In a five year review, there were 30 cases of cholelithiasis treated at the Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The male to female ratio was 1:3, and the peak age for cholelithiasis was in the 30 to 49 years age group. Right upper quadrant abdominal pain was the commonest presenting symptom (100 pc), and cholecystectomy was performed in all patients. Local complications of gall stones were recorded in seven patients (23.3 pc) and these included; gall bladder empyema, pericholecysteal abscess, CBD stone, gall bladder adenoma, gall bladder mucocele, and two patients had acute cholecystis. Stones were multiple in 90 pc of patients, and on macroscopic classification the ratio of cholesterol to pigment stones was 2:1. There was no death in this series of 30 patients. PMID:8556775
Aziz, M R; Wandwi, W B
A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval informa- tion, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate
Stefan Dongus; Dickson Nyika; Khadija Kannady; Deo Mtasiwa; Hassan Mshinda; Laura Gosoniu; Axel W. Drescher; Ulrike Fillinger; Marcel Tanner; Gerry F. Killeen; Marcia C. Castro
Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is the method of choice for delivering services for people living with disabilities in many countries. HIV\\/AIDS is changing the daily lives of many women by adding to their responsibilities. How realistically can such women participate actively in community development activities like CBR? This paper examines the impact of HIV\\/AIDS on CBR in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
William Boyce; Laurence Cote
Marine basidiomycetes fungus Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden was isolated from sea grass at Mjimwema in the Western Indian Ocean off the Coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and cultured in the laboratory. Protein content and lignocellulosic enzyme activities were measured by photometric methods. Desalted and size-separated enzyme filtrates were resolved by sodium docecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric
Godliving Mtui; Yoshitoshi Nakamura
Background Malaria is a major cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality. As no clinical features clearly differentiate malaria from other febrile illnesses, and malaria diagnosis is challenged by often lacking laboratory equipment and expertise, overdiagnosis and overtreatment is common. Methods Children admitted with fever at the general paediatric wards at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from January to June 2009 were recruited consecutively and prospectively. Demographic and clinical features were registered. Routine thick blood smear microscopy at MNH was compared to results of subsequent thin blood smear microscopy, and rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs). Genus-specific PCR of Plasmodium mitochondrial DNA was performed on DNA extracted from whole blood and species-specific PCR was done on positive samples. Results Among 304 included children, 62.6% had received anti-malarials during the last four weeks prior to admission and 65.1% during the hospital stay. Routine thick blood smears, research blood smears, PCR and RDT detected malaria in 13.2%, 6.6%, 25.0% and 13.5%, respectively. Positive routine microscopy was confirmed in only 43% (17/40), 45% (18/40) and 53% (21/40), by research microscopy, RDTs and PCR, respectively. Eighteen percent (56/304) had positive PCR but negative research microscopy. Reported low parasitaemia on routine microscopy was associated with negative research blood slide and PCR. RDT-positive cases were associated with signs of severe malaria. Palmar pallor, low haemoglobin and low platelet count were significantly associated with positive PCR, research microscopy and RDT. Conclusions The true morbidity attributable to malaria in the study population remains uncertain due to the discrepancies in results among the diagnostic methods. The current routine microscopy appears to result in overdiagnosis of malaria and, consequently, overuse of anti-malarials. Conversely, children with a false positive malaria diagnosis may die because they do not receive treatment for the true cause of their illness. RDTs appear to have the potential to improve routine diagnostics, but the clinical implication of the many RDT-negative, PCR-positive samples needs to be elucidated.
Objective To describe how demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer influence screening acceptance among women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Multistage cluster sampling was carried out in 45 randomly selected streets in Dar es Salaam. Women between the ages of 25–59 who lived in the sampled streets were invited to a cervical cancer screening; 804 women accepted and 313 rejected the invitation. Information on demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer were obtained through structured questionnaire interviews. Results Women aged 35–44 and women aged 45–59 had increased ORs of 3.52 and 7.09, respectively, for accepting screening. Increased accepting rates were also found among single women (OR 2.43) and among women who had attended primary or secondary school (ORs of 1.81 and 1.94). Women who had 0–2 children were also more prone to accept screening in comparison with women who had five or more children (OR 3.21). Finally, knowledge of cervical cancer and awareness of the existing screening program were also associated with increased acceptance rates (ORs of 5.90 and 4.20). Conclusion There are identifiable subgroups where cervical cancer screening can be increased in Dar es Salaam. Special attention should be paid to women of low education and women of high parity. In addition, knowledge and awareness raising campaigns that goes hand in hand with culturally acceptable screening services will likely lead to an increased uptake of cervical cancer screening.
Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing. It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones. Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture. PMID:24908469
Pfeiffer, Constanze; Kleeb, Matthis; Mbelwa, Alice; Ahorlu, Collins
Background Childhood obesity has increased dramatically and has become a public health concern worldwide. Childhood obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and may lead to early onset of NCDs. However, there is paucity of data on obesity among primary school children in Tanzania. This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among school age children in randomly selected schools in Dar es Salaam. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken using standard procedures. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters (kg/m2). Child obesity was defined as BMI at or above 95th percentile for age and sex. Socio-demographic characteristics of children were determined using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine association between independent variables with obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam. Results A total of 446 children were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 11.1±2.0 years and 53.1% were girls. The mean BMI, SBP and DBP were 16.6±4.0 kg/m2, 103.9±10.3mmHg and 65.6±8.2mmHg respectively. The overall prevalence of child obesity was 5.2% and was higher among girls (6.3%) compared to boys (3.8%). Obese children had significantly higher mean values for age (p=0.042), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (all p<0.001). Most obese children were from households with fewer children (p=0.019) and residing in urban areas (p=0.002). Controlling for other variables, age above 10 years (AOR=3.3, 95% CI=1.5-7.2), female sex (AOR=2.6, 95% CI=1.4-4.9), urban residence (AOR=2.5, 95% CI=1.2-5.3) and having money to spend at school (AOR=2.6, 95% CI=1.4-4.8) were significantly associated with child obesity. Conclusions The prevalence of childhood obesity in this population was found to be low. However, children from urban schools and girls were proportionately more obese compared to their counterparts. Primary preventive measures for childhood obesity should start early in childhood and address socioeconomic factors of parents contributing to childhood obesity.
BACKGROUND: Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs)
Prosper P Chaki; Nicodem J Govella; Bryson Shoo; Abdullah Hemed; Marcel Tanner; Ulrike Fillinger; Gerry F Killeen
Background Tanzania is among the countries in the world where the cervical cancer incidence is estimated to be highest. Acknowledging an increase in the burden of cervical cancer, VIA was implemented as a regional cervical cancer screening strategy in Tanzania in 2002. With the aim of describing risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Tanzania, this paper present the results from a comparative analysis performed among women who are reached and not reached by the screening program”. Methods 14 107 women aged 25–59 enrolled in a cervical cancer screening program in Dar es Salaam in the period 2002 – 2008. The women underwent VIA examination and took part in a structured questionnaire interview. Socioeconomic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV status and high-risk (HR) HPV infection were determined in a subpopulation of 890 who participated and 845 who did not participate in the screening. Results Being widowed/separated OR=1.41 (95% CI: 1.17-1.66), of high parity OR=3.19 (95% CI: 1.84-5.48) of low education OR= 4.30 (95% CI: 3.50-5.31) and married at a young age OR=2.17 (95% CI: 1.37-3.07) were associated with being VIA positive. Women who participated in the screening were more likely to be HIV positive OR= 1.59 (95% CI. 1.14-2.25) in comparison with women who had never attended screening, while no difference was found in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection among women who had attended screening and women who had not attended screening. Conclusion Women who are widowed/separated, of high parity, of low education and married at a young age are more likely to be VIA positive and thus at risk of developing cervical cancer. The study further documents that a referral linkage between the HIV care and treatment program and the cervical cancer screening program is in place in the setting studied, where HIV positive were more likely to participate in the cervical cancer screening program than HIV negative women.
There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…
Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie
From 18th December, 1968 to 5th January, 1970, zooplankton samples were taken in darkness and using artificial light in selected areas of the Dar es Salaam coast (Tanzania, S. E. Africa). Surface sea temperature was measured on most occasions, salinity for the first 7 months only. The neritic waters of Dar es Salaam experience a warm period during January to
Background The use of larval source management is not prioritized by contemporary malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa despite historical success. Larviciding, in particular, could be effective in urban areas where transmission is focal and accessibility to Anopheles breeding habitats is generally easier than in rural settings. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a community-based microbial larviciding intervention to reduce the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. Methods and Findings Larviciding was implemented in 3 out of 15 targeted wards of Dar es Salaam in 2006 after two years of baseline data collection. This intervention was subsequently scaled up to 9 wards a year later, and to all 15 targeted wards in 2008. Continuous randomized cluster sampling of malaria prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics was carried out during 6 survey rounds (2004–2008), which included both cross-sectional and longitudinal data (N?=?64,537). Bayesian random effects logistic regression models were used to quantify the effect of the intervention on malaria prevalence at the individual level. Effect size estimates suggest a significant protective effect of the larviciding intervention. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of individuals living in areas treated with larviciding being infected with malaria were 21% lower (Odds Ratio?=?0.79; 95% Credible Intervals: 0.66–0.93) than those who lived in areas not treated. The larviciding intervention was most effective during dry seasons and had synergistic effects with other protective measures such as use of insecticide-treated bed nets and house proofing (i.e., complete ceiling or window screens). Conclusion A large-scale community-based larviciding intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in urban Dar es Salaam.
Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Castro, Marcia C.
Background Effective maternal and perinatal audits are associated with improved quality of care and reduction of severe adverse outcome. Although audits at the level of care were formally introduced in Tanzania around 25 years ago, little information is available about their existence, performance, and practical barriers to their implementation. This study assessed the structure, process and impacts of maternal and perinatal death audit systems in clinical practice and presents a detailed account on how they could be improved. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in eight major hospitals in Dar es Salaam in January 2009. An in-depth interview guide was used for 29 health managers and members of the audit committees to investigate the existence, structure, process and outcome of such audits in clinical practice. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 30 health care providers in the maternity wards to assess their awareness, attitude and practice towards audit systems. The 2007 institutional pregnancy outcome records were reviewed. Results Overall hospital based maternal mortality ratio was 218/100,000 live births (range: 0 - 385) and perinatal mortality rate was 44/1000 births (range: 17 - 147). Maternal and perinatal audit systems existed only in 4 and 3 hospitals respectively, and key decision makers did not take part in audit committees. Sixty percent of care providers were not aware of even a single action which had ever been implemented in their hospitals because of audit recommendations. There were neither records of the key decision points, action plan, nor regular analysis of the audit reports in any of the facilities where such audit systems existed. Conclusions Maternal and perinatal audit systems in these institutions are poorly established in structure and process; and are less effective to improve the quality of care. Fundamental changes are urgently needed for successful audit systems in these institutions.
OBJECTIVE The determinants of anemia during both pregnancy and postpartum recovery remain incompletely understood in sub-Saharan African women. SUBJECTS/METHODS In a prospective cohort study among pregnant women, we assessed dietary, biochemical, anthropometric, infectious and sociodemographic factors at baseline. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we examined predictors of incident anemia (hemoglobin <11 g/dl) and iron deficiency anemia (anemia plus mean corpuscular volume <80 fL), and recovery from anemia and iron deficiency anemia through 18 months postpartum at antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between 2001 and 2005. A total of 2364 non-anemic pregnant women and 4884 anemic women were enrolled between 12 and 27 weeks of gestation. RESULTS In total, 292 women developed anemia during the postpartum period and 165 developed iron deficiency anemia, whereas 2982 recovered from baseline anemia and 2044 from iron deficiency anemia. Risk factors for postpartum anemia were delivery complications (RR 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 2.22) and low postpartum CD4 cell count (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.96, 3.17). Iron/folate supplementation during pregnancy had a protective relationship with the incidence of iron deficiency anemia. Absence of delivery complications, education status and iron/folate supplementation were positively associated with time to recovery from iron deficiency. CONCLUSION Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy, prenatal iron/folate supplementation, perinatal care, and prevention and management of infections, such as malaria, are modifiable risk factors for the occurrence of, and recovery from, anemia.
