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1

Erika Smith, '08 Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania  

E-print Network

Erika Smith, '08 Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania This past summer I had the opportunity to spend six weeks volunteering in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Dar es Salaam is the largest city and until recently was the capital of Tanzania. As the first Siena/AMC student to spend their summer of service in Tanzania, I was apprehensive

2

Last date modified 1/17/13 Location and Institution TANZANIA -DAR ES SALAAM  

E-print Network

Last date modified 1/17/13 Location and Institution TANZANIA - DAR ES SALAAM will take a two-week intensive language and culture class upon arrival in Tanzania will have an internship in Tanzania. Other areas of study include Philosophy, History

Galles, David

3

Challenges in diagnosing paediatric malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a major cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality. As no clinical features clearly differentiate malaria from other febrile illnesses, and malaria diagnosis is challenged by often lacking laboratory equipment and expertise, overdiagnosis and overtreatment is common. Methods Children admitted with fever at the general paediatric wards at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from January to June 2009 were recruited consecutively and prospectively. Demographic and clinical features were registered. Routine thick blood smear microscopy at MNH was compared to results of subsequent thin blood smear microscopy, and rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs). Genus-specific PCR of Plasmodium mitochondrial DNA was performed on DNA extracted from whole blood and species-specific PCR was done on positive samples. Results Among 304 included children, 62.6% had received anti-malarials during the last four weeks prior to admission and 65.1% during the hospital stay. Routine thick blood smears, research blood smears, PCR and RDT detected malaria in 13.2%, 6.6%, 25.0% and 13.5%, respectively. Positive routine microscopy was confirmed in only 43% (17/40), 45% (18/40) and 53% (21/40), by research microscopy, RDTs and PCR, respectively. Eighteen percent (56/304) had positive PCR but negative research microscopy. Reported low parasitaemia on routine microscopy was associated with negative research blood slide and PCR. RDT-positive cases were associated with signs of severe malaria. Palmar pallor, low haemoglobin and low platelet count were significantly associated with positive PCR, research microscopy and RDT. Conclusions The true morbidity attributable to malaria in the study population remains uncertain due to the discrepancies in results among the diagnostic methods. The current routine microscopy appears to result in overdiagnosis of malaria and, consequently, overuse of anti-malarials. Conversely, children with a false positive malaria diagnosis may die because they do not receive treatment for the true cause of their illness. RDTs appear to have the potential to improve routine diagnostics, but the clinical implication of the many RDT-negative, PCR-positive samples needs to be elucidated. PMID:23822515

2013-01-01

4

Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats. PMID:19440962

Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

2009-05-01

5

Homicide death in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2005.  

PubMed

Violence disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries. Deeper understanding is needed in areas where little research has occurred. The objectives of the study were to: (a) ascertain rate of homicide death; (b) describe the victims and circumstances surrounding their deaths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in 2005. This study was developed by adapting the WHO/CDC Injury Surveillance Guidelines (Holder et al., 2001). Data on 12 variables were collected on all homicide deaths. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis tests were done when appropriate. Age standardised, age-specific and cause-specific mortality rates are presented. The overall homicide rate was 12.57 (males and females respectively: 22.26 and 2.64). Homicide deaths were 93.4% male, mostly unemployed, with a mean age of 28.2 years. Most deaths occurred in urban areas. Mob violence was the cause of 57% of deaths. The risk of homicide death for males was greater than the world average, but for females it was less. Most homicides were committed by community members policing against thieves. PMID:19051087

Outwater, Anne H; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Mgaya, Edward; Abraham, Alison G; Kinabo, Linna; Kazaura, Method; Kub, Joan

2008-12-01

6

Suicide in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania, 2005.  

PubMed

Suicide surveillance was launched at the Muhimbili National Hospital mortuary in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania from 1st January to 31st December, 2005 to determine its magnitude and characteristics. Following the WHO guidelines with minor modifications, information on sex, dates of birth and death, places of residence and death, occupation, reasons and means of suicide were collected. There were 65 (2.3 per 100,000 population) suicides recorded in 2005. The suicide rate for males was 3.4/100,000 and for females was 1.2/100,000 which maybe some of the lowest rates ever reported in the world. The mean age at suicide was 32.9 (SD=13.1) years. Males were about three times more likely to commit suicide as females. The main motive behind suicide was recorded for 26 (40%) victims as family-related and for 11 (17%) as health related. Although there was a wide range of ages at which people committed suicide, the average age seems to be very low. Since reasons for suicide are coated with family problems, strategies to improve awareness of psychological and mental health services and to provide alternative economic and social support networks are advocated. PMID:18313013

Mgaya, Edward; Kazaura, Method R; Outwater, Anne; Kinabo, Lina

2008-04-01

7

Distribution of blood pressure, body mass index and smoking habits in the urban population of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and associations with socioeconomic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the distribution of blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), smoking habits and their associations with socioeconomic status (SES) in an urban population in early epidemiological transition. Methods Cross-sectional survey of the entire population aged 25-64 years in five branches of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) through visits to all homes in the study area. Blood pressure was

Pascal Bovet; Allen G Ross; Jean-Pierre Gervasoni; Mashombo Mkamba; Deo M Mtasiwa; Christian Lengeler; David Whitingd; Fred Paccauda

8

Body-Art Practices Among Undergraduate Medical University Students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014  

PubMed Central

Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include “a mark of beauty,” 24%, “just wanted one,” 18% and “a mark of femininity or masculinity,” 17%. The majority (98%) of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52%) reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.

Chacha, Chacha Emmanuel; Kazaura, Method R.

2015-01-01

9

Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the risk of diarrhea and of acute respiratory infection. Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: Six hundred eighty-seven children, 6 to 60 months old, hospitalized with pneumonia, who received vitamin A or placebo at baseline and at 4 and 8 months after discharge from hospital. Main outcome

Wafaie W. Fawzi; Roger Mbise; Donna Spiegelman; Maulidi Fataki; Ellen Hertzmark; Godwin Ndossi

2000-01-01

10

Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN) is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of the night was estimated by human landing catch in 216 houses and 1,064 residents were interviewed to determine usage of protection measures and the proportion of each hour of the night spent sleeping indoors, awake indoors, and outdoors. Results Hourly variations in biting activity by members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were consistent with classical reports but the proportion of these vectors caught outdoors in Dar es Salaam was almost double that of rural Tanzania. Overall, ITNs confer less protection against exophagic vectors in Dar es Salaam than in rural southern Tanzania (59% versus 70%). More alarmingly, a biting activity maximum that precedes 10 pm and much lower levels of ITN protection against exposure (38%) were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of modest importance locally, but which predominates transmission in large parts of Africa. Conclusion In a situation of changing mosquito and human behaviour, ITNs may confer lower, but still useful, levels of personal protection which can be complemented by communal transmission suppression at high coverage. Mosquito-proofing houses appeared to be the intervention of choice amongst residents and further options for preventing outdoor transmission include larviciding and environmental management. PMID:17880679

Geissbühler, Yvonne; Chaki, Prosper; Emidi, Basiliana; Govella, Nicodemus J; Shirima, Rudolf; Mayagaya, Valeliana; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Lindsay, Steven W; Kannady, Khadija; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F

2007-01-01

11

National and Global: A History of Scholars' Experiences with Research at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (1961-Present)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I draw on research carried out at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Tanzania in 2008 to examine Tanzanian academics' experience with research throughout the history of this institution. This dissertation is designed as an historical case study and investigates how economic and political changes in Tanzania's…

Jamison, Amy J.

2010-01-01

12

Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities through interdisciplinary methods and analysis. Climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, droughts and heat waves has been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability provide insights how communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards; vulnerability of informal settlements to floods has been assessed for a case study area (Suna sub ward) and a GIS based identification of urban residential hotspots to flooding is completed. Furthermore, a set of indicators has been identified and the most relevant for Dar es Salaam has been selected by local stakeholders to identify particular vulnerable high risk areas and communities. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance system and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability has inter-alia suggested severe institutional deficits including over-centralized institutions for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. A multi-risk framework considering climate-related hazards, and physical and social fragilities has been set up.

Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

2013-04-01

13

Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken using standard procedures. Results: A total of 446 children were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 11.1 ± 2.0 years. The mean body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2, 103.9 ± 10.3 mmHg and 65.6 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of obesity (defined as BMI >95th percentile for age and sex) was 5.2%. Half of the children (51.1%) had heard about obesity from teachers at school (20%), radio (19.4%) and books/newspaper (17.3%). Less than half (45.4%) had knowledge about the risk factors for childhood obesity and correctly defined obesity (44.6%). However, a good number of the children (72.1%) were aware that they can be affected by obesity. Majority of them had negative attitude towards obesity and various factors leading to or resulting from childhood obesity. Conclusions: Knowledge about childhood obesity among primary school children is moderate and have negative attitude towards obesity. Integrating educational programs early in primary schools may be an effective strategy to impact knowledge about obesity and other non-communicable diseases early in childhood.

Njelekela, Marina A; Muhihi, Alfa; Mpembeni, Rose N. M.; Anaeli, Amani; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Lujani, Benjamin; Ngarashi, Davis; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu

2015-01-01

14

Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

2008-12-01

15

Impact of Community-Based Larviciding on the Prevalence of Malaria Infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The use of larval source management is not prioritized by contemporary malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa despite historical success. Larviciding, in particular, could be effective in urban areas where transmission is focal and accessibility to Anopheles breeding habitats is generally easier than in rural settings. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a community-based microbial larviciding intervention to reduce the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. Methods and Findings Larviciding was implemented in 3 out of 15 targeted wards of Dar es Salaam in 2006 after two years of baseline data collection. This intervention was subsequently scaled up to 9 wards a year later, and to all 15 targeted wards in 2008. Continuous randomized cluster sampling of malaria prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics was carried out during 6 survey rounds (2004–2008), which included both cross-sectional and longitudinal data (N?=?64,537). Bayesian random effects logistic regression models were used to quantify the effect of the intervention on malaria prevalence at the individual level. Effect size estimates suggest a significant protective effect of the larviciding intervention. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of individuals living in areas treated with larviciding being infected with malaria were 21% lower (Odds Ratio?=?0.79; 95% Credible Intervals: 0.66–0.93) than those who lived in areas not treated. The larviciding intervention was most effective during dry seasons and had synergistic effects with other protective measures such as use of insecticide-treated bed nets and house proofing (i.e., complete ceiling or window screens). Conclusion A large-scale community-based larviciding intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in urban Dar es Salaam. PMID:23977099

Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Castro, Marcia C.

2013-01-01

16

Basic analysis of climate and urban bioclimate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better understanding of urban microclimate and bioclimate of any city is imperative today when the world is constrained by both urbanisation and global climate change. Urbanisation generally triggers changes in land cover and hence influencing the urban local climate. Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania is one of the fast growing cities. Assessment of its urban climate and the human biometeorological conditions was done using the easily available synoptic meteorological data covering the period 2001-2011. In particular, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated using the RayMan software and results reveal that the afternoon period from December to February (DJF season) is relatively the most thermal stressful period to human beings in Dar es Salaam where PET values of above 35 °C were found. Additionally, the diurnal cycle of the individual meteorological elements that influence the PET index were analysed and found that air temperature of 30-35 °C dominate the afternoon period from 12:00 to 15:00 hours local standard time at about 60 % of occurrence. The current results, though considered as preliminary to the ongoing urban climate study in the city, provide an insight on how urban climate research is of significant importance in providing useful climatic information for ensuring quality of life and wellbeing of city dwellers.

Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

2013-10-01

17

Capillary haemangioma successfully treated with oral beta-blocker in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a case report.  

PubMed

Capillary haemangiomas are the most common orbital and periocular tumors in children, typically presenting in infancy. Propranolol has recently been introduced as a novel pharmacologic treatment for infantile haemangiomas, after Leaute-Labreze and colleagues observed that two patients being treated for cardiac indications had rapid regression of their haemangiomas. We report a case of haemangioma, successfully treated with oral beta-blocker, in the context of a public eye clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a capillary haemangioma being successfully treated with a systemic beta-blocker in Tanzania. PMID:23305438

Cloke, Adam; Lim, Lik Thai; Blaikie, Andrew

2013-01-01

18

A qualitative study of perceived risk for HIV transmission among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding people’s views about HIV transmission by investigating a specific population may help to design effective HIV prevention strategies. In addition, knowing the inherent sexual practices of such a population, as well as the risky circumstances that may facilitate HIV transmission, is crucial for the said strategies to become effective. In this article, we report how police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, perceived the problem of HIV and AIDS in their local context, particularly in relation to unsafe sexual practices. The study was done with the view to recommending ways by which HIV transmission could be minimised within the police force. Methods The study was conducted among members of the police force in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted, with a total of 66 participants who were mixed in terms of age, gender, and marital status. Some of these were caregivers to patients with AIDS. Data were analysed using the interpretive description approach. Results The participants believed that both individual sexual behaviour and work-related circumstances were sources of HIV infection. They also admitted that they were being tempted to engage in risky sexual practices because of the institutional rules that prohibit officers from getting married during their training and for three years after. Nevertheless, as members of the Police Force, they stressed the fact that the risky sexual behaviour that exposes them to HIV is not limited to the force; it is rather a common problem that is faced by the general population. However, they complained, the nature of their job exposes them to road accident victims, subjecting them further to possible infection, especially when they have to handle these road accident casualties without proper protective gear. Conclusion Individual sexual behaviour and job-related circumstances are worth investigating if proper advice is to be given to the police regarding HIV prevention strategies. In order to improve the lives of these police officers, there is a need to review the existing institutional rules and practices to accommodate individual sexual needs. In addition, improving their working environment may minimize the risk of HIV transmission from handling casualties in emergency situations. PMID:23984994

2013-01-01

19

Pit latrine emptying behavior and demand for sanitation services in dar es salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like 'flooding out'. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ?U.S. $17 to remove ?200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:25734790

Jenkins, Marion W; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

2015-01-01

20

Bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste from selected dumping sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor management of solid wastes in Tanzania urban centers is a chronic problem that has increasingly become a source of environmental pollution. Bioconversion offers a cheap and safe method of not only disposing these wastes, but also it has the potential to convert lignocellulosic wastes into usable forms such as reducing sugars that could be used as food. This

Godliving Mtui; Yoshitoshi Nakamura

2005-01-01

21

Patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care at private clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Health system responsiveness (HSR) measures quality of care from the patient's perspective, an important component of ensuring adherence to medication and care among HIV patients. We examined HSR in private clinics serving HIV patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We surveyed 640 patients, 18 or older receiving care at one of 10 participating clinics, examining socioeconomic factors, HIV regimen, and self-reported experience with access and care at the clinic. Ordered logistic regression, adjusted for clustering of the clinic sites, was used to measure the relationships between age, gender, education, site size, and overall quality of care rating, as well as between the different HSR domains and overall rating. Overall, patients reported high levels of satisfaction with care received. Confidentiality, communication, and respect were particularly highly rated, while timeliness received lower ratings despite relatively short wait times, perhaps indicating high expectations when receiving care at a private clinic. Respect, confidentiality, and promptness were significantly associated with overall rating of health care, while provider skills and communication were not significantly associated. Patients reported that quality of service and confidentiality, rather than convenience of location, were the most important factors in their choice of a clinic. Site size (patient volume) was also positively correlated with patient satisfaction. Our findings suggest that, in the setting of urban private-sector clinics, flexible clinics hours, prompt services, and efforts to improve respect, privacy and confidentiality may prove more helpful in increasing visit adherence than geographic accessibility. While a responsive health system is valuable in its own right, more work is needed to confirm that improvements in HSR in fact lead to improved adherence to care. PMID:24499337

Miller, James S; Mhalu, Aisa; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Hellen; Kaaya, Silvia; Tito, Justina; Aris, Eric; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

2014-01-01

22

Seasonal changes in the larvel populations of Aedes aegypti in two biotopes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The seasonal dynamics of larval populations of Aedes aegypti was studied in two different biotopes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The first biotope was located on the Msasani peninsula on the coast 6 km north of Dar es Salaam, where A. aegypti breeds exclusively in coral rock holes. The population dynamics was studied during both the rainy and the dry season. Seasonal changes in the density of A. aegypti larvae depend primarily on variation in rainfall. The population of larvae dropped to zero only for a short time during the driest period while the adult population was maintained at a low level. The second biotope was in an automobile dump in a Dar es Salaam suburb, where A. aegypti breeds in artificial containers such as tires, automobile parts, tins, coconut shells, and snail shells. The greater part of the A. aegypti population of this biotope is maintained in the egg stage during the dry season. It serves as a focal point for breeding during the dry season: with the coming of the rains, the population expands into the surrounding residential areas. More than 70% of the larval population developed in tires, 20% in tins, 5% in coconut shells, and 1% in snail shells. PMID:4539415

Trpis, Milan

1972-01-01

23

Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al., 2012). Mean temperatures in the climate zone are estimated to increase by at least 1°C between 1971-2000 and 2021-2050(CSIR, 2012). Dar es Salaam is represented using around 1700 UMT units mapped across 43 UMT categories for the year 2008. Modelled surface temperature profiles for the city are presented, including an assessment of the potential impact of changing green structure cover within selected UMT categories. Provisional recommendations are made concerning the potential contribution of green structures as a climate adaptation response to the increasing temperatures in Dar es Salaam, which could be relevant for other African cities in similar climate zones. References Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Ouédraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D2.7 Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Accessed 18/12/12. CSIR (2012) CLUVA deliverable D1.5 Regional climate change simulations available for the selected areas http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.5.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13. Giugni, M., Adamo, P., Capuano, P., De Paola, F., Di Ruocco, A., Giordano, S., Iavazzo, P., Sellerino, M., Terracciano, S., Topa, M. E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D.1.2 Hazard scenarios for test cities using available data. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.2.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13

Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

2013-04-01

24

Community Health Workers to Improve Antenatal Care and PMTCT Uptake in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Quantitative Performance Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Home visits by community health workers (CHW) could be effective in identifying pregnant women in the community before they have presented to the health system. CHW could thus improve the uptake of antenatal care (ANC), HIV testing, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. Methods: Over a 16-month period, we carried out a quantitative evaluation of the performance of CHW in reaching women early in pregnancy and before they have attended ANC in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results: As part of the intervention, 213 CHW conducted more than 45,000 home visits to about 43,000 pregnant women. More than 75% of the pregnant women identified through home visits had not yet attended ANC at the time of the first contact with a CHW and about 40% of those who had not yet attended ANC were in the first trimester of pregnancy. Over time, the number of pregnant women the CHW identified each month increased, as did the proportion of women who had not yet attended ANC. The median gestational age of pregnant women contacted for the first time by a CHW decreased steadily and significantly over time (from 21/22 to 16 weeks, P-value for test of trend <0.0001). Conclusions: A large-scale CHW intervention was effective in identifying pregnant women in their homes early in pregnancy and before they had attended ANC. The intervention thus fulfills some of the conditions that are necessary for CHW to improve timely ANC uptake and early HIV testing and PMTCT enrollment in pregnancy. PMID:25436818

Sando, David; Magesa, Lucy; Machumi, Lameck; Mungure, Esther; Mwanyika Sando, Mary; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Foster, Dawn; Kajoka, Deborah; Naburi, Helga; Ekström, Anna M.; Spiegelman, Donna; Li, Nan; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie; Bärnighausen, Till

2014-01-01

25

Criteria-based audit on management of eclampsia patients at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Criteria-based audits have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the introduction of a criteria-based audit in a tertiary hospital in an African setting, assesses the quality of care among eclampsia patients and discusses possible interventions in order to improve the quality of care. Methods We conducted a criteria based audit of 389 eclampsia patients admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam Tanzania between April 14, 2006 and December 31, 2006. Cases were assessed using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. Results Antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum eclampsia constituted 47%, 41% and 12% of the eclampsia cases respectively. Antepartum eclampsia was mostly (73%) preterm whereas the majority (71%) of postpartum eclampsia cases ware at term. The case fatality rate for eclampsia was 7.7%. Medical histories were incomplete, the majority (75%) of management plans were not reviewed by specialists in obstetrics, specialist doctors live far from the hospital and do not spend nights in hospital even when they are on duty, monitoring of patients on magnesium sulphate was inadequate, and important biochemical tests were not routinely done. Two thirds of the patient scheduled for caesarean section did not undergo surgery within agreed time. Conclusion Potential areas for further improvement in quality of emergency care for eclampsia relate to standardizing management guidelines, greater involvement of specialists in the management of eclampsia and continued medical education on current management of eclampsia for junior staff. PMID:19323846

Kidanto, Hussein Lesio; Mogren, Ingrid; Massawe, Siriel N; Lindmark, Gunilla; Nystrom, Lennarth

2009-01-01

26

Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: Waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. PMID:25649406

Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

2015-02-01

27

Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa. PMID:17784963

Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

2007-01-01

28

Gender differences in diet and nutrition among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected males have poor treatment outcomes after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared to HIV-infected women. Dietary factors might mediate the association between sex and disease progression. However, the gender difference in diet among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine differences in dietary intake among HIV-infected men and women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of dietary questionnaire data from 2038 adults initiating ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to assess whether nutrient adequacy differed by sex. We dichotomized participants' nutrient intakes by whether recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) were met and estimated the relative risk (RR) of meeting RDAs in males using binomial regression models. We also estimated the mean difference in intake of foods and food groups by gender. We found poorer dietary practices among men compared to women. Males were less likely to meet the RDAs for micronutrients critical for slowing disease progression among HIV patients: niacin (RR = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.55), riboflavin (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91), vitamin C (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.00), and zinc (RR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.24). Intake of thiamine, pantothenate, vitamins B6, B12, and E did not vary by gender. Males were less likely to eat cereals (mean difference [servings per day] = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.001) and vegetables (mean difference = -0.47, 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.07) in their diet, but more likely to have meat (mean difference = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.21). We conclude that male HIV patients have poorer dietary practices than females, and this may contribute to faster progression of the disease in males. PMID:25562355

Abioye, Ajibola I; Isanaka, Sheila; Liu, Enju; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Noor, Ramadhani A; Spiegelman, Donna; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Fawzi, Wafaie

2015-06-01

29

Urban lymphatic filariasis in the metropolis of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The last decades have seen a considerable increase in urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is estimated that over 50% of the population will live in urban areas by 2040. Rapid growth of cities combined with limited economic resources often result in informal settlements and slums with favorable conditions for proliferation of vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Dar es Salaam, which has grown more than 30 times in population during the past 55 years (4.4 million inhabitants in 2012), previous surveys have indicated high prevalences of LF. This study investigated epidemiological aspects of LF in Dar es Salaam, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Six sites with varying distance from the city center (3–30 km) and covering different population densities, socioeconomic characteristics, and water, sewerage and sanitary facilities were selected for the study. Pupils from one public primary school at each site were screened for circulating filarial antigen (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 (marker of exposure to transmission). Community members were examined for CFA, microfilariae and chronic manifestations. Structured questionnaires were administered to pupils and heads of community households, and vector surveys were carried out in selected households. Results The study indicated that a tremendous decrease in the burden of LF infection had occurred, despite haphazard urbanisation. Contributing factors may be urban malaria control targeting Anopheles vectors, short survival time of the numerous Culex quinquefasciatus vectors in the urban environment, widespread use of bed nets and other mosquito proofing measures, and mass drug administration (MDA) in 2006 and 2007. Although the level of ongoing transmission was low, the burden of chronic LF disease was still high. Conclusions The development has so far been promising, but continued efforts are necessary to ensure elimination of LF as a public health problem. These will include improving the awareness of people about the role of mosquitoes in transmission of LF, more thorough implementation of environmental sanitation to reduce Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding, continued MDA to high-risk areas, and set-up of programmes for management of chronic LF disease. PMID:24289718

2013-01-01

30

Experiences of informal female caregivers providing care for people living with HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study explored and described the experiences of informal female caregivers providing home-based care to people living with HIV (PLWH) in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania. The research design was qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory, and was based on the interpretive paradigm. Study participants provided care at home for family members who were living with HIV at World Health Organization-defined HIV clinical stages III or IV. Semistructured interviews were conducted with eight participants. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes that emerged were the costs of caring, HIV-related stigma and discrimination, stress and burnout, care burden, and the challenges and support for caregivers. Caregivers of PLWH fulfill an important component of care in developing countries. They provide care that enables PLWH to have some hope, if not of survival, of being cared for with love and dignity. PMID:19887289

Pallangyo, Eunice; Mayers, Pat

2009-01-01

31

Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study has the potential to provide empirical evidence to promote large scale monitoring and education campaigns in Africa to improve health and reduce the burden of waterborne disease.

Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

2008-12-01

32

Groundwater exploitation and hydraulic parameter estimation for a Quaternary aquifer in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that groundwater exploitation has largely increased since 1997 in the Dar-es-Salaam aquifer, calls for a directed attention towards possible problems of aquifer overexploitation that may arise in the near future. Hydraulic parameters are important for developing local and regional water plans as well as developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource. The determination of aquifer parameters through pumping tests has become a standard step in the evaluation of groundwater resource potential. The pumping tests in the study area were conducted in August 2004 and August 2005, where 39 boreholes were tested out of 400 visited. In the study area there are over 1300 recorded boreholes drilled by Drilling and Dam Construction Agency (DDCA) by the year 2005. Total groundwater exploitation in the study area was estimated at 8.59 × 10 6 m 3/year, based on yield data collected during the 2004-2005 field campaigns. The pumping tests included single-well tests and tests with measurements on the pumping well and at least one observation well. The tests were conducted for 6 h and 30 min. The pump was shut down after 6 h of pumping and the remaining 30 min were used for recovery measurements. The pumping test analysis methods used include: Neuman type curve matching and Walton type curve matching, checked by specific well capacity assessment and Thiem-Dupuit/Thiem's method. The curve-matching results from the aquifer tests show the following parameters: an average transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of 34 m 2/d and 1.58 m/d, respectively for the unconfined aquifer; the semi-confined aquifer has an average value of 63 m 2/d and 2.14 m/d for transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity, respectively. For the case of the storativity, the unconfined aquifer has an average elastic early-time storativity of 0.01, while the lower aquifer has an average storativity of 3 × 10 -4. Specific well capacity method and Thiem-Dupuit/Thiem's method confirm results for transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the semi-confined aquifer, while values for the unconfined aquifer are somewhat larger (by a factor of 2-3). The hydraulic parameters calculated appear to reasonably agree with the geological formation of the aquifers, as deduced from borehole descriptions.

Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Van Camp, Marc; Walraevens, Kristine

2009-10-01

33

Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) improves undernutrition among ART-treated, HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS is associated with an increased burden of undernutrition among children even under antiretroviral therapy (ART). To treat undernutrition, WHO endorsed the use of Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) that can reduce case fatality and undernutrition among ART-naïve HIV-positive children. However, its effects are not studied among ART-treated, HIV-positive children. Therefore, we examined the association between RUTF use with underweight, wasting, and stunting statuses among ART-treated HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from September-October 2010. The target population was 219 ART-treated, HIV-positive children and the same number of their caregivers. We used questionnaires to measure socio-economic factors, food security, RUTF-use, and ART-duration. Our outcome variables were underweight, wasting, and stunting statuses. Results Of 219 ART-treated, HIV-positive children, 140 (63.9%) had received RUTF intervention prior to the interview. The percentages of underweight and wasting among non-RUTF-receivers were 12.4% and 16.5%; whereas those of RUTF-receivers were 3.0% (P?=?0.006) and 2.8% (P?=?0.001), respectively. RUTF-receivers were less likely to have underweight (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) =0.19, CI: 0.04, 0.78), and wasting (AOR?=?0.24, CI: 0.07, 0.81), compared to non RUTF-receivers. Among RUTF receivers, children treated for at least four months (n?=?84) were less likely to have underweight (P?=?0.049), wasting (P?=?0.049) and stunting (P?Salaam, Tanzania. PMID:22931107

2012-01-01

34

Modeling approaches and strategies for data-scarce aquifers: example of the Dar es Salaam aquifer in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of groundwater resources can be improved by using groundwater models to perform risk analyses and to improve development strategies, but a lack of extensive basic data often limits the implementation of sophisticated models. Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is an example of a city where increasing groundwater use in a Pleistocene aquifer is causing groundwater-related problems such as saline intrusion along the coastline, lowering of water-table levels, and contamination of pumping wells. The lack of a water-level monitoring network introduces a problem for basic data collection and model calibration and validation. As a replacement, local water-supply wells were used for measuring groundwater depth, and well-top heights were estimated from a regional digital elevation model to recalculate water depths to hydraulic heads. These were used to draw a regional piezometric map. Hydraulic parameters were estimated from short-time pumping tests in the local wells, but variation in hydraulic conductivity was attributed to uncertainty in well characteristics (information often unavailable) and not to aquifer heterogeneity. A MODFLOW model was calibrated with a homogeneous hydraulic conductivity field and a sensitivity analysis between the conductivity and aquifer recharge showed that average annual recharge will likely be in the range 80-100 mm/year.

Van Camp, Marc; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Al Farrah, Nawal; Walraevens, Kristine

2013-03-01

35

Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of adaptation can be reduced with prolonged exposure to high temperature and humidity. The expected persistence of long-lived heat waves lasting approximately 1.5-2 weeks is clearly longer with respect to the climatological period (1961-1990). During 100 years, short lived but more intense waves are more than doubled in duration. It is evident the needs for the national health services to develop strategies for the mitigation of the heat wave effects, to enhance the resilience of the population, particularly the elder people.

Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

36

A pilot study to evaluate incorporating eye care for children into reproductive and child health services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: a historical comparison study  

PubMed Central

Background Many blinding eye conditions of childhood are preventable or treatable, particularly in developing countries. However, primary eye care (PEC) for children is poorly developed, leading to unnecessary visual loss. Activities for control by health workers entail interventions for systemic conditions (measles, vitamin A deficiency), identification and referral of children with sight threatening conditions and health education for caregivers. This pilot study evaluated integrating a package of activities to promote child eye health into Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Design: historical comparison study. Fifteen Clinical Officers and 15 nurses in 15 randomly selected RCH clinics were trained in PEC for children in July 2010. They were given educational materials (poster and manual) and their supervisors were orientated. Knowledge and practices were assessed before and 3 weeks after training. One year later their knowledge and practices were compared with a different group of 15 Clinical Officers and 15 nurses who had not been trained. Results Before training staff had insufficient knowledge to identify, treat and refer children with eye diseases, even conjunctivitis. Some recommended harmful practices or did not know that cataract requires urgent referral. Eye examination, vitamin A supplementation of mothers after delivery and cleaning the eyes at birth with instillation of antibiotics (Crede’s prophylaxis) were not routine, and there were no eye-specific educational materials. Three weeks after training several clinics delivering babies started Crede’s prophylaxis, vitamin A supplementation of women after delivery increased from 83.7% to 100%, and all staff included eye conditions in health education sessions. At one year, trained staff were more likely to correctly describe, diagnose and treat conjunctivitis (z=2.34, p=0.04)(30%-vs-60.7%). Mystery mothers observed health education sessions in 7/10 RCH clinics with trained staff, five (71.4%) of which included eye conditions. Conclusions Primary eye care for children in Dar-es-Salaam is inadequate but training RCH staff can improve knowledge in the short term and change practices. Attendance by mothers and their children is high in RCH clinics, making them ideal for delivery of PEC. Ongoing supportive supervision is required to maintain knowledge and practices, as well as systems to track referrals. PMID:24932133

2014-01-01

37

Anemia at the Initiation of Tuberculosis Therapy Is Associated with Delayed Sputum Conversion among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary tuberculosis and anemia are both prevalent in Tanzania. There is limited and inconsistent literature on the association between anemia and sputum conversion following tuberculosis treatment. Methods Newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients aged ?15 years initiating on standard anti tuberculosis therapy were recruited from 14 of 54 tuberculosis clinics in Dar es Salaam. Patients were receiving medication according to the recommended short course Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) strategy and were followed up prospectively until completion of treatment (six months). Patients were evaluated before initiation of TB treatment by performing the following; clinical history, physical examination, complete blood counts, serum biochemistry and sputum microscopy. Sputum smears were re-examined at two months of anti-tuberculosis therapy for presence of acid fast bacilli. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <13 g/dl (males) or <12 g/dl (females). Log-binomial regression was used to assess the association between anemia and sputum conversion at two months. Results Of the 1245 patients included in the study, 86% were anemic and 7% were sputum smear positive at two months of anti-tuberculosis therapy. Anemic patients were three times more likely to have sputum positive smear as compared to non-anemic patients at two months (RR?=?3.05; 95% CI 1.11–8.40) p?=?0.03. The risk for sputum positive smear results increased with severity of anemia (P for trend <0.01). Conclusion Baseline anemia is associated with increased risk for persistent positive sputum smears at two months of tuberculosis treatment. Future studies should evaluate the mechanisms for TB-associated anemia as well as the role of intervention for anemia among TB patients. PMID:24642636

Nagu, Tumaini J.; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Aboud, Said; Makani, Julie; Matee, Mecky I.; Fawzi, Wafaie; Mugusi, Ferdinand

2014-01-01

38

Informal support to first-parents after childbirth: a qualitative study in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care for the women and delimited male involvement. Men's involvement in reproductive and child health programmes has the potential for improving family health after childbirth. The discourses conveyed contradicting messages that may be a source of worry and confusion for the new parents. Recognition, respect and raising awareness for different social actors' competencies and limitations can potentially create a health-promoting environment among families after childbirth. PMID:22126899

2011-01-01

39

Institutional evolution of a community-based programme for malaria control through larval source management in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. Case description The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. Discussion and evaluation The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. Conclusions The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam’s City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes. PMID:24964790

2014-01-01

40

Investigating seawater intrusion due to groundwater pumping with schematic model simulations: The example of the Dar es Salaam coastal aquifer in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water supply requirements in Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania) are rising rapidly by population growth and groundwater is increasingly used to fullfill the needs. The groundwater is taken from the Dar es Salaam Quaternary coastal aquifer (DQCA), stretching inland from the coastline. As thousands of wells have been drilled in the coastal strip and pumping rates are uncontrolled, seawater intrusion is deteriorating the quality of fresh groundwater. To investigate the response of the fresh/salt water interface to coastal pumping, simulations with a schematic two-dimensional cross-sectional model have been done. Depending on the depth of the wells in the 150 m thick DQCA and their distance from the coastline, different pathways of seawater intrusion and shifts of the interface can be recognized. The local presence of a semi-pervious layer can have a significant impact on the fresh/salt water distribution. Although the modeled section is not related to a specific location along the coastline but rather represents an average aquifer buildup, the results of the simulations can be used to formulate recommendations when drilling new wells and for a better monitoring of the salinisation process along the coast. It proves that even simple schematic models can give meaningful contributions.

Van Camp, Marc; Mtoni, Yohana; Mjemah, Ibrahimu C.; Bakundukize, Charles; Walraevens, Kristine

2014-08-01

41

Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs), recruited from within local communities via the elected local government. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional survey assessed the ability of CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae, and investigated demographic characteristics of the CORPs, their reasons for participating in the UMCP, and their work performance. Detection coverage was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the investigator which had been reported by CORP. Detection sensitivity was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the CORPS which the investigator found to contain Anopheles larvae that were also reported to be occupied by the CORP. Results The CORPs themselves perceived their role as professional rather than voluntary, with participation being a de facto form of employment. Habitat detection coverage was lower among CORPs that were recruited through the program administrative staff, compared to CORPs recruited by local government officials or health committees (Odds Ratio = 0.660, 95% confidence interval = [0.438, 0.995], P = 0.047). Staff living within their areas of responsibility had > 70% higher detection sensitivity for both Anopheline (P = 0.016) and Culicine (P = 0.012): positive habitats compared to those living outside those same areas. Discussion and conclusions Improved employment conditions as well as involving the local health committees in recruiting individual program staff, communication and community engagement skills are required to optimize achieving effective community participation, particularly to improve access to fenced compounds. A simpler, more direct, less extensive community-based surveillance system in the hands of a few, less burdened, better paid and maintained program personnel may improve performance and data quality. PMID:21955856

2011-01-01

42

Women's Preferences Regarding Infant or Maternal Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV during Breastfeeding and Their Views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO 2010 guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV recommended prophylactic antiretroviral treatment (ART) either for infants (Option A) or mothers (Option B) during breastfeeding for pregnant women with a CD4 count of >350 cell/µL in low-income countries. In 2012, WHO proposed that all HIV-infected pregnant women should receive triple ART for life (B+) irrespective of CD4 count. Tanzania has recently switched from Option A to B+, with a few centers practicing B. However, more information on the real-life feasibility of these options is needed. This qualitative study explored women's preferences for Option A vs B and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted four focus group discussions with a total of 27 pregnant women with unknown HIV status, attending reproductive and child health clinics, and 31 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected pregnant and post-delivery women, 17 of whom were also asked about B+. Results Most participants were in favor of Option B compared to A. The main reasons for choosing Option B were: HIV-associated stigma, fear of drug side-effects on infants and difficult logistics for postnatal drug adherence. Some of the women asked about B+ favored it as they agreed that they would eventually need ART for their own survival. Some were against B+ anticipating loss of motivation after protecting the child, fearing drug side-effects and not feeling ready to embark on lifelong medication. Some were undecided. Conclusion Option B was preferred. Since Tanzania has recently adopted Option B+, women with CD4 counts of >350 cell/µL should be counseled about the possibility to “opt-out” from ART after cessation of breastfeeding. Drug safety and benefits, economic concerns and available resources for laboratory monitoring and evaluation should be addressed during B+ implementation to enhance long-term feasibility and effectiveness. PMID:24465532

Ngarina, Matilda; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Naburi, Helga; Kilewo, Charles; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Chalamilla, Guerino; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Ekstrom, Anna Mia

2014-01-01

43

High Rates and Positive Outcomes of HIV-Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners: Reasons for Cautious Optimism from a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates, barriers, and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure to sexual partners are described for 245 female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. VCT clients were surveyed 3 months after HIV testing to describe their HIV-serostatus disclosure experiences. Sixty-four percent of HIV-positive women and 79.5% of HIV-negative women (p = 0.028) reported that they had

Suzanne Maman; Jessie K. Mbwambo; Nora M. Hogan; Ellen Weiss; Gad P. Kilonzo; Michael D. Sweat

2003-01-01

44

Organic liquids storage tanks volatile organic compounds (VOCS) emissions dispersion and risk assessment in developing countries: the case of Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania.  

PubMed

The emission estimation of nine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from eight organic liquids storage tanks companies in Dar-es-Salaam City Tanzania has been done by using US EPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.9b). Total VOCs atmospheric emission has been established to be 853.20 metric tones/yr. It has been established further that petrol storage tanks contribute about 87% of total VOCs emitted, while tanks for other refined products and crude oil were emitting 10% and 3% of VOCs respectively. Of the eight sources (companies), the highest emission value from a single source was 233,222.94 kg/yr and the lowest single source emission value was 6881.87 kg/yr. The total VOCs emissions estimated for each of the eight sources were found to be higher than the standard level of 40,000 kg/yr per source for minor source according to US EPA except for two sources, which were emitting VOCs below the standard level. The annual emissions per single source for each of the VOCs were found to be below the US EPA emissions standard which is 2,000 kg/yr in all companies except the emission of hexane from company F1 which was slightly higher than the standard. The type of tanks used seems to significantly influence the emission rate. Vertical fixed roof tanks (VFRT) emit a lot more than externally floating roof tanks (EFRT) and internally floating roof tanks (IFRT). The use of IFRT and EFRT should be encouraged especially for storage of petrol which had highest atmospheric emission contribution. Model predicted atmospheric emissions are less than annual losses measured by companies in all the eight sources. It is possible that there are other routes for losses beside atmospheric emissions. It is therefore important that waste reduction efforts in these companies are directed not only to reducing atmospheric emissions, but also prevention of the spillage and leakage of stored liquid and curbing of the frequently reported illegal siphoning of stored products. Emission rates for benzene, toluene, and xylene were used as input to CALPUFF air dispersion model for the calculation of spatial downwind concentrations from area sources. By using global positioning system (GPS) and geographical information system (GIS) the spatial benzene concentration contributed by organic liquid storage tanks has been mapped for Dar-es-Salaam City. Highest concentrations for all the three toxic pollutants were observed at Kigamboni area, possibly because the area is located at the wind prevailing direction from the locations of the storage tanks. The model predicted concentrations downwind from the sources were below tolerable concentrations by WHO and US-OSHA. The highest 24 hrs averaging time benzene concentration was used for risk assessment in order to determine maximum carcinogenic risk amongst the population exposed at downwind. Established risk for adult and children at 2.9x10(-3) and 1.9x10(-3) respectively, are higher than the acceptable US-EPA risk of 1x10(-6). It is very likely that the actual VOCs concentrations in some urban areas in Tanzania including Dar-es-Salaam City are much higher than the levels reported in this study when other sources such as petrol stations and motor vehicles on the roads are considered. Tanzania Government therefore need to put in place: an air quality policy and legislation, establish air quality guidelines and acquire facilities which will enable the implementation of air quality monitoring and management programmes. PMID:16779602

Jackson, Msafiri M

2006-05-01

45

Slow progression of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of antiretroviral naïve hotel workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania as defined by their CD4 cell slopes.  

