; Metzger, Kristine L.; Mlengeya, Titus; Stamey, Karen; Roberts, Keith; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Cleaveland, Sarah

2012-01-01

399

Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land-cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land-use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land-use changes because of antecedent land-use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and institutional context.

Miller, Brian W.; Doyle, Martin W.

2014-06-01

400

Predictability of anthrax infection in the Serengeti, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Anthrax is endemic throughout Africa, causing considerable livestock and wildlife losses and severe, sometimes fatal, infection in humans. Predicting the risk of infection is therefore important for public health, wildlife conservation and livestock economies. However, because of the intermittent and variable nature of anthrax outbreaks, associated environmental and climatic conditions, and diversity of species affected, the ecology of this multihost pathogen is poorly understood.We explored records of anthrax from the Serengeti ecosystem in north-west Tanzania where the disease has been documented in humans, domestic animals and a range of wildlife. Using spatial and temporal case-detection and seroprevalence data from wild and domestic animals, we investigated spatial, environmental, climatic and species-specific associations in exposure and disease.Anthrax was detected annually in numerous species, but large outbreaks were spatially localized, mostly affecting a few focal herbivores.Soil alkalinity and cumulative weather extremes were identified as useful spatial and temporal predictors of exposure and infection risk, and for triggering the onset of large outbreaks.Interacting ecological and behavioural factors, specifically functional groups and spatiotemporal overlap, helped to explain the variable patterns of infection and exposure among species.Synthesis and applications. Our results shed light on ecological drivers of anthrax infection and suggest that soil alkalinity and prolonged droughts or rains are useful predictors of disease occurrence that could guide risk-based surveillance. These insights should inform strategies for managing anthrax including prophylactic livestock vaccination, timing of public health warnings and antibiotic provision in high-risk areas. However, this research highlights the need for greater surveillance (environmental, serological and case-detection-orientated) to determine the mechanisms underlying anthrax dynamics. PMID:22318563

Hampson, Katie; Lembo, Tiziana; Bessell, Paul; Auty, Harriet; Packer, Craig; Halliday, Jo; Beesley, Cari A; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hoare, Richard; Ernest, Eblate; Mentzel, Christine; Metzger, Kristine L; Mlengeya, Titus; Stamey, Karen; Roberts, Keith; Wilkins, Patricia P; Cleaveland, Sarah

2011-06-10