Petraro, P; Duggan, C; Urassa, W; Msamanga, G; Makubi, A; Spiegelman, D; Fawzi, WW
Background The number of people newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been decreasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but prevalence of the infection remains unacceptably high among young people. Despite the alarming pervasiveness of the virus, young people in this region continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In developed countries, parents can play important roles in protecting young people from such behaviors, but evidence regarding the impact of parental involvement is still limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional study among 2,217 male and female students aged 15 to 24 years from 12 secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. From October to November 2011, we collected data using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 665 (30.3%) secondary school students reported being sexually active within the year prior to data collection. Among them, 41.7% had multiple sexual partners, 10.5% had concurrent sexual partners, and 41.1% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. A higher level of parental monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of condom use at last sexual intercourse among male students (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32; p?=?0.03) but not among female students (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.71-3.37; p?=?0.28). The association between parental communication and condom use at last sexual intercourse among both male and female students was not statistically significant. Conclusions A high level of parental monitoring is associated with more consistent condom use among male students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania -- many of whom have engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors such as multiple sexual partnerships, concurrent sexual partnerships, and unprotected sexual intercourse in the past one year. Interventions should thus be strengthened to reduce multiple sexual partnerships, concurrent sexual partnerships, and to improve parental monitoring among such students toward increasing condom use.
Background Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults aged 18 - 65 years in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from April 2007 to April 2008. Methods Random sampling of households was performed. Interviews and anthropometric measurement were carried out to eligible and consenting members of the selected households. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI). Results Out of 1249 subjects recruited, 814 (65.2%) were females. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19.2% (240/1249). However, obesity was significantly more prevalent in women (24.7%) than men (9%), p < 0.001, among respondents with high socio-economic status (29.2%) as compared to those with medium (14.3%) and low socio-economic status (11.3%), p value for trend < 0.001, and among respondents with light intensity activities (26.0%), p value for trend < 0.001. Conclusion This study revealed a higher prevalence of obesity among Kinondoni residents than previously reported in other parts of the country. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, marriage and cohabitation, high SES, female sex and less vigorous physical activities.
We assembled a prospective cohort of 3144 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children aged <15 years initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The prospective relationships of baseline covariates with growth were examined using linear regression models. ART led to improvement in mean weight-for-age (WAZ), height/length-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-length or body mass index (WLZ/BMIZ) scores. However, normal HAZ values were not attained over an average follow-up of 17.2 months. After 6 months of ART, underweight (P < 0.001), low CD4 count or percent (P < 0.001), stavudine containing regimens (P = 0.05) and advanced WHO disease stage (P < 0.001) at ART initiation were associated with better WAZ scores. Age >5 years on the other hand was associated with less increase in WAZ score after 6 months of ART (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that although ART improved the growth of the HIV-infected children in Tanzania, adjunct nutritional interventions may be needed to ensure that the growth of these children is optimized to the greatest extent possible. PMID:24393831
Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Spiegelman, Donna; Duggan, Christopher; Seage, George R; Semu, Helen; Chalamilla, Guerino; Kisenge, Rodrick; Fawzi, Wafaie W
Summary Young adults in sub-Saharan Africa most often state 'I trust my partner' as the reason for not using condoms consistently. This study assesses the extent to which young adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, trust their partners, how trust influences condom use and whether certain relationship characteristics influence the relationship between trust and condom use. Data were taken from the 2003 Tanzania Trust Survey, and the level of trust reported by 509 male and female young adults aged 15-24 who were in relationships was examined. The analysis showed that reported trust in a partner has the expected negative relationship with consistent condom use. However, this negative association differs by relationship characteristics. To facilitate the interpretation of interactions between marriage and trust, the predicted probabilities of consistent condom use by level of trust were calculated for males and for females by marital status, showing that the negative association is strong among those who are not married, but that there is no association between trust and condom use among young married adults. PMID:24405964
Hattori, Megan Klein
The young urban population of Tanzania is growing rapidly, primarily due to rural-urban migration. More information is needed on the challenges facing young adult urban women and men in using family planning (FP). The purpose of this study is to identify perceptions, interpersonal and familial attitudes, and sociocultural norms regarding FP among young adults (18-25 years) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, comparing responses by sex, marital status and migration status. We conducted 12 focus groups with young adult men and women (n=74) in Dar es Salaam in December 2009. Participants knew of modern contraceptive methods, but had serious concerns about side effects. Single men and women preferred condoms. Female migrants stated that traditional methods were ineffective, yet commonly used in rural areas. Men's desires for more children frequently led female migrants not to use FP, while many married long-term residents used FP discreetly. Single women sometimes received the support of their parents/boyfriends to access and use contraception. Findings highlight differences in experiences among young adult men and women based on their migrant and marital status at the individual, interpersonal and normative levels. Future efforts to promote FP should engage existing social support systems and cultivate new ones in response to barriers. PMID:24156247
Irani, Laili; Speizer, Ilene; Barrington, Clare
This study was conducted to determine self-care practices and diabetes related emotional distress among people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross sectional survey-involving 121 Types 2 diabetics was conducted in 4 diabetic clinics located in Dar es Salaam. Anthropometric and biomedical measurements namely weight, height, waist, hip, mid-upper arm circumference, blood pressure and fasting
Theobald C. E. Mosha; Heri Rashidi
Transactional sex has been associated with risk of HIV infection in a number of studies throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Urban young women are economically vulnerable and at heightened risk of HIV infection in Tanzania; yet there are few studies that have explored relationship dynamics, including transactional sex, in this setting. This paper sheds light on the broader context of sexual relationships among youth at risk for HIV, how transactional sex plays out in these relationships, and how the transactional nature of relationships affects women's risk for HIV. We conducted 60 in depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions with young men and women, 16-24 years old, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These data guided the development of a community based HIV and violence prevention intervention for young men. Youth described the exchange of sex for money or other material goods in all types of sexual relationships. While the exchange was explicit in casual relationships, young women voiced material and monetary expectations from their committed partners as well. Young men described their pursuit of multiple partners as sexually motivated, while women sought multiple partners for economic reasons. Young men were aware of the expectations of material support from partners, and acknowledged that their ability to provide for a partner affected both the longevity and exclusivity of their relationships. Youth described a deep mistrust of the motivations and commitment of their sexual partners. Furthermore, young women's financial dependence on men impacted their ability to negotiate safe sexual behaviors in both casual and committed relationships. Programs designed to reduce HIV risk among Tanzanian youth need to take into account the transactional component of sexual relationships and how such exchanges differ according to partner type. PMID:17851993
Maganja, R K; Maman, S; Groves, A; Mbwambo, J K
In Tanzania, about 7% of the adult population is HIV-infected. Given limited pharmaceutical options, adherence to strategies that foster health and well-being is vital to reducing both new and repeated HIV exposure. We investigated the influences of HIV\\/AIDS-related stress and social support on adherence to health promotion strategies by people living with HIV\\/AIDS in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In-person interviews
Theresa Kaijage; Sandra Wexler
Background As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km2 in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were asked. In this study, the range of access to improved sanitation and improved water sources was quite narrow at the ward level, limiting our ability to discern relationships between these variables and cholera incidence. Analysis at the individual household level for these variables would be of interest. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that ongoing global urbanization coupled with urban poverty will be associated with increased risks for certain infectious diseases, such as cholera, underscoring the need for improved infrastructure and planning as the world's urban population continues to expand.
Penrose, Katherine; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Werema, Japhet; Ryan, Edward T.
Health system responsiveness (HSR) measures quality of care from the patient's perspective, an important component of ensuring adherence to medication and care among HIV patients. We examined HSR in private clinics serving HIV patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We surveyed 640 patients, 18 or older receiving care at one of 10 participating clinics, examining socioeconomic factors, HIV regimen, and self-reported experience with access and care at the clinic. Ordered logistic regression, adjusted for clustering of the clinic sites, was used to measure the relationships between age, gender, education, site size, and overall quality of care rating, as well as between the different HSR domains and overall rating. Overall, patients reported high levels of satisfaction with care received. Confidentiality, communication, and respect were particularly highly rated, while timeliness received lower ratings despite relatively short wait times, perhaps indicating high expectations when receiving care at a private clinic. Respect, confidentiality, and promptness were significantly associated with overall rating of health care, while provider skills and communication were not significantly associated. Patients reported that quality of service and confidentiality, rather than convenience of location, were the most important factors in their choice of a clinic. Site size (patient volume) was also positively correlated with patient satisfaction. Our findings suggest that, in the setting of urban private-sector clinics, flexible clinics hours, prompt services, and efforts to improve respect, privacy and confidentiality may prove more helpful in increasing visit adherence than geographic accessibility. While a responsive health system is valuable in its own right, more work is needed to confirm that improvements in HSR in fact lead to improved adherence to care. PMID:24499337
Miller, James S; Mhalu, Aisa; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Hellen; Kaaya, Silvia; Tito, Justina; Aris, Eric; Hirschhorn, Lisa R
Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al., 2012). Mean temperatures in the climate zone are estimated to increase by at least 1°C between 1971-2000 and 2021-2050(CSIR, 2012). Dar es Salaam is represented using around 1700 UMT units mapped across 43 UMT categories for the year 2008. Modelled surface temperature profiles for the city are presented, including an assessment of the potential impact of changing green structure cover within selected UMT categories. Provisional recommendations are made concerning the potential contribution of green structures as a climate adaptation response to the increasing temperatures in Dar es Salaam, which could be relevant for other African cities in similar climate zones. References Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Ouédraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D2.7 Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Accessed 18/12/12. CSIR (2012) CLUVA deliverable D1.5 Regional climate change simulations available for the selected areas http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.5.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13. Giugni, M., Adamo, P., Capuano, P., De Paola, F., Di Ruocco, A., Giordano, S., Iavazzo, P., Sellerino, M., Terracciano, S., Topa, M. E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D.1.2 Hazard scenarios for test cities using available data. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.2.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13
Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan
Background The last decades have seen a considerable increase in urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is estimated that over 50% of the population will live in urban areas by 2040. Rapid growth of cities combined with limited economic resources often result in informal settlements and slums with favorable conditions for proliferation of vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Dar es Salaam, which has grown more than 30 times in population during the past 55 years (4.4 million inhabitants in 2012), previous surveys have indicated high prevalences of LF. This study investigated epidemiological aspects of LF in Dar es Salaam, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Six sites with varying distance from the city center (3–30 km) and covering different population densities, socioeconomic characteristics, and water, sewerage and sanitary facilities were selected for the study. Pupils from one public primary school at each site were screened for circulating filarial antigen (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 (marker of exposure to transmission). Community members were examined for CFA, microfilariae and chronic manifestations. Structured questionnaires were administered to pupils and heads of community households, and vector surveys were carried out in selected households. Results The study indicated that a tremendous decrease in the burden of LF infection had occurred, despite haphazard urbanisation. Contributing factors may be urban malaria control targeting Anopheles vectors, short survival time of the numerous Culex quinquefasciatus vectors in the urban environment, widespread use of bed nets and other mosquito proofing measures, and mass drug administration (MDA) in 2006 and 2007. Although the level of ongoing transmission was low, the burden of chronic LF disease was still high. Conclusions The development has so far been promising, but continued efforts are necessary to ensure elimination of LF as a public health problem. These will include improving the awareness of people about the role of mosquitoes in transmission of LF, more thorough implementation of environmental sanitation to reduce Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding, continued MDA to high-risk areas, and set-up of programmes for management of chronic LF disease.