PubMed

Data on slow progression following HIV-1 infection in Africa are sparse. From a study on the natural history of HIV-1 infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, an analysis of immunological and clinical data from 237 HIV-1 seropositive individuals was performed. Annual CD4 cell determinations were carried out by flow cytometry. None was on antiretroviral treatment. CD4+ cell slopes were obtained by fitting a linear regression model. A study population of 50 individuals with >3 CD4 cell determinations and followed for >5 y had a mean follow-up of 72.7 months, and mean 5.7 CD4+ cell determinations. With a criterion of maintaining a CD4 cell count >or=500 cells/ml, 8 of the 50 (16.0%) were long-term non-progressors (LTNP). With a definition of maintaining a CD4+ cell slope

Bakari, Muhammad; Urassa, Willy; Mhalu, Fred; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Pallangyo, Kisali; Sandström, Eric

2008-01-01

46

Feasibility and strategies for anaerobic digestion of solid waste for energy production in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tanzania, the most serious solid waste management problem currently is disposal, but since the largest fraction of the waste is organics which are amenable to anaerobic digestion and composting, it makes environmental and economic sense to explore these options. This prompted the conception of the Taka (waste) Gas Project which is meant to utilise organic solid waste from Dar

Stephen E Mbuligwe; Gabriel R Kassenga

2004-01-01

47

Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Methods Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical), SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), First Response HIV Card 1–2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd), HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc) and Uni-Gold™ HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech) were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics). Results Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold™ was 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100) while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2–99.9) and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7–98.9), respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100) on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold™ assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6–100) while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9), 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8–99.7), 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9) and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3–99.9) for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was concordantly false positive in Uni-Gold™, Determine and SD Bioline assays. Conclusion An alternative confirmatory HIV testing strategy based on initial testing on either SD Bioline or Determine assays followed by testing of reactive samples on the Determine or SD Bioline gave 100% sensitivity (95% CI; 99.1–100) and 100% specificity (95% CI; 96–99.1) with Uni-Gold™ as tiebreaker for discordant results. PMID:19226452

2009-01-01

48

Social venues that protect against and promote HIV risk for young men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Developing effective place-based health interventions requires understanding of the dynamic between place and health. The therapeutic landscape framework explains how place-based social processes and physical geography interact and influence health behavior. This study applied this framework to examine how venues, or social gathering places, influenced HIV risk behavior among young, urban men in Tanzania. Eighty-three public venues where men aged 15-19 met new sexual partners were identified by community informants in one city ward. The majority (86%) of the venues were called 'camps', social gathering places that had formal leaders and members. Observations were conducted at 23 camps and in-depth interviews were conducted with 36 camp members and 10 camp leaders in 15 purposively selected camps. Geographic and social features of camps were examined to understand their contributions to men's behaviors. Camps were characterized by a geographic space claimed by members, a unique name and a democratic system of leadership and governance. Members were mostly men and socialized daily at their camp. They reported strong social bonds and engaging in health-promoting activities such as playing sports and generating income. Members also engaged in HIV risk behaviors, such as meeting new sexual partners and having sex in or around the camp at night. Some members promoted concurrent sexual partnerships with their friends and resisted camp leaders' efforts to change their sexual risk behavior. We conclude that camps are strategic venues for HIV prevention programs for young Tanzanian men. They served as both protective and risk landscapes, illustrating three domains of the therapeutic landscape framework: the built environment; identities of landscape occupants; and sites for collective efficacy. The framework and data suggest HIV intervention components might augment the protective features of the camps, while changing environmental features to reduce risk. PMID:20846768

Yamanis, Thespina J; Maman, Suzanne; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Earp, Jo Anne E; Kajula, Lusajo J

2010-11-01

49

A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs). New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04). Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience. PMID:18218148

Fillinger, Ulrike; Kannady, Khadija; William, George; Vanek, Michael J; Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Geissbühler, Yvonne; Chaki, Prosper P; Govella, Nico J; Mathenge, Evan M; Singer, Burton H; Mshinda, Hassan; Lindsay, Steven W; Tanner, Marcel; Mtasiwa, Deo; de Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

2008-01-01

50

Conference on Resource Sharing in Southern and Central Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, December 16-19, 1985). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

51

International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) Tanzania Distance Education Manager  

E-print Network

International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) Tanzania Distance Education Manager Location: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Position Summary Based in Dar es Salaam, the Distance Education (DE strengthening and the uptake of new DE technologies in Tanzania. I-TECH's activities will focus on introduction

Mullins, Dyche

52

"For someone who's rich, it's not a problem". Insights from Tanzania on diabetes health-seeking and medical pluralism among Dar es Salaam's urban poor  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of chronic non-communicable disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is rising worldwide. In Africa, T2DM is primarily affecting those living in urban areas and increasingly affecting the poor. Diabetes management among urban poor is an area of research that has received little attention. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Dar es Salam, the causes and conditions for diabetes management in Tanzania have been examined. In this paper, we focus on the structural context of diabetes services in Tanzania; the current status of biomedical and ethnomedical health care; and health-seeking among people with T2DM. We demonstrate that although Tanzania is actively developing its diabetes services, many people with diabetes and low socioeconomic status are unable to engage continuously in treatment. There are many challenges to be addressed to support people accessing diabetes health care services and improve diabetes management. PMID:20441575

2010-01-01

53

Sanitary inspection of wells using risk-of-contamination scoring indicates a high predictive ability for bacterial faecal pollution in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The sanitary inspection of wells was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures using risk-of-contamination (ROC) scoring to determine the capacity of ROC scoring to predict bacterial faecal pollution of well water in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The analysis was based on a selection of wells representing environments with low to high presumptive faecal pollution risk and a multi-parametric data set of bacterial indicators, generating a comprehensive picture of the level and characteristics of faecal pollution (such as vegetative Escherichia coli cells, Clostridium perfringens spores and human-associated sorbitol fermenting Bifidobacteria). ROC scoring demonstrated a remarkable ability to predict bacterial faecal pollution levels in the investigated well water (e.g. 87% of E. coli concentration variations were predicted by ROC scoring). Physicochemical characteristics of the wells were not reflected by the ROC scores. Our results indicate that ROC scoring is a useful tool for supporting health-related well water management in urban and suburban areas of tropical, developing countries. The outcome of this study is discussed in the context of previously published results, and future directions are suggested. PMID:22717748

Mushi, Douglas; Byamukama, Denis; Kirschner, Alexander K.T.; Mach, Robert L.; Brunner, K.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2012-01-01

54

Experiential Learning with NGOs in Tanzania  

E-print Network

Experiential Learning with NGOs in Tanzania June 27 - July 27, 2013 This study abroad program Maendeleo ya Bukawaya (UMABU, a Tanzanian NGO located in Musoma, Tanzania); the University of Dar es Salaam, 2013 in Arusha, Tanzania. Students MUST depart U.S. by Thursday, June 27 in order to arrive in Arusha

Karonis, Nicholas T.

55

Evaluation of the hygienic quality and associated public health hazards of raw milk marketed by smallholder dairy producers in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine three parameters of the quality of the raw milk marketed by milk selling points (MSPs) in Dar es Salaam region. Total bacterial count (TBC) was used as an indicator of the microbial quality of the milk; antimicrobial residues were determined; and the California mastitis test (CMT) was used to screen for milk somatic cells as an indication of the mastitis level in the cows that provided the milk. Moreover, a water sample at each MSP was taken for bacteriological culturing. Finally, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the milk sellers at the MSPs to identify risk factors for poor milk hygiene. A total of 128 milk samples and corresponding water samples were collected from randomly selected milk selling points in Dar es Salaam region. The mean TBC was (8.2 +/- 1.9) x 10(6) cfu/ml, and major bacterial isolates from the milk samples were Escherichia coli (6.3%), Bacillus cereus (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (6.3%), Enterobacter aerogenes (5.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (4.7%). In most cases, the organisms identified in milk corresponded to those isolated from the corresponding water samples. Of milk samples, 79.0% were positive to the CMT and 7.0% were positive for antimicrobial residues. TBC was normalized by log-transformation, and the possible predictors of TBC were identified by fitting two linear regression models. In a random effect model, water microbial quality, frequency of cleaning the milk containers, frequency of milk supply, milk storage time and the type of containers, and mixing of fresh and previous milk were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the mean log TBC. In a fixed effect model, in addition to these indicators, water shortage, water source and the refrigerator condition were significantly (p < or = 0.01) associated with log TBC. It was concluded that the milk sold in Dar es Salaam region is of poor quality and is of public health significance. PMID:16986766

Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

2006-04-01

56

Common pool resource management and PES: Lessons and constraints for water PES in Tanzania  

E-print Network

Common pool resource management and PES: Lessons and constraints for water PES in Tanzania Brendan, Tanzania c World Wildlife Fund Tanzania Programme Office, Dar es Salaam PO Box 63117, Tanzania d services Common pool resources Payments for ecosystem services Water payments Tanzania Research into common

Vermont, University of

57

Malaria control in Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

A review of the malaria control programs and the problem encountered in the United Republic of Tanzania since 1945 to the year 1986 is discussed. Buguruni, one of the squatter areas in the city of Dar es Salaam, is chosen as a case study in order to evaluate the economic advantage of engineering methods for the control of malaria infection. Although the initial capital cost of engineering methods may be high, the cost effectiveness requires a much lower financial burden of only about Tshs. 3 million compared with the conventional methods of larviciding and insecticiding which requires more than Tshs. 10 million. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of engineering methods are made concerning the upgrading of existing roads and footpaths in general with particular emphasis on drainage of large pools of water which serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes.

Yhdego, M.; Majura, P. (Ardhi Institute, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania))

1988-01-01

58

Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: a case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics). In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live. PMID:16270914

Kayombo, Edmund J; Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Massila, Mariam

2005-01-01

59

Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania  

E-print Network

Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania Molly A, Washington, DC, USA c Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Tanzania a r t i c

Harvell, Catherine Drew

60

Factors that influence the willingness of young adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to participate in phase I/II HIV vaccine trials  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS continues to destroy the lives of young people especially in low-income countries. The inclusion of youths in HIV vaccine trials is of utmost importance in obtaining an effective vaccine that is acceptable to them. Objective To characterize the willingness of young adults in Tanzania to participate in an HIV vaccine trial and the factors that influence this willingness. Design Four hundred and fifty young adults who visited a youth-friendly Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) from February 2012 to September 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning sociodemographic information, their knowledge about and perception of HIV vaccine studies, and the availability of social support. Results Of our participants, 50.6% expressed willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, and this willingness was positively correlated with having some knowledge about HIV vaccine studies (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4–3.4), a positive perception toward such studies (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.6), having a relationship with someone who could help them make a decision (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–4.9), and age at the time of sexual debut (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI 1.0–6.7) for 15- to 19-year-olds and (AOR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.0–7.1) for older participants. Conclusions The participants exhibited a moderate willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, which was associated with a positive perception of and some knowledge about such trials, having a relationship with someone who might influence their decision as well as age at time of sexual debut. More efforts should be made to inform the youths about specific HIV vaccine trials and related matters, as well as to engage significant others in the decision-making process. PMID:24572007

Mbunda, Theodora; Bakari, Muhammad; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Sandstrom, Eric; Kulane, Asli

2014-01-01

61

Sociocultural factors that reduce risks of homicide in Dar es Salaam: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was performed to examine the potential contributions of sociocultural activities to reduce risks of death by homicide. Methods This study was designed as a case control study. Relatives of 90 adult homicide victims in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania, in 2005 were interviewed. As controls, 211 participants matched for sex and 5-year age group were randomly selected from the same region and interviewed regarding the same contents. Results Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between victims and controls regarding educational status, occupation, family structure, frequent heavy drinking, hard drug use and religious attendance. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly related to not becoming victims of homicide: being in employment (unskilled labour: OR=0.04, skilled labour: OR=0.07, others: OR=0.04), higher educational status (OR=0.02), residence in Dar es Salaam after becoming an adult (compared with those who have resided in Dar es Salaam since birth: OR=3.95), living with another person (OR=0.07), not drinking alcohol frequently (OR=0.15) and frequent religious service attendance (OR=0.12). Conclusions Frequent religious service attendance, living in the same place for a long time and living with another person were shown to be factors that contribute to preventing death by homicide, regardless of place of residence and neighbourhood environment. Existing non-structural community resources and social cohesive networks strengthen individual and community resilience against violence. PMID:23322260

Kibusi, Stephen Matthew; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Outwater, Anne; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito

2013-01-01

62

Urban solid waste management in Tanzania Issues, concepts and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban solid waste in Tanzania in general and in Dar es Salaam city in particular, is a serious environmental problem. Concurrent with recent socioeconomic development, coupled with liberalization of the economy and rapid population growth, the quantum of solid waste generated has increased at a rapid rate. The manner in which urban solid waste is managed in Dar es Salaam

Michael Yhdego

1995-01-01

63

USING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH OF RAPID MICROBIAL DETECTION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNITY EDUCATION TO REDUCE WATERBORNE ILLNESS IN DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Participated in the Uncommon Dialogue meeting, in which we were able to meet with local water authorities, tour various communities, and learn about the larger scale water challenges that unplanned communities face. Piloted rapid method in n...

64

Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and associated factors among diabetic men attending diabetic clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction There has been an increase in the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in the general population especially among Diabetic patients. This seems to be neglected problem in low-income countries. This study aims at establishing the prevalence of ED and associated risk factors in diabetic patients attended at Diabetic Clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted among 312 diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital between May and December 2011. Results More than half (55.1%) of the patients were found to have some form of ED (12.8% had mild dysfunction, 11.5% moderate and 27.9% severe dysfunction). The severity of ED was correlated with increased age. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that ED was significantly predicted by old age (odds ratio (OR) = 7.1, 95% CI 1.2-40.7), evidence of peripheral neuropathy (OR) =5.9, 95% CI 1.6-21.3), and evidence of peripheral vascular disease (OR =2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.3). Also longer duration of DM was marginally associated with ED (p=0.056). Patients with ED were also more likely to suffer other sexual domains (p<0.001). No lifestyle factor was associated with ED. Conclusion The prevalence of ED is high among DM patients. Interventions aimed at prevention, early diagnosis and detection of DM and its complications, and adherence to treatment to prevent complications should be implemented. Further studies should emphasize on temporal variation to show true causality of DM on erectile dysfunction. PMID:25170371

Mutagaywa, Reuben Kato; Lutale, Janeth; Aboud, Muhsin; Kamala, Benjamin Anathory

2014-01-01

65

Involving Geospatial Information in the Analysis of Land-Cover Change along the Tanzania Coast  

E-print Network

Involving Geospatial Information in the Analysis of Land-Cover Change along the Tanzania Coast.1080/08920750590883132 Involving Geospatial Information in the Analysis of Land-Cover Change along the Tanzania Coast YEQIAO WANG, Rhode Island, USA VEDAST MAKOTA National Environment Management Council Dar es Salaam, Tanzania AMANI

Wang, Y.Q. "Yeqiao"

66

Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion Dar es Salaam: The discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14–19) were asked for socio-economic details, contraceptive knowledge\\/use, age at first intercourse and

Vibeke Rasch; Margrethe Silberschmidt; Yasinta Mchumvu; Vumilia Mmary

2000-01-01

67

"Finding a Life" among Undocumented Congolese Refugee Children in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that…

Mann, Gillian

2010-01-01

68

Understanding household behavioral risk factors for diarrheal disease in Dar es Salaam: a photovoice community assessment.  

PubMed

Whereas Tanzania has seen considerable improvements in water and sanitation infrastructure over the past 20 years, the country still faces high rates of childhood morbidity from diarrheal diseases. This study utilized a qualitative, cross-sectional, modified Photovoice method to capture daily activities of Dar es Salaam mothers. A total of 127 photographs from 13 households were examined, and 13 interviews were conducted with household mothers. The photographs and interviews revealed insufficient hand washing procedures, unsafe disposal of wastewater, uncovered household drinking water containers, a lack of water treatment prior to consumption, and inappropriate toilets for use by small children. The interviews revealed that mothers were aware and knowledgeable of the risks of certain household practices and understood safer alternatives, yet were restricted by the perceived impracticality and financial constraints to make changes. The results draw attention to the real economic and behavioral challenges faced in reducing the spread of disease. PMID:21969836

Badowski, Natalie; Castro, Cynthia M; Montgomery, Maggie; Pickering, Amy J; Mamuya, Simon; Davis, Jennifer

2011-01-01

69

Understanding Household Behavioral Risk Factors for Diarrheal Disease in Dar es Salaam: A Photovoice Community Assessment  

PubMed Central

Whereas Tanzania has seen considerable improvements in water and sanitation infrastructure over the past 20 years, the country still faces high rates of childhood morbidity from diarrheal diseases. This study utilized a qualitative, cross-sectional, modified Photovoice method to capture daily activities of Dar es Salaam mothers. A total of 127 photographs from 13 households were examined, and 13 interviews were conducted with household mothers. The photographs and interviews revealed insufficient hand washing procedures, unsafe disposal of wastewater, uncovered household drinking water containers, a lack of water treatment prior to consumption, and inappropriate toilets for use by small children. The interviews revealed that mothers were aware and knowledgeable of the risks of certain household practices and understood safer alternatives, yet were restricted by the perceived impracticality and financial constraints to make changes. The results draw attention to the real economic and behavioral challenges faced in reducing the spread of disease. PMID:21969836

Badowski, Natalie; Castro, Cynthia M.; Montgomery, Maggie; Pickering, Amy J.; Mamuya, Simon; Davis, Jennifer

2011-01-01

70

DNA Fingerprinting and Phenotyping ofMycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Patients in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the purpose of determining whether the risk of infection with a particular clone of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of the host, we analyzed and compared 68 mycobacterial isolates obtained from HIV-seropositive patients with tuberculosis (TB) in Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,with66mycobacterialisolatesobtainedfromHIV-seronegativepatientswithTBinthesame geographical region by using both DNAfingerprinting and classical phenotyping methods. One hundred one

Z. H. YANG; I. MTONI; M. CHONDE; M. MWASEKAGA; K. FUURSTED; D. S. ASKGÅRD; J. BENNEDSEN; P. E. W. DEHAAS; D. VANSOOLINGEN; J. D. A. VANEMBDEN; B. ANDERSEN

1995-01-01

71

Artisan Training and Employment Outcomes in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the main findings of a tracer survey of graduates from two artisan training centres in Tanzania, which was undertaken in early 2002. The two institutions are the Chang'ombe Regional Vocational Training and Service Centre (RVTSC) in Dar es Salaam and the Iringa RVTSC, which are owned and managed by the Vocational Education and…

Bennell, Paul; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Kasogela, Maurice; Mutashubirwa, Francis; Klim, Mikkel

2006-01-01

72

Low quality of routine microscopy for malaria at different levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam  

PubMed Central

Background Laboratory capacity to confirm malaria cases in Tanzania is low and presumptive treatment of malaria is being practiced widely. In malaria endemic areas WHO now recommends systematic laboratory testing when suspecting malaria. Currently, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) is recommended for the diagnosis of malaria in lower level peripheral facilities, but not in health centres and hospitals. In this study, the following parameters were evaluated: (1) the quality of routine microscopy, and (2) the effects of RDT implementation on the positivity rate of malaria test results at three levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods During a baseline cross-sectional survey, routine blood slides were randomly picked from 12 urban public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Sensitivity and specificity of routine slides were assessed against expert microscopy. In March 2007, following training of health workers, RDTs were introduced in nine public health facilities (three hospitals, three health centres and three dispensaries) in a near-to-programmatic way, while three control health facilities continued using microscopy. The monthly malaria positivity rates (PR) recorded in health statistics registers were collected before (routine microscopy) and after (routine RDTs) the intervention in all facilities. Results At baseline, 53% of blood slides were reported as positive by the routine laboratories, whereas only 2% were positive by expert microscopy. Sensitivity of routine microscopy was 71.4% and specificity was 47.3%. Positive and negative predictive values were 2.8% and 98.7%, respectively. Median parasitaemia was only three parasites per 200 white blood cells (WBC) by routine microscopy compared to 1226 parasites per 200 WBC by expert microscopy. Before RDT implementation, the mean test positivity rates using routine microscopy were 43% in hospitals, 62% in health centres and 58% in dispensaries. After RDT implementation, mean positivity rates using routine RDTs were 6%, 7% and 8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RDTs using expert microscopy as reference were 97.0% and 96.8%. The positivity rate of routine microscopy remained the same in the three control facilities: 71% before versus 72% after. Two cross-sectional health facility surveys confirmed that the parasite rate in febrile patients was low in Dar es Salaam during both the rainy season (13.6%) and the dry season (3.3%). Conclusions The quality of routine microscopy was poor in all health facilities, regardless of their level. Over-diagnosis was massive, with many false positive results reported as very low parasitaemia (1 to 5 parasites per 200 WBC). RDTs should replace microscopy as first-line diagnostic tool for malaria in all settings, especially in hospitals where the potential for saving lives is greatest. PMID:22047131

2011-01-01

73

Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention  

PubMed Central

Background Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Results and discussion Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. Conclusions To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological testing, preclinical testing, formulation and standardization, and related areas important to moving from basic research to applications. The private sector can be encouraged to innovate through improved access to financing, and incentives for R&D. The diaspora community represents an untapped source for partnerships and access to other developing world markets and technology. The government may wish to set up mechanisms to encourage south-south collaborations, and to bring the public and private sector together around specific projects to help realize the country’s innovation potential. PMID:21144075

2010-01-01

74

Walking in Unfamiliar Territory: Headteachers' Preparation and First-Year Experiences in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the preappointment experiences of early-career headteachers in Tanzania and to discuss implications for postsecondary institutions and ministries of education in East Africa. Research Design: Seven novice headteachers in a suburb of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, completed questionnaires and participated…

Onguko, Brown Bully; Abdalla, Mohamed; Webber, Charles F.

2012-01-01

75

The Determinants of Traditional Medicine Use in Northern Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region. Methods Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes. Results Most structured survey participants (68%) reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56%) reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%), chronic diseases (15%), reproductive problems (11%), and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%). We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding. Conclusions In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments, chronic diseases were reported as the most common reason for TM use which may be particularly important in Northern Tanzania where non-communicable diseases are a rapidly growing burden. PMID:25848762

Stanifer, John W.; Patel, Uptal D.; Karia, Francis; Thielman, Nathan; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilaweh, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Matemu, Oliver; Omolo, Justin; Boyd, David

2015-01-01

76

Not at all so hard-to-reach: same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on research in Tanzania, this paper critically examines the widely circulating notion that African same-sex attracted men are hard-to-reach individuals and populations. Despite expectations to the contrary, it was neither time consuming nor difficult to identify and get to know same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam. On the contrary, a large and diverse group of such men could

Kåre Moen; Peter Aggleton; Melkizedeck T. Leshabari; Anne-Lise Middelthon

2011-01-01

77

Not at all so hard-to-reach: same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on research in Tanzania, this paper critically examines the widely circulating notion that African same-sex attracted men are hard-to-reach individuals and populations. Despite expectations to the contrary, it was neither time consuming nor difficult to identify and get to know same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam. On the contrary, a large and diverse group of such men could

Kåre Moen; Peter Aggleton; Melkizedeck T. Leshabari; Anne-Lise Middelthon

2012-01-01

78

Estimates of maternal mortality in western Tanzania by the sisterhood method.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality in Kigoma Region, western Tanzania, was assessed as part of ongoing efforts to reduce maternal deaths in the area. A sisterhood survey was carried out using a questionnaire in which respondents were asked about their sisters who died during pregnancy, childbirth or within six weeks after childbirth. Three thousand and twenty nine individuals were interviewed. The overall estimated maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Kigoma Region was 606 per 100,000 live births (95% CI 518-695). In urban areas, the MMR was 447 (95% CI 262-635), compared to 638 (95% CI 539-737) in rural areas. The highest NMR of 757 was found in Kigoma rural district, the most isolated part of the region (95% CI 599-916). Although the differences are not statistically significant, they may indicate poor accessibility as a risk factor. Maternal mortality in Kigoma is high when compared to other regions in Tanzania. The sisterhood method is relatively simple and convenient for estimating maternal mortality in resource-poor countries. PMID:15055151

Mbaruku, Godfrey; Vork, Fred; Vyagusa, Dismas; Mwakipiti, Rex; van Roosmalen, Jos

2003-12-01

79

Trapped in decline: a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru mountains Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made a return visit to the area in November 1991 to look

Donge van J. K

1993-01-01

80

Support for a National Research Information Service in Tanzania. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report briefly reviews the current situation in Tanzania with respect to scientific and technical (S&T) information provision at the research and development (R&D) level, and formulates proposals to revive a workable situation for the R&D community. A presentation of the objectives of a mission to Dar es Salaam is followed by a discussion of…

Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

81

Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Results Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. Conclusion GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended. PMID:23467278

Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

2012-01-01

82

Prioritization of intervention methods for prevention of communicable diseases in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water, sanitation, housing and hygienic behavior plays dominant role in the transmission and intensification of diseases. To effectively utilize limited financial resources, it is important to prioritize disease intervention methods in order to minimize mortality and morbidity cases. Realization of the environmental health components that respond to the practical effects of their contribution to transmission of diseases has greater chances of effectively enhancing health. Data of frequency of diseases and mortality rate were collected from four municipal hospitals from districts of Ilala, Kinondoni, Temeke and Kibaha in Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions. The populations at risk were sub-categorized in relation to age; below five years and above five years. The age parameter assists on envisaging the major causes to be either in-house or in public domain. Data were analyzed to assess the role of water quality, water quantity, excreta disposal, waste disposal and hygiene education on spreading the diseases in order to come up with scientifically evaluated information. Scores were given to each intervention method depending on its importance in controlling a particular disease. The results indicate that incidences of malaria, skin and eye infections, pneumonia and diarrhea are frequent in these districts. Children under 5 years are particularly affected by pneumonia and diarrhea more than adults. Malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are the major causes of mortality rates in these districts. Fatality cases are caused largely by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea for children less than 5 years, but malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are responsible for mortality rates in adults and children over 5 years. Statistical analysis revealed that in all districts, hygiene education is the major factor responsible for transmission of diseases accounting for 32-39%. Other factors, which are the major contributors to the incidences of diseases, are inadequacy of water (15.6-22.5%) and poor housing environment (14.5-24.0%). Water quality played the least role in transmission of diseases accounting for only 3-8%. It was concluded that provision of hygiene education, and improvement of water quantity and housing, in that order can significantly contribute to reduction of communicable diseases in the area. Improvement of water quality has potentially the least effect on the number of morbidity and mortality cases.

Mayo, A. W.

83

Urban mosquitoes, situational publics, and the pursuit of interspecies separation in Dar es Salaam  

PubMed Central

Recent work in anthropology points to the recognition of multispecies entanglements as the grounds for a more ethical politics. In this article, we examine efforts to control mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as an example of the laborious tasks of disentanglement that characterize public health interventions. The mosquito surveillance and larval elimination practices of an urban malaria control program offer an opportunity to observe how efforts to create distance between species relate to the physical and civic textures of the city. Seen in the particular context of the contemporary African metropolis, the work of public health appears less a matter of control than a commitment to constant urban maintenance and political mobilization. PMID:25429167

KELLY, ANN H.; LEZAUN, JAVIER

2014-01-01

84

Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse--A Qualitative Interview Study with Representatives of the Socio-Legal System in Urban Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through in-depth interviews, this study explored perceptions and experiences of key players handling child sexual offense cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The informants included public police investigators, magistrates, legal workers, and social workers working with nongovernmental organizations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed…

Kisanga, Felix; Mbwambo, Jessie; Hogan, Norah; Nystrom, Lennarth; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla

2010-01-01

85

Determinants of community health fund membership in Tanzania: a mixed methods analysis.  

PubMed

BackgroundIn many developing countries, initiatives are underway to strengthen voluntary community based health insurance as a means of expanding access to affordable care among the informal sector. However, increasing coverage with voluntary health insurance in low income settings can prove challenging. There are limited studies on determinants of enrolling in these schemes using mixed methods. This study aims to shed light on the characteristics of those joining a community health fund, a type of community based health insurance, in Tanzania and the reasons for their membership and subsequent drop out using mixed methods.MethodsA cross sectional survey of households in four rural districts was conducted in 2008, covering a total of 1,225 (524 members of CHF and 701 non-insured) households and 7,959 individuals. In addition, 12 focus group discussions were carried out with CHF members, non-scheme members and members of health facility governing committees in two rural districts. Logistic regression was used to assess the determinants of CHF membership while thematic analysis was done to analyse qualitative data.ResultsThe quantitative analysis revealed that the three middle income quintiles were more likely to enrol in the CHF than the poorest and the richest. CHF member households were more likely to be large, and headed by a male than uninsured households from the same areas. The qualitative data supported the finding that the poor rather than the poorest were more likely to join as were large families and of greater risk of illness, with disabilities or persons with chronic diseases. Households with elderly members or children under-five years were also more likely to enrol. Poor understanding of risk pooling deterred people from joining the scheme and was the main reason for not renewing membership. On the supply side, poor quality of public care services, the limited benefit package and a lack of provider choice were the main factors for low enrolment.ConclusionsDeterminants of CHF membership are diverse and improving the quality of health services and expanding the benefit package should be prioritised to expand voluntary health insurance coverage. PMID:25411021

Macha, Jane; Kuwawenaruwa, August; Makawia, Suzan; Mtei, Gemini; Borghi, Josephine

2014-11-20

86

Knowledge among drug dispensers and antimalarial drug prescribing practices in public health facilities in Dar es Salaam  

PubMed Central

Background Irrational prescribing and dispensing of antimalarials has been identified as a contributing factor in the emergence of malaria parasites resistant to existing antimalarial drugs. Factors that contribute to such irrational prescribing and dispensing should therefore be identified to address this problem. The aim of this study was to assess irrational antimalarial drug dispensing and prescribing practices in public health facilities. Methods A descriptive-retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2011 in order to assess prescribing and dispensing practices for antimalarial drugs in three public hospitals and nine health centers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Thirty-two drug dispensers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 4,320 prescriptions for the period January to December 2010 were collected and assessed for antimalarial drug prescribing patterns. Results The majority (84.6%) of drug dispensers had poor knowledge regarding the basic information required from patients before dispensing artemether-lumefantrine. Seventeen of 32 drug dispensers did not know the basic information that should be given to patients in order to increase absorption of artemether-lumefantrine after oral intake. Most drug dispensers also showed limited knowledge about the dosage and contraindications for artemether-lumefantrine. Eighty-seven percent of all prescriptions contained artemether-lumefantrine as the only antimalarial drug, 77.1% contained at least one analgesic, and 26.9% contained at least one antibiotic, indicating unnecessary use of analgesics and antibiotics with antimalarial drugs. A substantial number of prescriptions contained antimalarial drugs that have already been declared ineffective for the treatment of malaria in Tanzania, providing additional evidence of inadequate knowledge among health care workers concerning treatment policy. Conclusion Despite the government’s efforts to increase public awareness regarding use of artemether-lumefantrine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, there is still irrational prescribing, dispensing, and use of this combination. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that regular on-the-job training and continuing education be provided to drug dispensers and prescribers in public health facilities. PMID:24039454

Kamuhabwa, Appolinary AR; Silumbe, Richard

2013-01-01

87

Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

Lalor, Kevin

2004-01-01

88

Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other hand, 12.4% of agricultural land and 16.1% of green areas would be lost in the low density development scenario of unplanned settlements of max. 150 persons per hectare. Relocating the population living in flood prone areas in the case of Addis Ababa and keeping those areas free from further settlements in the case of Dar es Salaam would result in even lower losses (agricultural land: -10.0%, green areas: -5.6%) as some flood prone areas overlap with agricultural/ green areas. The scenario models introduced in this research can be used by planners as tools to understand and manage the different outcomes of distinctive urban development strategies on growth patterns and how they interact with different climate change drivers such as loss of green infrastructure and effects such as frequent flooding hazards. Due to the relative simplicity of their structure and the single modeling environment, the models can be transferred to similar cities with minor modifications accommodating the different conditions of each city. Already, in Addis Ababa the results of the model will be used in the current revision of the Master plan of the city. Keywords: GIS, modeling, Urban Dynamics, Dar es Salaam, Addis Ababa, urbanization

Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

2013-04-01

89

Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. METHODS: Qualitative

Ronak Shah; Peter A Singer; Abdallah S Daar

2010-01-01

90

Comparison of intervention methods for reducing human exposure to Mycobacterium bovis through milk in pastoralist households of Tanzania.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease of zoonotic concern, especially in countries with no control programs in livestock and where routine pasteurization of milk is not practiced. In Tanzania, bTB is widespread in livestock and has been diagnosed in humans; however, herd bTB testing is primarily carried out for bTB-free certification in commercial dairy herds at the expense of the dairy cattle owner. For rural livestock holders, such an expense is prohibitive, and consequently there is no control of bTB in most areas. Although effective long-term solutions to control bTB in livestock are desirable, there is a need to assess the effect of preventive measures on reducing human exposure to bTB in such settings. We utilized locally relevant cattle herd characteristics and management data from the Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement (HALI) project in south-central Tanzania to build a Reed-Frost model that compared the efficacy of alternative methods aimed at reducing the exposure of humans to infectious milk from a typical pastoralist cattle herd. During a 10-year simulation period, the model showed that boiling milk 80% of the time is necessary to obtain a reduction in liters of infectious milk approximately equivalent to what would be obtained with a standard 2-year testing and removal regimen, and that boiling milk was more effective than animal test and removal early in the time period. In addition, even with testing and removing infected cattle, a residual risk of exposure to infectious milk remained due to imperfect sensitivity of the skin test and a continuous risk of introduction of infectious animals from other herds. The model was sensitive to changes in initial bTB prevalence but not to changes in herd size. In conclusion, continuous complimentary treatment of milk may be an effective strategy to reduce human exposure to M. bovis-infected milk in settings where bTB is endemic and a comprehensive bTB control program is yet to be implemented. PMID:24853050

Roug, Annette; Perez, Andres; Mazet, Jonna A K; Clifford, Deana L; VanWormer, Elizabeth; Paul, Goodluck; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Smith, Woutrina A

2014-08-01

91

Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1) anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2) anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80) in intervention and 32% (9-54) in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72) in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35) in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26). The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22%) and control HF (60%) (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70). Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic prescription increased from 49% before to 72% after intervention (Risk ratio 1.47, 95%CI 1.37-1.59). Conclusions Programmatic implementation of mRDTs in a moderately endemic area reduced drastically over-treatment with anti-malarials. Properly trained clinicians with adequate support complied with the recommendation of not treating patients with negative results. Implementation of mRDT should be integrated hand-in-hand with training on the management of other causes of fever to prevent irrational use of antibiotics. PMID:21529365

2011-01-01

92

Early Cenozoic tropical climate: report from the Tanzania Onshore Paleogene Integrated Coring (TOPIC) workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a proposal for a new International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) project to recover a stratigraphic and paleoclimatic record from the full succession of Eocene hemipelagic sediments that are now exposed on land in southern Tanzania. Funding for a workshop was provided by ICDP, and the project was advertised in the normal way. A group of about 30 delegates assembled in Dar-es-Salaam for 3 intensive days of discussion, project development, and proposal writing. The event was hosted by the Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) and was attended by several geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, and micropaleontologists from TPDC and the University of Dar-es-Salaam. International delegates were from Canada, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (and we also have project partners from Australia, Belgium, and Sweden who were not able to attend). Some of the scientists are veterans of previous scientific drilling in the area, but over half are new on the scene, mostly having been attracted by Tanzania's reputation for world-class paleoclimate archives. Here we outline the broad aims of the proposed drilling and give a flavor of the discussions and the way our proposal developed during the workshop. A video of the workshop with an introduction to the scientific goals and interviews of many of the participants is available at http://vimeo.com/107911777.

Pearson, P. N.; Hudson, W.

2014-12-01

93

Residents’ perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city.

Mwakalila, Shadrack

94

Genetic Diversity of Circulating Rotavirus Strains in Tanzania Prior to the Introduction of Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Background Tanzania currently rolls out vaccination against rotavirus-diarrhea, a major cause of child illness and death. As the vaccine covers a limited number of rotavirus variants, this study describes the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under two years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, prior to implementation of vaccination. Methods Stool specimens, demographic and clinical information, were collected from 690 children admitted to hospital due to diarrhea (cases) and 545 children without diarrhea (controls) during one year. Controls were inpatient or children attending child health clinics. Rotavirus antigen was detected using ELISA and positive samples were typed by multiplex semi-nested PCR and sequencing. Results The prevalence of rotavirus was higher in cases (32.5%) than in controls (7.7%, P<0.001). The most common G genotypes were G1 followed by G8, G12, and G4 in cases and G1, G12 and G8 in controls. The Tanzanian G1 variants displayed 94% similarity with the Rotarix vaccine G1 variant. The commonest P genotypes were P[8], P[4] and P[6], and the commonest G/P combination G1 P[8] (n?=?123), G8 P[4] and G12 P[6]. Overall, rotavirus prevalence was higher in cool (23.9%) than hot months (17.1%) of the year (P?=?0.012). We also observed significant seasonal variation of G genotypes. Rotavirus was most frequently found in the age group of four to six months. The prevalence of rotavirus in cases was lower in stunted children (28.9%) than in non-stunted children (40.1%, P?=?0.003) and lower in HIV-infected (15.4%, 4/26) than in HIV-uninfected children (55.3%, 42/76, P<0.001). Conclusion This pre-vaccination study shows predominance of genotype G1 in Tanzania, which is phylogenetically distantly related to the vaccine strains. We confirm the emergence of genotype G8 and G12. Rotavirus infection and circulating genotypes showed seasonal variation. This study also suggests that rotavirus may not be an opportunistic pathogen in children infected with HIV. PMID:24844631

Moyo, Sabrina J.; Blomberg, Bjørn; Hanevik, Kurt; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Langeland, Nina

2014-01-01

95

Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including “mwarobaini” (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), “mtopetope” (Annona spp) (20.8%), “mchungwa/mlimau” (Citrus spp) (8.3%), “mvumbashi/uvumbati” (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), “mkorosho” (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), “mwembe” (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), “mpera” (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and “maganda ya nazi” (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in insect control. Conclusion This survey has indicated some knowledge gap among community members in managing mosquito vectors using plant. The communities need a basic health education and sensitization for effective exploitation of this valuable tool for reducing mosquitoes and associated disease burdens. On the other hand, the government of Tanzania should strengthen advocacy of botanical pesticides development, registration and regulation for public health benefits because they are source of pest control tools people rely on them. PMID:25015092

2014-01-01

96

Why give birth in health facility? Users’ and providers’ accounts of poor quality of birth care in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In Tanzania, half of all pregnant women access a health facility for delivery. The proportion receiving skilled care at birth is even lower. In order to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, the government has set out to increase health facility deliveries by skilled care. The aim of this study was to describe the weaknesses in the provision of acceptable and adequate quality care through the accounts of women who have suffered obstetric fistula, nurse-midwives at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities and local community members. Methods Semi-structured interviews involving 16 women affected by obstetric fistula and five nurse-midwives at maternity wards at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities, and Focus Group Discussions with husbands and community members were conducted between October 2008 and February 2010 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania and Temeke hospitals in Dar es Salaam, and Mpwapwa district in Dodoma region. Results Health care users and health providers experienced poor quality caring and working environments in the health facilities. Women in labour lacked support, experienced neglect, as well as physical and verbal abuse. Nurse-midwives lacked supportive supervision, supplies and also seemed to lack motivation. Conclusions There was a consensus among women who have suffered serious birth injuries and nurse midwives staffing both BEmOC and CEmOC maternity wards that the quality of care offered to women in birth was inadequate. While the birth accounts of women pointed to failure of care, the nurses described a situation of disempowerment. The bad birth care experiences of women undermine the reputation of the health care system, lower community expectations of facility birth, and sustain high rates of home deliveries. The only way to increase the rate of skilled attendance at birth in the current Tanzanian context is to make facility birth a safer alternative than home birth. The findings from this study indicate that there is a long way to go. PMID:23663299

2013-01-01

97

Quality and comparison of antenatal care in public and private providers in the United Republic of Tanzania.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the quality of public and private first-tier antenatal care services in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, using defined criteria. METHODS: Structural attributes of quality were assessed through a checklist, and process attributes, including interpersonal and technical aspects, through observation and exit interviews. A total of 16 health care providers, and 166 women in the public and 188 in the private sector, were selected by systematic random sampling for inclusion in the study. Quality was measured against national standards, and an overall score calculated for the different aspects to permit comparison. FINDINGS: The results showed that both public and private providers were reasonably good with regard to the structural and interpersonal aspects of quality of care. However, both were poor when it came to technical aspects of quality. For example, guidelines for dispensing prophylactic drugs against anaemia or malaria were not respected, and diagnostic examinations for the assessment of gestation, anaemia, malaria or urine infection were frequently not performed. In all aspects, private providers were significantly better than public ones. CONCLUSION: Approaches to improving quality of care should emerge progressively as a result of regular quality assessments. Changes should be introduced using an incremental approach addressing few improvements at a time, while ensuring participation in, and ownership of, every aspect of the strategy by health personnel, health planners and managers and also the community. PMID:12751419

Boller, Christoph; Wyss, Kaspar; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel

2003-01-01

98

Informal Urban Settlements and Cholera Risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAs a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living

Katherine Penrose; Marcia Caldas de Castro; Japhet Werema; Edward T. Ryan

2010-01-01

99

Sources of salinity and urban pollution in the Quaternary sand aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is globally important for human consumption, and changes in quality can have serious consequences. The study area is within a coastal aquifer where groundwater quality is influenced by various potential sources of salinity that determine the composition of water extracted from wells. Groundwater chemistry data from the aquifer have been acquired to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in this area and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Analysis of groundwater samples shows that the dominant watertype is mostly NaCl with pH < 7 in both aquifers (i.e. upper and lower) except for the shallow wells where CaHCO3 prevails with pH ? 7, and boreholes located near the Indian Ocean, where coral reef limestone deposits are located and the watertype evolves towards CaHCO3. In the lower aquifer, Cl- is higher than in the upper aquifer. The origin of salinity in the area is strongly influenced by groundwater ascending from deep marine Miocene Spatangid Shales through faults, seawater incursion on the border of the Indian Ocean, and throughout, there is some salinity within the Quaternary aquifer, especially in intercalated deltaic clays in the fluviatile deposits, showing some marine influences. The seawater intrusion is linked to the strongly increasing groundwater exploitation since 1997. Another process that plays a major role to the concentration of major ions in the groundwater is calcite dissolution. Next to geogenic salinity and seawater intrusion, anthropogenic pollution as well is affecting groundwater quality in the aquifer. An important result of this study is the observation of high nitrate concentrations, that call for improved sanitation in the area, where domestic sewage with on-site sanitation (mainly pit latrines) also threatens the groundwater resource.