A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig\\u000a slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were\\u000a assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements\\u000a for a slaughter house.
Ernatus M. Mkupasi; Helena A. Ngowi; Hezron Emmanuel Nonga
The emission estimation of nine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from eight organic liquids storage tanks companies in Dar-es-Salaam\\u000a City Tanzania has been done by using US EPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.9b). Total VOCs atmospheric\\u000a emission has been established to be 853.20 metric tones\\/yr. It has been established further that petrol storage tanks contribute\\u000a about 87% of
Msafiri M. Jackson
Background The prevalences and risk factors of microalbuminuria are not full described among black African diabetic patients. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of microalbuminuria among African diabetes patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and relate to socio-demographic features as well as clinical parameters. Methods Cross sectional study on 91 Type 1 and 153 Type 2 diabetic patients. Two overnight urine samples per patient were analysed. Albumin concentration was measured by an automated immunoturbidity assay. Average albumin excretion rate (AER) was used and were categorised as normalbuminuria (AER < 20 ug/min), microalbuminuria (AER 20–200 ug/min), and macroalbuminuria (AER > 200 ug/min). Information obtained also included age, diabetes duration, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, serum creatinine, and glycated hemoglobin A1c. Results Overall prevalence of microalbuminuria was 10.7% and macroalbuminuria 4.9%. In Type 1 patients microalbuminuria was 12% and macroalbuminuria 1%. Among Type 2 patients, 9.8% had microalbuminuria, and 7.2% had macroalbuminuria. Type 2 patients with abnormal albumin excretion rate had significantly longer diabetes duration 7.5 (0.2–24 yrs) than those with normal albumin excretion rate 3 (0–25 yrs), p < 0.001. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Type 2 patients with abnormal albumin excretion rate were significantly higher than in those with normal albumin excretion rate, (p < 0.001). No significant differences in body mass index, glycaemic control, and cholesterol levels was found among patients with normal compared with those with elevated albumin excretion rate either in Type 1 or Type 2 patients. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis among Type 2 patients, revealed AER (natural log AER) as the dependent variable to be predicted by [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] diabetes duration 0.090 (0.049, 0.131), p < 0.0001, systolic blood pressure 0.012 (0.003–0.021), p < 0.010 and serum creatinine 0.021 (0.012, 0.030). Conclusion The prevalence of micro and macroalbuminuria is higher among African Type 1 patients with relatively short diabetes duration compared with prevalences among Caucasians. In Type 2 patients, the prevalence is in accordance with findings in Caucasians. The present study detects, however, a much lower prevalence than previously demonstrated in studies from sub-Saharan Africa. Abnormal AER was significantly related to diabetes duration and systolic blood pressure.
Lutale, Janet Joy Kachuchuru; Thordarson, Hrafnkell; Abbas, Zulfiqarali Gulam; Vetvik, Kare
Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study has the potential to provide empirical evidence to promote large scale monitoring and education campaigns in Africa to improve health and reduce the burden of waterborne disease.
Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.
Background Criteria-based audits (CBA) have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the use of a CBA to improve quality of care among eclampsia patients admitted at a University teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Objective The prevalence of eclampsia in MNH is high (?6%) with the majority of cases arriving after start of convulsions. In 2004–2005 the case-fatality rate in eclampsia was 5.1% of all pregnant women admitted for delivery (MNH obstetric data base). A criteria-based audit (CBA) was used to evaluate the quality of care for eclamptic mothers admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania after implementation of recommendations of a previous audit. Methods A CBA of eclampsia cases was conducted at MNH. Management practices were evaluated using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. The Ministry of Health (MOH) guidelines, local management guidelines, the WHO manual supplemented by the WHO Reproductive Health Library, standard textbooks, the Cochrane database and reviews in peer reviewed journals were adopted. At the initial audit in 2006, 389 case notes were assessed and compared with the standards, gaps were identified, recommendations made followed by implementation. A re-audit of 88 cases was conducted in 2009 and compared with the initial audit. Results There was significant improvement in quality of patient management and outcome between the initial and re-audit: Review of management plan by senior staff (76% vs. 99%; P=0.001), urine for albumin test (61% vs. 99%; P=0.001), proper use of partogram to monitor labour (75% vs. 95%; P=0.003), treatment with steroids for lung maturity (2.0% vs. 24%; P=0.001), Caesarean section within 2 hours of decision (33% vs. 61%; P=0.005), full blood count (28% vs. 93%; P=0.001), serum urea and creatinine (44% vs. 86%; P=0.001), liver enzymes (4.0% vs. 86%; P=0.001), and specialist review within 2 hours of admission (25% vs. 39%; P=0.018). However, there was no significant change in terms of delivery within 24 hours of admission (69% vs. 63%; P=0.33). There was significant reduction of maternal deaths (7.7% vs. 0%; P=0.001). Conclusion CBA is applicable in low resource setting and can help to improve quality of care in obstetrics including management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
Background Recruitment, enrollment and retention of volunteers in an HIV vaccine trial is important in the efforts to ultimately develop a vaccine that can prevent new HIV infections. Following recruitment, some randomized individuals decline to be enrolled in an HIV vaccine trial. The reasons for such a decision are not well known. This article describes why individuals who were randomized in a phase I and II HIV vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania declined to be enrolled. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 individuals (7 men and 7 women). Repeated readings of the 14 interview transcripts to look for reasons for declining to enroll in the trial were performed. Data was analyzed using the content analysis approach. Results Informants expressed fear of the outcome of an experimental HIV vaccine in their lives. Unlike women, some men were concerned over the effect of the vaccine on their reproduction intentions. Women were concerned about the unknown effects of the vaccine in their bodies. Also, to a large extent, informants faced resistance from significant others such as fiancées, parents, relatives, and friends. Women were influenced by their potential intimate sexual partners; men were forbidden by their parents, and mothers had the most influential opinion. Conclusions Fear of the negative outcome of an experimental vaccine and resistance from significant others are the main reasons for declining to enroll in the HIV vaccine trial among eligible volunteers after randomization. The resistance from the significant others provides valuable guidance for designing future trials in Tanzania; for example, expanding the HIV vaccine trial education to the general population from the onset of the trial design.
Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Thorson, Anna; Kohi, Thecla W.; Bakari, Muhammad; Mhalu, Fred; Kulane, Asli
Eight hundred and two (802) primary school children in rural and urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were examined to determine the prevalence of otitis media, hearing impairment and cerumen impaction by otoscopy and pure tone audiometry. Ear disease was found in 222 (27.7%) of the children. One hundred and twenty six (15.7%) had cerumen impaction, 70 (8.7%) had sensorineural hearing loss and 21 (2.6%) had chronic suppurative otitis media. Cerumen impaction was found in 20.45% of the rural school children and in 14.8% of the urban school children. This difference in prevalence between the two groups was not statistically significant. The prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (COM) was 9.44% among the rural school children and 1.3% among the urban school children, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.001). Sensorineural hearing impairment was found in 14.1% of the rural school children and in 7.7% of the urban children, this also being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The low prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media among the urban school children is ascribed to better medical services which facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media. This emphasizes the need to improve the health services in the rural areas so that acute otitis media is diagnosed and treated at the primary level of health care. This will in turn prevent hearing impairment due to chronic suppurative otitis media. PMID:8884404
Minja, B M; Machemba, A
To identify the causes of deafness, 354 pupils attending the Buguruni School for the Deaf in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were studied. Of these children 205 were boys and 149 were girls, a sex ratio of 1.4:1. The onset of deafness was congenital in 36 (10.2%) and acquired in 318 (89.8%). Among the children with acquired deafness, the cause was unknown in 77 (24.2%); meningitis in 76 (23.9%), ototoxicity in 66 (20.8%), mumps in 53 (16.7%) febrile convulsions in five (1.5%), otitis media in 28 (8.8%) and measles in 13 (4.1%). Among the children with congenital deafness, only ten (27.8%) were identified before the age of 2 years. The findings indicate that most (75.8%) of the causes of acquired deafness are preventable through immunisation, early diagnosis and proper treatment of ear infections and avoidance of prescription of ototoxic drugs. This emphasizes the need for programmes aimed at improving the health services at primary levels of health care which will in turn prevent deafness. PMID:9466225
Minja, B M
Management of groundwater resources can be improved by using groundwater models to perform risk analyses and to improve development strategies, but a lack of extensive basic data often limits the implementation of sophisticated models. Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is an example of a city where increasing groundwater use in a Pleistocene aquifer is causing groundwater-related problems such as saline intrusion along the coastline, lowering of water-table levels, and contamination of pumping wells. The lack of a water-level monitoring network introduces a problem for basic data collection and model calibration and validation. As a replacement, local water-supply wells were used for measuring groundwater depth, and well-top heights were estimated from a regional digital elevation model to recalculate water depths to hydraulic heads. These were used to draw a regional piezometric map. Hydraulic parameters were estimated from short-time pumping tests in the local wells, but variation in hydraulic conductivity was attributed to uncertainty in well characteristics (information often unavailable) and not to aquifer heterogeneity. A MODFLOW model was calibrated with a homogeneous hydraulic conductivity field and a sensitivity analysis between the conductivity and aquifer recharge showed that average annual recharge will likely be in the range 80-100 mm/year.
Van Camp, Marc; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Al Farrah, Nawal; Walraevens, Kristine
Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005
Pickering, Amy J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer
Background HIV/AIDS is associated with a wide range of mucocutaneous disorders some of which are useful in the clinical staging and prognosis of the syndrome. There is paucity of information regarding the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending paediatric Care and Treatment Centres (CTC) in Dar es Salaam. Objective To determine the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Methods This was a cross sectional descriptive study involving public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Clinical information was obtained using a questionnaire. Dermatological examination was carried out in daylight. Investigations were taken as appropriate. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 10.0. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were utilized. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred and forty seven HIV infected children (52% males) attending CTCs were recruited into the study. Mucocutaneous disorders were encountered in 85% of them. There was no gender difference in the prevalence of the infective mucocutaneous disorders but males had a higher prevalence of non-infective/inflammatory dermatoses (58%) than females (42%) (p = 0.02). Overall, mucocutaneous disorders (infective + non infective) were more prevalent in advanced stages of HIV disease. Children with advanced HIV disease had a significantly increased frequency of fungal and viral infections (43% and 25% respectively than those with less advanced disease; 24% and 13% respectively (p = 0.01). Seventy four percent of the HIV-infected children with mucocutaneous disorders were already on ART. Conclusion Mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending Care and Treatment Centres are common and highly variable. Comprehensive management should also emphasize on the management of mucocutaneous disorders.
Panya, Millembe F; Mgonda, Yassin M; Massawe, Augustine W
Background Many blinding eye conditions of childhood are preventable or treatable, particularly in developing countries. However, primary eye care (PEC) for children is poorly developed, leading to unnecessary visual loss. Activities for control by health workers entail interventions for systemic conditions (measles, vitamin A deficiency), identification and referral of children with sight threatening conditions and health education for caregivers. This pilot study evaluated integrating a package of activities to promote child eye health into Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Design: historical comparison study. Fifteen Clinical Officers and 15 nurses in 15 randomly selected RCH clinics were trained in PEC for children in July 2010. They were given educational materials (poster and manual) and their supervisors were orientated. Knowledge and practices were assessed before and 3 weeks after training. One year later their knowledge and practices were compared with a different group of 15 Clinical Officers and 15 nurses who had not been trained. Results Before training staff had insufficient knowledge to identify, treat and refer children with eye diseases, even conjunctivitis. Some recommended harmful practices or did not know that cataract requires urgent referral. Eye examination, vitamin A supplementation of mothers after delivery and cleaning the eyes at birth with instillation of antibiotics (Crede’s prophylaxis) were not routine, and there were no eye-specific educational materials. Three weeks after training several clinics delivering babies started Crede’s prophylaxis, vitamin A supplementation of women after delivery increased from 83.7% to 100%, and all staff included eye conditions in health education sessions. At one year, trained staff were more likely to correctly describe, diagnose and treat conjunctivitis (z=2.34, p=0.04)(30%-vs-60.7%). Mystery mothers observed health education sessions in 7/10 RCH clinics with trained staff, five (71.4%) of which included eye conditions. Conclusions Primary eye care for children in Dar-es-Salaam is inadequate but training RCH staff can improve knowledge in the short term and change practices. Attendance by mothers and their children is high in RCH clinics, making them ideal for delivery of PEC. Ongoing supportive supervision is required to maintain knowledge and practices, as well as systems to track referrals.