Walraevens, Kristine; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Mtoni, Yohana; Van Camp, Marc

2015-02-01

100

Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research

A. Pickering; A. Boehm; J. Davis

2008-01-01

101

Geochemistry of shallow groundwater at Kigamboni peninsula along Dar Es Salaam coastal strip Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents types of groundwater, hydrochemical facies, and chemical genesis of shallow groundwater at Kigamboni peninsula. Five types of groundwater have been identified as sodium bicarbonate, sodium sulphate, sodium chloride, calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate type of waters. Hydrochemical facies change from calcium-sodium facies near the shore to sodium-calcium facies landward for cations, and from chloride-sulphate-bicarbonate to bicarbonate-chloride-sulphate facies respectively for anions. Calcium and Magnesium in high concentrations near the shore are attributed to dissolution of dolomitic limestone, being indicated by higher ratio of Ca 2+/Mg 2+ than one for samples K 6, K 7 and K 9. The rest of the samples show low ratios indicating dolomite dissolution with probable calcite precipitation. Whereas the higher alkali metal concentrations than alkaline earths, observed landward, may probably be due to cation exchange process, similar pattern seen for chloride and sulphate concentrations also suggest mixing of fresh recharge water with interstitial marine water and or dissolution of airbone salts by recharging rainwater resulting into oceanic salt recycling. However, the water is observed to be suitable for general domestic and irrigation purposes. It has been concluded that the chemical character of shallow groundwater in the studied area, is a result of the interaction between recharge water with lithology and mixing with probable trapped marine water.

Nkotagu, H. H.

102

A novel technology to improve drinking water quality using natural treatment methods in rural Tanzania.  

PubMed

It is estimated that one billion people worldwide do not have access to treated drinking water. This paper reports on an investigation into the potential of indigenous or natural water treatment methods as alternatives to conventional chemical water treatment methods. The seeds of five natural plant species--Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus mungo, Glycine max, Pisum sativam, and Arachis hypogea--were evaluated for the removal of turbidity, and their efficiency was compared with that of alum. The use of a solar energy-saving method to disinfect drinking water--leaving it to heat under the sun to reduce bacteria colonies--also was evaluated, The study revealed that for raw water with turbidity of 482 nephelometric turbidity units, coagulation with seed extracts from natural plant species reduced natural turbidity by 96.7 to 100 percent when the seed extract was used as the primary coagulant and by 100 percent when it was used as a coagulant aid. The study showed further that natural coagulants were as effective as commercial alum [Al2(SO4)3] and even superior for clarification because the optimum dosage was low compared with that of alum. Leaving samples of water clarified by natural coagulants on a black-painted roof for 8 hours achieved up to 100 percent bacteria kill. PMID:18348392

Mbogo, Shaaban Aman

2008-03-01

103

The Development of Snail Control Methods on an Irrigated Sugar-Cane Estate in Northern Tanzania*  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to prevent the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni on an irrigated sugar-cane estate, molluscicide experiments were carried out to find the optimum methods for controlling the intermediate-host snails, Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The ease of application of N-tritylmorpholine led to its adoption as the molluscicide of choice for the two separate irrigation systems on the estate. Experiments on the frequency and duration of molluscicide treatments were carried out, and from these it was concluded that 5-day applications of N-tritylmorpholine at 0.025 ppm every 7 weeks might lead to a break in transmission by control of the snails. In another set of trials, drainage ditches were treated alternately with N-tritylmorpholine and niclosamide ethanolamine salt, and although the chemicals differed only slightly in their effect, the latter—being ovicidal—was chosen to be applied at approximately 4 ppm by knapsack sprayer every 8 weeks. Extra treatment of small pools with the same compound was carried out during the long rains when irrigation was unnecessary and most of the canals were dry. It is pointed out that the effect of the control methods on S. mansoni transmission will need to be evaluated by studying the incidence of the disease in the population. PMID:5310954

Fenwick, A.

1970-01-01

104

STD rapid assessment in Rwandan refugee camps in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To obtain baseline information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the Rwandan refugees camps in Tanzania, prior to establishment of STD services. SETTING: The largest camps of Rwandan refugees in the Ngara District of Tanzania (estimated population 300,000). The study was carried out in 8 days in August 1994. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A rapid assessment technique was used to

P. Mayaud; W Msuya; J Todd; G Kaatano; G Begkoyian; H Grosskurth; D Mabey

1997-01-01

105

Waiting for attention and care: birthing accounts of women in rural Tanzania who developed obstetric fistula as an outcome of labour  

PubMed Central

Background Obstetric fistula is a physically and socially disabling obstetric complication that affects about 3,000 women in Tanzania every year. The fistula, an opening that forms between the vagina and the bladder and/or the rectum, is most frequently caused by unattended prolonged labour, often associated with delays in seeking and receiving appropriate and adequate birth care. Using the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care (AAAQ) concept and the three delays model, this article provides empirical knowledge on birth care experiences of women who developed fistula after prolonged labour. Methods We used a mixed methods approach to explore the birthing experiences of women affected by fistula and the barriers to access adequate care during labour and delivery. Sixteen women were interviewed for the qualitative study and 151 women were included in the quantitative survey. All women were interviewed at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania in Dar es Salaam and Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza. Results Women experienced delays both before and after arriving at a health facility. Decisions on where to seek care were most often taken by husbands and mothers-in-law (60%). Access to health facilities providing emergency obstetric care was inadequate and transport was a major obstacle. About 20% reported that they had walked or were carried to the health facility. More than 50% had reported to a health facility after two or more days of labour at home. After arrival at a health facility women experienced lack of supportive care, neglect, poor assessment of labour and lack of supervision. Their birth accounts suggest unskilled birth care and poor referral routines. Conclusions This study reveals major gaps in access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. It illustrates how poor quality of care at health facilities contributes to delays that lead to severe birth injuries, highlighting the need to ensure women's rights to accessible, acceptable and adequate quality services during labour and delivery. PMID:22013991

2011-01-01

106

Microbiological quality of milk in Tanzania: from Maasai stable to African consumer table.  

PubMed

In Tanzania, pastoralists such as the Maasai and small urban farmers are responsible for the country's milk production, and 95% of the national milk supply is sold without regulation. This study was conducted using hygiene checklists and milk sampling to investigate milk quality and safety at various steps throughout the milk production chain. In regions of Dar es Salaam and Lake Victoria, 196 milk samples were collected: 109 samples of raw milk, 41 samples of packed or open served heat-treated products, and 46 samples of fermented products. Samples were taken from (i) the production level (pastoralists and urban farmers), (ii) the collection level (middlemen and depots), (iii) processors (dairies), and (iv) retailers (kiosks). Samples were analyzed for hygiene criteria (total bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and coagulase-positive staphylococci) and foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Adequate heating of milk for drinking was determined via heat labile alkaline phosphatase and lactoperoxidase analysis. Total bacterial counts indicated that only 67% (73 of 109) of raw milk samples and 46% (19 of 41) of heat-treated samples met national Tanzanian standards. Bulk milk samples taken from the traditional milking vessels of Maasai pastoralists had the lowest total bacterial counts: ? 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml. Foodborne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were isolated from 10.1% (11 of 109) of raw milk samples but were not detected in heat-treated or fermented products, and 83% of heat-treated milk samples were lactoperoxidase negative, indicating overpasteurization. Coliforms were detected in 41% (17 of 41) of processed milk samples, thus indicating a high rate of recontamination. A progressive decrease in microbial quality along the milk production chain was attributed to departures from traditional methods, inadequate milk containers, long transport distances, lack of cooling, and lack of a basic understanding of hygiene. PMID:24215695

Schoder, Dagmar; Maichin, Andreas; Lema, Benedict; Laffa, John

2013-11-01

107

Breeding places and seasonal incidence of Aedes aegypti, as assessed by the single-larva survey method*  

PubMed Central

The single-larva survey method was employed to study the breeding places and seasonal incidence of Aedes aegypti in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. From May 1968 to May 1969, 28 462 containers of water—located in approximately equal numbers indoors and outdoors—were investigated. The highest frequency of breeding (8.0%) of A. aegypti was observed in tires and motor parts. Drums, barrels, water-pots, and other receptacles left outdoors showed a higher frequency (3.1%) than those kept indoors (0.6%). Metal containers were infested to a greater extent than those made of mud, wood, or other materials; 2.5% of coconut shells, snail shells, etc. and 1.3% of tree holes, plant axils, and cut bamboos were infested. The seasonal prevalence, expressed as a container index, closely followed and paralleled the fluctuations in rainfall. The value of this survey method for both ecological studies and practical control purposes is discussed. PMID:4544149

Rao, T. Ramachandra; Trpis, M.; Gillett, J. D.; Teesdale, C.; Tonn, R. J.

1973-01-01

108

Solar Power for Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

Condensed list of products and activities: 8 educational posters and 1 informational brochure (all original illustrations and text); a business plan with micro-agreements; corporation created called Tanzanian Power, LLC; business feasibility study developed with the University of Albany; Hampshire College collaborated in project development; research conducted seeking similar projects in underdeveloped countries; Citibank proposal submitted (but rejected); cleaned and sent PV panels to Tanzania; community center built in Tanzania; research and list provided to Robinson for educational TV videos and product catalogs; networked with Chase Manhattan Bank for new solar panels; maintained flow of information among many people (stateside and Tanzania); wrote and sent press releases and other outreach information. Several families purchased panels.

Chen, Christine; Gerace, Jay; Mehner, Nicole; Mohamed, Sharif; Reiss, Kelly

1999-12-06

109

Geological Survey of Tanzania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Republic of Tanzania was formed in 1964 by the merger of Tanganyika and Zanzibar and is located on the eastern coast of Africa between the Great Lakes of the Rift Valley. Tanzania has a diverse mineral resource base that includes gold and base metals, diamond-bearing kimberlites, nickel, cobalt, copper, coal resources, and a variety of industrial minerals and rocks such as kaolin, graphite, and dimension stone. This web site was created by the Mineral Resources Department (MRD), a subsidiary of the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, and contains basic information about the country's logistical environment, mineral sector policy, geological database, and more.

110

An Overview of HIV Prevention Interventions for People Who Inject Drugs in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, Tanzania has seen a rapid rise in the number of people who inject drugs (PWID), specifically heroin. While the overall HIV prevalence in Tanzania has declined recently to 5.6%, in 2009, the HIV prevalence among PWID remains alarmingly high at 35%. In this paper, we describe how the Tanzania AIDS Prevention Program (TAPP), Médecins du Monde France (MdM-F), and other organisations have been at the forefront of addressing this public health issue in Africa, implementing a wide array of harm reduction interventions including medication-assisted treatment (MAT), needle and syringe programs (NSP), and “sober houses” for residential treatment in the capital, Dar es Salaam, and in Zanzibar. Looking toward the future, we discuss the need to (1) extend existing services and programs to reach more PWID and others at risk for HIV, (2) develop additional programs to strengthen existing programs, and (3) expand activities to include structural interventions to address vulnerabilities that increase HIV risk for all Tanzanians. PMID:23346410

Ratliff, Eric A.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Mbwambo, Jessie K. K.; Lambdin, Barrot H.; Voets, Ancella; Pont, Sandrine; Maruyama, Haruka; Kilonzo, Gad P.

2013-01-01

111

An overview of the global threat reduction initiative's physical protection work in Tanzania.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) established the Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) mission to reduce and protect nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 80 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance security of facilities with these materials. In 2004, a GTRI delegation began working with the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, (TAEC). The team conducted site assessments for the physical protection of radiological materials in Tanzania. Today, GTRI and the Government of Tanzania continue cooperative efforts to enhance physical security at several radiological sites, including a central sealed-source storage facility, and sites in the cities of Arusha, Dar Es Salaam, and Tanga. This paper describes the scope of physical protection work, lessons learned, and plans for future cooperation between the GTRI program and the TAEC. Additionally the paper will review the cooperative efforts between TAEC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with regards to a remote monitoring system at a storage facility and to the repackaging of radioactive sources.

Banzi, Firmi Paul (Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania); Itamura, Michael Takeshi (U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC); Robinson, Phillip W. (U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC); Strosinski, Micheal Vernon

2010-06-01

112

Tanzania: Country Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the status of language usage in Tanzania begins with an overview of the three levels of language use: (1) Swahili, the national and official language, used in public life; (2) English, used in international affairs and in technical and intellectual matters; and (3) the over 120 vernacular languages used in family and religious life,…

Robson, Barbara

113

Tanzania: A Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book gives an account of the political economy of Tanzania, tracing the historical processes by which the country developed from pre-colonial trade in slaves and ivory, through German and then British colonial rule, to take its place in the international economy.

Andrew Coulson

1983-01-01

114

Quantitation of multiple mycotoxins and cyanogenic glucosides in cassava samples from Tanzania and Rwanda by an LC-MS/MS-based multi-toxin method.  

PubMed

A multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for a mycotoxin survey in 627 samples of processed cassava collected from different districts across Tanzania and Rwanda after the method performance for this matrix had been determined. Matrix effects as well as extraction efficiencies were found to be similar to most other previously investigated matrices with the exception of distinct matrix effects in the negative ionisation mode for early eluting compounds. Limits of detection were far below the regulatory limits set in the European Union for other types of commodities. Relative standard deviations were generally lower than 10% as determined by replicates spiked on two concentration levels. The sample-to-sample variation of the apparent recoveries was determined for 15 individually spiked samples during three different analytical sequences. The related standard deviation was found to be lower than 15% for most of the investigated compounds, thus confirming the applicability of the method for quantitative analysis. The occurrence of regulated mycotoxins was lower than 10% (with the exception of zearalenone) and the related limits were exceeded only in few samples, which suggests that cassava is a comparatively safe commodity as regards mycotoxins. The most prevalent fungal metabolites were emodin, kojic acid, beauvericin, tryptophol, 3-nitropropionic acid, equisetin, alternariol methylether, monocerin, brevianamide F, tenuazonic acid, zearalenone, chrysophanol, monilifomin, enniatins, apicidin and macrosporin. The related concentrations exceeded 1 mg kg(-1) only in few cases. However, extremely high levels of cyanogenic plant toxins, which had been previously added to the method, were observed in few samples, pointing out the need for improved post-harvest management to decrease the levels of these compounds. PMID:25350522

Sulyok, M; Beed, F; Boni, S; Abass, A; Mukunzi, A; Krska, R

2015-04-01

115

A qualitative evaluation of volunteers' experiences in a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluating experiences of volunteers in an HIV vaccine trial will be useful for the conduct of future trials. The purpose of this study among volunteers who participated in a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was to assess what characterized their experiences during the trial. Methods We conducted four focus group discussions with 35 out of the 60 individuals (women and men) after the five scheduled vaccinations. An interpretive description approach was applied to data analysis. Results As a result of the trial interventions, both men and women gained confidence in their own abilities to have safer, less risky sexual behaviour. The participants experienced the trial as a way of accessing free [insured] medical services. Most of the men said they had gone from self-medication to professional medical consultation. Despite these benefits, the participants faced various challenges during the trial. Such challenges included mistrust of the trial shown by health care providers who were not connected to the trial and discouragement from friends, colleagues and family members who questioned the safety of the trial. However, they managed to cope with these doubts by using both personal and trial related interventions. Conclusion We found that during the phase I/II HIV vaccine trial, participants had both the opportunities and the ability to cope with the doubts from the surrounding community. Follow up visits enhanced the opportunities and individuals' abilities to cope with the doubts during the trial. Understanding this discourse may be useful for the trial implementers when designing future trials. Trials Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN90053831 Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR): ATMR2009040001075080 PMID:22023776

2011-01-01

116

Associations between attitudes toward violence and intimate partner violence in South Africa and Tanzania.  

PubMed

Attitude change approaches are common in the prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents. This study examined associations between perpetration or victimization and attitudes toward IPV with data from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an HIV prevention intervention among school students in three sites in South Africa and Tanzania. Data analyses were confined to students from the control group only, and to those with experience with romantic relationships. Boys and those more involved with violence reported more violence-supportive attitudes. For Cape Town (and to some extent Mankweng), the results of prospective prediction are consistent with the notion of a bidirectional attitudes-behavior interrelationship. For Dar es Salaam attitudes predicted behavior prospectively; however, prediction in the opposite direction was not confirmed. These results indicate that attitude change strategies may be useful complementary to structural approaches also in global South settings, although their effectiveness may vary. PMID:23763115

Wubs, Annegreet Gera; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mathews, Catherine; Onya, Hans E; Mbwambo, Jessie

2013-01-01

117

An outbreak of suspected poisoning of cattle by Dichapetalum sp. in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Between September and December 1995, 72 out of 476 cattle on 15 dairy farms in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania, died of suspected Dichapetalum poisoning. Following a drought and a resultant forage shortage, 12 of the farms had purchased hay from commercial farms in the Coast region, particularly from one seed and hay farm located about 60 km west of Dar es Salaam city. Following ingestion of the purchased hay, affected animals were acutely ill and their clinical signs included inappetence, dullness, high stepping gait, disinclination to move, jugular vein distension and gastrointestinal malfunctions. Fatal cases died suddenly after a short course of illness. Toxic plants identified as Dichapetalum mossambicense Engl. and D. stuhlmannii Engl. were found mixed in the hay. A diagnosis of Dichapetalum poisoning was made on the basis of history, clinical signs and post-mortem findings in fatal cases. On withdrawal of the contaminated hay, the outbreak subsided and deaths ceased. The findings of the investigation are discussed. PMID:10399811

Msami, H M

1999-02-01

118

Comparing patterns of sexual risk among adolescent and young women in a mixed-method study in Tanzania: implications for adolescent participation in HIV prevention trials  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite the disproportionate impact of HIV on women, and adolescents in particular, those below age 18 years are underrepresented in HIV prevention trials due to ethical, safety and logistical concerns. This study examined and compared the sexual risk contexts of adolescent women aged 15–17 to young adult women aged 18–21 to determine whether adolescents exhibited similar risk profiles and the implications for their inclusion in future trials. Methods We conducted a two-phase, mixed-method study to assess the opportunities and challenges of recruiting and retaining adolescents (aged 15–17) versus young women (18–21) in Tanzania. Phase I, community formative research (CFR), used serial in-depth interviews with 11 adolescent and 12 young adult women from a range of sexual risk contexts in preparation for a mock clinical trial (MCT). For Phase II, 135 HIV-negative, non-pregnant adolescents and young women were enrolled into a six-month MCT to assess and compare differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour, incident pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and HIV. Results In both research phases, adolescents appeared to be at similar, if not higher, risk than their young adult counterparts. Adolescents reported earlier sexual debut, and similar numbers of lifetime partners, pregnancy and STI/RTI rates, yet had lower perceived risk. Married women in the CFR appeared at particular risk but were less represented in the MCT. In addition, adolescents were less likely than their older counterparts to have accessed HIV testing, obtained gynaecological exams or used protective technologies. Conclusions Adolescent women under 18 are at risk of multiple negative SRH outcomes and they underuse preventive services. Their access to new technologies such as vaginal microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may similarly be compromised unless greater effort is made to include them in clinical trial research. PMID:25224611

Tolley, Elizabeth E; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kaale, Anna; Minja, Anna; Bangapi, Doreen; Kalungura, Happy; Headley, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Joy Noel

2014-01-01

119

Genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in a population of Anopheles arabiensis, the primary malaria vector in Lower Moshi, north-eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Pyrethroid resistance has been slower to emerge in Anopheles arabiensis than in An. gambiae s.s and An. funestus and, consequently, studies are only just beginning to unravel the genes involved. Permethrin resistance in An. arabiensis in Lower Moshi, Tanzania has been linked to elevated levels of both P450 monooxygenases and ?-esterases. We have conducted a gene expression study to identify specific genes linked with metabolic resistance in the Lower Moshi An. arabiensis population. Methods Microarray experiments employing an An. gambiae whole genome expression chip were performed on An. arabiensis, using interwoven loop designs. Permethrin-exposed survivors were compared to three separate unexposed mosquitoes from the same or a nearby population. A subsection of detoxification genes were chosen for subsequent quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Microarray analysis revealed significant over expression of 87 probes and under expression of 85 probes (in pairwise comparisons between permethrin survivors and unexposed sympatric and allopatric samples from Dar es Salaam (controls). For qRT-PCR we targeted over expressed ABC transporter genes (ABC ‘2060’), a glutathione-S-transferase, P450s and esterases. Design of efficient, specific primers was successful for ABC ‘2060’and two P450s (CYP6P3, CYP6M2). For the CYP4G16 gene, we used the primers that were previously used in a microarray study of An. arabiensis from Zanzibar islands. Over expression of CYP4G16 and ABC ‘2060’ was detected though with contrasting patterns in pairwise comparisons between survivors and controls. CYP4G16 was only up regulated in survivors, whereas ABC ‘2060’ was similar in survivors and controls but over expressed in Lower Moshi samples compared to the Dar es Salaam samples. Increased transcription of CYP4G16 and ABC ‘2060’ are linked directly and indirectly respectively, with permethrin resistance in Lower Moshi An. arabiensis. Conclusions Increased transcription of a P450 (CYP4G16) and an ABC transporter (ABC 2060) are linked directly and indirectly respectively, with permethrin resistance in Lower Moshi An. arabiensis. Our study provides replication of CYP4G16 as a candidate gene for pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis, although its role may not be in detoxification, and requires further investigation. PMID:24946780

2014-01-01

120

Tungiasis infestation in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Tungiasis is caused by the jigger flea Tunga penetrans. We describe a case of severe infestation from Kigoma region, Western Tanzania. A 19-year-old male with epilepsy and mental disability presented with ulcerated and inflamed toes. Clinical examination revealed the presence of approximately 810 embedded jigger fleas on the feet, and another 60 lesions on the hands. The patient presented with fissures on the feet, hands and soles. He had difficulty walking and erythematous, oedematous, ulcerated and inflamed skin around the feet. Living conditions were precarious. The patient was assisted to extract the embedded fleas and his feet were washed with disinfectants. Oral antibiotics were given. The case shows that the disease may reach high parasite loads in Tanzanian individuals, with consequently severe pathology. There have been single reports of returning tourists from Tanzania with tungiasis, but the epidemiological situation and the geographic occurrence of the disease in this country are not known. Systematic studies are needed to increase knowledge on the epidemiological situation of tungasis in Tanzania and to identify endemic areas. PMID:20351463

Mazigo, Humphrey D; Behamana, Emmanuel; Zinga, Maria; Heukelbach, Jorg

2010-03-01

121

Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

2010-01-01

122

UCD COMPUTERS FOR TANZANIA The Computers for Tanzania project is progressing well, but we still need  

E-print Network

UCD COMPUTERS FOR TANZANIA The Computers for Tanzania project is progressing well, but we still and the installation of the computers. UCDVO members will be traveling to Tanzania in the summer. All makes and models

123

Staffing needs for quality perinatal care in Tanzania.  

PubMed

In Tanzania maternal and perinatal mortalities and morbidities are problems of public health importance, and have been linked to the shortage of skilled staff. We quantified the available workforce and the required nursing staff for perinatal care in 16 health institutions in Dar es Salaam. WHO safe motherhood needs assessment instruments were used to assess the availability of human resources, WHO designed Workload Indicators for Staffing Need (WISN) and Tanzanian standard activities and components of the workload for labour ward nursing were used to calculate nurse staffing requirements and WISN ratios. There was a severe shortage of essential categories of health staff for perinatal care in all institutions. The ranges of WISN ratios for nursing staff working in the municipal hospitals' labour wards were; nurse officers 0.5 - 1, trained nurses/midwives 0.2 - 0.4 and nurse assistants 0.1. These findings reflect extremely huge perinatal care workload pressure and suggest the urgent need for more staff in order to achieve the global millennium development goals set for maternal and infant survival. PMID:19435016

Nyamtema, A S; Urassa, D P; Massawe, S; Massawe, A; Lindmark, G; Van Roosmalen, J

2008-12-01

124

Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. METHODS: We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in

Vincent D Assey; Stefan Peterson; Sabas Kimboka; Daniel Ngemera; Celestin Mgoba; Deusdedit M Ruhiye; Godwin D Ndossi; Ted Greiner; Thorkild Tylleskär

2009-01-01

125

Management of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam: diagnostic accuracy of C ¿ reactive protein and newborn scale of sepsis and antimicrobial resistance pattern of etiological bacteria.  

PubMed

BackgroundWe determined the accuracy of Rubarth¿s newborn scale of sepsis and C- reactive protein in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and assessed antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of etiological bacteria.MethodsThis cross sectional study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between July 2012 and March 2013. Neonates suspected to have sepsis underwent physical examination using Rubarth¿s newborn scale of sepsis (RNSOS). Blood was taken for culture and antimicrobial sensitivity testing, full blood picture and C ¿ reactive protein (CRP) performed 12 hours apart. The efficacy of RNSOS and serial CRP was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, receiver operating characteristics(ROC) analysis as well as likelihood ratios (LHR) with blood culture result used as a gold standard.ResultsOut of 208 blood samples, 19.2% had a positive blood culture. Single CRP had sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 70.9% respectively, while RNSOS had sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 79.7%. Serial CRP had sensitivity of 69.0% and specificity of 92.9%. Combination of CRP and RNSOS increased sensitivity to 95.6%and specificity of 56.4%. Combination of two CRP and RNSOS decreased sensitivity to 89.1% but increased specificity to 74%.ROC for CRP was 0.86; and for RNSOS was 0.81.For CRP the LHR for positive test was 3 while for negative test was 0.18, while for RNSOS the corresponding values were 3.24 and for negative test was 0.43.Isolated bacteria were Klebsiella spp 14 (35%), Escherichia coli 12 (22.5%), Coagulase negative staphlococci 9(30%), Staphylococcus aureus4 (10%), and Pseudomonas spp 1(2.5%). The overall resistance to the WHO recommended first line antibiotics was 100%, 92% and 42% for cloxacillin, ampicillin and gentamicin, respectively. For the second line drugs resistance was 45%, 40%, and 7% for ceftriaxone, vancomycin and amikacin respectively.ConclusionsSingle CRP in combination with RNSOS can be used for rapid identification of neonates with sepsis due to high sensitivity (95.6%) but cannot exclude those without sepsis due to low specificity (56.4%). Serial CRP done 12hrs apart can be used to exclude non-cases. This study demonstrated very high levels of resistance to the first-line antibiotics. PMID:25475836

Mkony, Martha; Mizinduko, Mucho; Massawe, Augustine; Matee, Mecky

2014-12-01

126

Soil test calibration studies for formulation of phosphorus fertilizer recommendations for maize in Morogoro district, Tanzania. I. evaluation of soil test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum crop production depends, among other things, on the maintenance of adequate plant nutrients in the root zone. The objective of this study was to find a reliable index for assessing needs for supplemental phosphorus (P) in soils of Morogoro District, Tanzania. Six indices of P availability, namely: Bray and Kurtz No. 1 (BK1), Bray and KurtzNo.2 (BK2), Mehlich 1,

D. A. Ussiri; P. N. S. Mnkeni; A. F. MacKenzie; J. M. R. Semoka

1998-01-01

127

Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To assess changes in incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma over a 22 year period in Tanzania and to analyse possible reasons for change.?METHODS—Retrospective analysis of records from a Tanzanian pathology department serving north and central Tanzania from 1976 to 1997; medical record analysis of cases of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma presenting in the last 2 years of the study.?RESULTS—There was a sharp rise in the incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in the last 3 years of the study (1995-7). The mean age of patients presenting with the condition over the full period was 44.7 years (95% confidence interval 42.4-46.9 years). In the final 2 years of the study the mean length of history on presentation was 3.1 months (2.1-4.0 months). Several patients had a previous history of chronic conjunctival disease such as allergic conjunctivitis and trachoma; one had had a conjunctival papilloma excised previously. Only five patients had been tested for HIV status, but of these four were positive.?CONCLUSION—Tanzania is experiencing an epidemic of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma similar to that seen in other African countries. Often the tumours are aggressive and occur in patients of relatively young age. The epidemic appears to be related to HIV infection, on a background of ultraviolet light exposure. Previous chronic conjunctival disease and exposure to human papillomavirus may also have a role.?? Keywords: conjunctiva; squamous cell carcinoma; HIV PMID:10396194

Poole, T

1999-01-01

128

"I am nothing": experiences of loss among women suffering from severe birth injuries in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increased attention on maternal mortality during recent decades, which has resulted in maternal health being defined as a Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Continuous leaking of urine and the physical, emotional and social suffering associated with it, has a profound impact on women's quality of life. This study seeks to explore the physical, cultural and psychological dimensions of living with obstetric fistula, and demonstrate how these experiences shape the identities of women affected by the condition. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was used to explore the experiences of Tanzanian women living with obstetric fistula and those of their husbands. The study was conducted at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania hospital in Dar es Salaam, Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, and Mpwapwa district, in Dodoma region. Conveniently selected samples of 16 women were interviewed, and 151 additional women responded to a questionnaire. In addition, 12 women affected by obstetric fistula and six husbands of these affected women participated in a focus group discussions. Data were analysed using content data analysis framework and statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 15 for Microsoft windows. Results The study revealed a deep sense of loss. Loss of body control, loss of the social roles as women and wives, loss of integration in social life, and loss of dignity and self-worth were located at the core of these experiences. Conclusion The women living with obstetric fistula experience a deep sense of loss that had negative impact on their identity and quality of life. Acknowledging affected women's real-life experiences is important in order to understand the occurrence and management of obstetric fistula, as well as prospects after treatment. This knowledge will help to improve women's sense of self-worth and maintain their identity as women, wives, friends and community members. Educational programmes to empower women socially and economically and counselling of families of women living with obstetric fistula may help these women receive medical and social support that is necessary. PMID:22082132

2011-01-01

129

Effect of Supporter Characteristics on Expression of Negative Social Reactions Toward Rape Survivors in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a community representative sample of 1,505 adults we examined interpretations of rape situations in order to establish attitudes toward rape. We assessed their intentions to express negative social reactions (NSRs) toward rape survivors. We then determined effects of attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics in logistic regression models assessing the odds of expressing NSRs. Being old, male, and Muslim, and failing

Projestine Selestine Muganyizi; Lennarth Nyström; Gunilla Lindmark; Maria Emmelin; Siriel Massawe; Pia Axemo

2010-01-01

130

Tanzania Partnership Program An Overview  

E-print Network

of development. The Partnership represents a model of sustainable community development that integrates socialTanzania Partnership Program An Overview PartnershipsforSustainableCommunityDevelopment Michigan ­ to address society's most pressing needs. Partnerships for Sustainable Community Development (PSCD) uses

131

Feasibility of Using Flash-heated Breastmilk as an Infant Feeding Option for HIV-exposed, Uninfected Infants after 6 Months of Age in Urban Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Objective Heat-treating expressed breastmilk is recommended as an interim feeding strategy for HIV-exposed infants in resource-poor countries, but data on its feasibility are minimal. Flash-heating (FH) is a simple in-home technique for heating breastmilk that inactivates HIV while preserving its nutritional and anti-infective properties. Our primary objective was to determine, among HIV-infected mothers, the feasibility and protocol adherence of FH expressed breastmilk after 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Design Prospective longitudinal Participants 101 HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers Setting Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Intervention Peer counselors provided in-home counseling and support on infant feeding from 2 to 9 months postpartum. Mothers were encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months followed by FH expressed breastmilk if her infant was HIV-negative. Clinic-based staff measured infant growth and morbidity monthly and mothers kept daily logs of infant morbidity. FH behavior was tracked until 9 months postpartum using daily logs, in-home observations, and clinic-and home-based surveys. Bacterial cultures of unheated and heated milk samples were performed. Results Thirty-seven of 72 eligible mothers (51.4%) chose to Flash-heat. Median (range) frequency of milk expression was 3 (1–6) times daily and duration of method use on-study was 9.7 (0.1–15.6) weeks. Mean (SD) daily milk volume was 322 (201) mL (range 25–1120). No heated and 32 (30.5%) unheated samples contained bacterial pathogens. Conclusion FH is a simple technology that many HIV-positive women can successfully use after exclusive breastfeeding to continue to provide the benefits of breastmilk while avoiding maternal-to-child transmission associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Based on these feasibility data, a clinical trial of the effects of FH breastmilk on infant health outcomes is warranted. PMID:22362154

Chantry, Caroline J.; Young, Sera L.; Rennie, Waverly; Ngonyani, Monica; Mashio, Clara; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Peerson, Janet; Nyambo, Margaret; Matee, Mecky; Ash, Deborah; Dewey, Kathryn; Koniz-Booher, Peggy

2012-01-01

132

Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs and coping strategies used to prevent changes in treatment regimens in Kinondoni District, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Since 2004, the government of Tanzania has been rolling out antiretroviral treatment programs all over the country. However, the capacity of the health system to cope with the rapid scale-up of these programs is a major concern, and problems may result in drug stock-outs that force changes in treatment regimens. This study aims to explore stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs and further determine the coping strategies employed to prevent changes in treatment regimens in HIV/AIDS care and treatment clinics in Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 HIV/AIDS care and treatment clinics. Interviews were conducted with the person in charge and a member of the pharmacy staff from each clinic using a pre-tested semi-structured interview guide. Verbal responses were transcribed, coded and analysed by thematic approach. Quantitative data were analysed using Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel®, Microsoft Corporation). Results The total number of clients enrolled in the visited clinics was 32,147, of whom 20,831 (64.8%) had already been initiated onto antiretroviral therapies (ART). Stock-out of antiretroviral drugs was reported in 16 out of the 20 clinics, causing 210 patients to change their ART regimens, during the 12 months preceding the survey. Inefficient supply systems, quantification problems and short expiry duration were cited as the main causes of stock-outs. The coping strategies utilised to prevent changes in ART regimens were: shortening of the refill period, borrowing and moving patients to other clinics. Conclusion Changes in ART regimens due to stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred in a small but significant number of patients. This increases the risk of the emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains. Healthcare workers use various coping strategies to prevent changes in ART regimens but, unfortunately, some of these strategies are likely to increase patient-borne costs, which may discourage them from attending their routine clinics, hence leading to unplanned treatment interruptions.

2014-01-01

133

Kenya & Tanzania: a ClassiC safari  

E-print Network

Kenya & Tanzania: a ClassiC safari A Special Departure August 15 ­ 27, 2012 for Johns Hopkins & Tanzania: A Classic Safari Enclosed is my/our deposit for $___________ ($600 per person) for _____ person/people on Kenya & Tanzania: A Classic Safari, August 15 ­ 27, 2012. I/We understand the final payment is due

Connor, Ed

134

Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

2006-01-01

135

Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct marketing research, identify opportunities for use of this technology, and to the extent possible, secure an agreement leading to a pre-commercialization demonstration or prototype plant. This was accomplished with the agreement to conduct the Noor al Salaam program as a tri-lateral project between Egypt, Israel, and the U.S. The tri-lateral project was led by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH); this included the Egyptian New and Renewable Energy Authority and the Israeli USISTC participants. This project, known was Noor al Salaam, was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Department of Energy (DOE). The Egyptian activity was under the auspices of the Egyptian Ministry of Energy and Electricity, New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) as part of Egypt's plans for renewable energy development. The objective of the Noor al Salaam project was to develop the conditions necessary to obtain funding and construct and operate an approximately 10 to 20 Megawatt hybrid solar/natural gas demonstration power plant in Zaafarana, Egypt that could serve both as a test bed for advanced solar technology evaluations, and as a forerunner to commercial plant designs. This plant, termed Noor Al Salaam, or “Light of Peace”, reached the initial phase of system definition before being curtailed, in part by changes in USAID objectives, coupled with various delays that were beyond the scope of the program to resolve. The background of the USISTF technology development and pre-commercialization effort is provided in this report, together with documentation of the technology developments conducted under the Noor al Salaam program. It should be noted that only a relatively small part of the Noor al Salaam funding was expended over the approximately five years for which UAH was prime contractor before the program was ordered closed (Reference 1) so that the remaining funds could be returned to USAID.

Blackmon, James B

2008-03-31

136

Flashblood: Blood sharing among female injecting drug users in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Aims This study examined the association between the blood-sharing practice “flashblood” and demographic factors, HIV status, and variables associated with risky sex and drug behaviors among female injecting drug users. Flashblood is a syringe full of blood passed from someone who has just injected heroin to someone else who injects it in lieu of heroin. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants One hundred and sixty-nine female injecting drug users (IDUs) were recruited using purposive sampling for hard-to-reach populations. Measurements The association between flashblood use, demographic and personal characteristics and risky sex and drug use variables was analyzed by t-test and ?2 test. The association between flashblood use and residential neighborhood was mapped. Findings Flashblood users were more likely to: be married (p=.05), have lived in the current housing situation for a shorter time (p<.000), have been forced as a child to have sex by a family member(p=.007), inject heroin more in the last 30 days (p=.005), smoke marijuana at an earlier age (p=.04), use contaminated rinse-water (p<.03), pool money for drugs (p<.03), and share drugs (p=.00). Non-flashblood users were more likely to live with their parents (p=.003). Neighborhood flashblood use was highest near downtown and in the two next adjoining suburbs and lowest in the most distant suburbs. Conclusions These data indicate that more vulnerable women who are heavy users and living in shorter term housing are injecting flashblood. The practice of flashblood appears to be spreading from the inner city to the suburbs. PMID:20331567

McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.; Kilonzo, G.P.; Leshabari, M.T.

2010-01-01

137

Insecticide resistance mechanisms associated with different environments in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: a case study in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides is a growing concern in Africa. Since only a few insecticides are used for public health and limited development of new molecules is expected in the next decade, maintaining the efficacy of control programmes mostly relies on resistance management strategies. Developing such strategies requires a deep understanding of factors influencing resistance together with characterizing the mechanisms involved. Among factors likely to influence insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, agriculture and urbanization have been implicated but rarely studied in detail. The present study aimed at comparing insecticide resistance levels and associated mechanisms across multiple Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from different environments. Methods Nine populations were sampled in three areas of Tanzania showing contrasting agriculture activity, urbanization and usage of insecticides for vector control. Insecticide resistance levels were measured in larvae and adults through bioassays with deltamethrin, DDT and bendiocarb. The distribution of An. gambiae sub-species and pyrethroid target-site mutations (kdr) were investigated using molecular assays. A microarray approach was used for identifying transcription level variations associated to different environments and insecticide resistance. Results Elevated resistance levels to deltamethrin and DDT were identified in agriculture and urban areas as compared to the susceptible strain Kisumu. A significant correlation was found between adult deltamethrin resistance and agriculture activity. The subspecies Anopheles arabiensis was predominant with only few An. gambiae sensu stricto identified in the urban area of Dar es Salaam. The L1014S kdr mutation was detected at elevated frequency in An gambiae s.s. in the urban area but remains sporadic in An. arabiensis specimens. Microarrays identified 416 transcripts differentially expressed in any area versus the susceptible reference strain and supported the impact of agriculture on resistance mechanisms with multiple genes encoding pesticide targets, detoxification enzymes and proteins linked to neurotransmitter activity affected. In contrast, resistance mechanisms found in the urban area appeared more specific and more related to the use of insecticides for vector control. Conclusions Overall, this study confirmed the role of the environment in shaping insecticide resistance in mosquitoes with a major impact of agriculture activities. Results are discussed in relation to resistance mechanisms and the optimization of resistance management strategies. PMID:24460952

2014-01-01

138

Crater Highlands, Tanzania  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction.

Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground.

Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center).

The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses, and host rain forests. Over time, streams erode downward toward the level of the adjacent rift, deeply dissecting the volcanic slopes. This is especially evident on the eastern flanks of Mount Loolmalasin (left of center).

Landsliding also occurs here. In particular, the small but steep volcanic cone nearest the image center has a landslide scar on its eastern (left) flank, and topographic evidence shows that the associated landslide deposits extend eastward 10 kilometers (6 miles) across the floor of the rift. Such a long run of landslide debris is unusual but is not unique on Earth.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, DC.

View Size: 48 kilometers wide (30 miles) by 230 kilometers (140 miles) distance Location: 3 degrees South latitude, 36 degrees East longitude Orientation: View 35o south of west, 15o below horizontal SRTM Data Acquired: February 2000

2006-01-01

139

Under-5 Mortality in Tanzania: A Demographic Scenario  

PubMed Central

Background: The government of the United Republic of Tanzania has initiated the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness program to improve the health and wellbeing of children. Methods: Tanzania’s under-five mortality rate is still 1.7 times higher than the world average and, in order to achieve its Millennium Development Goal 4 target, its annual reduction rate is quite low at 2.2. The main aim of the study is to examine under-five mortality combined with the Data from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2008 data was used. Odds ratios for infant and under-five mortality were estimated using logistic regression; crude and adjusting models were adopted. Results: Mortality cases (18.3%) have been reported to children born with an interval of <24 months. Mothers with no education reported 14.6%, primary education mothers reported 11.1% and higher education reported only 5.3% (P<0.001). Therefore, maternal education plays is a major role on fertility and infant and under-five mortality behavior. Conclusion: Maternal education also influences a mother’s behavior in her usage of available health services to improve the health of the children. Further in-depth analysis is immensely needed in this situation. PMID:23641385

Sathiya Susuman, A; Hamisi, Hamisi F

2012-01-01

140

Cotton Disease Research in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanzania is one of the largest producers of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Africa. The crop is raingrown by smallholders over a large ecologically diverse area with a variety of disease problems. The main diseases are Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) Sny. & Hans.) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas malvacearum (E. F. Smith) Dowson). Fusarium wilt is

R. J. Hillocks

1981-01-01

141

Reforming Teacher Education in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…

Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax

2012-01-01

142

Conventialization of Numerals in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The supposed pre-eminence of an external examination can exert a disproportionate influence on a curriculum and the associated learning and teaching. Teaching can easily subordinate learning and understanding to curriculum coverage if the society develops a culture that appears to make such demands. This study focuses on Tanzania and provides the…

Kajoro, Peter

2012-01-01

143

Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. METHODS: The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of

Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm; Joyce Rose Masalu

2001-01-01

144

Metal pollution of river Msimbazi, Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

The Misimbazi River in Dar es Salaam is polluted with industrial, urban and agricultural waste waters. A preliminary investigation on the extent of metal pollution (Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Mn, Al) was made from samples of sediments and biological indicators. The metal concentrations were in general low, but some of our results indicated industrial pollution.