Background Skin diseases are underestimated and overlooked by most clinicians despite being common in clinical practice. Many patients are hospitalized with co-existing dermatological conditions which may not be detected and managed by the attending physicians. The objective of this study was to determine the burden of co-existing and overlooked dermatological disorders among patients admitted to medical wards of Muhimbili National hospital in Dar es Salaam. Study design and settings A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Muhimbili National hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited from the medical wards. Detailed interview to obtain clinico-demographic characteristics was followed by a complete physical examination. Dermatological diagnoses were made mainly clinically. Appropriate confirmatory laboratory investigations were performed where necessary. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0. A p-value of < 0.5 was statistically significant. Results Three hundred and ninety patients admitted to medical wards were enrolled into the study of whom, 221(56.7%) were females. The mean age was 36.7 ± 17.9 (range 7-84 years). Overall, 232/390 patients (59.5%) had co-existing dermatological disorders with 49% (191/390) having one, 9% (36/390) two and 5 patients (1%) three. A wide range of co-existing skin diseases was encountered, the most diverse being non-infectious conditions which together accounted for 36.4% (142/390) while infectious dermatoses accounted for 31.5% (123/390). The leading infectious skin diseases were superficial fungal infections accounting for 18%. Pruritic papular eruption of HIV/AIDS (PPE) and seborrheic eczema were the most common non-infectious conditions, each accounting for 4.3%. Of the 232/390 patients with dermatological disorders, 191/232 (82.3%) and 154/232 (66.3%) had been overlooked by their referring and admitting doctors respectively. Conclusion Dermatological disorders are common among patients admitted to medical wards and many are not detected by their referring or admitting physicians. Basic dermatological education should be emphasized to improve knowledge and awareness among clinicians.
A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements for a slaughter house. Because of inadequate slaughtering, disposal and cleaning facilities, the slaughter slabs were under unhygienic condition with questionable safety, soundness and wholesomeness of the pork produced. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections. Of the 731 examined pigs; 8.1%, 5.9% and 0.4% were infected with ascariosis, porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. It was noted that almost all slaughter pigs in Dar es Salaam originated from different regions. Based on the region of origin, the status of porcine cysticercosis was 8.2% for Dodoma (n = 98), 8.2% for Manyara (n = 260) and 6.9% for Mbeya (n = 116). This study disclosed the unhygienic sanitary condition prevailing in Dar es Salaam pig slaughter slabs and recommends that strategies should be devised to improve the situation. Porcine ascariosis and cysticercosis were widely prevalent and caused economic losses due to condemnations. Because of their zoonotic nature, the observed extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in pig pose a public health risk among consumers. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures of parasitic infections in pigs. PMID:20938736
Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel
Rapid urbanization in resource poor countries often results in expansion of unplanned settlements with overcrowding and inadequate sanitation. These conditions potentially support transmission of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH), but knowledge on the occurrence, transmission and control of these infections in urban settings is limited. The present study assessed the status of urinary schistosomiasis and STH across two different-sized cities in Tanzania - Dar es Salaam and Tanga - after a decade of anthelminthic intervention. Primary school children were examined for parasite eggs in urine and stool. Questionnaires were administered to the children, and observations were made on the urban environments. The burden of urinary schistosomiasis and STH was found to be low in both cities (overall 1.2% in Dar es Salaam and 0.3% in Tanga for urinary schistosomiasis; overall <1% in Dar es Salaam and 1-2% in Tanga for each STH infection), and the identified cases showed no clear pattern of spatial distribution. The findings indicated that a marked decrease in prevalence of these infections had occurred in the two cities during recent years. The observed promising developments appeared to have been accomplished by implementation of drug based intervention programs, in combination with environmental change (fewer snail habitats) and generally improved levels of hygiene. Continued efforts, including anthelminthic treatment and health education, are important to maintain these positive achievements. PMID:24495630
Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E; Malecela, Mwele N; Mosha, Franklin W; Simonsen, Paul E
Background Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors. Methods and Findings Microbial larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti)) was applied weekly through programmatic, non-randomized community-based, but vertically managed, delivery systems in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Continuous, randomized cluster sampling of malaria infection prevalence and non-random programmatic surveillance of entomological inoculation rate (EIR) respectively constituted the primary and secondary outcomes surveyed within a population of approximately 612,000 residents in 15 fully urban wards covering 55 km2. Bti application for one year in 3 of those wards (17 km2 with 128,000 residents) reduced crude annual transmission estimates (Relative EIR [95% Confidence Interval]?=?0.683 [0.491–0.952], P?=?0.024) but program effectiveness peaked between July and September (Relative EIR [CI]?=?0.354 [0.193 to 0.650], P?=?0.001) when 45% (9/20) of directly observed transmission events occurred. Larviciding reduced malaria infection risk among children ?5 years of age (OR [CI]?=?0.284 [0.101 to 0.801], P?=?0.017) and provided protection at least as good as personal use of an insecticide treated net (OR [CI]?=?0.764 [0.614–0.951], P?=?0.016). Conclusions In this context, larviciding reduced malaria prevalence and complemented existing protection provided by insecticide-treated nets. Larviciding may represent a useful option for integrated vector management in Africa, particularly in its rapidly growing urban centres.
Geissbuhler, Yvonne; Kannady, Khadija; Chaki, Prosper Pius; Emidi, Basiliana; Govella, Nicodem James; Mayagaya, Valeliana; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Lindsay, Steven William; Tanner, Marcel; Fillinger, Ulrike; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Killeen, Gerry Francis
Background According to WHO estimates, tuberculosis case detection rate in Tanzania is less than 50% and this poses a major challenge to control tuberculosis in the country. Currently, one of the defining criteria for suspecting tuberculosis is cough for two weeks or more. We wanted to find out whether the prevalence of tuberculosis was different in patients who reported cough for two weeks or more, compared to patients with cough for less than two weeks. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in six health facilities in Dar es Salaam, between September and October 2007. All patients aged five years and above with cough were screened for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) by smear microscopy. Patients were divided into two groups, those who coughed for less than two weeks (<2 wks) and those who coughed for two weeks or more (? 2 wks). Results A total of 65,530 patients attended outpatients department (OPD). Out of these, 2274 (3.5%) patients reported cough. Among patients who reported cough, 2214 (97.4%) remembered their cough duration. One thousand nine hundred and seventy three patients (89.1%) coughed for ? 2 wks as compared to 241 (10.9%) patients who coughed for <2 wks. Of those who coughed for two weeks or more, 250 (12.7%) had smear positive PTB, and of those who had coughed for less than two weeks, 21 (8.7%) had smear positive PTB. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence of smear positive tuberculosis among the two groups (Pearson Chi-Square 3.2; p = 0.074). Conclusion Detection of smear positive PTB among patients who coughed for less than two weeks was as high as for those who coughed for two weeks or more.
Ngadaya, Esther S; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; Wandwalo, Eliud R; Morkve, Odd
Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care for the women and delimited male involvement. Men's involvement in reproductive and child health programmes has the potential for improving family health after childbirth. The discourses conveyed contradicting messages that may be a source of worry and confusion for the new parents. Recognition, respect and raising awareness for different social actors' competencies and limitations can potentially create a health-promoting environment among families after childbirth.
The perceptions on male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV infection and considerations in scaling up of the services: a qualitative study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Background In recent randomized controlled trials, male circumcision has been proven to complement the available biomedical interventions in decreasing HIV transmission from infected women to uninfected men. Consequently, Tanzania is striving to scale-up safe medical male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. However, there is a need to investigate the perceptions of male circumcision in Tanzania using specific populations. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceptions of male circumcision in a cohort of police officers that also served as a source of volunteers for a phase I/II HIV vaccine (HIVIS-03) trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews with 24 men and 10 women were conducted. Content analysis informed by the socio-ecological model was used to analyze the data. Results Informants perceived male circumcision as a health-promoting practice that may prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. They reported male circumcision promotes sexual pleasure, confidence and hygiene or sexual cleanliness. They added that it is a religious ritual and a cultural practice that enhances the recognition of manhood in the community. However, informants were concerned about the cost involved in male circumcision and cleanliness of instruments used in medical and traditional male circumcision. They also expressed confusion about the shame of undergoing circumcision at an advanced age and pain that could emanate after circumcision. The participants advocated for health policies that promote medical male circumcision at childhood, specifically along with the vaccination program. Conclusions The perceived benefit of male circumcision as a preventive strategy to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is important. However, there is a need to ensure that male circumcision is conducted under hygienic conditions. Integrating male circumcision service in the routine childhood vaccination program may increase its coverage at early childhood. The findings from this investigation provide contextual understanding that may assist in scaling-up male circumcision in Tanzania.
Health system responsiveness (HSR), a measure of patient health care experience, may influence adherence to HIV/AIDS care and be an important predictor of outcomes. We studied the relationship between HSR, patient factors, and visit nonadherence in 16 President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-supported HIV/AIDS clinics in Dar es Salaam. An HSR survey was administered in 2009, and all clinic visits 1 year following the interviews were analyzed for 720 patients on antiretrovirals (ARVs). Definitions of visit nonadherence were (1) low visit constancy ([VC], no visit in ?1 quarter), (2) gaps in care (>60 days between visits), (3) no visit in last quarter (VLQ). The relationships between factors were analyzed using multivariate analysis with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported. Few patients were nonadherent using VLQ (14%) and VC (28%). Gaps in care were more common (49.6%) and associated with younger age (AOR: 3.86 [2.02-7.40]), no explanation of side effects (AOR: 2.21 [1.49-3.28]), and shorter antiretroviral therapy (ART) duration (0-3 months AOR: 1.49 [1.09-2.03]; 3-6 months AOR: 2.44 [1.40-4.25]). No VLQ was associated with younger age (AOR: 3.40 [1.63-7.07]), poor health care worker (HCW) communication (AOR: 4.83 [1.39-16.78]), and less time on ART (0-3 months AOR: 5.04 [2.47-10.30]; 3-6 months AOR: 3.09 [1.72-5.57]). Younger age, poor HCW communication, and shorter ART duration also predicted lower VC, as did higher patient-HCW ratios. The rates of visit nonadherence differed based on the definitions used. Younger age, shorter time on ART, and poor HCW communication predicted lower adherence regardless of the definition. More work is needed to understand the relationship between HSR, patient factors, and different patterns of visit nonadherence and their impact on ART outcomes. PMID:23269515
Poles, Gabriela; Li, Michelle; Siril, Hellen; Mhalu, Aisa; Hawkins, Claudia; Kaaya, Sylvia; Aris, Eric; Chalamilla, Guerino; Hirschhorn, Lisa R
Elemental and water-soluble ionic compounds (WSICs) of atmospheric aerosols (total suspended particulate – TSP) and some gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2 and O3) from a coastal, semi-urban and rural site in and near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were investigated during dry and wet seasons of January 2005–November 2007. Na+, Ca2+, SO42?, NO3? and Cl? made up the dominant fraction of WSICs during the dry season with average concentrations ranging from non-detectable (n.d.)–5.4, 0.26–2.6, 0.74–14.7, 0.4–1.5 and 1.1–3.4 ?g m?3, respectively, while in the wet season, from n.d. up to 1.7, 1.2, 4.4, 2.1 and 3.0 ?g m?3, respectively. The total air concentrations of the detected elements (Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn) showed seasonal and site-specific variation in the range of 7.5–26.6 with an average of 14.5 ?g m?3. Most of the air concentrations of pollutants were observed to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal site, which is under urban and industrial pollutant emissions. Sulphur and nitrogen oxidation ratios during the dry season ranged from 0.08 to 0.91 and 0.013 to 0.049, respectively, while they were between 0.09–0.65 and 0.002–0.095, respectively, in the wet season. These values indicate the photochemical oxidation of SO2 and a high extent of NO3?formation in the atmosphere. Neutralization ratios revealed the presence of acidic SO42? and NO3? aerosols. Principal component analysis identified sea spray, local combustion, vehicular traffic, biomass burning and re-suspended road dust as dominant sources of aerosols at the studied coastal and semi-urban sites. However, at the rural site, besides sea spray, crustal sources, soil dust re-suspension and long-range transport are the possible origins of suspended particulates.