Ak'habuhaya, J.; Lodenius, M. (Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Arusha (Tanzania))

1988-01-01

145

The Effects of Informational Interventions on Household Water Management, Hygiene Behaviors, Stored Drinking Water Quality, and Hand Contamination in Peri-Urban Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Safe water storage and hand hygiene have been shown to reduce fecal contamination and improve health in experimental settings; however, triggering and sustaining such behaviors is challenging. This study investigates the extent to which personalized information about Escherichia coli contamination of stored water and hands influenced knowledge, reported behaviors, and subsequent contamination levels among 334 households with less than 5-year-old children in peri-urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. One-quarter of the study participants received information about strategies to reduce risk of water- and sanitation-related illness. Respondents in another three study cohorts received this same information, along with their household's water and/or hand-rinse test results. Findings from this study suggest that additional work is needed to elucidate the conditions under which such testing represents a cost-effective strategy to motivate improved household water management and hand hygiene. PMID:21292883

Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J.; Rogers, Kirsten; Mamuya, Simon; Boehm, Alexandria B.

2011-01-01

146

Determinants of concurrent sexual partnerships within stable relationships: a qualitative study in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Objective Concurrent sexual partnerships (CP) have been identified as a potential driver in the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, making it essential to understand motivating factors for engagement in CP. We aimed to assess community attitudes and beliefs about relationship factors that influence men and women in stable relationships to engage in CP in Tanzania. Social exchange theory was used for interpreting the data. Design Qualitative study with focus group discussions (FGDs). Setting Semiurban/rural communities in four regions across Tanzania (Dar es Salaam, Shinyanga, Iringa and Mbeya). Participants 120 women aged 17–45?years and 111 men aged 18–49?years from four study areas participated in 32 FGDs. Outcome measures FGD participants were asked the following questions about CP: definitions and types, motivations and justifications for engaging or not engaging, cultural factors, gender and socialisation, and local resources and efforts available for addressing CP. Our analysis focused specifically on beliefs about how relationship factors influence engagement in CP. Results Dissatisfaction with a stable relationship was believed to be a contributing factor for engagement in CP for both men and women. Participants more commonly reported financial dissatisfaction as a contributing factor for women engaging in CP within stable relationships, whereas emotional and sexual dissatisfaction were reported as contributing factors for men and women. Furthermore, participants described how potential outside partners are often evaluated based on what they are able to offer compared with stable partners. Conclusions Efforts to reach men and women in stable relationships with HIV prevention messages must consider the various dimensions of motivation for engaging in CP, including relationship dynamics. PMID:24508848

Cox, Carie Muntifering; Babalola, Stella; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kerrigan, Deanna

2014-01-01

147

Epidemiological investigation into the introduction and factors for spread of Peste des Petits Ruminants, southern Tanzania.  

PubMed

A study was carried out to confirm and identify sources and elucidate factors associated with the introduction of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in southern Tanzania. This study was conducted in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region following suspected outbreak of PPR in the area. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews of key informants who included goat and sheep owners with suspected cases of PPR and animal health service providers as well as local administrative authority. Additionally, 216 serum samples and 28 swabs were collected for serological and virological laboratory disease confirmation. The results show that PPR was first introduced in Likuna village of Newala district in February 2009 through newly purchased goats from the Pugu livestock market located about 700 km in the outskirts of Dar es Salaam city. Factors which contributed to spread of PPR included communal grazing and the cheap prices of sick animals bought by livestock keepers for slaughtering in other villages. Laboratory findings confirmed presence of PPR in the area by RT-PCR and serological analysis revealed that seroprevalence was 31%. These findings have confirmed, for the first time, introduction of PPR in southern Tanzania. The presence of PPR poses high risk of southward spread of the disease to other southern African countries in the SADC region thus calling for concerted and collaborative efforts in prevention and control of the disease to avoid losses. Further elaborate studies on the spread, prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease should urgently be investigated. PMID:23327377

Muse, Epaphras A; Karimuribo, Esron D; Gitao, George C; Misinzo, Gerald; Mellau, Lesakit S B; Msoffe, Peter L M; Swai, Emmanuel S; Albano, Mbyuzi O

2012-01-01

148

Corporal punishment in Tanzania's schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were interviewed. It was found that corporal punishment was the most common form of punishment in secondary schools. The majority of teachers supported its continued use, but believed in moderation. The majority of students and teachers were unaware of national laws to restrict corporal punishment. There was agreement between students and teachers that corporal punishment was used for major and minor student offences such as misbehaviour and tardiness. Students reported disliking the practice and believed it was ineffective and resulted in emotional, as well as physical, distress.

Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

2010-10-01

149

Study Abroad in Tanzania ON-SITE GUIDE 201415  

E-print Network

Study Abroad in Tanzania ON-SITE GUIDE 2014­15 AFRICA &THE MIDDLE EASTS T U D Y A B R O A D #12 staff. In Tanzania Telephone Codes 011--International access code from the US. The code from other countries will probably be different. 255--Tanzania country code used for dialing from outside Tanzania 27

Netoff, Theoden

150

New fossil hominids from Laetolil, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

New fossil hominid specimens from the Laetolil fossil locality in Tanzania are described. The material includes mandibles and teeth derived from reliably-dated deposits of Pliocene age. Preliminary descriptions, measure- ments and illustrations are presented This paper furnishes a preliminary de- scription of hominid remains recovered from the Laetolil fossil locality in Tanzania. The specimens were found during 1974 and 1975

Tim D. White

1977-01-01

151

"Hakuna Matata": Lakeside Literacy in Tanzania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins by telling the story of Edward, a preacher/teacher in Tanzania who, although poor and uneducated himself, managed to teach his parishioners how to read. The paper describes the experience of one man and his wife who spent 4 years at Katoke Teachers College in northwest Tanzania during the early 1970s, after which they returned to…

Watson, Alan J.

152

Corruption, bribery and patriarchy in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an ethnography of the political culture of Tanzania as compared to the political culture of the United States. Endemic and harmful corruption among the political leadership of Tanzania and the United States alike stems from widespread popular equation of order with patriarchy, made worse by extending the logic of patriarchy to belief that social order and welfare rest

Harold E. Pepinsky

1992-01-01

153

Coral Reefs and Their Management in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs are very important in Tanzania, both ecologically and socio-economically, as major fishing grounds and tourist attractions. Numerous fringing and patch reefs are located along about two-thirds of Tanzania's coastline. These reefs have been partially to severely degraded by human (primarily destructive fishing practices) and natural (particularly coral bleaching) causes. These immediate human causes have been brought about by

Greg M. Wagner

154

Helium and carbon isotope systematics of Rungwe geothermal gases and fluids; southern Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P. H. BARRY1*, D. R. HILTON1, T. P. FISCHER2, J. M. DE MOOR2, F. MANGASINI3 C. RAMIREZ4 1 Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, USA (*Correspondence: pbarry@ucsd.edu) 2 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA. 3 Department of Mining and Mineral Processing Engineering, University of Dar Es Salaam, PO Box 35131, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. 4 Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Geologicas, Escuela Centroamericana de Geologia, Universidad de Costa Rica. The East African Rift (EAR) is the largest modern example of continental rifting, extending from the Afar depression in the north to the Rungwe region in southern Tanzania. EAR volcanism is attributed to the presence of one or more mantle plumes [1]. Late Miocene to recent volcanism and geothermal activity mark the Rungwe region [2], with mafic eruptions as recently as 200 years ago. Our aim is to delineate the southern geographical extent of plume influence on the propagating EAR by investigating the He-CO2 characteristics of geothermal fluids in the Rungwe region. We report new helium (He) and carbon (C) isotopes (3He/4He, ?13C) and relative abundance (CO2/3He) characteristics for a suite of 20 geothermal gas and fluid samples from 11 different localities in the Rungwe region. He-isotopes are in good agreement with previous reports [3], and range from ~1 RA to ~7 RA (MORB-like values), indicating admixture between upper mantle He and variable proportions of radiogenic He. C-isotopes ranges from -2.8 to -6.5 ‰ (vs. PDB) with all falling in the MORB range (~4.5 ± 2‰). CO2/3He ratios vary over 5 orders of magnitude from ~3 x 10^9 (MORB-like) to higher values (up to ~3 x 10^13) normally associated with crustal lithologies. Taken together, the He-CO2 data can be explained by 2-component mixing of a deep-seated mantle source with crustal component(s). There are no observed latitudinal isotopic trends in He-CO2. However, the two localities with MORB-like 3He/4He ratios ~6 to 7 RA, ?13C ~ -4 to -5 ‰ and CO2/3He ~ 4 x10^9 are both cold temperature (~ 15°C) CO2 gas vents. The MORB-like characteristics of these cold vents are comparable to MORB-like values observed at Oldoinyo Lengai in northern Tanzania [4], suggesting that both Rungwe region and Oldoinyo Lengai may derive their volatile compositions from a homogeneous (MORB-like) mantle source common to the entire segment of the southern EAR. [1] Furman (2007) Journal of African Earth Sciences 48, 147-160. [2] Ebinger et al. (1989) Journal of Geophysical Research 94, 15,785-15,803. [3] Pik et al. (2006) Chemical Geology 226, 100-114. [4] Fisher et al. (2009) Nature 459, 77-80.

Barry, P. H.

2009-12-01

155

Popular soap opera helps raise contraceptive use. Tanzania.  

PubMed

The latest Demographic and Health Surveys Report on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice documents an increase in the level of use of modern contraceptive methods in Tanzania between 1991 and 1994 from 5.9% to 11.3% of reproductive-age women. 53.2% of all women of reproductive age were exposed to mass media messages about family planning, which large majorities of men and women consider acceptable. 48.3% were exposed through radio, 22.9% reported listening to the US Agency for International Development-funded family planning promotional radio soap opera "Zinduka]", 22.5% read newspaper items, 17.5% saw posters, and 7.3% saw leaflets. 4.5% were visited by a family planning worker, 24.7% discussed family planning with a friend or relative, and 24.7% discussed family planning with health facility personnel. Zinduka], a popular 52-episode soap opera, depicts how the lives of Bomu wa Kabuma's family, in Msongano Town and Tawanya village in Tanzania, are affected because he is unable to provide for his eight children, parents, wife, mistress, and the mistress's child. The soap was produced with technical assistance from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs Population Communication Services project. The 15-minute episodes were first broadcast in Swahili on Radio Tanzania from October 1993 through October 1994. The series was then resumed in September 1995 for another 12 months. PMID:12347311

1996-01-01

156

Increasing caesarean section rates among low-risk groups: a panel study classifying deliveries according to Robson at a university hospital in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Rising caesarean section (CS) rates have been observed worldwide in recent decades. This study sought to analyse trends in CS rates and outcomes among a variety of obstetric groups at a university hospital in a low-income country. Methods We conducted a hospital-based panel study at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All deliveries between 2000 and 2011 with gestational age???28 weeks were included in the study. The 12 years were divided into four periods: 2000 to 2002, 2003 to 2005, 2006 to 2008, and 2009 to 2011. Main outcome measures included CS rate, relative size of obstetric groups, contribution to overall CS rate, perinatal mortality ratio, neonatal distress, and maternal mortality ratio. Time trends were analysed within the ten Robson groups, based on maternal and obstetric characteristics. We applied the ?2 test for trend to determine whether changes were statistically significant. Odds ratios of CS were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression, accounting for maternal age, referral status, and private healthcare insurance. Results We included 137,094 deliveries. The total CS rate rose from 19% to 49%, involving nine out of ten groups. Multipara without previous CS with single, cephalic pregnancies in spontaneous labour had a CS rate of 33% in 2009 to 2011. Adjusted analysis explained some of the increase. Perinatal mortality and neonatal distress decreased in multiple pregnancies (p?

2013-01-01

157

n the lush tropical forest of Tanzania's Gombe National Park,  

E-print Network

I n the lush tropical forest of Tanzania's Gombe National Park, famed chimpanzee expert Dr. Jane at the Tchimpounga Sanctuary in the Republic of Congo. ©MichaelNeugebauer From Tanzania TO u CSE professors

Minnesota, University of

158

El-Salaam Canal Water, Sinai, Egypt. Part V. Techno-economic study for integrated treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water quality of El-Salaam canal, in Sinai, Egypt is chemically and biologically polluted because it is a mixture of Nile water and Drainage water. Complex treatment plant is proposed which consists of three types of plants: primary water filtration and chlorination (PWFC) treatment plant of 20,000 m3\\/day capacity, ultrafiltration (UF) water treatment plant of 2400 \\/day capacity and brackish

Azza Hafez; Maaly Khedr; Kamel El-Katib; Hanaa Gadallah

2009-01-01

159

Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30%\\u000a and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study

Bruno P Mmbando; Mathias L Kamugisha; John P Lusingu; Filbert Francis; Deus S Ishengoma; Thor G Theander; Martha M Lemnge; Thomas H Scheike

2011-01-01

160

Use of Modern Technologies in Improving Astronomy Education in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

With only the most basic astronomy content officially included in the Physics syllabus of Secondary Schools in Tanzania and a one semester Astrophysics option course offered in the Physics Department of one University, the reasons for apathy towards astronomy education in Tanzania are discussed. Using the current focus on introducing ICT into Primary and Secondary schools in Tanzania, the potential

N. T. Jiwaji

2006-01-01

161

Factors influencing financial performance of small hotels in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to investigate the factors influencing financial performance of small hotels, particularly in developing countries like Tanzania. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This investigation used financial ratio analysis on business performance data collected from small hotels in Tanzania through face-to-face interviews. Currently there is no existing data on such aspects of the hotel industry in Tanzania.

Amit Sharma; Arun Upneja

2005-01-01

162

Assessment of Development Disparities in the Pangani Basin, Tanzania  

E-print Network

Assessment of Development Disparities in the Pangani Basin, Tanzania Diplomarbeit der Philosoph engaged on development disparities in the Pangani Basin in Tanzania. Further, the possibility to work Population and Housing Census from the National Bureau of Statistics of Tanzania, which is the base

Richner, Heinz

163

artesian borehole, Singhida (central Tanzania) Hydrology, weather and groundwater  

E-print Network

artesian borehole, Singhida (central Tanzania) Hydrology, weather and groundwater NERC EQUIP (scoop) wells to ater cattle in a sand river, headwater of the Great Ruaha River, Tanzania see Record from semi-arid Tanzania · longest, published record of groundwater levels in the tropics Taylor et

Stevenson, Paul

164

Tanzania post-colonial educational system and perspectives on secondary science education, pedagogy, and curriculum: A qualitative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of technology and innovation in any country depends on a strong investment in science education from the lower to the upper levels of education. In most of the Sub-Saharan African nations, science education curriculum and teaching still faces many issues and problems that are inhibiting the growth of technology and innovation in these nations. In order to address these issues, an interpretive qualitative study that aims to examine how Tanzanian secondary science educators perceive secondary science education was conducted in the summer of 2013. The purpose of this study is to investigate problems and educational issues that might be limiting the growth of science, technology, and innovation in the Tanzanian society. Additionally, this research investigates the impacts of the colonial legacy that relates to language, politics, and economics, as they affect science education in Tanzania secondary schools. This study focuses on the governmental four-year ordinary level secondary science education; it took place in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The researcher interviewed nine secondary science educators: three secondary science teachers and six secondary science education administrators. The researcher also conducted classroom observations. The data results from both interview and classroom observations were contextualized with data from existing documentation on Tanzanian secondary science education and data from previous research. The emergent themes from the study indicate that most of the problems and issues that are currently facing secondary science education are historically connected to the impact of the colonization period in 19th and 20th centuries. This study suggests that in order to improve science education in Tanzanian society, the people, especially the elites, need to break away from an "Orientalist" mindset and start integrating the Tanzanian culture and science into the still existing Eurocentric science curriculum. In addition, the Tanzanian government needs to invest in industries and economic initiatives that will support strong science education at all levels of education, as well as the graduates produced through this system.

Wandela, Eugenia L.

165

Comparison of four methods used in determination of secondary shielding requirements for a teletherapy facility: a case study of 137Cs room in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The performance of four methods often used to calculate the secondary barrier requirements is evaluated for a typical 137Cs-therapy room as a case study. The first two methods are provided by the NCRP49 and IAEA and both consider the influence of the primary, leakage and scattered radiation at a point as corrected for the workload, use and occupancy factors. A different shielding model encompasses the third method, which determines the doses as corrected for build-up effects assuming the narrow beam geometry. The fourth method is based on the calculation of the dose rates from the source activity with a relevant gamma constant. In all four methods, an appropriate transmission factor for the protective barrier in question is applied. The results show that for controlled area, the similarity in the calculated thicknesses using all four methods was nearly within 50%. For uncontrolled areas, a significant difference of magnitude up to a factor of 2.4 was found, which is mainly attributed to the non-consideration of occupancy factors in the latter two methods. Nevertheless, the non-agreement is useful to validate the specific assumptions taken for the employed shielding method. Despite being slightly high, it is concluded that the current shielding methods based on NCRP fundamentals are satisfactorily optimal in planning new therapy facilities. However for existing facilities, such as those undesigned according to the standard requirements, the combination of the four different methods with the dose rate measurements tend to offer a better cost effective shielding option. Retrospectively, additional 41-cm thick concrete is recommended for the unshielded southern barrier of the 137Cs room. Interestingly, the recommended thickness agrees to within +/-5% with that estimated by using the recently recommended method by IAEA. PMID:15388124

Muhogora, W E; Nyanda, A M; Ngoye, W M

2004-12-01

166

Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

2014-03-01

167

Multi Drug and Other Forms of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Are Uncommon among Treatment Naïve Tuberculosis Patients in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Surveillance and effective management of drug resistance is important to sustaining tuberculosis (TB) control efforts. We aimed to determine resistance rates to first line anti tuberculosis drugs and to describe factors associated with the resistance to any of the first line anti tuberculosis drugs in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Materials Newly diagnosed, TB patients with neither history of tuberculosis treatment nor isoniazid prophylaxis were included into the study. Sputum specimens were cultured on either mycobacteria growth indicator tube 960 (MGIT 960) or Lowenstein Jenstein (LJ) medium supplemented with either glycerol (GLJ) or pyruvate (PLJ). Drug susceptibility for isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol was determined by either Lowenstein–Jensen (LJ) medium or mycobacteria growth indicator tube 960 (MGIT 960). Results A total of 933 newly diagnosed TB patients, were included into the study. Multi drug resistance (MDR) tuberculosis was detected among 2 (0.2%) patients. Resistance to any of the four tested drugs was detected among 54 (5.8%) patients. Mono-resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol were 21(2.3%), 3 (0.3%), 13 (1.4%), 9 (1.0%) respectively. Conclusion Primary resistance to first line anti tuberculosis drugs is still low in this setting. Continued vigilance including periodic national surveillance of anti-tuberculosis resistance is recommended. PMID:25849784

Nagu, Tumaini J.; Aboud, Said; Mwiru, Ramadhani; Matee, Mecky; Fawzi, Wafaie; Mugusi, Ferdinand

2015-01-01

168

Epidemiology of malaria in an area prepared for clinical trials in Korogwe, north-eastern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Site preparation is a pre-requesite in conducting malaria vaccines trials. This study was conducted in 12 villages to determine malariometric indices and associated risk factors, during long and short rainy seasons, in an area with varying malaria transmission intensities in Korogwe district, Tanzania. Four villages had passive case detection (PCD) of fever system using village health workers. METHODS: Four

Bruno P Mmbando; Hamisi A Msangeni; Samwel H Sembuche; Deus S Ishengoma; Misago D Seth; Filbert Francis; Acleus S Rutta; Mathias L Kamugisha; Martha M Lemnge

2009-01-01

169

Nutritional Composition of Some Wild Plant Foods and Honey Used by Hadza Foragers of Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report compositional data for several foods that comprise the annual diet among Hadza foragers near Lake Eyasi in northern Tanzania. Samples collected during daily gathering trips over three fieldwork seasons were prepared according to Hadza methods. All three types of honey show moisture and starch levels similar to United States' honeys but higher levels of protein, fat, and ash.

Shawn S. Murray; Margaret J. Schoeninger; Henry T. Bunn; Travis R. Pickering; Judith A. Marlett

2001-01-01

170

AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN TANZANIA 1961-1966 \\/ LE CRÉDIT AGRICOLE EN TANZANIE 1961-66  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with the history of formal agricultural credit in Tanzania during the first years of independence, up to the Arusha Declaration in 1967. During this period greater efforts than hitherto were made to reach the small African farmer and make him switch to improved methods of production. The period also saw the emergence of national policies in the

Mats Lundahl; Lucian A. Msambichaka

1989-01-01

171

Concentration and drug prices in the retail market for malaria treatment in rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating

Catherine Goodman; S. Patrick Kachur; Salim Abdulla; Peter Bloland; Anne Mills

2009-01-01

172

Students' Attitudes towards School-Based Sex and Relationships Education in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of this paper was to assess students' attitudes towards school-based sex and relationships education (SRE). Design: This study featured a cross-sectional survey design. Method: A sample of 715 students from two districts in Tanzania completed a survey questionnaire assessing various aspects related to their attitudes…

Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

2014-01-01

173

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs\\/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. METHODS: Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654) were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March

Sia E Msuya; Jacqueline Uriyo; Akhtar Hussain; Elizabeth M Mbizvo; Stig Jeansson; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

2009-01-01

174

AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN TANZANIA: THE POLICY AND OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE COOPERATIVE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the performance of the Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (CRDB), an agricultural credit institution in Tanzania, in financing smallholder agricultural production and other rural development activities. Assessment is largely based on available institutional information between 1971 and 1989. Criteria employed in assessing the performance of the credit institution include: credit allocation methods, operational costs and revenues from

Anacleti K. Kashuliza

1992-01-01

175

Participatory wildlife surveys in communal lands: a case study from Simanjiro, Tanzania  

E-print Network

Participatory wildlife surveys in communal lands: a case study from Simanjiro, Tanzania Fortunata U and Sustainability, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JN, U.K.; 3 Tanzania National Parks, PO Box 3134, Arusha, Tanzania; 4 Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, PO Box 661, Arusha, Tanzania; 5 Center for Collaborative

176

Exploring the Association Between HIV and Violence: Young People's Experiences with Infidelity, Violence And Forced Sex in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS: The participants described complex interactions among violence, forced sex and infidelity in their sexual re- lationships. Men who were violent toward female partners also frequently described forced sex and sexual infidelity in these partnerships. Men with multiple concurrent sexual partners reported becoming violent when their female part- ners questioned their fidelity, and reported forcing regular partners to have sex

Heidi Lary; Suzanne Maman; Jessie Mbwambo

177

Geographical Aspects of Cancer in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to the Tanzanian Cancer Registry, which records all histologically confirmed malignant tumors, the number of reported cancer cases has increased significantly over the past three decades. The most commonly diagnosed tumors are cervix cancer, skin cancer, primary liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma. Geographical and tribal variations exist in disease frequency. Environmental factors appear to have a major role in the distribution. Through elimination of these factors, cancer in Tanzania could be reduced if not totally prevented. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:6631988

Alexander, George A.

1983-01-01

178

Transcultural nursing course in Tanzania, Africa.  

PubMed

A transcultural nursing course in Tanzania was offered in fall 2010 at Williston State College, located in North Dakota. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory (Principles of Developing Cultural Competence) was the framework used for the experience. The course provided nursing students the opportunity to learn about the culture, health, and illness beliefs of Tanzanians; their values and practices; the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and the differences and similarities between the healthcare systems, hospice/palliative care, and home visits in Tanzania as compared to the United States. PMID:22647987

Owens, Rhoda

2012-06-01

179

Tropical sprue after travel to Tanzania.  

PubMed

Tropical sprue (TS) is a diagnosis to consider in travelers with prolonged diarrhea and a malabsorption syndrome after return from tropical countries, particularly India and Southeast Asia. TS is an unusual condition in tropical Africa. Textbooks of tropical medicine indicate a low endemicity in Nigeria and a limited number of cases in South Africa and Zimbabwe. A Medline search from 1979 to mid 1998 using "Tanzania and tropical sprue" as key words disclosed no hits. We report herein a case of TS in a European traveler, who lived in Tanzania for 8 months. PMID:10689238

Peetermans, W E; Vonck, A

2000-01-01

180

Fires in Tanzania and Mozambique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like many countries, the southeastern African country of Malawi faces the challenge of balancing a growing population's need for food and energy with preservation of natural resources. This MODIS image from November 8, 2001, shows Malawi surrounded by (starting from top and moving clockwise) Tanzania, Mozambique, and northern Zambia. Lake Malawi runs north-south through the eastern part of the country, and is the southern-most of Africa's Great Rift Lakes, a series of deep lakes that run roughly north-south along the Great Rift Valley in eastern Africa, formed when the Earth buckled and then sank after the collision of Africa and Eurasia millions of years ago. Most of the land around the lake and throughout the country has been cleared of its natural vegetation and converted to agricultural land. This causes soil erosion problems and sedimentation in the lake, which affects the sustainability of fishing in the lake. In this image, greenish swirls in the water around the shores could indicate a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton or algae. Deforestation is also a major issue, especially since wood for fuel is the primary source of the country's energy. The difference between the lands protected by parks and preserves stand out dramatically. The largest protected area is halfway down the western border of the country-Kasungu National Park. Several smaller preserves also exist, and where they do, they stand out in green against the paler landscape. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

181

A hydrogeochemical survey of Kilimanjaro (Tanzania): implications for water sources and ages  

E-print Network

A hydrogeochemical survey of Kilimanjaro (Tanzania): implications for water sources and ages Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, the highest mountain in Africa, has undergone extensive hydrologic changes over (Tanzania). Sample sources included four glaciers, seven groundwater wells, 12 rivers, 10 springs

Howat, Ian M.

182

Groundwater residence time and paleorecharge conditions in the deep confined aquifers of the coastal watershed, South-East Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAnalysis of radiocarbon and stable isotopes of C, H and O in groundwater samples from the coastal watershed of Southeastern Tanzania is used to decipher the age of groundwater and the climatic conditions at the time of recharge. Radiocarbon dating was corrected on the basis of stable carbon isotope ratios and hydrochemical data. Two main recharge periods are recognised: (1) a recent recharge period with residence times dated to younger than 1.3 ka BP, for the shallow aquifer and some deep groundwater aquifers; and (2) a paleorecharge occurring during the Late Pleistocene to Holocene transition (between 6 and 13 ka BP), for the lower confined aquifer. The climatic excursions (arid and humid phases) identified in this study match well with those identified from studies of paleo-climatic records in Tanzania and East Africa. The oxygen-18 and radiocarbon results show that there is a potential mixing of groundwater of varying ages along flow paths in the coastal aquifer system. This has also been shown by redox parameters in some of the deeper aquifer samples. The data also revealed that there is relatively simple pattern of lateral groundwater flow in the deeper confined aquifer. Isotopic evidence from this study and related studies in paleolimnology improves our knowledge of the past climates. The data suggests that the paleorecharge to the confined aquifer was from inland under wetter climatic conditions than present. Therefore, paleorecharge from the adjacent mountain regions to coastal area like Ifakara, Morogoro and Udzungwa mountains could be important parts of recharge area of the Kimbiji aquifer. However, the hinterland mountains of Dar es Salaam (mainly Pugu, Mkuranga, Ruvu and Kisarawe) could also play an important role in replenishing the Kimbiji coastal aquifers. In contrast, recharge in the shallow unconfined aquifer is characterized by local rainfall and river water infiltration. This study is the first of its kind, assessing fingerprinting of paleoclimates in Southeastern coastal Tanzania using the isotopic composition of deep groundwater aquifers. The freshwater resources in the Neogene aquifer contain paleo-groundwater aquifers that have been mixed with recently-recharged flow systems. Hence, the resources may be sustainable. This study also provides information that may be useful for designing optimum strategies for a sustainable management of groundwater resources in the coastal aquifer, and it testifies to the importance of groundwater as a paleoclimatic archive. Such information is also essential for consideration by modellers in their attempts to simulate the hydrogeological processes in confined aquifers over very long time spans.

Bakari, Said S.; Aagaard, Per; Vogt, Rolf D.; Ruden, Fridtjov; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Johansen, Ingar; Gulliksen, Steinar

2012-10-01

183

Geologic map of Oldonyo Lengai (Oldoinyo Lengai) Volcano and surroundings, Arusha Region, United Republic of Tanzania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geology of Oldonyo Lengai volcano and the southernmost Lake Natron basin, Tanzania, is presented on this geologic map at scale 1:50,000. The map sheet can be downloaded in pdf format for online viewing or ready to print (48 inches by 36 inches). A 65-page explanatory pamphlet describes the geologic history of the area. Its goal is to place the new findings into the framework of previous investigations while highlighting gaps in knowledge. In this way questions are raised and challenges proposed to future workers. The southernmost Lake Natron basin is located along the East African rift zone in northern Tanzania. Exposed strata provide a history of volcanism, sedimentation, and faulting that spans 2 million years. It is here where Oldonyo Lengai, Tanzania’s most active volcano of the past several thousand years, built its edifice. Six new radiometric ages, by the 40Ar/39Ar method, and 48 new geochemical analyses from Oldonyo Lengai and surrounding volcanic features deepen our understanding of the area. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may download an electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications. The GIS database is in a Transverse Mercator projection, zone 36, New (1960) Arc datum. The database includes layers for hypsography (topography), hydrography, and infrastructure such as roads and trails.

Sherrod, David R.; Magigita, Masota M.; Kwelwa, Shimba

2013-01-01

184

Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described by Dietrich (1942), Maglio (1969) arrived at the conclusion that the

D. A. Hooijer

1979-01-01

185

Mapping Principal Preparation in Kenya and Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the principal preparation programming available to school leaders in Kenya and Tanzania. Design/methodology/approach: The authors analyzed information about the educational leadership programmes offered by a range of public and private institutions in East Africa. Data were gathered…

Onguko, Brown; Abdalla, Mohammed; Webber, Charles F.

2008-01-01

186

Livelihoods and Rural Poverty Reduction in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other sub-Saharan African countries, Tanzania is caught up in a process by which previous structural adjustment conditionalities have been replaced by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). This paper utilizes research on rural livelihoods in 10 subvillages in the country’s Morogoro region to derive policy inferences relevant to the capacity of the PRSP to deliver its promises for poverty

Ntengua Mdoe

2003-01-01

187

Evolution of Elections Management in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a discussion on the evolution of elections management in Tanzania with a focus on technological advancement in administering registration of voters. The paper provides the merits that permanent voters register has brought over the thumb practice. It traces the management of elections during colonialism, after independence…

Norman, A. S.; Mdegella, O. M.; Lubawa, R. M.

2011-01-01

188

Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.  

PubMed

A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123

Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

2014-06-01

189

Antimicrobial susceptibility, auxotype and plasmid content of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in northern Tanzania: emergence of high level plasmid mediated tetracycline resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid content, auxotype and serogroup of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from an urban population of STD clinic attenders in Northern Tanzania. METHODS--The minimum inhibitory concentrations of nine common antimicrobial agents were measured by the agar dilution method against 130 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in a free government STD clinic in Mwanza town. The

J Changalucha; H Grosskurth; P Mayaud; R M Gabone; G Ka-Gina; D Mabey

1995-01-01

190

Heavy metal levels in the sediments of four Dar es Salaam mangroves: accumulation in, and effect on the morphology of the periwinkle, Littoraria scabra (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals were determined in the soft tissue and shells of the littorinid, Littoraria scabra, and in the sediments of four mangrove areas along the Dar es Salaam coastline where L. scabra was collected. Several metals accumulate, preferentially in the animals' soft body parts, but do not seem to affect the shell morphology of this species. Sediment-metal levels, measured in

Hans De Wolf; S. A Ulomi; T Backeljau; H. B Pratap; R Blust

2001-01-01

191

Practical Use of ICT in Science and Mathematics Teachers' Training at Dar es Salaam University College of Education: An Analysis of Prospective Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the ways through which pre-service science and mathematics teachers at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) can acquire competencies for integrating technology pedagogy and content in teaching. Specifically the study investigated the preservice teachers' ICT integration competencies; practices that can be…

Kafyulilo, Ayoub C.

2010-01-01

192

Social Networks, Migration, and Care in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impacts of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic on children and families in northern Tanzania using the concept of social resilience.1 The study is based on the findings of child-focused research with street children and children and families from HIV\\/AIDS-affected households. The paper illustrates the coping strategies that children and young people, and parents and caregivers adopt at the

Ruth M. C. Evans

2005-01-01

193

A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

2013-08-01

194

Integrating environmental issues in IT education in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanzania is undergoing an unprecedented boom of IT industries. But awareness of environmental issues connected with ICT is almost nonexistent in Tanzania. ICT development without an eye on environmental protection is not sustainable. As of 2009 Tumaini University's B.Sc. program in IT has included a Green Computing course as an obligatory part of IT studies. That course aims at raising

Matti Tedre; B. Chachage; J. Faida

2009-01-01

195

What actions could boost international tourism demand for Tanzania?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanzania recognises the potential of international tourism in accelerating socio-economic development, particularly as a supplier of foreign exchange, investment and employment. This paper investigates the factors affecting international tourism demand for Tanzania. The autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration is applied. Local tourism prices, tourist preference, tourist income and the 2001 terror attack in the USA had a significant impact

Asimwe Bashagi; Edwin Muchapondwa

2009-01-01

196

The Book Industry in Tanzania. Occasional Paper No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive treatment of the state of the publishing industry in Tanzania provides a general description of the book trade in Africa, including discussions of the types of publishers active in Africa and of the recording of African publishing output, and a review of publishing activities in Tanzania, which covers the history of Tanzanian…

Kaungamno, E. E.

197

Science Education in Tanzania: Challenges and Policy Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in rural and urban areas in Tanzania, and elsewhere in Africa, continue to have limited or lack access to culturally and employment-relevant science education. The current case study, a 2007-2009 examination of barriers to the reform movement of science education in Tanzania, uses data from interviews, classroom observations, document…

Semali, Ladislaus M.; Mehta, Khanjan

2012-01-01

198

Guidelines and mindlines: why do clinical staff over-diagnose malaria in Tanzania? A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria over-diagnosis in Africa is widespread and costly both financially and in terms of morbidity and mortality from missed diagnoses. An understanding of the reasons behind malaria over-diagnosis is urgently needed to inform strategies for better targeting of antimalarials. METHODS: In an ethnographic study of clinical practice in two hospitals in Tanzania, 2,082 patient consultations with 34 clinicians were

Clare IR Chandler; Caroline Jones; Gloria Boniface; Kaseem Juma; Hugh Reyburn; Christopher JM Whitty

2008-01-01

199

Differences in HIV-related behaviors at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An HIV behavioral surveillance survey was undertaken in November 2005 at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, located near western Tanzania's border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). METHODS: The sample size was 1,743 persons based on cluster survey methodology. All members of selected households between 15–49 years old were eligible respondents. Questions included HIV-related behaviors, population

Elizabeth A Rowley; Paul B Spiegel; Zawadi Tunze; Godfrey Mbaruku; Marian Schilperoord; Patterson Njogu

2008-01-01

200

Lipid-soluble vitamins A, D, and E in HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:There is limited published research examining lipid-soluble vitamins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women, particularly in resource-limited settings.Subjects\\/Methods:This is an observational analysis of 1078 HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a trial of vitamin supplementation in Tanzania. Baseline data on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory parameters were used to identify correlates of low plasma vitamin

S Mehta; D Spiegelman; S Aboud; E L Giovannucci; G I Msamanga; E Hertzmark; F M Mugusi; D J Hunter; W W Fawzi

2010-01-01

201

District health managers’ perceptions of supervision in Malawi and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Mid-level cadres are being used to address human resource shortages in many African contexts, but insufficient and ineffective human resource management is compromising their performance. Supervision plays a key role in performance and motivation, but is frequently characterised by periodic inspection and control, rather than support and feedback to improve performance. This paper explores the perceptions of district health management teams in Tanzania and Malawi on their role as supervisors and on the challenges to effective supervision at the district level. Methods This qualitative study took place as part of a broader project, “Health Systems Strengthening for Equity: The Power and Potential of Mid-Level Providers”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 district health management team personnel in Malawi and 37 council health team members in Tanzania. The interviews covered a range of human resource management issues, including supervision and performance assessment, staff job descriptions and roles, motivation and working conditions. Results Participants displayed varying attitudes to the nature and purpose of the supervision process. Much of the discourse in Malawi centred on inspection and control, while interviewees in Tanzania were more likely to articulate a paradigm characterised by support and improvement. In both countries, facility level performance metrics dominated. The lack of competency-based indicators or clear standards to assess individual health worker performance were considered problematic. Shortages of staff, at both district and facility level, were described as a major impediment to carrying out regular supervisory visits. Other challenges included conflicting and multiple responsibilities of district health team staff and financial constraints. Conclusion Supervision is a central component of effective human resource management. Policy level attention is crucial to ensure a systematic, structured process that is based on common understandings of the role and purpose of supervision. This is particularly important in a context where the majority of staff are mid-level cadres for whom regulation and guidelines may not be as formalised or well-developed as for traditional cadres, such as registered nurses and medical doctors. Supervision needs to be adequately resourced and supported in order to improve performance and retention at the district level. PMID:24007354

2013-01-01

202

STD rapid assessment in Rwandan refugee camps in Tanzania.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To obtain baseline information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the Rwandan refugees camps in Tanzania, prior to establishment of STD services. SETTING: The largest camps of Rwandan refugees in the Ngara District of Tanzania (estimated population 300,000). The study was carried out in 8 days in August 1994. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A rapid assessment technique was used to measure STD prevalences among: (i) 100 antenatal clinic attenders (ANC); (ii) 239 men from outpatient clinics (OPD); and (iii) 289 men from the community. Interviews (by questionnaire) and genital examination were performed for all participants; sampling for females included genital swabs for the the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Candida albicans (CA), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), bacterial vaginosis (BV) and a blood sample for syphilis serology. Men provided urine samples which were screened for leucocytes using the leucocyte esterase (LE) dipstick; urethral swabs for Gram stain were taken from men with a reactive LE test and from those with symptoms or signs of urethritis. OPD males provided a blood sample for syphilis serology. RESULTS: All groups reported frequent experience with STDs and engaging in risky sexual behaviour prior to the survey. During the establishment of the camps, sexual activity was reportedly low. Over 50% of ANC attenders were infected with agents causing vaginitis (TV/BV/CA) and 3% were infected with NG. The prevalence of active syphilis was 4%. In the male outpatients, the prevalence of urethritis was 2.6% and of serological syphilis was 6.1%. Among males in the community, the prevalence of urethritis was 2.9% (the majority being asymptomatic infections). We noted frequent over-reporting of STD symptoms, unconfirmed clinically or biologically. CONCLUSIONS: STD case detection and management should be improved by training health workers in using the WHO syndromic approach, and through IEC campaigns encouraging attendance at clinics. Rapid epidemiological methods provide quick and useful information at low cost in refugee camps. PMID:9155553

Mayaud, P; Msuya, W; Todd, J; Kaatano, G; West, B; Begkoyian, G; Grosskurth, H; Mabey, D

1997-01-01

203

Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article aims to estimate the cost of providing medical primary prevention interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among at-risk patients, reflecting actual resource use and if the World Health Organization (WHO)'s CVD medical preventive guidelines are implemented in Tanzania. In addition, we estimate and explore the cost to patients of receiving these services. Cost data were collected in four health facilities located in both urban and rural settings. Providers' costs were identified and measured using ingredients approach to costing and resource valuation followed the opportunity cost method. Unit costs were estimated using activity-based and step-down costing methodologies. The patient costs were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The unit cost of providing CVD medical primary prevention services ranged from US$30-41 to US$52-71 per patient per year at the health centre and hospital levels, respectively. Employing the WHO's absolute risk approach guidelines will substantially increase these costs. The annual patient cost of receiving these services as currently practised was estimated to be US$118 and US$127 for urban and rural patients, respectively. Providers' costs were estimated from two main viewpoints: 'what is', that is the current practice, and 'what if', reflecting a WHO guidelines scenario. The higher cost of implementing the WHO guidelines suggests the need for further evaluation of whether these added costs are reasonable relative to the added benefits. We also found considerably higher patient costs, implying that distributive and equity implications of access to care require more consideration. Facility location surfaced as the main explanatory variable for both direct and indirect patient costs in the regression analysis; further research on the influence of other provider characteristics on these costs is important. PMID:25113027

Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Norheim, Ole F; Robberstad, Bjarne

2014-08-11

204

Use of Modern Technologies in Improving Astronomy Education in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With only the most basic astronomy content officially included in the Physics syllabus of Secondary Schools in Tanzania and a one semester Astrophysics option course offered in the Physics Department of one University, the reasons for apathy towards astronomy education in Tanzania are discussed. Using the current focus on introducing ICT into Primary and Secondary schools in Tanzania, the potential for advancing astronomy education per se and natural sciences in general is presented. Limiting factors such as teachers in general and science and astronomy literate teachers in particular, infrastructure and running costs of providing ICT based education, cultural impediments need to be overcome.