Mmari, Albert G.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja S.; Bencs, László; McCrindle, Robert I.; Van Grieken, René
Several studies show depression is common during pregnancy. However, there is limited information in Tanzania on the magnitude of perceived distress during pregnancy and meanings ascribed to such distress. A descriptive survey collected data using unstructured interviews from 12 traditional practitioners and 10 peri-urban women with previous pregnancy related mental health concerns identified using a depression vignette. The objectives were to describe the sources and characteristics of distress during pregnancy, and idioms of distress that could inform cultural adaptation of depression screening tools. Narrative analysis showed an emergent category of "problematic pregnancies" framed women's recollections of prolonged periods of sadness. This experience was qualified using various idioms of distress that were differentially emphasized depending on informant's perceived causes of health concern. The idiom kusononeka was consistently used to describe extreme sadness across causal categories and clustered with at least two typical features of major depression. This suggested existence of a construct with similarities to biomedical criteria for depression. "Thinking too much" emerged as a distinctive expression associated with prolonged sadness. Distinctive expressions of social functioning impairments were identified that can inform depression severity assessments. In conclusion, contextual inquiry into experiences of psychological distress showed distinct local idioms that clustered in patterns similar to symptoms of biomedical depressive episodes. Further studies to assess the utility of local idioms of distress and distress related functional impairment in depression assessment tools are warranted. PMID:20737827
Kaaya, S F; Mbwambo, J K; Fawzi, M C Smith; Van Den Borne, H; Schaalma, H; Leshabari, M T
Background Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. Case description The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. Discussion and evaluation The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. Conclusions The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam’s City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes.
Water supply requirements in Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania) are rising rapidly by population growth and groundwater is increasingly used to fullfill the needs. The groundwater is taken from the Dar es Salaam Quaternary coastal aquifer (DQCA), stretching inland from the coastline. As thousands of wells have been drilled in the coastal strip and pumping rates are uncontrolled, seawater intrusion is deteriorating the quality of fresh groundwater. To investigate the response of the fresh/salt water interface to coastal pumping, simulations with a schematic two-dimensional cross-sectional model have been done. Depending on the depth of the wells in the 150 m thick DQCA and their distance from the coastline, different pathways of seawater intrusion and shifts of the interface can be recognized. The local presence of a semi-pervious layer can have a significant impact on the fresh/salt water distribution. Although the modeled section is not related to a specific location along the coastline but rather represents an average aquifer buildup, the results of the simulations can be used to formulate recommendations when drilling new wells and for a better monitoring of the salinisation process along the coast. It proves that even simple schematic models can give meaningful contributions.
Van Camp, Marc; Mtoni, Yohana; Mjemah, Ibrahimu C.; Bakundukize, Charles; Walraevens, Kristine
Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) remains low among men in sub-Saharan Africa. The factors associated with previous HIV testing and knowledge of partner's HIV status are described for 9,107 men who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences' VCT site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 1997 and 2008. Data are from intake forms administered to clients seeking VCT services. Most of the men (64.5%) had not previously been tested and 75% were unaware of their partner's HIV status. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, education, condom use, and knowledge of partner's HIV status were significant predictors of previous HIV testing. Education, number of sexual partners, and condom use were also associated with knowledge of partner's HIV status. The low rate of VCT use among men underscores the need for more intensive initiatives to target men and remove the barriers that prevent HIV disclosure. PMID:23221684
Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary
Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) remains low among men in sub-Saharan Africa. The factors associated with previous HIV testing and knowledge of partner’s HIV status are described for 9,107 men who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences’ VCT site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 1997 and 2008. Data are from intake forms administered to clients seeking VCT services. Most of the men (64.5%) had not previously been tested and 75% were unaware of their partner’s HIV status. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, education, condom use, and knowledge of partner’s HIV status were significant predictors of previous HIV testing. Education, number of sexual partners, and condom use were also associated with knowledge of partner’s HIV status. The low rate of VCT use among men underscores the need for more intensive initiatives to target men and remove the barriers that prevent HIV disclosure.
Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary
Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae in areas with and without larviciding. Potential environmental and programmatic determinants of habitat detection coverage and detection sensitivity of mosquito larvae were recorded during guided walks with 64 different CORPs to assess the accuracy of data each had collected the previous day. Results CORPs reported the presence of 66.2% of all aquatic habitats (1,963/2,965), but only detected Anopheles larvae in 12.6% (29/230) of habitats that contained them. Detection sensitivity was particularly low for late-stage Anopheles (2.7%, 3/111), the most direct programmatic indicator of malaria vector productivity. Whether a CORP found a wet habitat or not was associated with his/her unfamiliarity with the area (Odds Ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.16 [0.130, 0.203], P < 0.001), the habitat type (P < 0.001) or a fence around the compound (OR [95%CI] = 0.50 [0.386, 0.646], P < 0.001). The majority of mosquito larvae (Anophelines 57.8% (133/230) and Culicines 55.9% (461/825) were not reported because their habitats were not found. The only factor affecting detection of Anopheline larvae in habitats that were reported by CORPs was larviciding, which reduced sensitivity (OR [95%CI] = 0.37 [0.142, 0.965], P = 0.042). Conclusions Accessibility of habitats in urban settings presents a major challenge because the majority of compounds are fenced for security reasons. Furthermore, CORPs under-reported larvae especially where larvicides were applied. This UMCP system for larval surveillance in cities must be urgently revised to improve access to enclosed compounds and the sensitivity with which habitats are searched for larvae.
Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1%) males and 175 (10.9%) females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4%) were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6%) voluntary donors. Their age (in years) ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2%) were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9%) of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8%) had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Syphilis was the only infection that occurred more frequently among HIV infected (12.1%) than non-infected (4.6%) blood donors (P < 0.05), and whose prevalence increased with age (X2 = 58.5 df = 5, P < 0.001). There were no significant sex differences in the occurrence of pathogens. Finally, there were significant associations in the occurrence of HBsAg and syphilis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1.-4.2) and HIV and syphilis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.0–5.3). Conclusion The high (15.9%) seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines for blood transfusions.
Matee, Mecky IN; Magesa, Pius M; Lyamuya, Eligius F
Introduction Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to reduce new instances of HIV infection. Risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS are the cornerstone for this approach. Understanding the extent to which infected individuals practice risky behaviours is fundamental in designing appropriate population-specific interventions. With the HIV infection transmission rates remaining high among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, continued prevention among them remains a priority. This study therefore seeks to describe the magnitude and determinants of risky sexual behaviours among young people living with HIV. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and July 2010 in selected Care and Treatment Clinics (CTCs) in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 282 HIV-positive patients aged 15–24 were interviewed about their sexual behaviours using a questionnaire. Results Prevalence of unprotected sex was 40.0% among young males and 37.5% among young females (p<0.001). Multiple sexual partnerships were reported by 10.6% of males and 15.9% of females (p<0.005). More than 50% of the participants did not know about the HIV status of their sexual partners. A large proportion of participants had minimal knowledge of transmission (46.7% males vs. 60.4% females) and prevention (65.3% males vs. 73.4% females) of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Independent predictors of condom use included non-use of alcohol [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.40 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.17–0.84] and younger age (15–19 years) (AOR, 2.76, 95% CI: 1.05–7.27). Being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR, 0.38, 95% CI: 0.17–0.85) and not knowing partners’ HIV sero-status (AOR, 2.62, 95% CI: 1.14–5.10) predicted the practice of multiple sexual partnership. Conclusions Unprotected sex and multiple sexual partnerships were prevalent among young people living with HIV. Less knowledge on STI and lack of HIV disclosure increased the vulnerability and risk for HIV transmission among young people. Specific intervention measures addressing alcohol consumption, risky sexual behaviours, and STI transmission and prevention knowledge should be integrated in the routine HIV/AIDS care and treatment offered to this age group.
Mhalu, Aisa; Leyna, Germana H; Mmbaga, Elia J
This cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Dar es Salaam between July and August 2000. The objectives were to establish the magnitude of rape against women, the perpetrators, disclosure of events and other related factors. Among the 1004 women who completed their interviews, 20% said they were ever raped. The known perpetrators were responsible for 92% of the most recent events. Whereas 34% of events were disclosed for non-legal purposes, only 10% were disclosed to the police. Repeated rape and patterns of disclosure were significantly associated with existing social relationships with the perpetrator. The results indicate that rape against women is a serious public health problem in Dar es Salaam commonly involving people who are close to the victims. PMID:17348331
Muganyizi, Projestine S; Kilewo, Charles; Moshiro, Candida
The emission estimation of nine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from eight organic liquids storage tanks companies in Dar-es-Salaam City Tanzania has been done by using US EPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.9b). Total VOCs atmospheric emission has been established to be 853.20 metric tones/yr. It has been established further that petrol storage tanks contribute about 87% of total VOCs emitted, while tanks for other refined products and crude oil were emitting 10% and 3% of VOCs respectively. Of the eight sources (companies), the highest emission value from a single source was 233,222.94 kg/yr and the lowest single source emission value was 6881.87 kg/yr. The total VOCs emissions estimated for each of the eight sources were found to be higher than the standard level of 40,000 kg/yr per source for minor source according to US EPA except for two sources, which were emitting VOCs below the standard level. The annual emissions per single source for each of the VOCs were found to be below the US EPA emissions standard which is 2,000 kg/yr in all companies except the emission of hexane from company F1 which was slightly higher than the standard. The type of tanks used seems to significantly influence the emission rate. Vertical fixed roof tanks (VFRT) emit a lot more than externally floating roof tanks (EFRT) and internally floating roof tanks (IFRT). The use of IFRT and EFRT should be encouraged especially for storage of petrol which had highest atmospheric emission contribution. Model predicted atmospheric emissions are less than annual losses measured by companies in all the eight sources. It is possible that there are other routes for losses beside atmospheric emissions. It is therefore important that waste reduction efforts in these companies are directed not only to reducing atmospheric emissions, but also prevention of the spillage and leakage of stored liquid and curbing of the frequently reported illegal siphoning of stored products. Emission rates for benzene, toluene, and xylene were used as input to CALPUFF air dispersion model for the calculation of spatial downwind concentrations from area sources. By using global positioning system (GPS) and geographical information system (GIS) the spatial benzene concentration contributed by organic liquid storage tanks has been mapped for Dar-es-Salaam City. Highest concentrations for all the three toxic pollutants were observed at Kigamboni area, possibly because the area is located at the wind prevailing direction from the locations of the storage tanks. The model predicted concentrations downwind from the sources were below tolerable concentrations by WHO and US-OSHA. The highest 24 hrs averaging time benzene concentration was used for risk assessment in order to determine maximum carcinogenic risk amongst the population exposed at downwind. Established risk for adult and children at 2.9x10(-3) and 1.9x10(-3) respectively, are higher than the acceptable US-EPA risk of 1x10(-6). It is very likely that the actual VOCs concentrations in some urban areas in Tanzania including Dar-es-Salaam City are much higher than the levels reported in this study when other sources such as petrol stations and motor vehicles on the roads are considered. Tanzania Government therefore need to put in place: an air quality policy and legislation, establish air quality guidelines and acquire facilities which will enable the implementation of air quality monitoring and management programmes. PMID:16779602
Jackson, Msafiri M
Background Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. Methods A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR), logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Results Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05–0.3, p < 0.001). During the post-cleaning period, a higher risk of infection (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, p = 0.0069) was observed in neighbourhoods under no intervention compared to intervention ones. Eighteen months after the initial cleaning, one of the drains was still clean due to continued maintenance efforts (it contained no waste materials and the water was flowing at normal velocity). A three-month moving average of the percentage of water habitats in that drain containing pupae and/or Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Conclusion Although environmental management was historically coordinated by authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial resources for initial cleaning and structural repairs, and inter-sectoral collaboration. Such effort not only is expected to reduce malaria transmission, but has the potential to empower communities, improve health and environmental conditions, and ultimately contribute to poverty alleviation and sustainable development.