Jiwaji, N. T.

2006-08-01

205

The make or buy debate: Considering the limitations of domestic production in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In order to ensure their population’s regular access to essential medicines, many least developed countries and developing countries are faced with the policy question of whether to import or manufacture drugs locally, in particular for life-saving antiretroviral medicines for HIV/AIDS patients. In order for domestic manufacturing to be viable and cost-effective, the local industry must be able to compete with international suppliers of medicines by producing sufficiently low cost ARVs. Methods This paper considers the ‘make-or-buy’ dilemma by using Tanzania as a case study. Key informant interviews, event-driven observation, and purposive sampling of documents were used to evaluate the case study. The case study focused on Tanzania’s imitation technology transfer agreement to locally manufacture a first-line ARV (3TC?+?d4T?+?NVP), reverse engineering the ARV. Results Tanzania is limited by weak political support for the use of TRIPS flexibilities, limited production capacity for ARVs and limited competitiveness in both domestic and regional markets. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare encourages the use of flexibilities while others push for increased IP protection. Insufficient production capacity and lack of access to donor-financed tenders make it difficult to obtain economies of scale and provide competitive prices. Conclusions Within the “make-or-buy” context, it was determined that there are significant limitations in domestic manufacturing for developing countries. The case study highlights the difficulty of governments to make use of economies of scale and produce low-cost medicines, attract technology transfer, and utilize the flexibilities of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating barriers to the use of TRIPS flexibilities and long-term planning across sectors in future technology transfer and manufacturing initiatives. PMID:22747578

2012-01-01

206

Occupational injuries and fatalities in a tanzanite mine: Need to improve workers safety in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Work related injuries are common, and the mining industry accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. Tanzania is among the countries with high rates of mining injuries, nevertheless pre-hospital care is almost non existant and health care service deliveries are poor. This study sought to identify factors associated with injuries and fatalities among miners in Mererani, Tanzania. Methods A Cross - Sectional study of miners who sustained injuries and seen at Mererani health centre between January 2009 and May 2012. Results In the selected period 248 injury patients were seen. All were males, and 54% were between 18 - 30 years age-group. Almost all (98.7%) didn’t use protective gears at work, and worked for more than 12 hours daily. Falling rocks were the leading cause of injury (18.2%), and majority sustained multiple injuries (33%). Of the patients seen, 41.3% died. The following were more likely to die than others; Primary education (p = 0.04), Less than 5 years work experience (p = 0.000), unintentional injuries (p = 0.000), fall injuries (p = 0.000) and sustaining multiple injuries (p = 0.000). Conclusion The burden of injuries and fatalities demonstrated in this study, point to the need for implementation and monitoring of the use of safety equipment and operating procedures of the mines by government and other regulatory authorities. Initiation of pre hospital care at the mines and improved emergency medical service delivery at health centers in Tanzania. PMID:24778757

Boniface, Respicious; Museru, Lawrence; Munthali, Victoria; Lett, Ronald

2013-01-01

207

Structure and performance of infectious disease surveillance and response, United Republic of Tanzania, 1998.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the structure and performance of and support for five infectious disease surveillance systems in the United Republic of Tanzania: Health Management Information System (HMIS); Infectious Disease Week Ending; Tuberculosis/Leprosy; Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; and Acute Flaccid Paralysis/Poliomyelitis. METHODS: The systems were assessed by analysing the core activities of surveillance and response and support functions (provision of training, supervision, and resources). Data were collected using questionnaires that involved both interviews and observations at regional, district, and health facility levels in three of the 20 regions in the United Republic of Tanzania. FINDINGS: An HMIS was found at 26 of 32 health facilities (81%) surveyed and at all 14 regional and district medical offices. The four other surveillance systems were found at <20% of health facilities and <75% of medical offices. Standardized case definitions were used for only 3 of 21 infectious diseases. Nineteen (73%) health facilities with HMIS had adequate supplies of forms; 9 (35%) reported on time; and 11 (42%) received supervision or feedback. Four (29%) medical offices with HMIS had population denominators to use for data analyses; 12 (86%) were involved in outbreak investigations; and 11 (79%) had conducted community prevention activities. CONCLUSION: While HMIS could serve as the backbone for IDSR in the United Republic of Tanzania, this will require supervision, standardized case definitions, and improvements in the quality of reporting, analysis, and feedback. PMID:11984605

Nsubuga, Peter; Eseko, Nicholas; Tadesse, Wuhib; Ndayimirije, Nestor; Stella, Chungong; McNabb, Scott

2002-01-01

208

The Potential of Medical Abortion to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Africa: What Benefits for Tanzania and Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

Background Unsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative. Methods By estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios) and contrasting situations regarding health care provision and abortion legislation. We focused on misoprostol-only regimens due to the drug's low cost and accessibility. We included the impact of medical abortion on women who would otherwise choose unsafe abortion and on women with unwanted/mistimed pregnancies who would otherwise carry to term. Results Thousands of lives could be saved each year in each country by implementing medical abortion using misoprostol (2122 in Tanzania and 2551 in Ethiopia assuming coverage equals family planning services levels: 56% for Tanzania, 31% for Ethiopia). Changes in MMRatios would be less pronounced because the intervention would also affect national birth rates. Conclusions This is the first analysis of impact of medical abortion provision which takes into account additional potential users other than those currently using unsafe abortion. Thousands of women's lives could be saved, but this may not be reflected in as substantial changes in MMRatios because of medical abortion's demographic impact. Therefore policy makers must be aware of the inability of some traditional measures of maternal mortality to detect the real benefits offered by such an intervention. PMID:20948995

Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Burgin, Joanna; Campbell, Oona M. R.

2010-01-01

209

Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Initiatives in Tanzania and Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.

Jeffery, Bill; Parthesius, Robert

2013-06-01

210

The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania should therefore maintain its commitment to encouraging women to space their births at least two years apart and delay childbearing beyond the teenage years. Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies. Whilst lack of socioeconomic differentials can be considered an achievement of government policies, mortality remains high so there is still a long way to go before Tanzania achieves its stated goal of 'Health for All'. PMID:10154361

Mturi, A J; Curtis, S L

1995-12-01

211

Chagga elites and the politics of ethnicity in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania   

E-print Network

The focus of this thesis is on elite members of the Chagga ethnic group. Originating from the fertile yet crowded slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, this group is amongst the most entrepreneurial and best educated in Tanzania. ...

Fisher, Thomas James

2012-06-29

212

Quantifying the Burden of Rhodesiense Sleeping Sickness in Urambo District, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Human African trypanosomiasis is a severely neglected vector-borne disease that is always fatal if untreated. In Tanzania it is highly focalised and of major socio-economic and public health importance in affected communities. Objectives This study aimed to estimate the public health burden of rhodesiense HAT in terms of DALYs and financial costs in a highly disease endemic area of Tanzania using hospital records. Materials and Methods Data was obtained from 143 patients admitted in 2004 for treatment for HAT at Kaliua Health Centre, Urambo District. The direct medical and other indirect costs incurred by individual patients and by the health services were calculated. DALYs were estimated using methods recommended by the Global Burden of Disease Project as well as those used in previous rhodesiense HAT estimates assuming HAT under reporting of 45%, a figure specific for Tanzania. Results The DALY estimate for HAT in Urambo District with and without age-weighting were 215.7 (95% CI: 155.3–287.5) and 281.6 (95% CI: 209.1–362.6) respectively. When 45% under-reporting was included, the results were 622.5 (95% CI: 155.3–1098.9) and 978.9 (95% CI: 201.1–1870.8) respectively. The costs of treating 143 patients in terms of admission costs, diagnosis, hospitalization and sleeping sickness drugs were estimated at US$ 15,514, of which patients themselves paid US$ 3,673 and the health services US$ 11,841. The burden in terms of indirect non-medical costs for the 143 patients was estimated at US$ 9,781. Conclusions This study shows that HAT imposes a considerable burden on affected rural communities in Tanzania and stresses the urgent need for location- and disease-specific burden estimates tailored to particular rural settings in countries like Tanzania where a considerable number of infectious diseases are prevalent and, due to their focal nature, are often concentrated in certain locations where they impose an especially high burden. PMID:21072230

Matemba, Lucas E.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Kibona, Stafford N.; Picozzi, Kim; Cleaveland, Sarah; Shaw, Alexandra P.; Welburn, Susan C.

2010-01-01

213

Molecular characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato isolates from Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial speck caused byPseudomonas syringae pv.tomato is an emerging disease of tomato in Tanzania. Following reports of outbreaks of the disease in many locations in Tanzania,\\u000a 56 isolates ofP. syringae pv.tomato were collected from four tomato- producing areas and characterized using pathogenicity assays on tomato, carbon source utilization\\u000a by the Biolog Microplate system, polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length

K. C. Shenge; D. Stephan; R. B. Mabagala; C. N. Mortensen; K. Wydra

2008-01-01

214

Trends in chloroquine resistance marker, Pfcrt-K76T mutation ten years after chloroquine withdrawal in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs remains a major obstacle to the control of malaria. In 2001 Tanzania replaced chloroquine (CQ) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line drug, which in turn was replaced by artemisinin combination therapy in 2006. SP has however, continued to be used in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) despite reports of high levels of resistance to SP due to the lack of alternatives to SP for IPTp. Recent reports have indicated recovery of CQ-susceptibility in Malawi, Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania based on the prevalence of wild types at codon 76 of the Pfcrt gene in indigenous P. falciparum populations. The current prevalence of this Pfcrt-76 CQ resistance marker from six regions of Tanzania mainland is hereby reported. Methods DNA extracted from filter-paper dried blood spots and rapid diagnostics kit strips collected from finger-prick blood were used to genotype the Pfcrt-76 resistance marker using PCR-RFLP. Data from previously published studies were used to generate CQ susceptibility recovery trends using logistic regression model. Results Seven hundred and forty one (741) samples were genotyped. The current frequency of the CQ-susceptible Pfcrt-K76 was above 92% and did not differ between regions in Tanzania (?2?=?2.37; p?=?0.795). The K76 allelic prevalence was between 85.7 and 93% in regions (?2?=?7.88, p?=?0.163). The CQ resistance recovery trends showed regional variability that may be caused by differences in malaria transmission intensity, but overall the trends converge as the susceptibility levels in all regions approach >90%. Conclusions CQ withdrawal in Tanzania has resulted into >90% recovery of susceptibility in ten years of withdrawal. These findings are in support of the search for CQ-based combination drugs as a possible future alternative to SP for IPTp in places where full recovery of CQ-susceptibility will be evident. PMID:24225406

2013-01-01

215

Education in Tanzania: attempting to create an education system for a sub-Saharan African country  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the overthrow of Ghana's Kwame Nkrumah in 1966, Tanzania's societal (including edu- cational) architecture was hailed as a model for sub-Saharan Africa. More than thirty years after the launching of Tanzania's \\

C. C. Wolhuter

216

78 FR 5555 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “SHANGAA, Art of Tanzania  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``SHANGAA, Art of Tanzania'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...objects to be included in the exhibition ``SHANGAA, Art of Tanzania,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

2013-01-25

217

Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Tanzania; 1930 to 2007  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like disease was first reported in Tanzania more than eight decades ago and the last large outbreak of the disease occurred in 2006–07. This study investigates the spatial and temporal pattern of RVF outbreaks in Tanzania over the past 80 years in order to guide prevention and control strategies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out based on disease reporting data from Tanzania at district or village level. The data were sourced from the Ministries responsible for livestock and human health, Tanzania Meteorological Agency and research institutions involved in RVF surveillance and diagnosis. The spatial distribution of outbreaks was mapped using ArcGIS 10. The space-time permutation model was applied to identify clusters of cases, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of outbreaks in the district. Principal Findings RVF outbreaks were reported between December and June in 1930, 1947, 1957, 1960, 1963, 1968, 1977–79, 1989, 1997–98 and 2006–07 in 39.2% of the districts in Tanzania. There was statistically significant spatio-temporal clustering of outbreaks. RVF occurrence was associated with the eastern Rift Valley ecosystem (OR?=?6.14, CI: 1.96, 19.28), total amount of rainfall of >405.4 mm (OR?=?12.36, CI: 3.06, 49.88), soil texture (clay [OR?=?8.76, CI: 2.52, 30.50], and loam [OR?=?8.79, CI: 2.04, 37.82]). Conclusion/Significance RVF outbreaks were found to be distributed heterogeneously and transmission dynamics appeared to vary between areas. The sequence of outbreak waves, continuously cover more parts of the country. Whenever infection has been introduced into an area, it is likely to be involved in future outbreaks. The cases were more likely to be reported from the eastern Rift Valley than from the western Rift Valley ecosystem and from areas with clay and loam rather than sandy soil texture. PMID:24586433

Sindato, Calvin; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kivaria, Fredrick; Dautu, George; Bernard, Bett; Paweska, Janusz T.

2014-01-01

218

Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P. irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because they provide an indicator that can be surveyed to assess the risk for plague. PMID:17553245

Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Van Dongen, Stefan; Davis, Stephen; Neerinckx, Simon; Deckers, Jozef; Libois, Roland

2007-01-01

219

Caretakers of AIDS patients in rural Tanzania.  

PubMed

Socio-economic characteristics of caretakers of bed-ridden AIDS patients in two rural communities of Rungwe district, Tanzania were sought. The study also explored what caretaking entailed. Data were collected from 60 caretakers between September and November 2002. The proportion of female caretakers was significantly higher than that of male caretakers; the majority of the caretakers were old. The majority of the AIDS patients were family members of the caretakers. The caretakers' households lacked basic needs for the patients. Some of the caretakers sold family assets in order to buy medicines for the patients. Most of the caretakers worked under stress and there was no one to counsel them. Community members offered very little or no support to caretakers and the households were stigmatized. People in the communities knew about HIV/AIDS transmission, but their behaviour did not match their knowledge. PMID:15479504

Katapa, R S

2004-10-01

220

The grassroots as a driving force. Tanzania.  

PubMed

It is a challenge to design and manage projects capable of reaching people over large geographical areas. The community-based Integrated Project (IP) in Tanzania, however, has creatively overcome obstacles to produce broadly successful interventions in family planning and maternal-child health care. Reaching out to people with effective IEC and distribution strategies, the IP was introduced to Tanzania in 1984 on a pilot basis to a population of 20,000 and has since expanded to cover more than 200,000 people. The project has developed from the bottom-up through community groups and leaders at different levels. for example, a 42-member women's club was established at the Masama Rural Health Center through which family planning, maternal and child health, and nutrition education activities are promoted. Further, women have formed a family planning association of 74 members of Sonu to talk about family planning and take part in collective activities such as gardening and animal raising; income generated by these women has been used to help further the goals of the IP. Other areas have gained the support of community leaders, politicians, and local groups. Churches, mosques, outpost clinics, MCH clinics, films, and home visits have all been used by the project. Together, these approaches and involved parties have positively affected the rate of contraceptive prevalence in the original IP areas such that they are in the range of 35-49%, compared to the national average of 0-7%. Rates of contraceptive prevalence range 16-34% in new project areas. PMID:12318576

1994-01-01

221

Sequential extraction of labile elements and chemical characterization of a basaltic soil from Mt. Meru, Tanzania  

E-print Network

. Meru, Tanzania M.G. Little a,*, C.-T.A. Lee b a Biology Department, Duke University, Box 90338 Durham Sequential extraction Chemical weathering Tanzania a b s t r a c t We conducted a modified Bureau Commun Reference (BCR) sequential extraction on a basaltic soil (phono-tephrite) from Mt. Meru in Northern Tanzania

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

222

Targeting in a Community-Driven Development Program: Applications & Acceptance in Tanzania's TASAF.  

E-print Network

Targeting in a Community-Driven Development Program: Applications & Acceptance in Tanzania's TASAF the targeting of a major community-driven development program, Tanzanias $150m Social Action Fund (TASAF). We, this community may be better organized, more educated, and more patient. We use data from Tanzanias Social Action

Krivobokova, Tatyana

223

Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 429..447  

E-print Network

Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 global heterogeneity in climate-induced agricultural variability,Tanzania has the potential to substan owing to supply shocks in major exporting regions, Tanzania may be able to export more maize at higher

Pittendrigh, Barry

224

ON THE VERBAL SYSTEM IN LANGI A BANTU LANGUAGE OF TANZANIA (F.33)  

E-print Network

ON THE VERBAL SYSTEM IN LANGI A BANTU LANGUAGE OF TANZANIA (F.33) Margaret Dunham Université de spoken by approximately 300,000 people in the Kondoa Region of Tanzania. It is of interest linguistically presented here is all first hand, and was gathered during fieldwork I carried out in Tanzania during my

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

A paleoclimatic perspective on the 21st-century glacier loss on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  

E-print Network

A paleoclimatic perspective on the 21st-century glacier loss on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania Lonnie G on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, demands a well- constrained temporal perspective. That context is provided by direct and thinning of the ice fields on the summit of Kibo, the central peak of Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, are placed

Howat, Ian M.

226

Land-Cover Change and Impact on Tanzania Coast: A Case Study of Geographic Information for  

E-print Network

Land-Cover Change and Impact on Tanzania Coast: A Case Study of Geographic Information ------------------------------------ Tanzania National Environment Management Council: V. Makota #12;Geographic Information for Sustainable diverse areas within Africa. Niger Basin African Great Lakes Region Tanzania/Kenya Coastal Zone Limpopo

Wang, Y.Q. "Yeqiao"

227

Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra  

E-print Network

Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra-focus earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations of the Tanzania network to estimate regional variation of sublithospheric mantle attenuation beneath the Tanzania craton and the eastern branch of the East African Rift

Ritsema, Jeroen

228

High-resolution population grids and future scenarios for Tanzania Philip J. Platts & Ruth D. Swetnam  

E-print Network

1 High-resolution population grids and future scenarios for Tanzania Philip J. Platts & Ruth D for Tanzania. The distribution of persons at 1 km resolution was based on a modelled population surface empirical data from the 2002 Tanzania census (NBS, 2002). It was not appropriate to use previous Land

Marchant, Rob

229

Health and survival of young children in southern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background With a view to developing health systems strategies to improve reach to high-risk groups, we present information on health and survival from household and health facility perspectives in five districts of southern Tanzania. Methods We documented availability of health workers, vaccines, drugs, supplies and services essential for child health through a survey of all health facilities in the area. We did a representative cluster sample survey of 21,600 households using a modular questionnaire including household assets, birth histories, and antenatal care in currently pregnant women. In a subsample of households we asked about health of all children under two years, including breastfeeding, mosquito net use, vaccination, vitamin A, and care-seeking for recent illness, and measured haemoglobin and malaria parasitaemia. Results In the health facility survey, a prescriber or nurse was present on the day of the survey in about 40% of 114 dispensaries. Less than half of health facilities had all seven 'essential oral treatments', and water was available in only 22%. In the household survey, antenatal attendance (88%) and DPT-HepB3 vaccine coverage in children (81%) were high. Neonatal and infant mortality were 43.2 and 76.4 per 1000 live births respectively. Infant mortality was 40% higher for teenage mothers than older women (RR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 – 1.7), and 20% higher for mothers with no formal education than those who had been to school (RR 1.2, CI 1.0 – 1.4). The benefits of education on survival were apparently restricted to post-neonatal infants. There was no evidence of inequality in infant mortality by socio-economic status. Vaccine coverage, net use, anaemia and parasitaemia were inequitable: the least poor had a consistent advantage over children from the poorest families. Infant mortality was higher in families living over 5 km from their nearest health facility compared to those living closer (RR 1.25, CI 1.0 – 1.5): 75% of households live within this distance. Conclusion Relatively short distances to health facilities, high antenatal and vaccine coverage show that peripheral health facilities have huge potential to make a difference to health and survival at household level in rural Tanzania, even with current human resources. PMID:18522737

Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna RM; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Manzi, Fatuma; Shirima, Kizito; Mbuya, Conrad; Mushi, Adiel K; Ketende, Sosthenes Charles; Alonso, Pedro L; Mshinda, Hassan; Tanner, Marcel; Schellenberg, David

2008-01-01

230

Care-seeking patterns for fatal malaria in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Once malaria occurs, deaths can be prevented by prompt treatment with relatively affordable and efficacious drugs. Yet this goal is elusive in Africa. The paradox of a continuing but easily preventable cause of high mortality raises important questions for policy makers concerning care-seeking and access to health systems. Although patterns of care-seeking during uncomplicated malaria episodes are well known, studies in cases of fatal malaria are rare. Care-seeking behaviours may differ between these groups. Methods This study documents care-seeking events in 320 children less than five years of age with fatal malaria seen between 1999 and 2001 during over 240,000 person-years of follow-up in a stable perennial malaria transmission setting in southern Tanzania. Accounts of care-seeking recorded in verbal autopsy histories were analysed to determine providers attended and the sequence of choices made as the patients' condition deteriorated. Results As first resort to care, 78.7% of malaria-attributable deaths used modern biomedical care in the form of antimalarial pharmaceuticals from shops or government or non-governmental heath facilities, 9.4% used initial traditional care at home or from traditional practitioners and 11.9% sought no care of any kind. There were no differences in patterns of choice by sex of the child, sex of the head of the household, socioeconomic status of the household or presence or absence of convulsions. In malaria deaths of all ages who sought care more than once, modern care was included in the first or second resort to care in 90.0% and 99.4% with and without convulsions respectively. Conclusions In this study of fatal malaria in southern Tanzania, biomedical care is the preferred choice of an overwhelming majority of suspected malaria cases, even those complicated by convulsions. Traditional care is no longer a significant delaying factor. To reduce mortality further will require greater emphasis on recognizing danger signs at home, prompter care-seeking, improved quality of care at health facilities and better adherence to treatment. PMID:15282029

de Savigny, Don; Mayombana, Charles; Mwageni, Eleuther; Masanja, Honorati; Minhaj, Abdulatif; Mkilindi, Yahya; Mbuya, Conrad; Kasale, Harun; Reid, Graham

2004-01-01

231

Comparative evaluation of Amplicor HIV-1 DNA test, version 1.5, by manual and automated DNA extraction methods using venous blood and dried blood spots for HIV-1 DNA PCR testing.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test using venous blood sample has been used for many years in low resource settings for early infant diagnosis of HIV infection in children less than 18 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance characteristics of Amplicor HIV-1 DNA assay version 1.5 following processing of venous blood and dried blood spot (DBS) samples by Roche manual DNA extraction and automated Roche MagNA Pure LC instrument (MP) for HIV-1 DNA PCR testing in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in order to scale up early infant diagnosis of HIV infection in routine practice. Venous blood samples from children under 18 months born to HIV-infected mothers between January and April 2008 were collected. Venous blood was used to prepare cell pellet and DBS samples. DNA extractions by manual procedure and MP were performed each on cell pellet, venous blood and DBS samples and tested by Amplicor HIV-1 DNA assay. Of 325 samples included, 60 (18.5%) were confirmed HIV-infected by manual extraction performed on cell pellets. Sensitivity of the assay following MP processing of venous blood was 95% (95% CI; 86.1-99.0%) and 98.3% (95% CI; 91.1 to 99.9%) for the manual extraction and processing by MP performed on DBS samples. Specificity of the assay with all DNA extraction methods was 99.6% (95% CI; 97.9 to 100%). Performance of the assay with Roche manual extraction and processing by MP on DBS samples compared well with Roche manual extraction performed on cell pellet samples. The choice of DNA extraction method needs to be individualized based on the level of laboratory facility, volume of testing and cost benefit analysis before it is adopted for use. PMID:24409629

Nsojo, Anthony; Aboud, Said; Lyamuya, Eligius

2010-10-01

232

Assessment of Effects of Human Development on the Environment by Using System Dynamic Modeling Technique (SD): A Case Study of the Mkomazi Watershed (Pangani Basin) in Northeastern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes land use changes due to human development in the Mkomazi Valley, Tanzania, and its impacts on nature using the SD–Modeling (System Dynamic modeling) technique. Ultimately this method relates environment and economy of society with regard to a seasonal rainfall–based agriculture practice and their harmonization with irrigation agriculture for development sustainability. VENSIM PLE (VENTANA SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT, PERSONAL LEARNING

Nimzihirwa Kashimbiri; Yun-Feng Chen; Jing-Xuan Zhou

2005-01-01

233

Dusty discos and dangerous desires: community perceptions of adolescent sexual and reproductive health risks and vulnerability and the potential role of parents in rural Mwanza, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents villagers' assessments of young people's sexual and reproductive health vulnerability and of community-based interventions that may reduce both vulnerability and risk in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. The primary methods used were 28 group discussions and 18 in-depth interviews with representatives of various social groups in four villages. The majority of participants attributed young people's sexual and reproductive health

Pieter Remes; Jenny Renju; Kija Nyalali; Lemmy Medard; Michael Kimaryo; John Changalucha; Angela Obasi; Daniel Wight

2010-01-01

234

Local terminology for febrile illnesses in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania and its impact on the design of a community-based malaria control programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews results of several ethnographic studies that have examined the issue of local terminology for malaria in Africa, then presents findings from an on-going study in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania. The study used a mixture of qualitative and quantitative interview methods to examine local perceptions of malaria and malaria treatment practices. Although the local term homa ya malaria or

P. J. Winch; A. M. Makemba; S. R. Kamazima; M. Lurie; G. K. Lwihula; Z. Premji; J. N. Minjas; C. J. Shiff

1996-01-01

235

Effect of large-scale social marketing of insecticide-treated nets on child survival in rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Insecticide-treated nets have proven efficacy as a malaria-control tool in Africa. However, the transition from efficacy to effectiveness cannot be taken for granted. We assessed coverage and the effect on child survival of a large- scale social marketing programme for insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of southern Tanzania with high perennial malaria transmission. Methods Socially marketed insecticide-treated

Joanna RM Armstrong Schellenberg; Salim Abdulla; Rose Nathan; Oscar Mukasa; Tanya J Marchant; Nassor Kikumbih; Adiel K Mushi; Haji Mponda; Happiness Minja; Hassan Mshinda; Marcel Tanner; Christian Lengeler

2001-01-01

236

Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a\\u000a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community\\u000a and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner\\u000a violence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A qualitative study

Rose M Laisser; Lennarth Nyström; Helen I Lugina; Maria Emmelin

2011-01-01

237

Airflow limitation among workers in a labour-intensive coal mine in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To describe the relationship between cumulative respirable dust and quartz exposure and lung functioning among workers in\\u000a a labour-intensive coal mine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study population comprised 299 men working at a coal mine in Tanzania. Lung function was assessed using a Vitalograph\\u000a alpha III spirometer in accordance with American Thoracic Society recommendations. Multiple linear regression models were\\u000a developed to study the

Simon H. D. Mamuya; Magne Bråtveit; Yohana J. S. Mashalla; Bente E. Moen

2007-01-01

238

Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance  

PubMed Central

Population genetic structures of the two major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, differ markedly across Sub-Saharan Africa, which could reflect differences in historical demographies or in contemporary gene flow. Elucidation of the degree and cause of population structure is important for predicting the spread of genetic traits such as insecticide resistance genes or artificially engineered genes. Here the population genetics of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in the central, eastern and island regions of Tanzania were compared. Microsatellite markers were screened in 33 collections of female An. gambiae s.l., originating from 22 geographical locations, four of which were sampled in two or three years between 2008 and 2010. An. gambiae were sampled from six sites, An. arabiensis from 14 sites, and both species from two sites, with an additional colonised insectary sample of each species. Frequencies of the knock-down resistance (kdr) alleles 1014S and 1014F were also determined. An. gambiae exhibited relatively high genetic differentiation (average pairwise FST?=?0.131), significant even between nearby samples, but without clear geographical patterning. In contrast, An. arabiensis exhibited limited differentiation (average FST?=?0.015), but strong isolation-by-distance (Mantel test r?=?0.46, p?=?0.0008). Most time-series samples of An. arabiensis were homogeneous, suggesting general temporal stability of the genetic structure. An. gambiae populations from Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo were found to have high frequencies of kdr 1014S (around 70%), with almost 50% homozygote but was at much lower frequency on Unguja Island, with no. An. gambiae population genetic differentiation was consistent with an island model of genetic structuring with highly restricted gene flow, contrary to An. arabiensis which was consistent with a stepping-stone model of extensive, but geographically-restricted gene flow. PMID:25353688

Maliti, Deodatus; Ranson, Hilary; Magesa, Stephen; Kisinza, William; Mcha, Juma; Haji, Khamis; Killeen, Gerald; Weetman, David

2014-01-01

239

Doubling of HIV Prevalence among Female Sex Workers (FSW) in Zanzibar Assessed through Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) Surveys, 2007 to 2011.  

E-print Network

Control Program, Ministry of Health, Zanzibar, Tanzania 2 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 3 University of California, San Francisco, California USA 4 Ministry of Health, Zanzibar, Tanzania 5 US CDC, Atlanta, Georgia USA 6 CTS Global Inc assigned to CDC, Dar es Salaam

Klein, Ophir

240

Ecology, 90(4), 2009, pp. 10301041 2009 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

), 845 West Taylor Street, University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 USA 3 Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, P.O. Box 661, Arusha, Tanzania 4 Botany Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35060, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 5 Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 3101 Valley Life Sciences

Howe, Henry F.

241

The molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections in Tanzania.  

PubMed

A molecular epidemiological study to determine the zoonotic importance of bovine tuberculosis was carried out in Tanzania. Specimens from human cases of tuberculosis as well as from slaughtered cattle were collected from regions with a high proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In order to determine the similarity of strains from the two sources, molecular typing techniques, namely RFLP and spoligotyping, were used to determine the genetic profile of the strains involved. The results of pTBN12 typing of M. bovis from cattle and man has shown a rather heterogeneous population of this species spread all over Tanzania, assuming that the present sample is representative. There were 13 different pTBN12 RFLP types encountered. The genetic relatedness between the pTBN12 RFLP patterns indicated a high degree of relatedness (86%) between the dominant pTBN12 genotypes existing in Tanzania. There were 13 different spoligotypes found in this study, whose genetic relatedness was also high (79%). DNA profiles were also confirmed by IS986 RFLP, which revealed that strains have 1-13 copies of IS986. Geographically, there was overlap between pTBN12 RFLP and spoligotypes amongst strains isolated from various parts of Tanzania. The diversity of the RFLP and spoligotype patterns observed in Tanzania probably reflects the extensive internal movements of cattle belonging to pastoralists. The evidence of overlap between DNA fingerprints of M. bovis from cattle and man has once more highlighted a need for synergy of veterinary and medical policies in the control of tuberculosis in Tanzania and probably in other developing countries. PMID:16316728

Kazwala, R R; Kusiluka, L J M; Sinclair, K; Sharp, J M; Daborn, C J

2006-02-25

242

Access to institutional delivery care and reasons for home delivery in three districts of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Globally, health facility delivery is encouraged as a single most important strategy in preventing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, access to facility-based delivery care remains low in many less developed countries. This study assesses facilitators and barriers to institutional delivery in three districts of Tanzania. Methods Data come from a cross-sectional survey of random households on health behaviours and service utilization patterns among women and children aged less than 5 years. The survey was conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania, using a closed-ended questionnaire. This analysis focuses on 915 women of reproductive age who had given birth in the two years prior to the survey. Chi-square test was used to test for associations in the bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors that influence institutional delivery. Results Overall, 74.5% of the 915 women delivered at health facilities in the two years prior to the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the better the quality of antenatal care (ANC) the higher the odds of institutional delivery. Similarly, better socioeconomic status was associated with an increase in the odds of institutional delivery. Women of Sukuma ethnic background were less likely to deliver at health facilities than others. Presence of couple discussion on family planning matters was associated with higher odds of institutional delivery. Conclusion Institutional delivery in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga district of Tanzania is relatively high and significantly dependent on the quality of ANC, better socioeconomic status as well as between-partner communication about family planning. Therefore, improving the quality of ANC, socioeconomic empowerment as well as promoting and supporting inter-spousal discussion on family planning matters is likely to enhance institutional delivery. Programs should also target women from the Sukuma ethnic group towards universal access to institutional delivery care in the study area. PMID:24934657

2014-01-01

243

Where There Is No Toilet: Water and Sanitation Environments of Domestic and Facility Births in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. Methods We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. Results 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%–44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%–2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%–42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Conclusion Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply more empirical definitions of WATSAN-safe environments, both at home and in facilities. PMID:25191753

Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A.; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M. R.

2014-01-01

244

Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption?  

PubMed Central

Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

2014-01-01

245

Sources of community health worker motivation: a qualitative study in Morogoro Region, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background There is a renewed interest in community health workers (CHWs) in Tanzania, but also a concern that low motivation of CHWs may decrease the benefits of investments in CHW programs. This study aimed to explore sources of CHW motivation to inform programs in Tanzania and similar contexts. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 CHWs in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded prior to translation and thematic analysis. The authors then conducted a literature review on CHW motivation and a framework that aligned with our findings was modified to guide the presentation of results. Results Sources of CHW motivation were identified at the individual, family, community, and organizational levels. At the individual level, CHWs are predisposed to volunteer work and apply knowledge gained to their own problems and those of their families and communities. Families and communities supplement other sources of motivation by providing moral, financial, and material support, including service fees, supplies, money for transportation, and help with farm work and CHW tasks. Resistance to CHW work exhibited by families and community members is limited. The organizational level (the government and its development partners) provides motivation in the form of stipends, potential employment, materials, training, and supervision, but inadequate remuneration and supplies discourage CHWs. Supervision can also be dis-incentivizing if perceived as a sign of poor performance. Conclusions Tanzanian CHWs who work despite not receiving a salary have an intrinsic desire to volunteer, and their motivation often derives from support received from their families when other sources of motivation are insufficient. Policy-makers and program managers should consider the burden that a lack of remuneration imposes on the families of CHWs. In addition, CHWs’ intrinsic desire to volunteer does not preclude a desire for external rewards. Rather, adequate and formal financial incentives and in-kind alternatives would allow already-motivated CHWs to increase their commitment to their work. PMID:24112292

2013-01-01

246

Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms, decentralisation and emerging democratic sentiments. Such a historic contextualisation enhances our understanding of the strong sentiments of unfairness revealed in this study and assists us in considering potential ways forward. PMID:21314985

2011-01-01

247

Obesity as a public health problem among adult women in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: For many developing countries, obesity and its sequelae have become a challenge of a magnitude similar to hunger and undernutrition. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the weight status of women in rural Tanzania with reference to season as well as the link between women's weight, food consumption, and attitudes toward obesity. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys in 3 different seasons within 1 year interviewed the same 210 women, ages 17–45 years, from 3 rural districts of northeastern and central Tanzania. These surveys assessed body mass index (BMI), food intake, and dietary diversity through 24-hour recalls, women's attitudes toward obesity, vegetable production, and socioeconomic status. Results: Although 71% of the women had a normal BMI, 7% were underweight, 16% overweight, and 6% obese. The BMI was correlated with the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), the Food Variety Score (FVS), with the consumption of foods from the food groups “bread/cakes,” “sugar,” and “tea,” and with the production of exotic vegetables. In a multiple regression model, FVS was directly associated with BMI. When asked to describe the typical characteristics of an obese person, women mentioned more negative than positive characteristics. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 3 times higher than that of underweight. Apparently, even in rural areas of Tanzania, a nutrition transition is underway. No direct association was identified between vegetable consumption and BMI. Although this study did not assess behavioral factors, such behavioral factors as activity levels as well as attitudes need to be considered, even in rural settings, to address all facets of malnutrition. PMID:25276549

Keding, Gudrun B; Msuya, John M; Maass, Brigitte L; Krawinkel, Michael B

2013-01-01

248

Tanzania benefits from inter-organizational cooperation.  

PubMed

This article describes observations of a monitoring mission by JOICFP, the IPPF Regional Africa Office, and JICA in Tanzania, during June 7-13, 1998. The team visited the Morogoro region to review and assess the current major Integrated Program (IP) activities. The community-based distribution agents have been successful in gaining the trust of the community and contributing to social change. Agents are motivated to work and receive additional training, even though they do not receive a salary. Communities recognize the agents as their representatives. Training agents at the grass roots level has been cost effective. The visiting doctor scheme has been successful in maximizing use of health personnel. In one example, 92 patients from 3 villages were treated by a visiting doctor, who had an adequate supply of basic drugs. Service fees paid by patients cover the cost of medicine. Women receive reproductive health and sexually transmitted disease check-ups. The Income Generation Activities (IGA) program strengthens income generation and women's organizations. IGA also provides tools for masonry and carpentry to encourage male participation in the program. The IP has cooperative support from UMATI, the Ministry of Health, UNFPA, and the Japanese government. Essential drugs and equipment are procured by JICA, and delivered through the UMATI-JOICFP distribution channels to government health centers and dispensaries and UMATI's clinics. The experience has confirmed the ability of nongovernmental organizations to supply a multi-bilateral project. Grassroots staff are most appreciative. PMID:12321789

1998-08-01

249

Reducing maternal mortality in Kigoma, Tanzania.  

PubMed

An intervention programme aiming at a reduction of maternal deaths in the Regional Hospital, Kigoma, Tanzania, is analyzed. A retrospective study was carried out from 1984-86 to constitute a background for an intervention programme in 1987-91. The retrospective study revealed gross under-registration of data and clarified a number of potentially useful issues regarding avoidable maternal mortality. An intervention programme comprising 22 items was launched and the maternal mortality ratio was carefully followed in 1987-91. The intervention programme paid attention to professional responsibilities with regular audit-oriented meeting, utilization of local material resources, schedules for regular maintenance of equipment, maintenance of working skills by regular on-the-job training of staff, norms for patient management, provision of blood, norms for referral of severely ill patients, use of antibiotics, regular staff evaluation, public complaints about patient management, travel distance of all essential staff to the hospital, supply of essential drugs, the need of a small infusion production unit, the creation of culture facilities for improved quality of microbiology findings, and to efforts to stimulate local fund-raising. The results indicate that the maternal mortality ratio fell from 933 to 186 per 100,000 live births over the period 1984-91. Thus it is underscored that the problem of maternal mortality can be successfully approached by a low-cost intervention programme aiming at identifying issues of avoidability and focusing upon locally available problem solutions. PMID:10141624

Mbaruku, G; Bergström, S

1995-03-01

250

Green grabbing and the dynamics of local-level engagement with neoliberalization in Tanzania’s wildlife management areas  

E-print Network

with neoliberalization in Tanzania's wildlife management areas Kathryn E. Green & William M. Adams Published online: 03 Nov 2014. To cite this article: Kathryn E. Green & William M. Adams (2015) Green grabbing and the dynamics of local-level engagement... with neoliberalization in Tanzania's wildlife management areas, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 42:1, 97-117, DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2014.967686 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2014.967686 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Taylor & Francis makes...

Green, Kathryn E.; Adams, William M.

2014-11-03

251

Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Wooste?s scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over smaller fires with fewer observations yields unstable results due to undersampling issues and uncertainty in the start and end time of the fire events. Options for mitigating these issues using ancillary data such as fire weather information are discussed.

Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

2013-04-01

252

Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?  