Castro, Marcia C; Tsuruta, Atsuko; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sixbert
BACKGROUND Limited disease awareness among women may impact breast cancer stage-at-diagnosis in Tanzania, reducing survival. This study assessed breast cancer knowledge, screening practices, and educational preferences among outpatients at Tanzanian government-supported hospitals. METHODS A convenience sample of women was surveyed regarding (1) knowledge/beliefs of breast cancer etiology, risk factors, symptoms, treatment, (2) early detection knowledge/practice, and (3) educational preferences. RESULTS Among 225 respondents, 98.2% knew of breast cancer; 22.2% knew someone affected by breast cancer. On average, 30% of risk factors and 51% of symptoms were identified. Most accepted one or more breast cancer myths. Among 126 aware of breast self-exam, 40% did not practice it; only 0.9% underwent regular clinical breast examinations despite 68% being aware of the procedure. Among treatments, 87% recognized surgery, 70% radiation, and fewer systemic therapy. Preferred educational sources were group sessions, television/radio, and meetings with breast cancer survivors. CONCLUSIONS This work reveals incomplete breast cancer awareness among Tanzanian women and promises to inform development of user-focused educational resources.
Morse, Emma Perry; Maegga, Bertha; Joseph, Gertrud; Miesfeldt, Susan
Gupta, A; Mbwambo, J; Mteza, I; Shenoi, S; Lambdin, B; Nyandindi, C; Doula, B I; Mfaume, S; Bruce, R D
Background Impacted teeth predispose to periodontal disease and dental caries of adjacent teeth resulting in pain, discomfort and loss of function. This study analyzed the pattern of occurrence of impacted teeth, associated symptoms, treatment and complications of treatment in patients who presented at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. Method This was a crossectional descriptive study which utilized notes and x rays of patients who were treated for impacted teeth at the Oral and Maxillofacial firm in Muhimbili National Hospital over five years, from January 2005 to August 2010. These records were retrieved and examined for the major complaint of the patient at presentation to hospital, demography, impacted tooth, type of impaction (for third molars), treatment offered and complications after treatment. Similar information was collected from all patients with impacted teeth attended in the same centre from 1st September 2010 to 31st August 2011. Results A total of 896 patients (496 males and 400 females) treated for complaints related to impacted teeth were recorded. The male to female ratio was 1.2:1, age range of 16 to 85 years and a mean age of 28.9 years (SD = 9.5). Slightly more than 84% of the patients presented with mandibular third molar impactions. Most (44.7%) of these patients had an impacted lower right third molar followed by those presenting with a lower left third molar impaction (39.7%). In 1.3% of the patients all the four third molars were impacted. Sixty nine (7.7%) patients had impacted upper 3rd molars while 2% had impacted upper canines. Of the mandibular 3rd molar impactions 738 (76%) were mesio-angular type, 87 (8.9%) horizontal type and 69 (7.1%) disto-angular. Patients presented with a variety of complaints. About 85% of the patients presented to hospital due to varying degrees of pain. In 4.9% the detection of the impacted tooth/teeth was coincidental after presenting to hospital for other reasons not related to the impaction. Majority of the patients with impacted mandibular third molars had carious lesions on the impacted teeth, neighbouring tooth or both. Four hundred and five (45.2%) patients had a carious lesion on one of the impacted teeth while 201(22.4%) patients had a carious lesion on the adjacent second molar. In 122 (13.6%) patients both the impacted third molar and the adjacent second molar were carious. In twelve patients who presented with a main complaint of fracture of the angle of the mandible there was an associated impacted 3rd molar. Eight hundred and fifteen (91%) patients with impacted teeth were treated by surgical removal. Among these only 15 (1.8%) had complications that ranged from excessive swellings, trismus and severe pain post operatively. One patient was reported to have fracture of the angle of the mandible sustained during surgical removal of an impacted 48. Conclusions The majority of patients with impacted teeth were young with an almost equal sex distribution. The most commonly impacted teeth were mandibular third molars followed by the maxillary third molars. Patients with impacted teeth reported for health care predominantly because of pain due to dental caries or infection. There is a need of creating appropriate programmes that would further raise peoples’ awareness to regular dental checkups so that appropriate measures are taken before complications arise.
This publication includes two separate papers, both dealing with the squatter upgrading and sites and services project in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The papers are based on studies carried out in 1979 and 1980 when the authors were students at the Ardhi Ins...
L. M. Masembejo N. J. W. Tumsiph
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 2820 pupils in 22 randomly selected primary schools in Kinondoni district, Tanzania. The objective was to identify the proportion of pupils who reported ever having had sexual intercourse, as well as sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and other sexual-related behaviours associated with heterosexual intercourse among pupils. About 13% (376) of participating pupils reported having had heterosexual intercourse. The proportion of pupils who reported doing so varied significantly by age, sex, school grade and parents' education. Regarding psychosocial factors, pupils who agreed that having sexual intercourse implies love for a partner and that sexual intercourse creates peer approval were significantly more likely to report having had heterosexual intercourse. Pupils who reported having a girl/boy friend, kissed a boy/girl, engaged in light petting, engaged in heavy petting or practised oral sex and anal sex were more likely to report ever having heterosexual intercourse. The implications for programme and intervention development are discussed. PMID:23140465
Kakoko, Deodatus C V
Developing effective place-based health interventions requires understanding of the dynamic between place and health. The therapeutic landscape framework explains how place-based social processes and physical geography interact and influence health behavior. This study applied this framework to examine how venues, or social gathering places, influenced HIV risk behavior among young, urban men in Tanzania. Eighty-three public venues where men ages 15–19 met new sexual partners were identified by community informants in one city ward. The majority (86%) of the venues were called ‘camps’, social gathering places that had formal leaders and members. Observations were conducted at 23 camps and in-depth interviews were conducted with 36 camp members and 10 camp leaders in 15 purposively selected camps. Geographic and social features of camps were examined to understand their contributions to men’s behaviors. Camps were characterized by a geographic space claimed by members, a unique name and a democratic system of leadership and governance. Members were mostly men and socialized daily at their camp. They reported strong social bonds and engaging in health-promoting activities such as playing sports and generating income. Members also engaged in HIV risk behaviors, such as meeting new sexual partners and having sex in or around the camp at night. Some members promoted concurrent sexual partnerships with their friends and resisted camp leaders’ efforts to change their sexual risk behavior. We conclude that camps are strategic venues for HIV prevention programs for young Tanzanian men. They served as both protective and risk landscapes, illustrating three domains of the therapeutic landscape framework: the built environment; identities of landscape occupants; and sites for collective efficacy. The framework and data suggest HIV intervention components that might augment the protective features of the camps, while changing environmental features to reduce risk.
Yamanis, Thespina Jeanne; Maman, Suzanne; Mbwambo, Jessie K.; Earp, JoAnne; Kajula, Lusajo
Background Tuberculosis (TB) case detection in women has remained low in developing world. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of smear positive TB among women with cough regardless of the duration attending family Planning (FP) and Maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in all three municipal hospitals of Dar es Salaam, between October 2007 and June 2008. All women with cough attending FP and MCH clinics were screened for TB by smear microscopy. Pearson chi-square was used to compare group difference for categorical variables. Risk factors for smear positive were estimated by logistics regression with 95% confidence intervals (CI) given for odds ratios indicating statistically significant relationship if the CI did not include one. Results We enrolled a total of 749 TB suspects. Five hundred and twenty nine patients (70.6%) were from MCH clinics. Mean (SD) age was 27.6 (5.2) years. A total of 616 (82.2%) patients were coughing for less than two weeks as compared to 133 (17.8%), who coughed for two or more weeks. Among 616 TB suspects, 14 (2.3%) were smear positive TB patients, and of the 133 who had coughed for two or more weeks, 13 (9.8%) were smear positive TB patients. Risk factors associated with smear positive results were having attended more than one visit to any facility prior to diagnosis (OR = 6.8; 95%CI 2.57–18.0) and having HIV/AIDS (OR = 4.4; 95%CI 1.65–11.96). Long duration of cough was not a risk factor for being smear positive (OR = 1.6; 95%CI 0.59–4.49). Conclusion The proportion of smear positive TB patients among women with cough attending MCH and FP was 3.8%. Visits to any health facility prior to Diagnosis and HIV infection were risk for having a smear positive TB.
Ngadaya, Esther S; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; Wandwalo, Eliud R; Morkve, Odd
The most promising strategies for improving management of solid wastes have been identified as minimisation of the amount of the solid wastes generated and maximisation of waste recycling as well as resource recovery. The latter strategy includes composting. A composting research and pilot scale demonstration project was implemented in Dar es Salaam City. It was meant to try out the
S. E. Mbuligwe; G. R. Kassenga; M. E. Kaseva; E. J. Chaggu
Background Neonatal sepsis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among young infants. The aetiological agents as well as their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents are dynamic. This study determined aetiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical outcome of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital. Methods Three hundred and thirty neonates admitted at the Muhimbili National Hospital neonatal ward between October, 2009 and January, 2010 were recruited. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain demographic and clinical information. Blood and pus samples were cultured on MacConkey, blood and chocolate agars and bacteria were identified based on characteristic morphology, gram stain appearance and standard commercially prepared biochemical tests. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed for ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone on Mueller Hinton agar using the Kirby Bauer diffusion method. Results Culture proven sepsis was noted in 24% (74/330) of the study participants. Isolated bacterial pathogens were predominantly Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli. Klebsiella spp 32.7% (17/52) was the predominant blood culture isolate in neonates aged below seven days while Staphylococcus aureus 54.5% (12/22) was commonest among those aged above seven days. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pus swabs isolate for both neonates aged 0–6 days 42.2% (98/232) and 7–28 days 52.3% (34/65). Resistance of blood culture isolates was high to ampicillin 81.1% (60/74) and cloxacillin 78.4% (58/74), moderate to ceftriaxone 14.9% (11/74) and cefuroxime 18.9% (14/74), and low to amikacin 1.3% (1/74). Isolates from swabs had high resistance to ampicillin 89.9% (267/297) and cloxacillin 85.2 (253/297), moderate resistance to ceftriaxone 38.0% (113/297) and cefuroxime 36.0% (107/297), and low resistance to amikacin 4.7% (14/297). Sepsis was higher in neonates with fever and hypothermia (p=0.02), skin pustules (p<0.001), umbilical pus discharge and abdominal wall hyperemia (p=0.04). Presence of skin pustules was an independent predictor of sepsis OR 0.26, 95% CI (0.10-0.66) p=0.004. The overall death rate was 13.9% (46/330), being higher in neonates with sepsis 24.3% (18/74) than those without 10.9% (28/256), p=0.003. Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus was predominant isolate followed by Klebsiella and Escherichia coli. There was high resistance to ampicillin and cloxacillin. Mortality rate due to neonatal sepsis was high in our setting. Routine antimicrobial surveillance should guide the choice of antibiotics for empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis.