PubMed Central

Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a resource constrained health system where church-run health facilities are vital in the provision of health care in rural areas and where patients tend to prefer these services. In order to ensure equity in distribution of qualified health workers in Tanzania, a national regulation and legislation of the pension schemes is required. PMID:22480347

2012-01-01

253

Surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine associated Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 gene polymorphisms in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance to anti-malarials is a major public health problem worldwide. After deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) there have been reports of reduced sensitivity to ACT by malaria parasites in South-East Asia. In Tanzania, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) is the recommended first-line drug in treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study surveyed the distribution of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased parasite tolerance to ALu, in Tanzania. Methods A total of 687 Plasmodium falciparum positive dried blood spots on filter paper and rapid diagnostic test strips collected by finger pricks from patients attending health facilities in six regions of Tanzania mainland between June 2010 and August 2011 were used. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to detect Pfmdr1 SNPs N86Y, Y184F and D1246Y. Results There were variations in the distribution of Pfmdr1 polymorphisms among regions. Tanga region had exceptionally high prevalence of mutant alleles, while Mbeya had the highest prevalence of wild type alleles. The haplotype YFY was exclusively most prevalent in Tanga (29.6%) whereas the NYD haplotype was the most prevalent in all other regions. Excluding Tanga and Mbeya, four, most common Pfmdr1 haplotypes did not vary between the remaining four regions (?2 =?2.3, p =?0.512). The NFD haplotype was the second most prevalent haplotype in all regions, ranging from 17% - 26%. Conclusion This is the first country-wide survey on Pfmdr1 mutations associated with ACT resistance. Distribution of individual Pfmdr1 mutations at codons 86, 184 and 1246 varies throughout Tanzanian regions. There is a general homogeneity in distribution of common Pfmdr1 haplotypes reflecting strict implementation of ALu policy in Tanzania with overall prevalence of NFD haplotype ranging from 17 to 26% among other haplotypes. With continuation of ALu as first-line drug this haplotype is expected to keep rising, thus there is need for continued pharmacovigilance studies to monitor any delayed parasite clearance by the drug. PMID:25007802

2014-01-01

254

Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23256530

2012-01-01

255

Costs of Inaction on Maternal Mortality: Qualitative Evidence of the Impacts of Maternal Deaths on Living Children in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the interconnectedness of maternal deaths and impacts on children, beyond infants, or the mechanisms through which this interconnectedness is established. A study was conducted in rural Tanzania to provide qualitative insight regarding how maternal mortality affects index as well as other living children and to identify shared structural and social factors that foster high levels of maternal mortality and child vulnerabilities. Methods and Findings Adult family members of women who died due to maternal causes (N?=?45) and key stakeholders (N?=?35) participated in in-depth interviews. Twelve focus group discussions were also conducted (N?=?83) among community leaders in three rural regions of Tanzania. Findings highlight the widespread impact of a woman’s death on her children’s health, education, and economic status, and, by inference, the roles that women play within their families in rural Tanzanian communities. Conclusions The full costs of failing to address preventable maternal mortality include intergenerational impacts on the nutritional status, health, and education of children, as well as the economic capacity of families. When setting priorities in a resource-poor, high maternal mortality country, such as Tanzania, the far-reaching effects that reducing maternal deaths can have on families and communities, as well as women’s own lives, should be considered. PMID:23990971

Yamin, Alicia Ely; Boulanger, Vanessa M.; Falb, Kathryn L.; Shuma, Jane; Leaning, Jennifer

2013-01-01

256

Reforms: a quest for efficiency or an opportunity for vested interests’? a case study of pharmaceutical policy reforms in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Regulation of the pharmaceutical sector is a challenging task for most governments in the developing countries. In Tanzania, this task falls under the Food and Drugs Authority and the Pharmacy Council. In 2010, the Pharmacy Council spearheaded policy reforms in the pharmaceutical sector aimed at taking over the control of the regulation of the business of pharmacy from the Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority. This study provides a critical analysis of these reforms. Methods The study employed a qualitative case-study design. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and document reviews. Data was analyzed thematically using a policy triangle framework. The analysis was done manually. Results The reforms adopted an incremental model of public policy-making and the process was characterized by lobbying for political support, negotiations and bargaining between the interest groups. These negotiations were largely centred on vested interests and not on the impact of the reforms on the efficiency of pharmaceutical regulations in the country. Stakeholders from the micro and meso levels were minimally involved in the policy reforms. Conclusion Recent pharmaceutical regulation reforms in Tanzania were overshadowed by vested interests, displacing a critical analysis of optimal policy options that have the potential to increase efficiency in the regulation of the business of pharmacy. Politics influenced decision-making at different levels of the reform process. PMID:23849334

2013-01-01

257

Health worker motivation in the context of HIV care and treatment challenges in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. The HIV pandemic has placed additional strain on health service provision through the extra burden of increased testing and counselling, treating opportunistic infections and providing antiretroviral treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the challenges generated by HIV care and treatment and their impact on health worker motivation in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with health workers across the range of health care professions in health facilities in two high HIV-prevalence districts of Mbeya Region, Tanzania. A qualitative framework analysis was adopted for data analysis. Results The negative impact of HIV-related challenges on health worker motivation was confirmed by this study. Training seminars and workshops related to HIV contributed to the shortage of health workers in the facilities. Lower status workers were frequently excluded from training and were more severely affected by the consequent increase in workload as seminars were usually attended by higher status professionals who controlled access. Constant and consistent complaints by clients have undermined health workers' expectations of trust and recognition. Health workers were forced to take responsibility for dealing with problems arising from organisational inefficiencies within the health system. Conclusion HIV-related challenges undermine motivation among health workers in Mbeya, Tanzania with the burden falling most heavily on lower status workers. Strained relations between health workers and the community they serve, further undermine motivation of health workers. PMID:21992700

2011-01-01

258

Rice cultivation in the farming systems of Sukumaland, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates options for sustainable rice cultivation and general agricultural development in the Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in northwestern Tanzania, often called Sukumaland due to the predominance of Wasukuma people. Generally Sukumaland has a semi-arid climate; agriculture is constrained by unreliable and low rainfall. In the past fifty years the population density has doubled in most parts. This has

H. C. C. Meertens

1999-01-01

259

Social Learning for Women's Emancipation in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's exclusion from participating fully in their economic, social and political arena has received considerable attention by researchers and women activists. Despite various efforts to fight against the existing inequities, the situation of women in various parts of the world reflects their subordination. This article presents results of a study which aimed at assisting local women in rural Tanzania, who

Christine Mhina

260

The Past, Present and Future of Domestic Equines in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Equines are minor species in Tanzania’s array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

WILSON, R. Trevor

2013-01-01

261

SMALL MAMMALS COLLECTED IN THE UDZUNGWA MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mammals were sampled in the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania, during 1995 and 1996. Twenty-four species, representing 16 genera were recorded for three orders: Insectivora, Chiroptera and Rodentia. Identifications and natural history information are presented for this poorly known fauna from a unique Eastern Arc Mountains habitat.

William T. Stanley; Alfeo M. Nikundiwe; Fatina A. Mturi; Philip M. Kihaule; Patricia D. Moehlman

2005-01-01

262

Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

Johnson, Megan Patricia

2011-01-01

263

www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia  

E-print Network

1 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia Development and Energy in Africa (DEA) Regional Workshop, Arusha, 16-18 Oct. 2007 #12;2 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Foundation, more recently by Sida. · supported enterprise development in the five target countries ­ Ghana

264

Investigating Motivations for Women's Skin Bleaching in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…

Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol

2011-01-01

265

Pliocene footprints in the Laetolil Beds at Laetoli, northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent excavation of the tuffs of the Laetolil Beds in Tanzania has revealed the presence of a large variety of footprints from the Pliocene. Many of these prints can be correlated with fossilised remains of Pliocene animals found in the same area.

M. D. Leakey; R. L. Hay

1979-01-01

266

Contextualized IT Education in Tanzania: Beyond Standard IT Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tumaini University at Iringa, Tanzania, started a new B.Sc. program in IT in 2007. In the course of planning and implementation of the program, we found out that standard ACM/IEEE IT curricula are not adequate for an IT program in a poor, developing country. The standard curricula describe, in detail, the competences that IT specialists in…

Tedre, Matti; Bangu, Nicholas; Nyagava, Seth I.

2009-01-01

267

Evaluating a School-Based Trachoma Curriculum in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trachoma remains a public health problem in a number of sub-Saharan Africa countries; behavioral change and environmental improvements are cornerstones of prevention efforts. Evidence of successful health education are few in Africa. Health education efforts through primary schools have recently been developed and adopted in Tanzania. We evaluated…

Lewallen, Susan; Massae, Patrick; Tharaney, Manisha; Somba, Margareth; Geneau, Robert; MacArthur, Chad; Courtright, Paul

2008-01-01

268

The economic potential of rural water supply projects in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale behind the decision to invest in the development of rural water supply in Tanzania is discussed. It is shown that theoretically economic as well as social benefits are supposed to influence investment decisions. In practice, however, choice of projects to be developed are made solely on the basis of social rather than economic factors. Economic potential of such

Mark R. Mujwahuzi

1984-01-01

269

DROUGHT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS IN MAIZE PRODUCTION IN NORTHERN TANZANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern zone of Tanzania is one of the major maize producing areas of the country. Population increase is pushing maize production into marginal areas with little and unreliable rainfall. Irrigation, which could support maize production under these conditions, is underdeveloped and expensive to operate by the poor communities. Options available to improve maize production to feed the rising population

T. E. Mmbaga; C. Y. Lyamchai

270

Debt Relief and Growth: A study of Zambia and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper discusses some issues on how,to evaluate the impact of HIPC debt relief in the cases of Tanzania and Zambia using two computable,general equilibrium models. Within our relatively simple model framework, we found that the macroeconomic impact of debt relief is modest. One reason for this relatively modest impact is that the annual injection of additional resources relative

Arne Bigsten; Jorgen Levin; Hakan Persson

2001-01-01

271

Sweetpotato Seed Systems in Uganda, Tanzania, and Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys were made of the seed systems used in Uganda, Tanzania, and Rwanda and to investigate the reasons underlying them. Along the equator in Uganda, where rainy seasons are evenly spaced and occur twice a year, vine cuttings from mature plants only are used as planting material. Where there is a long dry season, the seed system includes a diversity

Sam Namanda; Richard Gibson; Kirimi Sindi

2011-01-01

272

WTO and Sustainable Seed Multiplication Programmes in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fellowes A. Mwaisela looks at the negative impact of trade liberalization and structural adjustment measures on food and seed security in Tanzania. He argues that community-based seed multiplication programmes can be a sustainable strategy to foster adoption of improved seed varieties, improve food security at the household level, empower small farmers and give them access to locally adopted crops at

Fellowes A Mwaisela

2000-01-01

273

The Control of Rinderpest in Tanzania between 1997 and 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 1997, Tanzania requested international assistance against rinderpest on the grounds that the virus had probably entered the country from southern Kenya. Over the next few months, a variety of attempts were made to determine the extent of the incursion by searching for serological and clinical evidence of the whereabouts of the virus. At the clinical level, these attempts

W. P. Taylor; P. L. Roeder; M. M. Rweyemamu; J. N. Melewas; P. Majuva; R. T. Kimaro; J. N. Mollel; B. J. Mtei; P. Wambura; J. Anderson; P. B. Rossiter; R. Kock; T. Melengeya; R. Van den Ende

2002-01-01

274

Water scarcity, property regimes and irrigation management in Sonjo, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the dynamics of property rights in irrigation water in Sonjo, Tanzania. It analyses an unsuccessful attempt by the ruling political group to change the institutional arrangements of water control, to serve better their private goals. This example shows that not all internal institutional innovations in the field of utilising natural resources lead to increased efficiency of the

Tomasz Potkanski; William M. Adams

1998-01-01

275

The state of renewable energy harnessing in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the state of renewable energy development in Tanzania and biomass energy supply and consumption. It also highlights the various levels of renewable energy programmes in the country and the Government strategy to improve renewable energy production and utilization technologies. A number of problems hindering the development of renewable energy technologies have been identified and discussed. Biomass accounts

Mohammed S. Sheya; Salvatory J. S. Mushi

2000-01-01

276

Wealth, risk and activity choice: cattle in Western Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imperfect credit markets force households to use their savings for investment. Profitable activities often require lumpy investments, limiting entry by poorer households, resulting in increasing welfare differences. In Tanzania, cattle are a profitable but lumpy investment and a liquid asset for consumption smoothing. Richer households own substantial cattle herds, while poorer households specialize in low return, low risk activities. A

Stefan Dercon

1998-01-01

277

The Role of Vernacularization in Tanzania: Swahili as Political Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the role of Swahili in Tanzania looks at its elaboration as an indigenous language, involving both internal modification of the written language and the extension of its institutionalized domains of use. Because of its role as the lingua franca of the independence movement, Swahili became a vehicle for national political…

Russell, Joan

278

School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

2012-01-01

279

Classroom Discourse and Discursive Practices in Higher Education in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper problematises student writing as social practice from the perspective of lecturers' discursive practices. The paper uses data from a major study at a higher learning institution in Tanzania to explore lecturers' discursive practices and familiarity with the university orders of discourse including English medium of instruction, in…

Mohamed, Hashim Issa; Banda, Felix

2008-01-01

280

Resistance to Information Technology in Public Procurement in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizations have become more dependent on information technology (IT) in the 21st century. But IT implementation and use is resisted in certain sectors of Tanzania, particularly in government-run enterprises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and consequences of resistance to IT development and implementation in the…

Nditi, Christopher

2010-01-01

281

Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

1996-12-31

282

Child Sexual Abuse: Community Concerns in Urban Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of hopelessness, "lack of…

Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

2011-01-01

283

Engaged Learning and Peace Corps Service in Tanzania: An Autoethnography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Peace Corps Masters International program offers students the opportunity to combine their Peace Corps service with their master's education. This article demonstrates how classroom learning strengthened the author's Peace Corps service in Tanzania, which in turn strengthened her master's thesis. Peace Corps supports an approach…

Darling, Brianna; Thorp, Laurie; Chung, Kimberly

2014-01-01

284

Income portfolios in rural Ethiopia and Tanzania: Choices and constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyses the different income portfolios of households using survey data from rural Ethiopia and rural Tanzania. It suggests that the different portfolios held by households cannot be explained by their behaviour towards risk as is usually suggested. It is better explained by differences in ability, location, and in access to credit. A logit analysis of households with different

Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan

1996-01-01

285

Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…

Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant

2012-01-01

286

Literacy and Power--The Cases of Tanzania and Rwanda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper it is claimed that the relation between literacy and power is complex. What people do with literacy has effects on power relations but literacy is not democratic "per se". Drawing from two cases from Tanzania and Rwanda it is argued that plans for adult education and literacy education should consider the perspectives of target…

Wedin, Asa

2008-01-01

287

Etiologies of Autism in a Case-Series from Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most autism has a genetic cause although post-encephalitis cases are reported. In a case-series (N = 20) from Tanzania, 14 met research criteria for autism. Three (M:F = 1:2) had normal development to age 22, 35, and 42 months, with onset of autism upon recovery from severe malaria, attended by prolonged high fever, convulsions, and in one case…

Mankoski, Raymond E.; Collins, Martha; Ndosi, Noah K.; Mgalla, Ella H.; Sarwatt, Veronica V.; Folstein, Susan E.

2006-01-01

288

Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf ?13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific ?13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ?29 and ?33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ?29 and ?33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ?29 and ?33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and ?13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2013-12-01

289

Human Genetics ISSN 0340-6717  

E-print Network

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, 68 100 Alexandroupoli, Greece University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania V. G. Manolopoulos Laboratory of Pharmacology, Medical School, Democritus

Kidd, Kenneth

290

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION A global view of the OCA2-HERC2 region and pigmentation  

E-print Network

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, 68 100 Alexandroupoli, Greece University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania V. G. Manolopoulos Laboratory of Pharmacology, Medical School, Democritus

Paschou, Peristera

291

Place matters: multilevel investigation of HIV distribution in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the extent to which the regional and neighborhood distribution of HIV in Tanzania is caused by the differential distribution of individual correlates and risk factors. Methods Nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 12 522 women and men aged 15–49 years from the 2003–2004 Tanzanian AIDS Indicator Survey. Three-level multilevel binary logistic regression models were specified to estimate the relative contribution of regions and neighborhoods to the variation in HIV seroprevalence. Results Spatial distribution of individual correlates (and risk factors) of HIV do not explain the neighborhood and regional variation in HIV seroprevalence. Neighborhoods and regions accounted for approximately 14 and 6% of the total variation in HIV. HIV prevalence ranged from 1.8% (Kigoma) to 6.7% (Iringa) even after adjusting for the compositional make-up of these regions. An inverse association was observed between log odds of being HIV positive and neighborhood poverty [odds ratio (OR) 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09–0.61] and regional poverty (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95–0.99). Conclusion Our study provides evidence for independent contextual variations in HIV, above and beyond that which can be ascribed to geographical variations in individual-level correlates and risk factors. We emphasize the need to adopt both a group-based and a place-based approach, as opposed to the dominant high-risk group approach, for understanding the epidemiology of HIV as well as for developing HIV intervention activities. PMID:18356604

Msisha, Wezi M.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Earls, Felton J.; Subramanian, S.V.

2009-01-01

292

Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multiple insurance funds serving different population groups may compromise equity due to differential revenue raising capacity and an unequal distribution of high risk members among the funds. This occurs when the funds exist without mechanisms in place to promote income and risk cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Methods Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Results There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status to CHF households, but a lower concentration of identified risk factors. Conclusion Mechanisms for broader risk spreading and cross-subsidisation across the funds are necessary for the promotion of equity. These include risk equalisation to adjust for differential risk distribution and revenue raising capacity of the funds. Expansion of CHF coverage is equally important, by addressing non-financial barriers to CHF enrolment to encourage wealthy non-members to join, as well as subsidised membership for the poorest. PMID:25574326

Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis

2014-01-01

293

Skills of general health workers in primary eye care in Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Primary eye care (PEC) in sub-Saharan Africa usually means the diagnosis, treatment, and referral of eye conditions at the most basic level of the health system by primary health care workers (PHCWs), who receive minimal training in eye care as part of their curricula. We undertook this study with the aim to evaluate basic PEC knowledge and ophthalmologic skills of PHCWs, as well as the factors associated with these in selected districts in Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania. Methods A standardized (26 items) questionnaire was administered to PHCWs in all primary health care (PHC) facilities of 2 districts in each country. Demographic information was collected and an examination aimed to measure competency in 5 key areas (recognition and management of advanced cataract, conjunctivitis, presbyopia, and severe trauma plus demonstrated ability to measure visual acuity) was administered. Results Three-hundred-forty-three PHCWs were enrolled (100, 107, and 136 in Tanzania, Kenya, and Malawi, respectively). The competency scores of PHCW varied by area, with 55.7%, 61.2%, 31.2%, and 66.1% scoring at the competency level in advanced cataract, conjunctivitis, presbyopia, and trauma, respectively. Only 8.2% could measure visual acuity. Combining all scores, only 9 (2.6%) demonstrated competence in all areas. Conclusion The current skills of health workers in PEC are low, with a large per cent below the basic competency level. There is an urgent need to reconsider the expectations of PEC and the content of training.

2014-01-01

294

AIDS education in Tanzania: promoting risk reduction among primary school children.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an education program in Tanzania designed to reduce children's risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to improve their tolerance of and care for people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHODS: A randomized controlled community trial including baseline and 12-month follow-up surveys was employed. Public primary schools in the Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions of Tanzania were stratified according to location and randomly assigned to intervention (n = 6) or comparison (n = 12) conditions. Of the 1063 sixth-grade students (average age: 13.6 years) who participated at baseline, 814 participated in the follow-up survey. RESULTS: At follow-up, statistically significant effects favoring the intervention group were observed for exposure to AIDS information and communication, AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward people with AIDS, and subjective norms and behavioral intentions toward having sexual intercourse. A consistent positive but nonsignificant trend was seen for attitudes toward having sexual intercourse and for initiation of sexual intercourse during the previous year (7% vs 17%). CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible and effective to train local teachers and health workers to provide HIV/AIDS education to Tanzanian primary school children. PMID:9431279

Klepp, K I; Ndeki, S S; Leshabari, M T; Hannan, P J; Lyimo, B A

1997-01-01

295

Distribution and spread of pyrethroid and DDT resistance among the Anopheles gambiae complex in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The development of insecticide resistance is a threat to the control of malaria in Africa. We report the findings of a national survey carried out in Tanzania in 2011 to monitor the susceptibility of malaria vectors to pyrethroid, organophosphate, carbamate and DDT insecticides, and compare these findings with those identified in 2004 and 2010. Standard World Health Organization (WHO) methods were used to detect knock-down and mortality rates in wild female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) collected from 14 sentinel districts. Diagnostic doses of the pyrethroids deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin, the carbamate propoxur, the organophosphate fenitrothion and the organochlorine DDT were used. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to permethrin in Muleba, where a mortality rate of 11% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6-19%] was recorded, Muheza (mortality rate of 75%, 95% CI 66-83%), Moshi and Arumeru (mortality rates of 74% in both). Similarly, resistance was reported to lambdacyhalothrin in Muleba, Muheza, Moshi and Arumeru (mortality rates of 31-82%), and to deltamethrin in Muleba, Moshi and Muheza (mortality rates of 28-75%). Resistance to DDT was reported in Muleba. No resistance to the carbamate propoxur or the organophosphate fenitrothion was observed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. is becoming resistant to pyrethoids and DDT in several parts of Tanzania. This has coincided with the scaling up of vector control measures. Resistance may impair the effectiveness of these interventions and therefore demands close monitoring and the adoption of a resistance management strategy. PMID:24192019

Kabula, B; Tungu, P; Malima, R; Rowland, M; Minja, J; Wililo, R; Ramsan, M; McElroy, P D; Kafuko, J; Kulkarni, M; Protopopoff, N; Magesa, S; Mosha, F; Kisinza, W

2014-09-01

296

The Burden of Rabies in Tanzania and Its Impact on Local Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Rabies remains a major public health threat in many parts of the world and is responsible for an estimated 55,000 human deaths annually. The burden of rabies is estimated to be around US$20 million in Africa, with the highest financial expenditure being the cost of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, these calculations may be substantial underestimates because the costs to households of coping with endemic rabies have not been investigated. We therefore aimed to estimate the household costs, health-seeking behaviour, coping strategies, and outcomes of exposure to rabies in rural and urban communities in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Extensive investigative interviews were used to estimate the incidence of human deaths and bite exposures. Questionnaires with bite victims and their families were used to investigate health-seeking behaviour and costs (medical and non-medical costs) associated with exposure to rabies. We calculated that an average patient in rural Tanzania, where most people live on less than US$1 per day, would need to spend over US$100 to complete WHO recommended PEP schedules. High costs and frequent shortages of PEP led to poor compliance with PEP regimens, delays in presentation to health facilities, and increased risk of death. Conclusion The true costs of obtaining PEP were twice as high as those previously reported from Africa and should be considered in re-evaluations of the burden of rabies. PMID:24244767

Sambo, Maganga; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ferguson, Heather; Lembo, Tiziana; Simon, Cleophas; Urassa, Honorati; Hampson, Katie

2013-01-01

297

Essential medicines in Tanzania: does the new delivery system improve supply and accountability?  

PubMed Central

Objective: Assess whether reform in the Tanzanian medicines delivery system from a central ‘push' kit system to a decentralized ‘pull' Integrated Logistics System (ILS) has improved medicines accountability. Methods: Rufiji District in Tanzania was used as a case study. Data on medicines ordered and patients seen were compiled from routine information at six public health facilities in 1999 under the kit system and in 2009 under the ILS. Three medicines were included for comparison: an antimalarial, anthelmintic and oral rehydration salts (ORS). Results: The quality of the 2009 data was hampered by incorrect quantification calculations for orders, especially for antimalarials. Between the periods 1999 and 2009, the percent of unaccounted antimalarials fell from 60 to 18%, while the percent of unaccounted anthelmintic medicines went from 82 to 71%. Accounting for ORS, on the other hand, did not improve as the unaccounted amounts increased from 64 to 81% during the same period. Conclusions: The ILS has not adequately addressed accountability concerns seen under the kit system due to a combination of governance and system-design challenges. These quantification weaknesses are likely to have contributed to the frequent periods of antimalarial stock-out experienced in Tanzania since 2009. We propose regular reconciliation between the health information system and the medicines delivery system, thereby improving visibility and guiding interventions to increase the availability of essential medicines. PMID:25013720

Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Cowley, Peter; Kasale, Harun; Mbuya, Conrad; Reid, Graham; de Savigny, Don

2014-01-01

298

Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae identified in estuaries of Tanzania using PCR techniques.  

PubMed

The current study assessed the occurrence of the Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 in environmental samples along salinity gradients in three selected estuaries of Tanzania both through culture independent methods and by cultured bacteria. Occurrence of V. cholerae was determined by PCR targeting the V. cholerae outer membrane protein gene ompW. Furthermore, the presence of toxigenic strains and serogroups O1 and O139 was determined using multiplex PCR with specific primers targeting the cholera toxin gene subunit A, ctxA, and serotype specific primers, O1-rfb and O139-rfb, respectively. Results showed that V. cholerae occurred in approximately 10% (n = 185) of both the environmental samples and isolated bacteria. Eight of the bacteria isolates (n = 43) were confirmed as serogroup O1 while one belonged to serogroup O139, the first reported identification of this epidemic strain in East African coastal waters. All samples identified as serogroup O1 or O139 and a number of non-O1/O139 strains were ctxA positive. This study provides in situ evidence of the presence of pathogenic V. cholerae O1 and O139 and a number of V. cholerae non-O1/O139 that carry the cholera toxin gene in estuaries along the coast of Tanzania. PMID:25743072

Dalusi, Lucy; Lyimo, Thomas J; Lugomela, Charles; Hosea, Ken M M; Sjöling, Sara

2015-03-01

299

Essential medicines in Tanzania: does the new delivery system improve supply and accountability?  

PubMed

Objective: Assess whether reform in the Tanzanian medicines delivery system from a central 'push' kit system to a decentralized 'pull' Integrated Logistics System (ILS) has improved medicines accountability. Methods: Rufiji District in Tanzania was used as a case study. Data on medicines ordered and patients seen were compiled from routine information at six public health facilities in 1999 under the kit system and in 2009 under the ILS. Three medicines were included for comparison: an antimalarial, anthelmintic and oral rehydration salts (ORS). Results: The quality of the 2009 data was hampered by incorrect quantification calculations for orders, especially for antimalarials. Between the periods 1999 and 2009, the percent of unaccounted antimalarials fell from 60 to 18%, while the percent of unaccounted anthelmintic medicines went from 82 to 71%. Accounting for ORS, on the other hand, did not improve as the unaccounted amounts increased from 64 to 81% during the same period. Conclusions: The ILS has not adequately addressed accountability concerns seen under the kit system due to a combination of governance and system-design challenges. These quantification weaknesses are likely to have contributed to the frequent periods of antimalarial stock-out experienced in Tanzania since 2009. We propose regular reconciliation between the health information system and the medicines delivery system, thereby improving visibility and guiding interventions to increase the availability of essential medicines. PMID:25013720

Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Cowley, Peter; Kasale, Harun; Mbuya, Conrad; Reid, Graham; de Savigny, Don

2014-02-01

300

Who Sinned? Parents' Knowledge of the Causes of Disability in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at finding out from parents what they knew to be the causes of their children's disabilities. One hundred and twenty six parents from four regions, namely Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Kilimanjaro and Morogoro were involved in this study. Data was collected through interview, narratives and observation. It was obvious from the findings…

Tungaraza, Frida D.

2012-01-01

301

The Archaeology and Early Peoples of the Highlands of Kenya and Northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dr. Sutton is now a Lecturer at University College, Dar es Salaam, and was formerly a Research Student of the Institute, when he carried out extensive field-work mainly in the western highlands of Kenya. In this important article, based largely on that work, he reviews our knowledge of the Late Stone Age, Iron Age, and histories of the peoples of

J. E. G. Sutton

1966-01-01

302

Potential Climate Change Impacts on Direct Economic Values From Wildlife in the Kilombero Ramsar Site, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tanzania is one of the world’s leading nations in terms of wildlife conservation, with rich and diverse wildlife resources.\\u000a Game controlled areas in Tanzania are used for wildlife conservation and most of them were set aside when human populations\\u000a were low and global climate was stable. Under the climate change scenario realised for Tanzania for the next few decades,\\u000a a

Siima Bakengesa; Pantaleo Munishi; Stale Navrud

303

Nutritive value of multipurpose tree and shrubs fed to cattle and goats in the highland areas of Tanzania  

E-print Network

of Tanzania MN Shem, AE Kimambo, BH Jumbe Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, PO Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania Samples of the different shrubs were collected from five

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Design Reality Gaps in Open Source Information Systems Development: An Action Research Study of Education and Healthcare Systems in Tanzania  

E-print Network

of Education and Healthcare Systems in Tanzania by Juma Hemed Lungo Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment me with such conducive fieldwork case studies in Tanzania. Specifically I would like to show my

Sahay, Sundeep

305

Comparing the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Job satisfaction is an important determinant of health worker motivation, retention, and performance, all of which are critical to improving the functioning of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. A number of small-scale surveys have measured the job satisfaction and intention to leave of individual health worker cadres in different settings, but there are few multi-country and multi-cadre comparative studies. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a stratified cluster sample of 2,220 health workers, 564 from Tanzania, 939 from Malawi, and 717 from South Africa. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic information, a 10-item job satisfaction scale, and one question on intention to leave. Multiple regression was used to identify significant predictors of job satisfaction and intention to leave. Results There were statistically significant differences in job satisfaction and intention to leave between the three countries. Approximately 52.1% of health workers in South Africa were satisfied with their jobs compared to 71% from Malawi and 82.6% from Tanzania (?2=140.3, p<0.001). 18.8% of health workers in Tanzania and 26.5% in Malawi indicated that they were actively seeking employment elsewhere, compared to 41.4% in South Africa (?2=83.5, p<0.001). The country differences were confirmed by multiple regression. The study also confirmed that job satisfaction is statistically related to intention to leave. Conclusions We have shown differences in the levels of job satisfaction and intention to leave between different groups of health workers from Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Our results caution against generalising about the effectiveness of interventions in different contexts and highlight the need for less standardised and more targeted HRH strategies than has been practised to date. PMID:23364090

Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Maseko, Fresier; Chirwa, Maureen; Mwisongo, Aziza; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles

2013-01-01

306

An analysis of pre-service family planning teaching in clinical and nursing education in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Promoting family planning (FP) is a key strategy for health, economic and population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa, with one of the lowest contraceptive prevalence and highest fertility rates globally, contributes half of the global maternal deaths. Improving the quality of FP services, including enhancing pre-service FP teaching, has the potential to improve contraceptive prevalence. In efforts to improve the quality of FP services in Tanzania, including provider skills, this study sought to identify gaps in pre-service FP teaching and suggest opportunities for strengthening the training. Methods Data were collected from all medical schools and a representative sample of pre-service nursing, Assistant Medical Officer (AMO), Clinical Officer (CO) and assistant CO schools in mainland Tanzania. Teachers responsible for FP teaching at the schools were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Observations on availability of teaching resources and other evidence of FP teaching and evaluation were documented. Relevant approved teaching documents were assessed for their suitability as competency-based FP teaching tools against predefined criteria. Quantitative data were analyzed using EPI Info 6 and qualitative data were manually analyzed using content analysis. Results A total of 35 pre-service schools were evaluated for FP teaching including 30 technical education and five degree offering schools. Of the assessed 11 pre-service curricula, only one met the criteria for suitability of FP teaching. FP teaching was typically theoretical with only 22.9% of all the schools having systems in place to produce graduates who could skillfully provide FP methods. Across schools, the target skills were the same level of competence and skewed toward short acting methods of contraception. Only 23.3% (n?=?7) of schools had skills laboratories, 76% (n?=?22) were either physically connected or linked to FP clinics. None of the degree providing schools practiced FP at its own teaching hospital. Teachers were concerned with poor practical exposure and lack of teaching material. Conclusions Pre-service FP teaching in Tanzania is theoretical, poorly guided, and skewed toward short acting methods; a majority of the schools are unable to produce competent FP service providers. Pre-service FP training should be strengthened with more focus on practical skills. PMID:25016391

2014-01-01

307

Loss of phosphorus from soil in semi-arid northern Tanzania as a result of cropping: evidence from sequential  

E-print Network

Loss of phosphorus from soil in semi-arid northern Tanzania as a result of cropping: evidence from-arid northern Tanzania, the native woodland is being rapidly cleared and replaced by low input agriculture Tanzania, the indigenous tropical woodland is rapidly being replaced by low input agriculture. In addition

Lehmann, Johannes

308

On the formation of an inverted weathering profile on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Buried paleosol or groundwater weathering?  

E-print Network

On the formation of an inverted weathering profile on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Buried paleosol on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania. The high field strength elements Nb and Ta were weathering; Tanzania 1. Introduction Quantifying the rate of continental weathering is of fundamental

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

309

The identification, diversity and prevalence of trypanosomes in field caught tsetse in Tanzania using ITS-1 primers and  

E-print Network

The identification, diversity and prevalence of trypanosomes in field caught tsetse in Tanzania Research Institute, P.O. Box 1026, Tanga, Tanzania Received 15 April 2007; received in revised form 26 July-scale field studies of trypanosome-infected tsetse in Tanzania in the National Parks of Tarangire

Tyler, Charles

310

Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.  

PubMed

This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania. PMID:23829829

Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

2013-01-01

311

Epidemiology and control of human schistosomiasis in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

In Tanzania, the first cases of schistosomiasis were reported in the early 19th century. Since then, various studies have reported prevalences of up to 100% in some areas. However, for many years, there have been no sustainable control programmes and systematic data from observational and control studies are very limited in the public domain. To cover that gap, the present article reviews the epidemiology, malacology, morbidity, and the milestones the country has made in efforts to control schistosomiasis and discusses future control approaches. The available evidence indicates that, both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are still highly endemic in Tanzania and cause significant morbidity.Mass drug administration using praziquantel, currently used as a key intervention measure, has not been successful in decreasing prevalence of infection. There is therefore an urgent need to revise the current approach for the successful control of the disease. Clearly, these need to be integrated control measures. PMID:23192005

2012-01-01

312

Appetite sensations in pregnancy among agropastoral women in rural Tanzania.  

PubMed

Women all over the globe report physical and appetite sensations in early pregnancy, and this study contributes to this growing literature by reporting on the appetite sensations experienced by pregnant women from rural Tanzania. Appetite changes associated with 545 pregnancies were compiled from surveys conducted to report on the prevalence of appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, joint pain, cravings, aversions, and pica experienced by agropastoral women from rural north-central Tanzania. In addition to these symptoms, specific craved and aversive food groups are described. Statistical associations among appetite sensations, NVP, and birthweight are tested. The only symptom associated with a lower average birth weight for newborns was vomiting. In addition to investigating micronutrient content and chemical properties of specific food and non-food items, future research should include assessing relationships among various appetite sensations and short- and long-term health outcomes for both the mother and child. PMID:22881359

Patil, Crystal L

2012-01-01

313

The Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian shear belt in Tanzania: geochronology and structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ubendian belt is a linear, NW-SE trending orogenic belt in western Tanzania. It is part of a larger Palaeoproterozoic orogen, developed around the west and south-western margin of the Archaean Tanzanian craton. The Ubendian Belt has experienced several periods of reactivation since the Palaeoproterozoic, acting as a zone of displacement during successive orogenic and rift-forming events. The Ubendian Belt

J. L. LENOIR; J-P Liégeois; K Theunissen; J Klerkx

1994-01-01

314

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in central Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based survey of the prevalence of major blinding disorders was conducted in three villages in central Tanzania. Overall, 1827 people overthe age of seven years old were examined. In those age seven and older, the prevalence of bilateral blindness (visual acuity in the better eye of <3\\/60) was 1.26% and monocular blindness (visual acuity of <3\\/60 in one eye)

Peter A. Rapoza; Sheila K. West; Sidney J. Katala; Hugh R. Taylor

1991-01-01

315

FORESTRY, GOVERNANCE AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

RESOURCES AND TOURISM DPG Tanzania Development Partners Group http Development Partners Group / Ministry of Natural Resources of Tourism as the copyright owner. The views Development Partners Group / Ministry of Natural Resources of Tourism, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 252pp. Key

316

Tanzania at the Turn of the Century: Background Papers and Statistics. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents lessons from Tanzania's development experience of the past four decades, with emphasis on the period since the last report (1996), and assesses the imperatives for higher sustained growth and better livelihood for its citizens in the future. The background papers review and assess Tanzania's actual growth and poverty reduction…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

317

Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

Mgaza, Olyvia

318

Implementing Educational Policies in Tanzania. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 86. Africa Technical Department Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the three East African British colonies (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania), Tanzania was the least well off at the time of independence in 1961. At that time, only 16,691 students were enrolled in secondary schools, and all general education at higher levels was provided outside the country. Thus, the goals of post-independence educational policy…

Galabawa, C. J.

319

Cabbage Production in Tanzania: Challenges Faced by Smallholder Farmers in the Management of Black Rot Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, has increasingly become the major constraint to sustained production of cabbage in Tanzania. On-farm surveys were carried out in northern Tanzania to gain an insight on cabbage production practices in relation to the prevalence of black rot. The studies revealed a rapid increase in cabbage acreage characterized by inappropriate cultural practices and

Said M. S. Massomo; Robert B. Mabagala; Carmen N. Mortensen; John Hockenhull; Ignas S. Swai

2005-01-01

320

Seed market liberalization, hybrid maize adoption, and impacts on smallholder farmers in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s, liberalization of the seed market in Tanzania has attracted several foreign companies that now market maize hybrids in the country. In this article, we analyze the impacts of proprietary hybrids on maize yields, production, and household living standards. We build on a recent survey of smallholder maize farmers in two zones of Tanzania. Hybrid adoption rates

Jonas Kathage; Matin Qaim; Menale Kassie; Bekele A. Shiferaw

2012-01-01

321

Performance of Andean common bean under low fertility stress in Tanzania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low soil fertility is a limiting factor for bean production in East Africa. In Tanzania low available N and P soils are widespread. Average bean yields in Tanzania are around 500 kg/ha although the potential yield under reliable rain-fed conditions is 1500–3000kg/ha, using improved varieties and pro...

322

UPE in Tanzania: SWAP-ing Quality for Quantity--Again?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, Tanzania renewed its 1974 commitment to universal primary education. This paper explores differences in the current policy-formulation context, examining how development discourse and aid practice have shifted the space and scale of public governance in Tanzania, legitimising international agendas and the participation of non-Tanzanians…

Kuder, Jeanette

2005-01-01

323

Upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath Tanzania, east Africa: Implications for the stability of cratonic lithosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assertion of cratonic stability put forward in the model for deep continental structure can be tested by examining upper mantle structure beneath the Tanzania Craton, which lies within a tectonically active region in east Africa. Tomographic inversions of about 1200 teleseismic P and $ travel times indicate that high-velocity lithosphere beneath the Tanzania Craton extends to a depth of

Jeroen Ritsema; Andrew A. Nyblade; Thomas J. Owens; Charles A. Langston; John C. VanDecar

1998-01-01

324

Provision of Pre-Primary Education as a Basic Right in Tanzania: Reflections from Policy Documents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to assess provision of pre-primary education in Tanzania as a basic right through analyses of relevant policy documents. Documents which were published over the past decade were considered, including educational policies, action plans, national papers, the "Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania" documents, strategy documents,…

Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

2010-01-01

325

Standards to Assure Quality in Tertiary Education: The Case of Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information on development of standards in Tanzania which may be of help to training providers in other countries as they seek to improve the quality and standards of their provision. Design/methodology/approach: The need to provide quality assured tertiary qualifications in Tanzania to win both…

Manyaga, Timothy

2008-01-01

326

Academia-Industry-Government Linkages in Tanzania: Trends, Challenges and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzed trends, challenges and prospects of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania. Using case study design, and documentary review to gather the required data, the study sought to answer three research questions: (1) what are the trends of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania?, (2) what are the challenges…

Mpehongwa, Gasper

2013-01-01

327

Early Child Development and Care in Tanzania: Challenges for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much remains unknown about the status of early child development and care in Tanzania. The little information available has never been put together to provide a holistic picture of the progress so far made in this important area. This paper intends to synchronise the information available in Tanzania for the purpose of depicting the country's…

Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

2009-01-01

328

Tanzania and the Problem of the Missing Middle: A Regulatory Reform Case of the United Republic of Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A diagnostic report submitted to the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania in 2004 revealed that 89% of real property\\u000a and 98% of all businesses operate in the extra-legal economy. Data from the second cycle of the Poverty Reduction Strategy\\u000a program shows that about 36% of the population live in conditions of income poverty. A National Development Vision 2025

Bede Lyimo

329

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among young and middle-aged men in urban Mwanza, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  We conducted a health survey to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and explore their socioeconomic\\u000a correlates in a population of young and middle-aged men in the fast-growing city of Mwanza, Tanzania.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Mwanza City among men aged 20–50 years. Anthropometric\\u000a and blood pressure measurements, dietary history, physical activity

Marina Njelekela; Alfa Muhihi; Rose Mpembeni; Zablon Masesa; Kazuya Kitamori; Mari Mori; Norihiro Kato; Jacob Mtabaji; Yukio Yamori

330

Introduction of a portable ultrasound unit into the health services of the Lugufu refugee camp, Kigoma District, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Diagnostic imaging services are scarce in much of the developing world. Ultrasound is a low-cost, safe, and widely applicable\\u000a imaging modality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  We delivered a portable ultrasound machine to the Lugufu refugee camp in Tanzania and conducted a course on its use in order\\u000a to assess the feasibility of introducing this technology into a very low-resource setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted an intensive

David Adler; Katanga Mgalula; Daniel Price; Opal Taylor

2008-01-01

331

Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

Matitu, M.R. [Directorate of Meteorology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

1994-12-31

332

The decentralisation-centralisation dilemma: recruitment and distribution of health workers in remote districts of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The implementation of decentralisation reforms in the health sector of Tanzania started in the 1980s. These reforms were intended to relinquish substantial powers and resources to districts to improve the development of the health sector. Little is known about the impact of decentralisation on recruitment and distribution of health workers at the district level. Reported difficulties in recruiting health workers to remote districts led the Government of Tanzania to partly re-instate central recruitment of health workers in 2006. The effects of this policy change are not yet documented. This study highlights the experiences and challenges associated with decentralisation and the partial re-centralisation in relation to the recruitment and distribution of health workers. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted among informants recruited from five underserved, remote districts of mainland Tanzania. Additional informants were recruited from the central government, the NGO sector, international organisations and academia. A comparison of decentralised and the reinstated centralised systems was carried out in order to draw lessons necessary for improving recruitment, distribution and retention of health workers. Results The study has shown that recruitment of health workers under a decentralised arrangement has not only been characterised by complex bureaucratic procedures, but by severe delays and sometimes failure to get the required health workers. The study also revealed that recruitment of highly skilled health workers under decentralised arrangements may be both very difficult and expensive. Decentralised recruitment was perceived to be more effective in improving retention of the lower cadre health workers within the districts. In contrast, the centralised arrangement was perceived to be more effective both in recruiting qualified staff and balancing their distribution across districts, but poor in ensuring the retention of employees. Conclusion A combination of centralised and decentralised recruitment represents a promising hybrid form of health sector organisation in managing human resources by bringing the benefits of two worlds together. In order to ensure that the potential benefits of the two approaches are effectively integrated, careful balancing defining the local-central relationships in the management of human resources needs to be worked out. PMID:19405958

2009-01-01

333

Leptospirosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection Among Febrile Inpatients in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Leptospirosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are prevalent in many areas, including northern Tanzania, yet little is known about their interaction. Methods We enrolled febrile inpatients at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania, over 1 year and performed HIV antibody testing and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for leptospirosis. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as ?four-fold rise in MAT titer between acute and convalescent serum samples, and probable leptospirosis was defined as any reciprocal MAT titer ?800. Results Confirmed or probable leptospirosis was found in 70 (8.4%) of 831 participants with at least one serum sample tested. At total of 823 (99.0%) of 831 participants had HIV testing performed, and 203 (24.7%) were HIV infected. Among HIV-infected participants, 9 (4.4%) of 203 had confirmed or probable leptospirosis, whereas among HIV-uninfected participants 61 (9.8%) of 620 had leptospirosis. Leptospirosis was less prevalent among HIV-infected as compared to HIV-uninfected participants [odds ratio (OR) 0.43, p=0.019]. Among those with leptospirosis, HIV-infected patients more commonly presented with features of severe sepsis syndrome than HIV-uninfected patients, but differences were not statistically significant. Among HIV-infected patients, severe immunosuppression was not significantly different between those with and without leptospirosis (p=0.476). Among HIV-infected adolescents and adults, median CD4 percent and median CD4 count were higher among those with leptospirosis as compared to those with other etiologies of febrile illness, but differences in CD4 count did not reach statistical significance (p=0.015 and p=0.089, respectively). Conclusions Among febrile inpatients in northern Tanzania, leptospirosis was not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Although some indicators of leptospirosis severity were more common among HIV-infected patients, a statistically significant difference was not demonstrated. Among HIV-infected patients, those with leptospirosis were not more immunosuppressed relative to those with other etiologies of febrile illness. PMID:23663165

Biggs, Holly M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Bui, Duy M.; Morrissey, Annie B.; Maro, Venance P.