This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.
Background Adherence to antiretroviral drugs in the treatment of paediatric HIV infection is complicated because of many factors including stigma and drug intake logistics. It is therefore important to identify children with non-adherence in order to intervene before they become at risk of developing treatment failure or drug resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), measured by caretaker report, medication return and nevirapine plasma concentration. In addition, the association between level of adherence and patient’s immune status was compared across the three methods of measuring adherence. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving HIV infected children aged 2–14 years, on nevirapine- based antiretroviral treatment for at least six months, attending care and treatment clinic in three municipal hospitals in Dar- Es- Salaam City. Eligible patients and their accompanying caretakers were consecutively enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. Structured questionnaires were administered to caretakers to assess patient’s adherence by caretaker report and medication return whereas a single blood sample for CD4 cell count/percent and determination of nevirapine plasma concentration was taken from patients on the day of assessment. Results A total of 300 patients and accompanying caretakers were enrolled and the mean patient age (SD) was 8 (3) years. Caretakers’ report and medication return showed good adherence (98% and 97%) respectively. However, the level of adherence assessed by nevirapine plasma concentration (85%) was significantly lower than caretaker report and medication return (p?0.001). The agreement between nevirapine plasma concentration and medication return and between nevirapine plasma concentration and caretaker report was weak (k?=?0. 131) (k?=?0. 09) respectively. Nevirapine plasma concentration below 3 ?g/ml was associated with immunosuppression (p?=?0. 021) whereas medication return (>5% of prescribed doses) and caretaker reported missing more than one dose within 72 hours prior to interview were not associated with immunosuppression (p?=?0. 474), (p?=?0. 569) respectively. Conclusion Lower adherence level observed using nevirapine plasma concentration and its association with immunological response supports the validity of the method and indicates that adherence data obtained from caretaker report and medication return may overestimate the true adherence in paediatric antiretroviral therapy.
A study between August 1995 and December 1997 included 343 dairy cattle on 20 farms in the Dar es Salaam region and 2289 zebu cattle on 39 bomas in the Lugoba area (coast region). The aim was to establish the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus). In the single intradermal tuberculin test (SIT), 0.9% (3/343) of the animals in Dar es Salaam tested positive and 1.2% (4/343) were doubtful. Positive reactors were found in 10% (2/20) of the farms. In the Lugoba area, 0.6% (14/2206) were positive and 6.8% (149/2206) doubtful, positive cases being found in 21% (8/39) of all bomas. In the slow agglutination test (SAT) for B. abortus, 14.1% (48/341) of the serum samples reacted positively in Dar es Salaam and 2.3% (8/341) were doubtful. Positive SAT reactors were identified on 25% (5/20) of the dairy cattle farms. In the Lugoba area, 12.3% (273/2221) proved to be positive SAT reactors and doubtful reactions were observed in 2.9% (64/2221). SAT-positive animals were detected on 87% (34/39) of all bomas. The prevalence in single herds in Dar es Salaam varied from 4.3% to 5.3% for the SIT and from 2.2% to 50% for the SAT. The prevalence in single herds in Lugoba area was between 1.1% and 2.9% for SIT and from 1.4% up to 62.1% for SAT. The two cattle populations differed significantly (p < 0.001) in the prevalence of both bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. Two cows that were positive reactors were slaughtered and subjected to post-mortem examination, and organ samples were bacteriologically cultured. The occurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both cows. PMID:10907285
Weinhäupl, I; Schöpf, K C; Khaschabi, D; Kapaga, A M; Msami, H M
The sanitary inspection of wells was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures using risk-of-contamination (ROC) scoring to determine the capacity of ROC scoring to predict bacterial faecal pollution of well water in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The analysis was based on a selection of wells representing environments with low to high presumptive faecal pollution risk and a multi-parametric data set of bacterial indicators, generating a comprehensive picture of the level and characteristics of faecal pollution (such as vegetative Escherichia coli cells, Clostridium perfringens spores and human-associated sorbitol fermenting Bifidobacteria). ROC scoring demonstrated a remarkable ability to predict bacterial faecal pollution levels in the investigated well water (e.g. 87% of E. coli concentration variations were predicted by ROC scoring). Physicochemical characteristics of the wells were not reflected by the ROC scores. Our results indicate that ROC scoring is a useful tool for supporting health-related well water management in urban and suburban areas of tropical, developing countries. The outcome of this study is discussed in the context of previously published results, and future directions are suggested.
Mushi, Douglas; Byamukama, Denis; Kirschner, Alexander K.T.; Mach, Robert L.; Brunner, K.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.
The prevalence of chronic non-communicable disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is rising worldwide. In Africa, T2DM is primarily affecting those living in urban areas and increasingly affecting the poor. Diabetes management among urban poor is an area of research that has received little attention. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Dar es Salam, the causes and conditions for diabetes management in Tanzania have been examined. In this paper, we focus on the structural context of diabetes services in Tanzania; the current status of biomedical and ethnomedical health care; and health-seeking among people with T2DM. We demonstrate that although Tanzania is actively developing its diabetes services, many people with diabetes and low socioeconomic status are unable to engage continuously in treatment. There are many challenges to be addressed to support people accessing diabetes health care services and improve diabetes management.
Background Tanzania is currently scaling-up access to anti-retro viral therapy (ART) to reach as many eligible persons as possible. Hepatitis viral co-infections are known to influence progression, management as well as outcome of HIV infection. However, information is scarce regarding the prevalence and predictors of viral hepatitis co-infection among HIV-infected individuals presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinics in the country. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted between April and September 2006 enrolled 260 HIV-1 infected, HAART naïve patients aged ?18 years presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC) of the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). The evaluation included clinical assessment and determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, serum transaminases and serology for Hepatitis A, B and C markers by ELISA. Results The prevalence of anti HAV IgM, HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HCV IgG antibodies were 3.1%, 17.3%, 2.3% and 18.1%, respectively. Dual co-infection with HBV and HCV occurred in 10 individuals (3.9%), while that of HAV and HBV was detected in two subjects (0.8%). None of the patients had all the three hepatitis viruses. Most patients (81.1%) with hepatitis co-infection neither had specific clinical features nor raised serum transaminases. History of blood transfusion and jaundice were independent predictors for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM positivity, respectively. Conclusion There is high prevalence of markers for hepatitis B and C infections among HIV infected patients seeking care and treatment at MNH. Clinical features and a raise in serum alanine aminotransferase were of limited predictive values for the viral co-infections. Efforts to scale up HAART should also address co-infections with Hepatitis B and C viruses.
Nagu, Tumaini J; Bakari, Muhammad; Matee, Mecky
Aims: Widespread adolescent dating violence (DV) in Sub-Saharan Africa calls for immediate action, particularly since it is linked to the spread of HIV\\/AIDS. This article presents prevalence and demographic correlates of DV among school students in Cape Town and Mankweng (South Africa) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Methods: Data were derived from the baseline data collection of a multi-site randomized
ANNEGREET G. WUBS; LEIF E. AARØ; ALAN J. FLISHER; SHERI BASTIEN; HANS E. ONYA; SYLVIA KAAYA; CATHERINE MATHEWS
Urban solid waste in Tanzania in general and in Dar es Salaam city in particular, is a serious environmental problem. Concurrent with recent socioeconomic development, coupled with liberalization of the economy and rapid population growth, the quantum of solid waste generated has increased at a rapid rate. The manner in which urban solid waste is managed in Dar es Salaam
Background HIV/AIDS continues to destroy the lives of young people especially in low-income countries. The inclusion of youths in HIV vaccine trials is of utmost importance in obtaining an effective vaccine that is acceptable to them. Objective To characterize the willingness of young adults in Tanzania to participate in an HIV vaccine trial and the factors that influence this willingness. Design Four hundred and fifty young adults who visited a youth-friendly Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) from February 2012 to September 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning sociodemographic information, their knowledge about and perception of HIV vaccine studies, and the availability of social support. Results Of our participants, 50.6% expressed willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, and this willingness was positively correlated with having some knowledge about HIV vaccine studies (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4–3.4), a positive perception toward such studies (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.6), having a relationship with someone who could help them make a decision (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–4.9), and age at the time of sexual debut (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI 1.0–6.7) for 15- to 19-year-olds and (AOR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.0–7.1) for older participants. Conclusions The participants exhibited a moderate willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, which was associated with a positive perception of and some knowledge about such trials, having a relationship with someone who might influence their decision as well as age at time of sexual debut. More efforts should be made to inform the youths about specific HIV vaccine trials and related matters, as well as to engage significant others in the decision-making process.
Mbunda, Theodora; Bakari, Muhammad; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Sandstrom, Eric; Kulane, Asli
Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20?% of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD), depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. Methodology A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs) and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. Results The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The economic challenges were poverty, child care interfering with various income generating activities in the family, and extra expenses associated with the child’s illness. Conclusion Caregivers of mentally ill children experience various psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges. Professional assistance, public awareness of mental illnesses in children, social support by the government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are important in addressing these challenges.
The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that…
Participated in the Uncommon Dialogue meeting, in which we were able to meet with local water authorities, tour various communities, and learn about the larger scale water challenges that unplanned communities face. Piloted rapid method in n...
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. METHODS: Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children
Omar JM Hamza; Elison NM Simon; Emil Kikwilu; Mainen J Moshi; Ferdinand Mugusi; Frans HM Mikx; Paul E Verweij; André JAM van der Ven
Whereas Tanzania has seen considerable improvements in water and sanitation infrastructure over the past 20 years, the country still faces high rates of childhood morbidity from diarrheal diseases. This study utilized a qualitative, cross-sectional, modified Photovoice method to capture daily activities of Dar es Salaam mothers. A total of 127 photographs from 13 households were examined, and 13 interviews were conducted with household mothers. The photographs and interviews revealed insufficient hand washing procedures, unsafe disposal of wastewater, uncovered household drinking water containers, a lack of water treatment prior to consumption, and inappropriate toilets for use by small children. The interviews revealed that mothers were aware and knowledgeable of the risks of certain household practices and understood safer alternatives, yet were restricted by the perceived impracticality and financial constraints to make changes. The results draw attention to the real economic and behavioral challenges faced in reducing the spread of disease.