2013-01-01

334

A Nationwide Survey of the Quality of Antimalarials in Retail Outlets in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania. Methods and Findings We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine), 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nearly one quarter (23.8%) of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone. Conclusions Substandard antimalarial formulations were widely available in Tanzania at the time of this study. No products were detected that did not contain any amount of the stated active ingredient. Quinine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine products were the most widely available and also the most likely to be of poor quality. Substandard products were identified in all parts of the country and were labeled as made by both domestic and international manufacturers. With the expansion of the retail pharmaceutical sector as a delivery channel for antimalarial formulations the need for regular nationwide monitoring of their quality will become increasingly important. PMID:18923672

Kaur, Harparkash; Goodman, Catherine; Thompson, Eloise; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Masanja, Irene; Kachur, S. Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

2008-01-01

335

Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights perspective of violence, as well as actively engaging men. At the macro level, preventive efforts must be prioritized through re-enforcement of legal rights, and provision of adequate medical and social welfare services for both survivors and perpetrators. PMID:21501506

2011-01-01

336

Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker cadres with little pre-service training. Attention should be paid to the identification of informal practices resulting from individual coping strategies and "street-level bureaucracy" in order to tackle problems before they become part of the organizational culture. PMID:21599900

2011-01-01

337

Using propensity score matching to estimate an "unbiased effect-size" between women's employment and partner violence in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Estimates of the effect of employment on women's risk of partner violence in cross-sectional studies are subject to potential "self-selection bias." Women's personal choice of whether to pursue employment or not may create fundamental differences between the group of women who are employed and those who are not employed that standard regression methods cannot account for even after adjusting for confounding. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of propensity score matching (PSM), a technique used widely in econometrics, to address this bias in cross-sectional studies. We use PSM to estimate an unbiased effect-size of women's employment on their risk of experiencing partner violence in urban and rural Tanzania using data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Three different measures of women's employment were analyzed: whether they had engaged in any productive work outside of the home in the past year, whether they received payment in cash for this productive work, and whether their employment was stable. Women who worked outside of the home were significantly different from those who did not. In both urban and rural Tanzania, women's risk of violence appears higher among women who worked in the past year than among those who did not, even after using PSM to account for underlying differences in these two groups of women. Being paid in cash reversed this effect in rural areas whereas stability of employment reduced this risk in urban centers. The estimated size of effect varied by type of matching estimator, but the direction of the association remained largely consistent. This study's findings suggest substantial self-selection into employment. PSM methods, by compensating for this bias, appear to be a useful tool for estimating the relationship between women's employment and partner violence in cross-sectional studies. PMID:24729130

Vyas, Seema; Heise, Lori

2014-11-01

338

The challenge to avoid anti-malarial medicine stock-outs in an era of funding partners: the case of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Between 2007 and 2013, the Tanzanian public sector received 93.1 million doses of first-line anti-malarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the form of artemether-lumefantrine entirely supplied by funding partners. The introduction of a health facility ACT stock monitoring system using SMS technology by the National Malaria Control Programme in mid 2011 revealed a high frequency of stock-outs of ACT in primary care public health facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of availability of ACT and possible causes of observed stock-outs across public health facilities in Tanzania since mid-2011. Methods Data were collected weekly by the mobile phone reporting tool SMS for Life on ACT availability from over 5,000 public health facilities in Tanzania starting from September 2011 to December 2012. Stock data for all four age-dose levels of ACT across health facilities were summarized and supply of ACT at the national level was also documented. Results Over the period of 15 months, on average 29% of health facilities in Tanzania were completely stocked out of all four-age dose levels of the first-line anti-malarial with a median duration of total stock-out of six weeks. Patterns of total stock-out by region ranged from a low of 9% to a high of 52%. The ACT stock-outs were most likely caused by: a) insufficient ACT supplies entering Tanzania (e.g. in 2012 Tanzania received 10.9 million ACT doses compared with a forecast demand of 14.4 million doses); and b) irregular pattern of ACT supply (several months with no ACT stock). Conclusion The reduced ACT availability and irregular pattern of supply were due to cumbersome bureaucratic processes and delays both within the country and from the main donor, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Tanzania should invest in strengthening both the supply system and the health information system using mHealth solutions such as SMS for Life. This will continue to assist in tracking ACT availability across the country where all partners work towards more streamlined, demand driven and accountable procurement and supply chain systems. PMID:24885420

2014-01-01

339

Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. PMID:23543222

Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

2014-05-01

340

Q Fever, Spotted Fever Group, and Typhus Group Rickettsioses Among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background.?The importance of Q fever, spotted fever group rickettsiosis (SFGR), and typhus group rickettsiosis (TGR) as causes of febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown; the putative role of Q fever as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is unclear. Methods.?We identified febrile inpatients in Moshi, Tanzania, from September 2007 through August 2008 and collected acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples. A ?4-fold increase in immunoglobulin (Ig) G immunfluorescence assay (IFA) titer to Coxiella burnetii phase II antigen defined acute Q fever. A ?4-fold increase in IgG IFA titer to Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia typhi antigen defined SFGR and TGR, respectively. Results.?Among 870 patients, 483 (55.5%) were tested for acute Q fever, and 450 (51.7%) were tested for acute SFGR and TGR. Results suggested acute Q fever in 24 (5.0%) patients and SFGR and TGR in 36 (8.0%) and 2 (0.5%) patients, respectively. Acute Q fever was associated with hepato- or splenomegaly (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; P = .028), anemia (OR, 3.0; P = .009), leukopenia (OR, 3.9; P = .013), jaundice (OR, 7.1; P = .007), and onset during the dry season (OR, 2.7; P = .021). HIV infection was not associated with acute Q fever (OR, 1.7; P = .231). Acute SFGR was associated with leukopenia (OR, 4.1; P = .003) and with evidence of other zoonoses (OR, 2.2; P = .045). Conclusions.?Despite being common causes of febrile illness in northern Tanzania, Q fever and SFGR are not diagnosed or managed with targeted antimicrobials. C. burnetii does not appear to be an HIV-associated co-infection. PMID:21810740

Prabhu, Malavika; Nicholson, William L.; Roche, Aubree J.; Kersh, Gilbert J.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Oliver, Lindsay D.; Massung, Robert F.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Onyango, Jecinta J.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod

2011-01-01

341

High seroprevalence of echinococossis, schistosomiasis and toxoplasmosis among the populations in Babati and Monduli districts, Tanzania.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe neglected tropical diseases, echinococcosis, schistosomiasis and toxoplasmosis are all globally widespread zoonotic diseases with potentially harmful consequences. There is very limited data available on the prevalence of these infections, except for schistosmiasis, in underdeveloped countries. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis, Schistosoma mansoni, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in populations from the Monduli and Babati districts in Tanzania.MethodsA total of 345 blood samples were collected from 160 and 185 randomly selected households from Babati and Monduli districts, Tanzania between February and May of 2012 and analyzed them using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The antibodies were determined using the NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG, NovaLisa® Schistosoma Mansoni IgG, NovaLisa® Echinococcus IgG and NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgM kits (Novatec, Germany).ResultsThe seropositivity estimated for E. multilocularis, S. mansoni, and T. gondii IgG was 11.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.96 - 14.6), 51.3% (95% CI: 46.0 - 56.5), and 57.68% (95% CI: 52.5 - 62.9), respectively. The seropositivity for T. gondii IgM was 11.3% (95% CI: 7.96 - 14.6). Living in the Monduli district was found to be the main risk factor for IgG seropositivity for both schistosomiasis (OR =1.94; 95% CI: 1.23 - 3.08; p =0.005) and toxoplasmosis (OR =2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33; p =0.002).ConclusionsThese results suggest that restricting disease transmission, implementing control measures, and introducing training projects to increase public awareness are imperative, particularly for the Monduli district. PMID:25388913

Khan, Mohammad; Sonaimuthu, Parthasarathy; Lau, Yee; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahmud, Rohela; Kavana, Nicholas; Kassuku, Ayub; Kasanga, Christopher

2014-11-12

342

Access to artemisinin-based anti-malarial treatment and its related factors in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) has been widely adopted as one of the main malaria control strategies. However, its promise to save thousands of lives in sub-Saharan Africa depends on how effective the use of ACT is within the routine health system. The INESS platform evaluated effective coverage of ACT in several African countries. Timely access within 24 hours to an authorized ACT outlet is one of the determinants of effective coverage and was assessed for artemether-lumefantrine (Alu), in two district health systems in rural Tanzania. Methods From October 2009 to June 2011we conducted continuous rolling household surveys in the Kilombero-Ulanga and the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Surveys were linked to the routine HDSS update rounds. Members of randomly pre-selected households that had experienced a fever episode in the previous two weeks were eligible for a structured interview. Data on individual treatment seeking, access to treatment, timing, source of treatment and household costs per episode were collected. Data are presented on timely access from a total of 2,112 interviews in relation to demographics, seasonality, and socio economic status. Results In Kilombero-Ulanga, 41.8% (CI: 36.6–45.1) and in Rufiji 36.8% (33.7–40.1) of fever cases had access to an authorized ACT provider within 24 hours of fever onset. In neither of the HDSS site was age, sex, socio-economic status or seasonality of malaria found to be significantly correlated with timely access. Conclusion Timely access to authorized ACT providers is below 50% despite interventions intended to improve access such as social marketing and accreditation of private dispensing outlets. To improve prompt diagnosis and treatment, access remains a major bottle neck and new more innovative interventions are needed to raise effective coverage of malaria treatment in Tanzania. PMID:23651521

2013-01-01

343

Climate prediction of El Niño malaria epidemics in north-west Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a significant public health problem in Tanzania. Approximately 16 million malaria cases are reported every year and 100,000 to 125,000 deaths occur. Although most of Tanzania is endemic to malaria, epidemics occur in the highlands, notably in Kagera, a region that was subject to widespread malaria epidemics in 1997 and 1998. This study examined the relationship between climate and malaria incidence in Kagera with the aim of determining whether seasonal forecasts may assist in predicting malaria epidemics. Methods A regression analysis was performed on retrospective malaria and climatic data during each of the two annual malaria seasons to determine the climatic factors influencing malaria incidence. The ability of the DEMETER seasonal forecasting system in predicting the climatic anomalies associated with malaria epidemics was then assessed for each malaria season. Results It was found that malaria incidence is positively correlated with rainfall during the first season (Oct-Mar) (R-squared = 0.73, p < 0.01). For the second season (Apr-Sep), high malaria incidence was associated with increased rainfall, but also with high maximum temperature during the first rainy season (multiple R-squared = 0.79, p < 0.01). The robustness of these statistical models was tested by excluding the two epidemic years from the regression analysis. DEMETER would have been unable to predict the heavy El Niño rains associated with the 1998 epidemic. Nevertheless, this epidemic could still have been predicted using the temperature forecasts alone. The 1997 epidemic could have been predicted from observed temperatures in the preceding season, but the consideration of the rainfall forecasts would have improved the temperature-only forecasts over the remaining years. Conclusion These results demonstrate the potential of a seasonal forecasting system in the development of a malaria early warning system in Kagera region. PMID:18062817

Jones, Anne E; Wort, Ulrika Uddenfeldt; Morse, Andrew P; Hastings, Ian M; Gagnon, Alexandre S

2007-01-01

344

Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing water in these dryland areas. It can therefore be concluded that utilization of local knowledge has wide impact on integrated water resource management. These implications are important considerations for development of adaptive water system innovations at community level.

Liwenga, Emma T.

345

Characterisation of the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense isolates from Tanzania using serum resistance associated gene as molecular marker.  

PubMed

Serum resistance associated (SRA) gene has been found to confer resistance to the innate trypanolytic factor (TLF) found in normal human serum; thus allowing Trypanosoma brucei brucei to survive exposure to normal human serum. This study was carried out to examine the presence of SRA gene and identify the origin of T. b. rhodesiense isolates from three districts in Tanzania, namely Kibondo, Kasulu and Urambo. Twenty-six T. b. rhodesiense isolates and two references T. b. rhodesiense isolates from Kenya were examined for SRA gene using simple Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. The gene was found to be present in all 26 T. b. rhodesiense isolates including the two references isolates from Kenya. The SRA gene was confirmed to be specific to T. b. rhodesiense since it could not be amplified from all other Trypanozoon including T. b. gambiense; and gave an amplified fragment of the expected size (3.9kb), confirming that all these isolates were T. b. rhodesiense of the northern variant. Although the geographic distributions of T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are clearly localized to west/central Africa and eastern Africa, respectively, natural movement of people and recent influx of large number of refugees into Tanzania from the Democratic Republic of Congo, could have brought T. b. gambiense in western Tanzania. The overlap in distribution of both of these pathogenic sub-species could result in erroneous diagnoses since both trypanosome sub-species are morphologically identical, and currently serologic methods have low specificity. Both the susceptible and resistant T. b. rhodesiense isolates possessed the SRA gene suggesting that there is no correlation between drug resistance and presence of SRA gene. The use of SRA gene helps to confirm the identity and diversity of some of the isolates resistant to various drugs. PMID:17547097

Kibona, S N; Picozzi, K; Matemba, L; Lubega, G W

2007-01-01

346

Correlates of out-of-pocket and catastrophic health expenditures in Tanzania: results from a national household survey  

PubMed Central

Background Inequality in health services access and utilization are influenced by out-of-pocket health expenditures in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Various antecedents such as social factors, poor health and economic factors are proposed to direct the choice of health care service use and incurring out-of-pocket payments. We investigated the association of these factors with out-of-pocket health expenditures among the adult and older population in the United Republic of Tanzania. We also investigated the prevalence and associated determinants contributing to household catastrophic health expenditures. Methods We accessed the data of a multistage stratified random sample of 7279 adult participants, aged between 18 and 59 years, as well as 1018 participants aged above 60 years, from the first round of the Tanzania National Panel survey. We employed multiple generalized linear and logistic regression models to evaluate the correlates of out-of-pocket as well as catastrophic health expenditures, accounting for the complex sample design effects. Results Increasing age, female gender, obesity and functional disability increased the adults’ out-of-pocket health expenditures significantly, while functional disability and visits to traditional healers increased the out-of-pocket health expenditures in older participants. Adult participants, who lacked formal education or worked as manual laborers earned significantly less (p?Tanzania. PMID:24597486

2014-01-01

347

Work Experience, Job-Fulfillment and Burnout among VMMC Providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background Human resource capacity is vital to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services. VMMC providers are at risk of “burnout” from performing a single task repeatedly in a high volume work environment that produces long work hours and intense work effort. Methods and findings The Systematic Monitoring of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up (SYMMACS) surveyed VMMC providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe in 2011 (n?=?357) and 2012 (n?=?591). Providers self-reported on their training, work experience, levels of job-fulfillment and work fatigue/burnout. Data analysis included a descriptive analysis of VMMC provider characteristics, and both bivariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with provider work fatigue/burnout. In 2012, Kenyan providers had worked in VMMC for a median of 31 months compared to South Africa (10 months), Tanzania (15 months), and Zimbabwe (11 months). More than three-quarters (78 – 99%) of providers in all countries in 2012 reported that VMMC is a personally fulfilling job. However, 67% of Kenyan providers reported starting to experience work fatigue/burnout compared to South Africa (33%), Zimbabwe (17%), and Tanzania (15%). Despite the high level of work fatigue/burnout in Kenya, none of the measured factors (i.e., gender, age, full-time versus part-time status, length of service, number of operations performed, or cadre) were significantly associated with work fatigue/burnout in 2011. In 2012, logistic regression found increases in age (p<.05) and number of months working in VMMC (p<.01) were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing work fatigue/burnout, while higher career total VMMCs decreased the likelihood of experiencing burnout. Conclusion Given cross-country differences, further elucidation of cultural and other contextual factors that may influence provider burnout is required. Continuing to emphasize the contribution that providers make in the fight against HIV/AIDS is important. PMID:24802260

Perry, Linnea; Rech, Dino; Mavhu, Webster; Frade, Sasha; Machaku, Michael D.; Onyango, Mathews; Aduda, Dickens S. Omondi.; Fimbo, Bennett; Cherutich, Peter; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Bertrand, Jane T.

2014-01-01

348

Sero-prevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Serological screening of pregnant women for Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies is not practiced as an antenatal care in Tanzania; and there is a limited data about sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection in developing countries. We therefore conducted this study to determine the sero-prevalence and factors associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods Between 1st November 2012 and 31st May 2013 a total of 350 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza were enrolled and screened for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii using the ELISA technique. Results Of 350 pregnant women, 108 (30.9%) were sero-positive for T. gondii-specific antibodies. The risk of contracting T. gondii infection increases by 7% with each yearly increase in a woman’s age (OR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.11, p=0.002). The sero-positivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban than those from rural communities (41.5% versus 22.0%); [OR=2.2, 95% CI; 1.4 - 3.7, p=0.001]. Likewise employed/business women were more likely to get T. gondii infection than peasants (40.0% versus 25.9%) [OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2 - 3.0, p=0.006]. Conclusions Sero-prevalence of T. gondii-specific antibodies is high among pregnant women in Mwanza with a significant proportion of women at risk of contracting primary T. gondii infections. Screening of T. gondii infections during antenatal care should be considered in Tanzania as the main strategy to minimize congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23915834

2013-01-01

349

Systematic Monitoring of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up: Adoption of Efficiency Elements in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background SYMMACS, the Systematic Monitoring of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up, tracked the implementation and adoption of six elements of surgical efficiency— use of multiple surgical beds, pre-bundled kits, task shifting, task sharing, forceps-guided surgical method, and electrocautery—as standards of surgical efficiency in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Methods and Findings This multi-country study used two-staged sampling. The first stage sampled VMMC sites: 73 in 2011, 122 in 2012. The second stage involved sampling providers (358 in 2011, 591 in 2012) and VMMC procedures for observation (594 in 2011, 1034 in 2012). The number of VMMC sites increased significantly between 2011 and 2012; marked seasonal variation occurred in peak periods for VMMC. Countries adopted between three and five of the six elements; forceps-guided surgery was the only element adopted by all countries. Kenya and Tanzania routinely practiced task-shifting. South Africa and Zimbabwe used pre-bundled kits with disposable instruments and electrocautery. South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe routinely employed multiple surgical bays. Conclusions SYMMACS is the first study to provide data on the implementation of VMMC programs and adoption of elements of surgical efficiency. Findings have contributed to policy change on task-shifting in Zimbabwe, a review of the monitoring system for adverse events in South Africa, an increased use of commercially bundled VMMC kits in Tanzania, and policy dialogue on improving VMMC service delivery in Kenya. This article serves as an overview for five other articles following this supplement. PMID:24801374

Bertrand, Jane T.; Rech, Dino; Omondi Aduda, Dickens; Frade, Sasha; Loolpapit, Mores; Machaku, Michael D.; Oyango, Mathews; Mavhu, Webster; Spyrelis, Alexandra; Perry, Linnea; Farrell, Margaret; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

350

Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Multivitamin Supplementation at the Initiation of HAART on HIV Disease Progression and Mortality in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Context Large randomized trials have previously shown that high-dose micronutrient supplementation can increase CD4 counts and reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression and mortality among individuals not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the safety and efficacy of such supplementation has not been established in the context of HAART. Objective To test the hypothesis that high-dose multivitamin supplementation vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation decreases the risk of HIV disease progression or death and improves immunological, virological, and nutritional parameters in patients with HIV initiating HAART. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of high-dose vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation for 24 months in 3418 patients with HIV initiating HAART between November 2006 and November 2008 in 7 clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Intervention The provision of daily oral supplements of vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E at high levels or standard levels of the recommended dietary allowance. Main Outcome Measure The composite of HIV disease progression or death from any cause. Results The study was stopped early in March 2009 because of evidence of increased levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) in patients receiving the high-dose multivitamin supplement. At the time of stopping, 3418 patients were enrolled (median follow-up, 15 months), and there were 2374 HIV disease progression events and 453 observed deaths (2460 total combined events). Compared with standard-dose multivitamin supplementation, high-dose supplementation did not reduce the risk of HIV disease progression or death. The absolute risk of HIV progression or death was 72% in the high-dose group vs 72% in the standard-dose group (risk ratio [RR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96–1.04). High-dose supplementation had no effect on CD4 count, plasma viral load, body mass index, or hemoglobin level concentration, but increased the risk of ALT elevations (1239 events per 1215 person-years vs 879 events per 1236 person-years; RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11–1.87) vs standard-dose supplementation. Conclusion In adults receiving HAART, use of high-dose multivitamin supplements compared with standard-dose multivitamin supplements did not result in a decrease in HIV disease progression or death but may have resulted in an increase in ALT levels. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00383669 PMID:23073950

Isanaka, Sheila; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Hawkins, Claudia; Spiegelman, Donna; Okuma, James; Aboud, Said; Guerino, Chalamilla; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

2013-01-01

351

Partial genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from goats in northern and eastern Tanzania.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal swabs, tissues and whole blood) were obtained from live goats with clinical presentation suggestive of PPR and goats that died naturally in Ngorongoro (Northern Tanzania) and Mvomero (Eastern Tanzania) districts. The clinical signs observed in goats suspected with PPR included fever, dullness, diarrhea, lacrimation, matting of eye lids, purulent oculonasal discharges, cutaneous nodules, erosions on the soft palate and gums and labored breathing. Post mortem findings included pneumonia, congestion of the intestines, and hemorrhages in lymph nodes associated with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. PPRV was detected in 21 out of 71 tested animals using primers targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the N gene, indicated that PPRV obtained from Northern and Eastern Tanzania clustered with PPRV strains of Lineage III, together with PPRV from Sudan and Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that there are active PPRV infections in Northern and Eastern Tanzania, suggesting risks for potential spread of PPR in the rest of Tanzania. PMID:25135464

Kgotlele, T; Macha, E S; Kasanga, C J; Kusiluka, L J M; Karimuribo, E D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Wensman, J J; Munir, M; Misinzo, G

2014-08-01

352

Partial Genetic Characterization of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus from Goats in Northern and Eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal swabs, tissues and whole blood) were obtained from live goats with clinical presentation suggestive of PPR and goats that died naturally in Ngorongoro (Northern Tanzania) and Mvomero (Eastern Tanzania) districts. The clinical signs observed in goats suspected with PPR included fever, dullness, diarrhea, lacrimation, matting of eye lids, purulent oculonasal discharges, cutaneous nodules, erosions on the soft palate and gums and labored breathing. Post mortem findings included pneumonia, congestion of the intestines, and hemorrhages in lymph nodes associated with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. PPRV was detected in 21 out of 71 tested animals using primers targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the N gene, indicated that PPRV obtained from Northern and Eastern Tanzania clustered with PPRV strains of Lineage III, together with PPRV from Sudan and Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that there are active PPRV infections in Northern and Eastern Tanzania, suggesting risks for potential spread of PPR in the rest of Tanzania. PMID:25135464

Kgotlele, T; Macha, E S; Kasanga, C J; Kusiluka, L J M; Karimuribo, E D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Wensman, J J; Munir, M; Misinzo, G

2014-01-01

353

Disease patterns and clinical outcomes of patients admitted in intensive care units of tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa the availability of intensive care unit (ICU) services is limited by a variety of factors, including lack of financial resources, lack of available technology and well-trained staff. Tanzania has four main referral hospitals, located in zones so as to serve as tertiary level referral centers. All the referral hospitals have some ICU services, operating at varying levels of equipment and qualified staff. We analyzed and describe the disease patterns and clinical outcomes of patients admitted in ICUs of the tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of ICU patient records, for three years (2009 to 2011) from all tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania, namely Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Mbeya Referral Hospital (MRH) and Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). Results MNH is the largest of the four referral hospitals with 1300 beds, and MRH is the smallest with 480 beds. The ratio of hospital beds to ICU beds is 217:1 at MNH, 54:1 at BMC, 39:1 at KCMC, and 80:1 at MRH. KCMC had no infusion pumps. None of the ICUs had a point-of-care (POC) arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer. None of the ICUs had an Intensive Care specialist or a nutritionist. A masters-trained critical care nurse was available only at MNH. From 2009–2011, the total number of patients admitted to the four ICUs was 5627, male to female ratio 1.4:1, median age of 34 years. Overall, Trauma (22.2%) was the main disease category followed by infectious disease (19.7%). Intracranial injury (12.5%) was the leading diagnosis in all age groups, while pneumonia (11.7%) was the leading diagnosis in pediatric patients (<18 years). Patients with tetanus (2.4%) had the longest median length ICU stay: 8 (5,13) days. The overall in-ICU mortality rate was 41.4%. Conclusions The ICUs in tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania are severely limited in infrastructure, personnel, and resources, making it difficult or impossible to provide optimum care to critically ill patients and likely contributing to the dauntingly high mortality rates. PMID:25245028

2014-01-01

354

Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children’s allocation of time to school and work. Children attend school for more days per week—but not for more hours per day—as a result of accessing better healthcare. There are no significant effects on child labor, but the results suggest that time spent in physically strenuous activities such as farming and herding increases. PMID:24353348

Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant

2013-01-01

355

Tanzania wildcats to evaluate Jurassic Mandawa salt basin  

SciTech Connect

After 5 years of stagnant exploration in East Africa, Canadian independent Tanganyika Oil Co. of Vancouver, B.C., will drill two wildcats in Tanzania to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the coastal Jurassic Mandawa salt basin. Mita-1, spudded around Oct. 1, will be drilled to about 7,000 ft, East Lika-1 will be drilled in early December 1996 to approximately 6,000 ft. The two wells will test different structures and play concepts. The paper describes the exploration history, source rock potential, hydrocarbon shows, potential reservoir, and the prospects.

Nagati, M. [Tanganyika Oil Co., Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

1996-10-07

356

Income and Health in Tanzania. An Instrumental Variable Approach  

PubMed Central

Summary There is a substantial debate over the direction of the causal relation between income and health. This is important for our understanding of the health production process and for the policy debate over improving healthcare. We instrument income with rainfall measurements by matching satellite information on timing and positioning of 21 rainfall stations to longitudinal data (1991–94) of over 4,000 individuals in 51 villages in Tanzania. A 10% increase in income reduces the number of illnesses by 0.02. We also find that a 10% increase in income implies an increase of about 0.1 vaccinations of children under six. PMID:25648157

Fichera, Eleonora; Savage, David

2015-01-01

357

Red blood cell indices and prevalence of hemoglobinopathies and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in male Tanzanian residents of Dar es Salaam  

PubMed Central

Hemoglobinopathies, disorders of hemoglobin structure and production, are one of the most common monogenic disorders in humans. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is an inherited enzymopathy resulting in increased oxygen stress susceptibility of red blood cells. The distributions of these genetic traits in populations living in tropical and subtropical regions where malaria has been or is still present are thought to result from survival advantage against severe life threatening malaria disease. 384 male Tanzanian volunteers residing in Dar es Salaam were typed for G6PD, sickle cell disease and ?-thalassemia. The most prominent red blood cell polymorphism was heterozygous ?+-thalassemia (37.8%), followed by the G6PD(A) deficiency (16.4%), heterozygous sickle cell trait (15.9%), G6PD(A-) deficiency (13.5%) and homozygous ?+-thalassemia (5.2%). 35%, 45%, 17% and 3% of these volunteers were carriers of wild type gene loci, one, two or three of these hemoglobinopathies, respectively. We find that using a cut off value of 28.6 pg. for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), heterozygous ?+-thalassemia can be predicted with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 72% in this male population. All subjects carrying homozygous ?+-thalassemia were identified based on their MCH value < 28.6 pg.

Mwakasungula, Solomon; Schindler, Tobias; Jongo, Said; Moreno, Elena; Kamaka, Kasimu; Mohammed, Mgeni; Joseph, Selina; Rashid, Ramla; Athuman, Thabit; Tumbo, Anneth Mwasi; Hamad, Ali; Lweno, Omar; Tanner, Marcel; Shekalaghe, Seif; Daubenberger, Claudia A

2014-01-01

358

Leptospirosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

We enrolled consecutive febrile admissions to two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as a ? 4-fold increase in microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titer; probable leptospirosis as reciprocal MAT titer ? 800; and exposure to pathogenic leptospires as titer ? 100. Among 870 patients enrolled in the study, 453 (52.1%) had paired sera available, and 40 (8.8%) of these met the definition for confirmed leptospirosis. Of 832 patients with ? 1 serum sample available, 30 (3.6%) had probable leptospirosis and an additional 277 (33.3%) had evidence of exposure to pathogenic leptospires. Among those with leptospirosis the most common clinical diagnoses were malaria in 31 (44.3%) and pneumonia in 18 (25.7%). Leptospirosis was associated with living in a rural area (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, P < 0.001). Among those with confirmed leptospirosis, the predominant reactive serogroups were Mini and Australis. Leptospirosis is a major yet underdiagnosed cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania, where it appears to be endemic. PMID:21813847

Biggs, Holly M.; Bui, Duy M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Onyango, Jecinta J.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Crump, John A.

2011-01-01

359

Brucellosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ? 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ? 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ? 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

2012-01-01

360

Experience on healthcare utilization in seven administrative regions of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Health care utilization in many developing countries, Tanzania included, is mainly through the use of traditional medicine (TRM) and its practitioners despite the presence of the conventional medicine. This article presents findings on the study that aimed to get an experience of health care utilization from both urban and rural areas of seven administrative regions in Tanzania. A total of 33 health facility managers were interviewed on health care provision and availability of supplies including drugs, in their respective areas. The findings revealed that the health facilities were overburden with higher population to serve than it was planned. Consequently essential drugs and other health supplies were available only in the first two weeks of the month. Conventional health practitioners considered traditional health practitioners to be more competent in mental health management, and overall, they were considered to handle more HIV/AIDS cases knowingly or unknowingly due to shear need of healthcare by this group. In general conventional health practitioners were positive towards traditional medicine utilization; and some of them admitted using traditional medicines. Traditional medicines like other medical health systems worldwide have side effects and some contentious ethical issues that need serious consideration and policy direction. Since many people will continue using traditional/alternative medicine, there is an urgent need to collaborate with traditional/alternative health practitioners through the institutionalization of basic training including hygiene in order to improved healthcare in the community and attain the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. PMID:22284539

2012-01-01

361

Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small-scale Soil and Terrain (SOTER) map. Prediction uncertainty was quantified by the 90% prediction interval and the predictions were validated by cross-validation. The SOTER map proved to be the best predictor of SOC content, followed by the terrain parameters, mid-infrared reflectance, surface temperature, several vegetation indices, and the land cover map. The maps show that the SOC content decreases with depth, which is typically observed in soils. For the 0-10 cm layer the average predicted SOC content is 1.31%, for the 10-20 cm layer this is 0.93%, for the 20-30cm layer 0.72%, and for the 0-30cm layer 1.00%. The mean absolute error of the 0-10cm layer was 0.54%, that of the 10-20cm layer 0.38%, that of the 20-30cm layer 0.31%, and that of the 0-30cm layer 0.34%. The R2-value of the 0-10 cm layer was 0.47, that of the 10-20cm layer 0.49, that of the 20-30cm layer 0.44, and that of the 0-30cm layer 0.59. The next step will be the development of maps of SOC stock and key properties that are of interest for soil fertility management such as pH and the textural fractions.

Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

2014-05-01

362

"Bend a fish when the fish is not yet dry": adolescent boys' perceptions of sexual risk in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Despite decades of effort, the spread of HIV/AIDS continues among many African young people. A key contributor is unsafe sexual behavior that is desired, persuaded, or coerced. We explored the masculinity norms shaping pubescent boys' perceptions of and engagement in (unsafe) sexual behaviors in Tanzania. Through a comparative case study in rural and urban Tanzania, qualitative and participatory methods were used with 160 adolescent boys in and out of school to better understand the social and contextual factors promoting unsafe sexual behaviors. Adolescent boys in both the rural and urban sites reported struggling with intense sexual desires, strong peer pressures to have sex, and social norms dissuading condom use. A growing "normalization" of AIDS suggests messages promoting the dangers of HIV infection may be less effective. Findings reinforce the need for interventions with very young adolescents. Research is needed to identify more effective approaches for promoting safer sexual practices among boys in sub-Saharan Africa. Harm reduction approaches and gender transformative approaches might prove more effective than current HIV prevention efforts focused on youth. PMID:25583374

Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

2015-04-01

363

Seroprevalence of Alphavirus Antibodies in a Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Tanzania Suggests Endemic Circulation of Chikungunya  

PubMed Central

Background To date, Alphavirus infections and their most prominent member, chikungunya fever, a viral disease which first became apparent in Tanzania in 1953, have been very little investigated in regions without epidemic occurrence. Few data exist on burden of disease and socio-economic and environmental covariates disposing to infection. Methods A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was undertaken in 1,215 persons from Mbeya region, South-Western Tanzania, to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Alphavirus IgG antibodies, and to investigate associated risk factors. Results 18% of 1,215 samples were positive for Alphavirus IgG. Seropositivity was associated with participant age, low to intermediate elevation, flat terrain and with IgG positivity for Rift Valley fever, Flaviviridae, and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group. When comparing the geographical distribution of Alphavirus seropositivity to that of Rift Valley fever, it was obvious that Alphaviruses had spread more widely throughout the study area, while Rift Valley fever was concentrated along the shore of Lake Malawi. Conclusion Alphavirus infections may contribute significantly to the febrile disease burden in the study area, and are associated with several arthropod-borne infections. Their spread seems only limited by factors affecting mosquitoes, and seems less restricted than that of Rift Valley fever. PMID:25079964

Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Nyanda Elias; Maboko, Leonard; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert

2014-01-01

364

Focal mechanisms and the stress regime in NE and SW Tanzania, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report 12 new focal mechanisms from earthquakes in NE and SW Tanzania where the stress regime within the East African rift system is not well constrained. Focal mechanisms for events at the intersection of the Lake Tanganyika and Rukwa rifts in SW Tanzania indicate a complicated stress pattern with possible dextral strike-slip motion on some faults but oblique motion on others (either sinistral on NW striking faults or dextral on NE striking faults). Within the Rukwa rift, focal mechanisms indicate normal dip-slip motion with NE-SW opening. In NE Tanzania where the Eastern rift impinges on the margin of the Tanzania Craton, fault motions are consistent with a zone of distributed block faults and sub E-W extension. All twelve earthquakes likely nucleated within the crust.

Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Florentin, Juliette

2005-07-01

365

A “One Health” Approach to Address Emerging Zoonoses: The HALI Project in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jonna Mazet and colleagues describe their work in the Tanzania-based {HALI} Project, which adopts the {“One} Health” approach to address emerging zoonoses and that recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health.

Jonna A. K. Mazet; Deana L. Clifford; Peter B. Coppolillo; Anil B. Deolalikar; Jon D. Erickson; Rudovick R. Kazwala

2009-01-01

366

Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania  

E-print Network

A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986...

Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Kimaro, Didas; Leirs, Herwig

2010-03-01

367

Access, Use and Perceptions of Teachers and Students towards Mobile Phones as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the access, use and perceptions of teachers and students towards mobile phones as a tool for facilitating teaching and learning beyond the classroom walls. A total of 29 pre-service teachers and four college instructors from Dar es salaam University College of Education (DUCE) as well as 12 in-service teachers and 40 students…

Kafyulilo, Ayoub

2014-01-01

368

Morphological Diversity of Bambara Groundnut [ Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] Landraces in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted in Tanzania for two seasons to assess the genetic diversity of bambara groundnut landraces\\u000a based on morphological characters. One hundred accessions collected from a wide range of agricultural zones in the country\\u000a were evaluated in a 10 10 triple lattice block design at Maruku station in Bukoba, Tanzania. For the qualitative characters\\u000a evaluated, considerable morphological

W. H. Ntundu; S. A. Shillah; W. Y. F. Marandu; J. L. Christiansen

2006-01-01

369

Termite fishing by wild chimpanzees: new data from Ugalla, western Tanzania.  

PubMed

Chimpanzees manufacture flexible fishing probes to fish for termites in Issa, Ugalla, western Tanzania. These termite-fishing tools are similar in size and material to those used by long-studied communities of chimpanzees in western Tanzania (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and in West Africa (P. t. verus), but not central African populations (P. t. troglodytes). This report adds to the patchwork of evidence of termite-fishing tool use behaviour by chimpanzees across Africa. PMID:23720026

Stewart, Fiona A; Piel, Alex K

2014-01-01

370

Predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14 carrying CTX-M-15 causing neonatal sepsis in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae strains expressing ESBLs are a predominant cause of hospital acquired infections. Here we describe the molecular epidemiology of these isolates in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania, as potential pathogens for neonatal infections. Methods Between April 2009 and March 2010 all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with phenotypic expression Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) were collected and characterized. Identification was done using in house biochemical tests in case of ambiguous results confirmation was done using API 20E. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disc diffusion method followed by specific PCR and sequencing to determine ESBL genes. Phylogenetic analysis, Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus sequence typing (MLST) to PFGE clusters representative isolates were performed to determine clones of the isolates. Conjugation and hybridization were performed to determine the location of blaCTX-M-15 gene. Results A total of 92 non- repetitive ESBL producing K. pneumoniae representing 50.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were characterized. These isolates were from blood 61 (66%), wound swab 13 (14%), urine 12 (13%) and pus 6 (7%) were analyzed. Most blood culture strains originated from neonatal unit 39/61(64%) and 22 (36%) of the blood culture isolates were from neonatal ICU. All isolates were resistant to gentamicin and 54% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a similarity index of 80%, the isolates were assigned to thirteen clusters based on PFGE patterns and contained sub-clusters with identical strains indicating clonal outbreaks. Cluster X5, X7 and X8, and X9 were grouped into ST48, ST14 and ST348 respectively. Based on gyrA PCR- RFLP phylogenetic analysis all isolates were grouped as KpI. The predominant ESBL allele detected was blaCTX-M-15 which was found in 76% of isolates, followed by blaTEM-104 (19%), blaSHV-11 (3.2%) and blaTEM-176 (2%). The blaCTX-M-15 gene was located in multiple conjugative IncF plasmids ranging from 25 kb-485 kb in size. Conclusion The high prevalence of blaCTX-M-15 observed among ESBL producing K. pneumoniae in Tanzania, is possibly due to the spread of a common IncFII 145 kb plasmid and of certain clones such as ST14 and ST48. Furthermore the 485 kb plasmid detected is the largest plasmid reported to carry blaCTX-M-15 todate. PMID:24099282

2013-01-01

371

East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa) (Fritz et al., 2009). Majority of data suggest an anticlockwise P-T loop and prolonged, slow cooling at deep crustal levels without significant exhumation. Isobaric cooling is explained by horizontal flow with rates faster than thermal equilibration of the lower crust. Those settings are found in domains of previously thinned lithosphere such as extended passive margins. Such rheolgically weak plate boundaries do not produce self-sustaining one-sided subduction but large areas of magmatic underplating that enable melt enhanced lateral flow of the lower crust. Western Granulites deformed by high-vorticity westwards thrusting at c. 550 Ma (Kuunga orogeny). Rocks exhibit clockwise P-T paths and experienced significant exhumation during isothermal decompression. Overprint between Kuungan structures and 620 Ma East African fabrics resulted in complex interference pattern within the Eastern Granulites. The three orogen portions that converge in Tanzania / Southern Kenya have different orogen styles. The southern ANS formed by transcurrent deformation of an island arc root; the Eastern Granulites by lower crustal channelized flow of a hot inverted passive margin; the Western Granulites by lower to mid crustal stacking of old and cold crustal fragments. Collins, A.S., Pisarevsky, S.A. (2005). Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: The evolution of the Circum-Indian Orogens. Earth-Science Reviews, 71, 229-270. De Waele, B., Kampunzu, A.B., Mapani, B.S.E., Tembo, F. (2006). The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt of Zambia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 46, 36-70 Fritz, H., Tenczer, V., Hauzenberger, C., Wallbrecher, E., Muhongo, S. (2009). Hot granulite nappes — Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa. Tectonophysics, 477, 160-173.

Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

2012-04-01

372

The evolutionary ecology of early weaning in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Public health recommendations promote prolonged breastfeeding of all children; however, parental investment (PI) theory predicts that breastfeeding will be allocated among a mothers' offspring to maximize her reproductive success. We evaluated PI in terms of risk for weaning before age two among 283 children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Results demonstrate: (i) a Trivers–Willard effect—high socioeconomic status (SES) females and low SES males were more likely to be weaned early; (ii) later-born children were less likely to be weaned early; (iii) higher birthweight children were less likely to be weaned early, and (iv) no effect of cattle (a source of supplementary milk) ownership. These associations were largely independent and remained significant in models controlling for potential confounders; however, the inverse association between early weaning and birth order lost significance in the model containing birthweight. These patterns were observed despite public health recommendations encouraging breastfeeding for at least two years. PMID:23926151

Wander, Katherine; Mattison, Siobhán M.

2013-01-01

373

Economic evaluation of rural woodlots in a developing country: Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

Rural areas in developing countries use wood as their main source of energy. Previously, wood has been obtained free from natural forests and woodlands. The pressure of increased demand through population growth, and the fact that natural trees take longer to grow, has made this resource scarce. Thus, raising trees in woodlots has been adopted as the solution to its shortage in the wild. However, growing trees in woodlots will inevitably require resources in terms of capital, land and manpower. Economic evaluation becomes necessary to ascertain that these resources are used economically. This paper dwells on some of the salient features of the economic evaluation of woodlots, such as interest rates, shadow prices of factors of production, social opportunity, cost of capital and sensitivity analysis of such woodlots in a developing country such as Tanzania. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

Kihiyo, V.B.M.S. [Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of)] [Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of)

1996-03-01

374

Epidemiological study of Rift Valley fever virus in Kigoma, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an acute, zoonotic viral disease caused by a Phlebovirus, which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. Among livestock, outbreaks of the disease are economically devastating. They are often characterised by large, sweeping abortion storms and have significant mortality in adult livestock. The aim of the current study was to investigate RVFV infection in the Kigoma region, which is nestled under the hills of the western arm of the Great Rift Valley on the edge of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. A region-wide serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated small ruminants (sheep and goats, n = 411). Sera samples were tested for the presence of anti-RVFV antibodies and viral antigen, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The overall past infections were detected in 22 of the 411 animals, 5.4% (Confidence Interval (CI) 95% = 3.5% - 8.1%). The Kigoma rural area recorded the higher seroprevalence of 12.0% (CI 95% = 7.3% - 18.3%; p < 0.0001), followed by Kibondo at 2.3% (CI 95% = 0.5% - 6.5%; p > 0.05) and the Kasulu district at 0.8% (CI 95% = 0.0% - 4.2%; p > 0.05). The prevalence was 12.5% and 4.7% for sheep and goats, respectively. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that only eight samples were found to be positive (n = 63). This study has confirmed, for the first time, the presence of the RVFV in the Kigoma region four years after the 2007 epizootic in Tanzania. The study further suggests that the virus activity exists during the inter-epizootic period, even in regions with no history of RVFV. PMID:25005550

Kifaro, Emmanuel G; Nkangaga, Japhet; Joshua, Gradson; Sallu, Raphael; Yongolo, Mmeta; Dautu, George; Kasanga, Christopher J

2014-01-01

375

Challenges to the implementation of International Health Regulations (2005) on Preventing Infectious Diseases: experience from Julius Nyerere International Airport, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) is a legal instrument binding all World Health Organization (WHO) member States. It aims to prevent and control public health emergencies of international concern. Country points of entry (POEs) have been identified as potential areas for effective interventions to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases across borders. The agreement postulates that member states will strengthen core capacities detailed in the IHR (2005), including those specified for the POE. This study intended to assess the challenges faced in implementing the IHR (2005) requirements at Julius Nyerere International Airport (JNIA), Dar es Salaam. Design A cross-sectional, descriptive study, employing qualitative methods, was conducted at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW), WHO, and JNIA. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and documentary reviews were used to obtain relevant information. Respondents were purposively enrolled into the study. Thematic analysis was used to generate study findings. Results Several challenges that hamper implementation of the IHR (2005) were identified: (1) none of the 42 Tanzanian POEs have been specifically designated to implement IHR (2005). (2) Implementation of the IHR (2005) at the POE was complicated as it falls under various uncoordinated government departments. Although there were clear communication channels at JNIA that enhanced reliable risk communication, the airport lacked isolated rooms specific for emergence preparedness and response to public health events. Conclusions JNIA is yet to develop adequate core capacities required for implementation of the IHR (2005). There is a need for policy managers to designate JNIA to implement IHR (2005) and ensure that public health policies, legislations, guidelines, and practice at POE are harmonized to improve international travel and trade. Policy makers and implementers should also ensure that implementation of the IHR (2005) follow the policy implementation framework, particularly the contextual interaction theory which calls for the availability of adequate resources (inputs) and well-organized process for the successful implementation of the policy. PMID:23958240

Bakari, Edith; Frumence, Gasto

2013-01-01

376

Costs of delivering human papillomavirus vaccination to schoolgirls in Mwanza Region, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Tanzania. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a new opportunity to control this disease. This study aimed to estimate the costs of a school-based HPV vaccination project in three districts in Mwanza Region (NCT ID: NCT01173900), Tanzania and to model incremental scaled-up costs of a regional vaccination program. Methods We first conducted a top-down cost analysis of the vaccination project, comparing observed costs of age-based (girls born in 1998) and class-based (class 6) vaccine delivery in a total of 134 primary schools. Based on the observed project costs, we then modeled incremental costs of a scaled-up vaccination program for Mwanza Region from the perspective of the Tanzanian government, assuming that HPV vaccines would be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Results Total economic project costs for delivering 3 doses of HPV vaccine to 4,211 girls were estimated at about US$349,400 (including a vaccine price of US$5 per dose). Costs per fully-immunized girl were lower for class-based delivery than for age-based delivery. Incremental economic scaled-up costs for class-based vaccination of 50,290 girls in Mwanza Region were estimated at US$1.3 million. Economic scaled-up costs per fully-immunized girl were US$26.41, including HPV vaccine at US$5 per dose. Excluding vaccine costs, vaccine could be delivered at an incremental economic cost of US$3.09 per dose and US$9.76 per fully-immunized girl. Financial scaled-up costs, excluding costs of the vaccine and salaries of existing staff were estimated at US$1.73 per dose. Conclusions Project costs of class-based vaccination were found to be below those of age-based vaccination because of more eligible girls being identified and higher vaccine uptake. We estimate that vaccine can be delivered at costs that would make HPV vaccination a very cost-effective intervention. Potentially, integrating HPV vaccine delivery with cost-effective school-based health interventions and a reduction of vaccine price below US$5 per dose would further reduce the costs per fully HPV-immunized girl. PMID:23148516

2012-01-01

377

The Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease in Northern Tanzania: A Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa, kidney failure has a high morbidity and mortality. Despite this, population-based estimates of prevalence, potential etiologies, and awareness are not available. Methods Between January and June 2014, we conducted a household survey of randomly-selected adults in Northern Tanzania. To estimate prevalence we screened for CKD, which was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate ? 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or persistent albuminuria. We also screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lifestyle practices including alcohol, tobacco, and traditional medicine use. Awareness was defined as a self-reported disease history and subsequently testing positive. We used population-based age- and gender-weights in estimating prevalence, and we used generalized linear models to explore potential risk factors associated with CKD, including living in an urban environment. Results We enrolled 481 adults from 346 households with a median age of 45 years. The community-based prevalence of CKD was 7.0% (95% CI 3.8-12.3), and awareness was low at 10.5% (4.7-22.0). The urban prevalence of CKD was 15.2% (9.6-23.3) while the rural prevalence was 2.0% (0.5-6.9). Half of the cases of CKD (49.1%) were not associated with any of the measured risk factors of hypertension, diabetes, or HIV. Living in an urban environment had the strongest crude (5.40; 95% CI 2.05-14.2) and adjusted prevalence risk ratio (4.80; 1.70-13.6) for CKD, and the majority (79%) of this increased risk was not explained by demographics, traditional medicine use, socioeconomic status, or co-morbid non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Conclusions We observed a high burden of CKD in Northern Tanzania that was associated with low awareness. Although demographic, lifestyle practices including traditional medicine use, socioeconomic factors, and NCDs accounted for some of the excess CKD risk observed with urban residence, much of the increased urban prevalence remained unexplained and will further study as demographic shifts reshape sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25886472

Stanifer, John W.; Maro, Venance; Egger, Joseph; Karia, Francis; Thielman, Nathan; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilaweh, Humphrey; Matemu, Oliver; Patel, Uptal D.

2015-01-01

378

Aetiology of Acute Febrile Episodes in Children Attending Korogwe District Hospital in North-Eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although the burden of malaria in many parts of Tanzania has declined, the proportion of children with fever has not changed. This situation underscores the need to explore the possible causes of febrile episodes in patients presenting with symptoms at the Korogwe District Hospital (KDH). Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted at KDH, north-eastern Tanzania. Patients aged 2 to 59 months presenting at the outpatient department with an acute medical condition and fever (measured axillary temperature ?37.5°C) were enrolled. Blood samples were examined for malaria parasites, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and bacterial infections. A urine culture was performed in selected cases to test for bacterial infection and a chest radiograph was requested if pneumonia was suspected. Diagnosis was based on both clinical and laboratory investigations. Results A total of 867 patients with a median age of 15.1 months (Interquartile range 8.6–29.9) were enrolled from January 2013 to October 2013. Respiratory tract infections were the leading clinical diagnosis with 406/867 (46.8%) of patients diagnosed with upper respiratory tract infection and 130/867 (15.0%) with pneumonia. Gastroenteritis was diagnosed in 184/867 (21.2%) of patients. Malaria infection was confirmed in 72/867 (8.3%) of patients. Bacterial infection in blood and urine accounted for 26/808 (3.2%) infections in the former, and 66/373 (17.7%) infections in the latter. HIV infection was confirmed in 10/824 (1.2%) of patients. Respiratory tract infections and gastroenteritis were frequent in patients under 36 months of age (87.3% and 91.3% respectively). Co-infections were seen in 221/867 (25.5%) of patients. The cause of fever was not identified in 65/867 (7.5%) of these patients. Conclusions The different proportions of infections found among febrile children reflect the causes of fever in the study area. These findings indicate the need to optimise patient management by developing malaria and non-malaria febrile illnesses management protocols. PMID:25090651

Mahende, Coline; Ngasala, Billy; Lusingu, John; Butichi, Allvan; Lushino, Paminus; Lemnge, Martha; Premji, Zul

2014-01-01

379

Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their risk. Rather than simply focusing on knowledge-based strategies, comprehensive interventions are needed to reduce both exposure and health risks, including training, improvements in labeling, measures to reduce cost barriers to the adoption of safe behaviours, , promotion of control measures other than PPE and support for Integrated Pest Management (IPM). PMID:24754959

2014-01-01

380

Policy environment and male circumcision for HIV prevention: Findings from a situation analysis study in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to be effective against heterosexual acquisition of HIV infection and is being scaled up as an additional strategy against HIV in several countries of Africa. However, the policy environment (whether to formulate new specific policy on MC or adapts the existing ones); and the role of various stakeholders in the MC scale up process in Tanzania was unclear. We conducted this study as part of a situation analysis to understand the attitudes of policy makers and other key community and health authority decision makers towards MC, policy and regulatory environment, and the readiness of a health system to accommodate scaling up of MC services. Methods We conducted 36 key informants' interviews with a broad range of informants including civil servants, religious leaders, cultural and traditional gatekeepers and other potential informants. Study informants were selected at the national level, regional, district and community levels to represent both traditionally circumcising and non-circumcising communities. Results Study informants had positive attitudes and strong beliefs towards MC. Key informants in traditionally non-circumcising districts were willing to take their sons for medically performed MC. Religious leaders and traditional gatekeepers supported MC as it has been enshrined in their holy scripts and traditional customs respectively. Civil servants highlighted the need for existence of enabling policy and regulatory environment in the form of laws, regulations and guidelines that will ensure voluntary accessibility, acceptability, quality and safety for those in need of MC services. Majority of informants urged the government to make improvements in the health system at all levels to ensure availability of adequate trained personnel, infrastructure, equipment, and supplies for MC scale up, and insisted on the involvement of different MC stakeholders as key components in effective roll out of medically performed MC programme in the country. Conclusions Findings from the situation analysis in Tanzania have shown that despite the absence of a specific policy on MC, basic elements of enabling policy environment at national, regional, district and community levels are in place for the implementation of MC scale up programme. PMID:21708046

2011-01-01

381

Increasing Access to Subsidized Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy through Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In Tanzania, many people seek malaria treatment from retail drug sellers. The National Malaria Control Program identified the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program as a private sector mechanism to supplement the distribution of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) from public facilities and increase access to the first-line antimalarial in rural and underserved areas. The ADDO program strengthens private sector pharmaceutical services by improving regulatory and supervisory support, dispenser training, and record keeping practices. Methods The government's pilot program made subsidized ACTs available through ADDOs in 10 districts in the Morogoro and Ruvuma regions, covering about 2.9 million people. The program established a supply of subsidized ACTs, created a price system with a cost recovery plan, developed a plan to distribute the subsidized products to the ADDOs, trained dispensers, and strengthened the adverse drug reactions reporting system. As part of the evaluation, 448 ADDO dispensers brought their records to central locations for analysis, representing nearly 70% of ADDOs operating in the two regions. ADDO drug register data were available from July 2007-June 2008 for Morogoro and from July 2007-September 2008 for Ruvuma. This intervention was implemented from 2007-2008. Results During the pilot, over 300,000 people received treatment for malaria at the 448 ADDOs. The percentage of ADDOs that dispensed at least one course of ACT rose from 26.2% during July-September 2007 to 72.6% during April-June 2008. The number of malaria patients treated with ACTs gradually increased after the start of the pilot, while the use of non-ACT antimalarials declined; ACTs went from 3% of all antimalarials sold in July 2007 to 26% in June 2008. District-specific data showed substantial variation among the districts in ACT uptake through ADDOs, ranging from ACTs representing 10% of all antimalarial sales in Kilombero to 47% in Morogoro Rural. Conclusions The intervention increased access to affordable ACTs for underserved populations. Indications are that antimalarial monotherapies are being "crowded out" of the market. Importantly, the transition to ACTs has been accomplished in an environment where the safety and efficacy of the drugs and the quality of services are being monitored and regulated. This paper presents a description of the pilot program implementation, results of the program evaluation, and a discussion of the challenges and recommendations that will be used to guide rollout of subsidized ACT in ADDOs in the rest of Tanzania and possibly in other countries. PMID:21658259

2011-01-01

382

Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

2013-01-01

383

History and Culture of Tanzania and Zambia: A Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program, Summer, 1992. Curriculum Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum projects described in this collection were developed by U.S. classroom teachers who traveled to Tanzania and Zambia as part of the Fulbright-Hays teacher exchange program in the summer of 1992. The included projects are as follows: "Curriculum Project: Tanzania/Zambia Seminar Abroad '92" (Donelle Blubaugh); "East Africa and Its…

1992

384

Local Government Reform Programs and Human Resource Capacity Building in Africa: Evidence from Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Local Government Reform Program (LGRP) in Tanzania was introduced to improve the access and quality of services provided by Local Government Authorities (LGAs). The main aim of the study is to clarify the practice and impact of Human Resource Capacity Building with reference to the LGRP in Tanzania. The study adopted a three-dimensional framework involving Human Resource Development (HRD),

William Pallangyo; Christopher J. Rees

2010-01-01

385

EXISTING MECHANISMS FOR SMALLHOLDER SEED PRODUCTION AND DISSEMINATION IN TANZANIA: A CASE OF SUA B\\/C CRSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, Tanzania shifted away from reliance on public seed enterprises and has since then directed more interest towards private smallholder seed production. By 1995, a number of organisations assisting smallholder farmers in the production of seeds had emerged. To date, there has been little assessment of smallholder seed production mechanisms in Tanzania. This paper examines the principle mechanisms for

Kibiby J. Mtenga; Amon Z. Mattee; Carol A. Miles

386

A Ghanaian Response to the Study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: developing an Equity Scorecard" is a contribution to making higher education more socially inclusive in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings reinforce some of the policy initiatives taken in Ghana and Tanzania, and underscore the importance of widening participation in…

Effah, Paul

2011-01-01

387

The use of personal digital assistants for data entry at the point of collection in a large household survey in southern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Survey data are traditionally collected using pen-and-paper, with double data entry, comparison of entries and reconciliation\\u000a of discrepancies before data cleaning can commence. We used Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) for data entry at the point\\u000a of collection, to save time and enhance the quality of data in a survey of over 21,000 scattered rural households in southern\\u000a Tanzania.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pendragon Forms

Kizito Shirima; Oscar Mukasa; Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg; Fatuma Manzi; Davis John; Adiel Mushi; Mwifadhi Mrisho; Marcel Tanner; Hassan Mshinda; David Schellenberg

2007-01-01

388

Social and economic aspects of the introduction of gasification technology in rural areas of developing countries (Tanzania)  

SciTech Connect

According to the evaluation criteria presented, the gasification of corn cobs is acceptable from the economical and agricultural point of view in the rural areas around Arusha (Tanzania). The gasification system is of relatively simple construction and local maintenance is possible. If the system is connected to the already existing corn mills in the villages, it is appropriate to the existing socio-cultural system. The economic calculations made clear that the use of gasification is attractive for both the owners of the corn mill and the government. The advantages for the government are the savings on imported oil and the extra income created for the users of the corn mill (inhabitants of the rural villages). The government loses income from taxes and from the production and transport of diesel oil. Evaluation methods presented can and should be used for gasification projects in other areas.

Groeneveld, M.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

1980-01-01

389

Studies on trap effectiveness of tsetse flies (Glossina spp. (Diptera: Glossinidae)) in the Tanga Region of north eastern Tanzania.  

PubMed

At Mkwaja and Mivumoni ranches in NE Tanzania the catches of Glossina pallidipes Austen, G. brevipalpis Newstead, G. morsitans morsitans Westwood and G. austeni Newstead were usually about two to three times greater in traps of the NGU, Epsilon and F3 types than in the Blue Biconical and Pyramidal traps when used with odours. Catches from moving men were improved about three times when the men carried a black screen, and increased by about another seven times for female G. pallidipes when a vehicle was the bait. The sensitivity of surveys for tsetse was estimated to be improved about 300 times for G. pallidipes and two to five times for G. brevipalpis and G. m. morsitans when surveys use traps instead of vehicles as baits. The needs for further research and field trials with survey methods are discussed. PMID:12875933

Kasilagila, G

2003-08-01

390

Prevalence and covariates of abnormal left ventricular geometry in never-treated hypertensive patients in Tanzania.  

PubMed

AIM. To assess prevalence, type and covariates of abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry in untreated native Tanzanian patients with hypertension in relation to normotensive controls. METHODS. Echocardiography was performed in 161 untreated hypertensive outpatients and 80 normotensive controls at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Hypertensive heart disease was defined as presence of increased LV mass or relative wall thickness (RWT). RESULTS. The prevalence of hypertensive heart disease increased with the severity of hypertension and was on average 62.1% among patients and 12.5% in controls. In multivariate analyses, higher LV mass index was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (? = 0.28), body mass index (? = 0.20), peak early transmitral to medial mitral annulus velocity ratio (? = 0.16), and with lower stress-corrected midwall shortening (scMWS) (? = - 0.44) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (? = - 0.16), all p < 0.05. Higher RWT was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (? = 0.16), longer E-wave deceleration time (? = 0.23) and lower scMWS (? = - 0.66), irrespective of LV mass (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION. Subclinical hypertensive heart disease is highly prevalent in untreated native hypertensive Tanzanians and associated with both systolic and diastolic LV dysfunction. Management of hypertension in Africans should include high focus on subclinical hypertensive heart disease. PMID:23721542

Chillo, Pilly; Lwakatare, Johnson; Rieck, Ashild E; Lutale, Janet; Gerdts, Eva

2014-02-01

391

Women's Preferences for Place of Delivery in Rural Tanzania: A Population-Based Discrete Choice Experiment  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) in rural western Tanzania, where only one third of women deliver children in a health facility, to evaluate health-system factors that influence women's delivery decisions. Methods. Women were shown choice cards that described 2 hypothetical health centers by means of 6 attributes (distance, cost, type of provider, attitude of provider, drugs and equipment, free transport). The women were then asked to indicate which of the 2 facilities they would prefer to use for a future delivery. We used a hierarchical Bayes procedure to estimate individual and mean utility parameters. Results. A total of 1203 women completed the DCE. The model showed good predictive validity for actual facility choice. The most important facility attributes were a respectful provider attitude and availability of drugs and medical equipment. Policy simulations suggested that if these attributes were improved at existing facilities, the proportion of women preferring facility delivery would rise from 43% to 88%. Conclusions. In regions in which attended delivery rates are low despite availability of primary care facilities, policy experiments should test the effect of targeted quality improvements on facility use. PMID:19608959

Paczkowski, Magdalena; Mbaruku, Godfrey; de Pinho, Helen; Galea, Sandro

2009-01-01

392

Genome Wide Association Study of Fetal Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is an important modulator of sickle cell disease (SCD). HbF has previously been shown to be affected by variants at three loci on chromosomes 2, 6 and 11, but it is likely that additional loci remain to be discovered. Methods and Findings We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,213 SCA (HbSS/HbS?0) patients in Tanzania. Genotyping was done with Illumina Omni2.5 array and imputation using 1000 Genomes Phase I release data. Association with HbF was analysed using a linear mixed model to control for complex population structure within our study. We successfully replicated known associations for HbF near BCL11A and the HBS1L-MYB intergenic polymorphisms (HMIP), including multiple independent effects near BCL11A, consistent with previous reports. We observed eight additional associations with P<10?6. These associations could not be replicated in a SCA population in the UK. Conclusions This is the largest GWAS study in SCA in Africa. We have confirmed known associations and identified new genetic associations with HbF that require further replication in SCA populations in Africa. PMID:25372704

Rooks, Helen; Mgaya, Josephine; Mariki, Harvest; Soka, Deogratius; Mmbando, Bruno; Msaki, Evarist; Kolder, Iris; Thein, Swee Lay; Menzel, Stephan; Cox, Sharon E.; Makani, Julie; Barrett, Jeffrey C.

2014-01-01

393

'If you have children, you have responsibilities': motherhood, sex work and HIV in southern Tanzania.  

PubMed

Many female sex workers begin sex work as mothers, or because they are mothers, and others seek childbearing. Motherhood may influence women's livelihoods as sex workers and their subsequent HIV risks. We used qualitative research methods (30 in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions) and employed Connell's theory of Gender and Power to explore the intersections between motherhood, sex work, and HIV-related risk. Participants were adult women who self-reported exchanging sex for money within the past month and worked in entertainment venues in southern Tanzania. Participants had two children on average, and two-thirds had children at home. Women situated their socially stigmatised work within their respectable identities as mothers caring for their children. Being mothers affected sex workers' negotiating power in complex manners, which led to both reported increases in HIV-related risk behaviours (accepting more clients, accepting more money for no condom, anal sex), and decreases in risk behaviours (using condoms, demanding condom use, testing for HIV). Sex workers/mothers were aware of risks at work, but with children to support, their choices were constrained. Future policies and programming should consider sex workers' financial and practical needs as mothers, including those related to their children such as school fees and childcare. PMID:25270410

Beckham, Sarah W; Shembilu, Catherine R; Winch, Peter J; Beyrer, Chris; Kerrigan, Deanna L

2015-01-01

394

CONCENTRATION AND DRUG PRICES IN THE RETAIL MARKET FOR MALARIA TREATMENT IN RURAL TANZANIA  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition. The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care seekers obtaining appropriate treatment. Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. PMID:19301420

GOODMAN, CATHERINE; KACHUR, S. PATRICK; ABDULLA, SALIM; BLOLAND, PETER; MILLS, ANNE

2009-01-01

395

Cost-Effectiveness of the “Helping Babies Breathe” Program in a Missionary Hospital in Rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Objective The Helping Babies Breathe” (HBB) program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH) in rural Tanzania. Methods Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health. Findings Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY) averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide) 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated. Conclusion The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness. PMID:25006802

Vossius, Corinna; Lotto, Editha; Lyanga, Sara; Mduma, Estomih; Msemo, Georgina; Perlman, Jeffrey; Ersdal, Hege L.

2014-01-01

396

The market shaping of charges, trust and abuse: health care transactions in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Effective health care is a relational activity, that is, it requires social relationships of trust and mutual understanding between providers and those needing and seeking care. The breakdown of these relationships is therefore impoverishing, cutting people off from a basic human capability, that of accessing of decent health care in time of need. In Tanzania as in much of Africa, health care relationships are generally also market transactions requiring out-of-pocket payment. This paper analyses the active constitution and destruction of trust within Tanzanian health care transactions, demonstrating systematic patterns both of exclusion and abuse and also of inclusion and merited trust. We triangulate evidence on charges paid and payment methods with perceptions of the trustworthiness of providers and with the socio-economic status of patients and household interviewees, distinguishing calculative, value based and personalised forms of trust. We draw on this interpretative analysis to argue that policy can support the construction of decent inclusive health care by constraining perverse market incentives that users understand to be a source of merited distrust; by assisting reputation-building and enlarging professional, managerial and public scrutiny; and by reinforcing value-based sources of trust. PMID:16005774

Tibandebage, Paula; Mackintosh, Maureen

2005-10-01

397

Preliminary investigation on presence of peste des petits ruminants in Dakawa, Mvomero district, Morogoro region, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants characterised by the sudden onset of depression, fever, oculonasal discharges, sores in the mouth, foul-smelling diarrhoea and death. For many years, in Africa, the disease was mainly confined to West and Central Africa but it has now spread southwards to previously PPR-free countries including Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. Presence of the disease has also been confirmed in southern Tanzania especially Mtwara region. Recently, a suspected outbreak of PPR in Dakawa area, Mvomero district, Morogoro region was reported. Clinical samples (lungs, intestines, lymph nodes, whole blood and sera) from suspected goats (n = 8) and sheep (n = 1) were submitted to Sokoine University of Agriculture for analysis. Molecular diagnosis by amplification of the nucleoprotein gene and the fusion gene of PPR virus (PPRV) using PPRV specific primers was done. Five goats and the sheep were positive for PPRV after performing RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report confirming the presence of PPR in the Mvomero district of the Morogoro region, Tanzania. Hence, more efforts should be put in place to prevent the spread of PPR in Tanzania. PMID:25134174

Kgotlele, Tebogo; Kasanga, Christopher J; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Misinzo, Gerald

2014-01-01

398

Difficult choices: infant feeding experiences of HIV-positive mothers in northern Tanzania.  

PubMed

Infant feeding represents a great challenge in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (pMTCT). The international guidelines informing infant feeding counselling suggest feeding methods that reduce the risk of HIV transmission, and discourage mixed feeding (combining breastfeeding with other fluids and solids). The feasibility and the social acceptability of the recommended feeding methods are hotly debated currently. Through the documentation of HIV-positive women's experiences, this article aims to provide empirically grounded knowledge on the relevance of the proposed feeding methods. Drawing upon cultural theory and a view of infant feeding practices as socially and culturally embedded, the article discusses the so-called 'informed choice' of infant feeding method among women enrolled in the pMTCT programme at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in northern Tanzania.The study is based on interviews and follow-up of 20 HIV-positive mothers during the last part of pregnancy, delivery and the first six months after birth. The article details four of these cases describing the challenges linked to exclusive breastfeeding, cow's milk feeding and formula feeding. The study demonstrates the gap between intentions and infant feeding practice in a context where the social expectations to breastfeed are high, and where kin and neighbours are part of the decision-making team surrounding infant feeding. It highlights the tension between the competing concerns of the medical and social risks involved in the choice of infant feeding method, and documents that the feeding options may be difficult to adhere to, whether a mother chooses exclusive breastfeeding or replacement feeding. PMID:18040533

Leshabari, S C; Blystad, A; Moland, K M

2007-05-01

399

Endangered edible orchids and vulnerable gatherers in the context of HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Tanzania is a wild orchid biodiversity hotspot and has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The wild orchids in the study are endemic and protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Every year, however, between 2.2 and 4.1 million orchid plants consumed in Zambia are estimated as originating from Tanzania. This research examines the differences between HIV/AIDS wild edible orchid gatherers and non-HIV/AIDS gatherers with regards to the frequency of gathering, salience in naming the various orchids, gathering knowledge acquisition and perceptions regarding the current state of abundance of the edible species. Methods Data was collected through interviews with 224 individuals in the Makete District of Tanzania close to the boarder of Zambia. Free-listings were conducted and Sutrup's Cultural Significance Index (CSI) constructed. The independent t-test was used to compare the differences in gathering frequencies between affected and non-affected gatherers. A multiple comparison of the 4 subgroups (affected adults and children, and non-affected adults and children) in gathering frequencies was done with a one way ANOVA test and its post hoc test. To examine the difference between affected and non-affected gatherers difference in source of gathering knowledge, a chi square test was run. Results Forty two vernacular names of gathered orchid species were mentioned corresponding to 7 botanical species belongs to genera Disa, Satyrium, Habenaria, Eulophia and Roeperocharis. Ninety-seven percent of HIV/AIDS affected households state that orchid gathering is their primary economic activity compared to non-HIV/AIDS affected households at 9.7 percent. The HIV/AIDS affected gathered significantly more often than the non-affected. AIDS orphans, however, gathered most frequently. Gatherers perceive a decreasing trend of abundance of 6 of the 7 species. Gathering activities were mainly performed in age based peer groups. The results revealed a significant difference between affected and non-affected individuals in terms of their source of gathering knowledge. Conclusions HIV/AIDS is related to increased reliance on the natural environment. This appears even more so for the most vulnerable, the AIDS orphaned children followed by HIV/AIDS widows. PMID:20021656

2009-01-01

400

Analysing and recommending options for maintaining universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets: the case of Tanzania in 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Tanzania achieved universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in October 2011, after three years of free mass net distribution campaigns and is now faced with the challenge of maintaining high coverage as nets wear out and the population grows. A process of exploring options for a continuous or “Keep-Up” distribution system was initiated in early 2011. This paper presents for the first time a comprehensive national process to review the major considerations, findings and recommendations for the implementation of a new strategy. Methods Stakeholder meetings and site visits were conducted in five locations in Tanzania to garner stakeholder input on the proposed distribution systems. Coverage levels for LLINs and their decline over time were modelled using NetCALC software, taking realistic net decay rates, current demographic profiles and other relevant parameters into consideration. Costs of the different distribution systems were estimated using local data. Results LLIN delivery was considered via mass campaigns, Antenatal Care-Expanded Programme on Immunization (ANC/EPI), community-based distribution, schools, the commercial sector and different combinations of the above. Most approaches appeared unlikely to maintain universal coverage when used alone. Mass campaigns, even when combined with a continuation of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS), would produce large temporal fluctuations in coverage levels; over 10 years this strategy would require 63.3 million LLINs and a total cost of $444 million USD. Community mechanisms, while able to deliver the required numbers of LLINs, would require a massive scale-up in monitoring, evaluation and supervision systems to ensure accurate application of identification criteria at the community level. School-based approaches combined with the existing TNVS would reach most Tanzanian households and deliver 65.4 million LLINs over 10 years at a total cost of $449 million USD and ensure continuous coverage. The cost of each strategy was largely driven by the number of LLINs delivered. Conclusions The most cost-efficient strategy to maintain universal coverage is one that best optimizes the numbers of LLINs needed over time. A school-based approach using vouchers targeting all students in Standards 1, 3, 5, 7 and Forms 1 and 2 in combination with the TNVS appears to meet best the criteria of effectiveness, equity and efficiency. PMID:23641705

2013-01-01

401

Maternal near miss and mortality in a rural referral hospital in northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa remains high despite global efforts to reduce it. In order to lower maternal morbidity and mortality in the immediate term, reduction of delay in the provision of quality obstetric care is of prime importance. The aim of this study is to assess the occurrence of severe maternal morbidity and mortality in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania as proposed by the WHO near miss approach and to assess implementation levels of key evidence-based interventions in women experiencing severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed from November 2009 until November 2011 in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. All maternal near misses and maternal deaths were included. As not all WHO near miss criteria were applicable, a modification was used to identify cases. Data were collected from medical records using a structured data abstraction form. Descriptive frequencies were calculated for demographic and clinical variables, outcome indicators, underlying causes, and process indicators. Results In the two-year period there were 216 maternal near misses and 32 maternal deaths. The hospital-based maternal mortality ratio was 350 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (95% CI 243–488). The maternal near miss incidence ratio was 23.6 per 1,000 live births, with an overall case fatality rate of 12.9%. Oxytocin for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage was used in 96 of 201 women and oxytocin for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage was used in 38 of 66 women. Furthermore, eclampsia was treated with magnesium sulphate in 87% of all cases. Seventy-four women underwent caesarean section, of which 25 women did not receive prophylactic antibiotics. Twenty-eight of 30 women who were admitted with sepsis received parenteral antibiotics. The majority of the cases with uterine rupture (62%) occurred in the hospital. Conclusion Maternal morbidity and mortality remain challenging problems in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. Key evidence-based interventions are not implemented in women with severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Progress can be made through up scaling the use of evidence-based interventions, such as the use of oxytocin for prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. PMID:23826935

2013-01-01

402

Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania following community, retail sector and health facility interventions -- a user perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The ACCESS programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. Between 2004 and 2008 the programme implemented a social marketing campaign for improved treatment-seeking. To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO) was created in Tanzania in 2006. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) in 2007 and subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on understanding and treatment of malaria was studied in rural Tanzania. The data also enabled an investigation of the determinants of access to treatment. Methods Three treatment-seeking surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006 and 2008 in the rural areas of the Ifakara demographic surveillance system (DSS) and in Ifakara town. Each survey included approximately 150 people who had suffered a fever case in the previous 14 days. Results Treatment-seeking and awareness of malaria was already high at baseline, but various improvements were seen between 2004 and 2008, namely: better understanding causes of malaria (from 62% to 84%); an increase in health facility attendance as first treatment option for patients older than five years (27% to 52%); higher treatment coverage with anti-malarials (86% to 96%) and more timely use of anti-malarials (80% to 93-97% treatments taken within 24 hrs). Unfortunately, the change of treatment policy led to a low availability of ALu in the private sector and, therefore, to a drop in the proportion of patients taking a recommended malaria treatment (85% to 53%). The availability of outlets (health facilities or drug shops) is the most important determinant of whether patients receive prompt and effective treatment, whereas affordability and accessibility contribute to a lesser extent. Conclusions An integrated approach aimed at improving understanding and treatment of malaria has led to tangible improvements in terms of people's actions for the treatment of malaria. However, progress was hindered by the low availability of the first-line treatment after the switch to ACT. PMID:20550653

2010-01-01

403

Sero-positivity rate of rubella and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Sero-positivity rates of the rubella virus among pregnant women vary widely throughout the world. In Tanzania, rubella vaccination is not included in the national immunization schedule and there is therefore no antenatal screening for this viral disease. So far, there are no reports on the sero-prevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Tanzania. As a result, this study was undertaken to establish the sero-positivity rate of rubella and rubella risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods From November 2012 to May 2013 a total of 350 pregnant women were enrolled and their serum samples collected and analyzed using the AXSYM anti-rubella virus IgG/IgM-MEIA test. Demographic and clinical data were collected using a standardized data collection tool. Data analysis was done using STATA version 12. Results Of 342 pregnant women tested for rubella antibodies, 317 (92.6%) were positive for anti-rubella IgG while only 1 (0.3%) was positive for IgM. Higher sero-positivity rates were found in the age group of 25–44 years. Furthermore, it was observed that with each year increase in age, the risk of contracting rubella increases by 12% (OR?=?1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22, P?=?0.019). Women involved in farming and business women were at a higher risk of contracting rubella infection compared to formally employed women (OR: 4.9, P?=?0.011; OR 7.1, p?=?0.003 respectively). In univariate analysis, the risk of contracting rubella virus infection was found to increase with gestational age with a statistical significance. Conclusions Sero-positivity rates of rubella are high in Mwanza and are significantly associated with an increase in age and being a farmer or a business woman. Screening of rubella and immunization of women at risk are highly recommended in this area with a high non-immune rate against rubella virus. PMID:24589180

2014-01-01

404

Feasibility of introducing compulsory community health fund in low resource countries: views from the communities in Liwale district of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In 1995, Tanzania introduced the voluntary Community Health Fund (CHF) with the aim of ensuring universal health coverage by increasing financial investment in the health sector. The uptake of the CHF is low, with an enrolment of only 6% compared to the national target of 75%. Mandatory models of community health financing have been suggested to increase enrolment and financial capacity. This study explores communities’ views on the introduction of a mandatory model, the Compulsory Community Health Fund (CCHF) in the Liwale district of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study which involved 387 participants in a structured face to face survey and 33 in qualitative interviews (26 in focus group discussions (FGD) and 7 in in-depth interviews (IDI). Structured survey data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 to produce descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results 387 people completed a survey (58% males), mean age 38 years. Most participants (347, 89.7%) were poor subsistence farmers and 229 (59.2%) had never subscribed to any form of health insurance scheme. The idea of a CCHF was accepted by 221 (57%) survey participants. Reasons for accepting the CCHF included: reduced out of pocket expenditure, improved quality of health care and the removal of stigma for those who receive waivers at health care delivery points. The major reason for not accepting the CCHF was the poor quality of health care services currently offered. Participants suggested that enrolment to the CCHF be done after harvesting when the population were more likely to have disposable income, and that the quality care of care and benefits package be improved. Conclusions The CHF is acceptable to the most of study participants and feasible in rural Tanzania as an alternative mechanism to finance health care for the rural poor. Community members are willing to join the scheme provided they are well informed, involved in the design and implementation, and assured quality health care. Strong political will and a supportive environment are key ingredients for the success of the CCHF. PMID:23924271

2013-01-01

405

Temporal trends of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Development and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) constitutes a major threat to recent global malaria control achievements. Surveillance of molecular markers could act as an early warning system of ACT-resistance before clinical treatment failures are apparent. The aim of this study was to analyse temporal trends of established genotypes associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance before and after its deployment as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Tanzania 2006. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) N86Y, Y184F, D1246Y and P. falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) K76T were analysed from dried blood spots collected during six consecutive studies from children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Fukayosi village, Bagamoyo District, Tanzania, between 2004–2011. Results There was a statistically significant yearly increase of pfmdr1 N86, 184F, D1246 and pfcrt K76 between 2006–2011 from 14% to 61% (yearly OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.25-1.52] p < 0.0001), 14% to 35% (OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.07-1.30] p = 0.001), 54% to 85% (OR = 1.21 [95% CI 1.03-1.42] p = 0.016) and 49% to 85% (OR = 1.33 [95% CI 1.17-1.51] p < 0.0001), respectively. Unlike for the pfmdr1 SNP, a significant increase of pfcrt K76 was observed already between 2004–2006, from 26% to 49% (OR = 1.68 [95% CI 1.17-2.40] p = 0.005). From 2006 to 2011 the pfmdr1 NFD haplotype increased from 10% to 37% (OR = 1.25 [95% CI 1.12-1.39] p < 0.0001), whereas the YYY haplotype decreased from 31% to 6% (OR = 0.73 [95% CI 0.56-0.98] p = 0.018). All 390 successfully analysed samples had one copy of the pfmdr1 gene. Conclusion The temporal selection of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance may represent an early warning sign of impaired future drug efficacy. This calls for stringent surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine efficacy in Tanzania and emphasizes the importance of molecular surveillance as a complement to standard in vivo trials. PMID:23506218

2013-01-01

406

Field evaluation of the photo-induced electron transfer fluorogenic primers (PET) real-time PCR for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate diagnosis of malaria infections remains challenging, especially in the identification of submicroscopic infections. New molecular diagnostic tools that are inexpensive, sensitive enough to detect low-level infections and suitable in laboratory settings of resource-limited countries are required for malaria control and elimination programmes. Here the diagnostic potential of a recently developed photo-induced electron transfer fluorogenic primer (PET) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) called PET-PCR was investigated. This study aimed to (i) evaluate the use of this assay as a method for the detection of both Plasmodium falciparum and other Plasmodium species infections in a developing country’s diagnostic laboratory; and, (ii) determine the assay’s sensitivity and specificity compared to a nested 18S rRNA PCR. Methods Samples used in this study were obtained from a previous study conducted in the region of Iringa, Tanzania. A total of 303 samples from eight health facilities in Tanzania were utilized for this evaluation. All samples were screened using the multiplex PET-PCR assay designed to detect Plasmodium genus and P. falciparum initially in laboratory in Tanzania and then repeated at a reference laboratory at the CDC in the USA. Microscopy data was available for all the 303 samples. A subset of the samples were tested in a blinded fashion to find the sensitivity and specificity of the PET-PCR compared to the nested 18S rRNA PCR. Results Compared to microscopy, the PET-PCR assay was 59% more sensitive in detecting P. falciparum infections. The observed sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% confidence interval (CI0.95)?=?94-100%) and (CI0.95?=?96-100%), respectively, for the PET-PCR assay when compared to nested 18S rRNA PCR. When compared to 18S rRNA PCR, microscopy had a low sensitivity of 40% (CI0.95?=?23-61%) and specificity of 100% (CI0.95?=?96-100%). The PET-PCR results performed in the field laboratory in Tanzania were in 100% concordance with the results obtained at the reference laboratory in the USA. Conclusion The PET-PCR is a new molecular diagnostic tool with similar performance characteristics as commonly used PCR methods that is less expensive, easy to use, and amiable to large scale-surveillance studies in developing country settings. PMID:24467985

2014-01-01

407

Unfulfilled expectations to services offered at primary health care facilities: Experiences of caretakers of underfive children in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that patients frequently bypass primary health care (PHC) facilities in favour of higher level hospitals regardless of substantial additional time and costs. Among the reasons given for bypassing are poor services (including lack of drugs and diagnostic facilities) and lack of trust in health workers. The World Health Report 2008 “PHC now more than ever” pointed to the importance of organizing health services around people’s needs and expectations as one of the four main issues of PHC reforms. There is limited documentation of user’s expectations to services offered at PHC facilities. The current study is a community extension of a hospital-based survey that showed a high bypassing frequency of PHC facilities among caretakers seeking care for their underfive children at two district hospitals. We aimed to explore caretakers’ perceptions and expectations to services offered at PHC facilities in their area with reference to their experiences seeking care at such facilities. Methods We conducted four community-based focus group discussions (FGD’s) with 47