Badowski, Natalie; Castro, Cynthia M.; Montgomery, Maggie; Pickering, Amy J.; Mamuya, Simon; Davis, Jennifer
This article presents the main findings of a tracer survey of graduates from two artisan training centres in Tanzania, which was undertaken in early 2002. The two institutions are the Chang'ombe Regional Vocational Training and Service Centre (RVTSC) in Dar es Salaam and the Iringa RVTSC, which are owned and managed by the Vocational Education and…
Bennell, Paul; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Kasogela, Maurice; Mutashubirwa, Francis; Klim, Mikkel
This paper examines what motivates the participation of African slum(1) dwellers in urban social movement activities. This issue is analyzed through a case study of grassroots mobilization around evictions in Kurasini ward, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The paper uses an analytic narrative approach to account for patterns in participatory behaviour, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data gathered through interviews
Michael Hooper; Leonard Ortolano
Background Laboratory capacity to confirm malaria cases in Tanzania is low and presumptive treatment of malaria is being practiced widely. In malaria endemic areas WHO now recommends systematic laboratory testing when suspecting malaria. Currently, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) is recommended for the diagnosis of malaria in lower level peripheral facilities, but not in health centres and hospitals. In this study, the following parameters were evaluated: (1) the quality of routine microscopy, and (2) the effects of RDT implementation on the positivity rate of malaria test results at three levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods During a baseline cross-sectional survey, routine blood slides were randomly picked from 12 urban public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Sensitivity and specificity of routine slides were assessed against expert microscopy. In March 2007, following training of health workers, RDTs were introduced in nine public health facilities (three hospitals, three health centres and three dispensaries) in a near-to-programmatic way, while three control health facilities continued using microscopy. The monthly malaria positivity rates (PR) recorded in health statistics registers were collected before (routine microscopy) and after (routine RDTs) the intervention in all facilities. Results At baseline, 53% of blood slides were reported as positive by the routine laboratories, whereas only 2% were positive by expert microscopy. Sensitivity of routine microscopy was 71.4% and specificity was 47.3%. Positive and negative predictive values were 2.8% and 98.7%, respectively. Median parasitaemia was only three parasites per 200 white blood cells (WBC) by routine microscopy compared to 1226 parasites per 200 WBC by expert microscopy. Before RDT implementation, the mean test positivity rates using routine microscopy were 43% in hospitals, 62% in health centres and 58% in dispensaries. After RDT implementation, mean positivity rates using routine RDTs were 6%, 7% and 8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RDTs using expert microscopy as reference were 97.0% and 96.8%. The positivity rate of routine microscopy remained the same in the three control facilities: 71% before versus 72% after. Two cross-sectional health facility surveys confirmed that the parasite rate in febrile patients was low in Dar es Salaam during both the rainy season (13.6%) and the dry season (3.3%). Conclusions The quality of routine microscopy was poor in all health facilities, regardless of their level. Over-diagnosis was massive, with many false positive results reported as very low parasitaemia (1 to 5 parasites per 200 WBC). RDTs should replace microscopy as first-line diagnostic tool for malaria in all settings, especially in hospitals where the potential for saving lives is greatest.
Background Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Results and discussion Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. Conclusions To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological testing, preclinical testing, formulation and standardization, and related areas important to moving from basic research to applications. The private sector can be encouraged to innovate through improved access to financing, and incentives for R&D. The diaspora community represents an untapped source for partnerships and access to other developing world markets and technology. The government may wish to set up mechanisms to encourage south-south collaborations, and to bring the public and private sector together around specific projects to help realize the country’s innovation potential.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the preappointment experiences of early-career headteachers in Tanzania and to discuss implications for postsecondary institutions and ministries of education in East Africa. Research Design: Seven novice headteachers in a suburb of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, completed questionnaires and participated…
Onguko, Brown Bully; Abdalla, Mohamed; Webber, Charles F.
The work presented in this paper is part of the study which aims at determining the levels of elements in hair of children in Tanzania as a bioindicator of their nutrition and health. In this paper, the levels of trace elements in hair from children living in Dar es Salaam have been analysed. The analysis was carried out by long and short irradiation INAA at the reactor centre of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez Czech Republic. 22 samples were collected from children living at Kiwalani about 12 km from Dar es Salaam city and 16 samples from children living at Mlimani, the main campus of University of Dar es Salaam. A total of 34 elements were found in the hair of the children. There were no big differences between the concentration levels of the essential elements in hair samples collected from the children which might indicate the same food consumption habits.
Mohammed, Najat K.
A study on industrial solid waste management (ISWM) and resource recovery practices was carried out in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Practices pertaining to generation, storage, collection and transportation, processing, and final disposal were investigated. The ISW was also quantified and characterised. It is observed that 89% of sources of ISW produce process solid waste only while the remaining 11%
Stephen E. Mbuligwe; Mengiseny E. Kaseva
A cross sectional population based epidemiological survey of 899 adults aged between 15 and 59 was undertaken in two urban areas of demographic surveillance sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, using the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised. Significantly higher rates were found among those who had experienced more than three severe life events in the last six months and relationship difficulties and death of a loved one.
Jenkins, Rachel; Mbatia, Joseph; Singleton, Nicola; White, Bethany
Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Results Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. Conclusion GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended.
Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth
Water, sanitation, housing and hygienic behavior plays dominant role in the transmission and intensification of diseases. To effectively utilize limited financial resources, it is important to prioritize disease intervention methods in order to minimize mortality and morbidity cases. Realization of the environmental health components that respond to the practical effects of their contribution to transmission of diseases has greater chances of effectively enhancing health. Data of frequency of diseases and mortality rate were collected from four municipal hospitals from districts of Ilala, Kinondoni, Temeke and Kibaha in Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions. The populations at risk were sub-categorized in relation to age; below five years and above five years. The age parameter assists on envisaging the major causes to be either in-house or in public domain. Data were analyzed to assess the role of water quality, water quantity, excreta disposal, waste disposal and hygiene education on spreading the diseases in order to come up with scientifically evaluated information. Scores were given to each intervention method depending on its importance in controlling a particular disease. The results indicate that incidences of malaria, skin and eye infections, pneumonia and diarrhea are frequent in these districts. Children under 5 years are particularly affected by pneumonia and diarrhea more than adults. Malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are the major causes of mortality rates in these districts. Fatality cases are caused largely by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea for children less than 5 years, but malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are responsible for mortality rates in adults and children over 5 years. Statistical analysis revealed that in all districts, hygiene education is the major factor responsible for transmission of diseases accounting for 32-39%. Other factors, which are the major contributors to the incidences of diseases, are inadequacy of water (15.6-22.5%) and poor housing environment (14.5-24.0%). Water quality played the least role in transmission of diseases accounting for only 3-8%. It was concluded that provision of hygiene education, and improvement of water quantity and housing, in that order can significantly contribute to reduction of communicable diseases in the area. Improvement of water quality has potentially the least effect on the number of morbidity and mortality cases.
Mayo, A. W.
Through in-depth interviews, this study explored perceptions and experiences of key players handling child sexual offense cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The informants included public police investigators, magistrates, legal workers, and social workers working with nongovernmental organizations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed…
Kisanga, Felix; Mbwambo, Jessie; Hogan, Norah; Nystrom, Lennarth; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla
Through in-depth interviews, this study explored perceptions and experiences of key players handling child sexual offense cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The informants included public police investigators, magistrates, legal workers, and social workers working with nongovernmental organizations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Five themes emerged summarizing factors associated with sexual offenses, including
Felix Kisanga; Jessie Mbwambo; Norah Hogan; Lennarth Nystrom; Maria Emmelin; Gunilla Lindmark
Following lack of investment in wastewater treatment, high investment and maintenance cost, conventional treatment systems have not been used in Tanzania. On the other hand, cost effective wastewater treatment methods like the use of septic tanks, soak pits, drainage fields and waste stabilization ponds are widely applied. One of the methods of achieving compliance using conventional treatment systems at low
D. A. Mashauri; D. M. M. Mulungu; B. S. Abdulhussein
Background External quality assurance (EQA) programmes, which are routinely used in laboratories, have not been widely implemented for point-of- care tests (POCTs). A study was performed in ten health centres in Tanzania, to implement the use of dried blood spots (DBS) as an EQA method for HIV and syphilis (POCTs). Method DBS samples were collected for retesting at a reference laboratory and the results compared to the POCT results obtained at the clinic. In total, 2341 DBS samples were collected from 10 rural health facilities over a period of nine months, of which 92.5% were correctly collected and spotted. Results The EQA method was easily implemented by healthcare workers under routine conditions in Northern Tanzania. For HIV, 967 out of 972 samples (99.5%) were concordant between DBS and POCT results. For syphilis, the sensitivity of syphilis tests varied between clinics with a median of 96% (25th and 75th quartile; 95-98%). The specificity of syphilis POCT was consistent compared to laboratory based test using DBS, with a median of 96% (25th and 75th quartiles; 95-98%). Conclusion Overall, the quality of testing varied at clinics and EQA results can be used to identify clinics where healthcare workers require remedial training, suggesting the necessity for stringent quality assurance programmes for POC testing. As Tanzania embarks on scaling up HIV and syphilis testing, DBS can be a useful and robust tool to monitor the quality of testing performed by healthcare workers and trigger corrective action to ensure accuracy of test results.
The Tanzania Cancer Registry at Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was reviewed for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in non-albino African subjects. The data was analysed for age, sex, site and predisposing factors. Our results were then compared with studies previously carried out in Tanzania, elsewhere in Africa and also on Blacks in America. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin was found to be a common malignancy, and the commonest skin cancer. Its peak was in the 40-49 years age group though it could occur in children under five years of age. The most affected site was the lower limb, followed by the head and the neck. The penis in the male and the vulva in the female were the third most affected sites. The scalp and the lip were more affected in females than males. Chronic trauma, chronic ulcers, and scars were the main predisposing risk factors to the lower limb and the scalp, while ultra violet radiation to the head and neck, and smegma of the uncircumcised penis were thought to be predisposing risk factors. PMID:1308840
Amir, H; Mbonde, M P; Kitinya, J N
Background Irrational prescribing and dispensing of antimalarials has been identified as a contributing factor in the emergence of malaria parasites resistant to existing antimalarial drugs. Factors that contribute to such irrational prescribing and dispensing should therefore be identified to address this problem. The aim of this study was to assess irrational antimalarial drug dispensing and prescribing practices in public health facilities. Methods A descriptive-retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2011 in order to assess prescribing and dispensing practices for antimalarial drugs in three public hospitals and nine health centers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Thirty-two drug dispensers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 4,320 prescriptions for the period January to December 2010 were collected and assessed for antimalarial drug prescribing patterns. Results The majority (84.6%) of drug dispensers had poor knowledge regarding the basic information required from patients before dispensing artemether-lumefantrine. Seventeen of 32 drug dispensers did not know the basic information that should be given to patients in order to increase absorption of artemether-lumefantrine after oral intake. Most drug dispensers also showed limited knowledge about the dosage and contraindications for artemether-lumefantrine. Eighty-seven percent of all prescriptions contained artemether-lumefantrine as the only antimalarial drug, 77.1% contained at least one analgesic, and 26.9% contained at least one antibiotic, indicating unnecessary use of analgesics and antibiotics with antimalarial drugs. A substantial number of prescriptions contained antimalarial drugs that have already been declared ineffective for the treatment of malaria in Tanzania, providing additional evidence of inadequate knowledge among health care workers concerning treatment policy. Conclusion Despite the government’s efforts to increase public awareness regarding use of artemether-lumefantrine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, there is still irrational prescribing, dispensing, and use of this combination. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that regular on-the-job training and continuing education be provided to drug dispensers and prescribers in public health facilities.
Kamuhabwa, Appolinary AR; Silumbe, Richard
Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other hand, 12.4% of agricultural land and 16.1% of green areas would be lost in the low density development scenario of unplanned settlements of max. 150 persons per hectare. Relocating the population living in flood prone areas in the case of Addis Ababa and keeping those areas free from further settlements in the case of Dar es Salaam would result in even lower losses (agricultural land: -10.0%, green areas: -5.6%) as some flood prone areas overlap with agricultural/ green areas. The scenario models introduced in this research can be used by planners as tools to understand and manage the different outcomes of distinctive urban development strategies on growth patterns and how they interact with different climate change drivers such as loss of green infrastructure and effects such as frequent flooding hazards. Due to the relative simplicity of their structure and the single modeling environment, the models can be transferred to similar cities with minor modifications accommodating the different conditions of each city. Already, in Addis Ababa the results of the model will be used in the current revision of the Master plan of the city. Keywords: GIS, modeling, Urban Dynamics, Dar es Salaam, Addis Ababa, urbanization
Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease of zoonotic concern, especially in countries with no control programs in livestock and where routine pasteurization of milk is not practiced. In Tanzania, bTB is widespread in livestock and has been diagnosed in humans; however, herd bTB testing is primarily carried out for bTB-free certification in commercial dairy herds at the expense of the dairy cattle owner. For rural livestock holders, such an expense is prohibitive, and consequently there is no control of bTB in most areas. Although effective long-term solutions to control bTB in livestock are desirable, there is a need to assess the effect of preventive measures on reducing human exposure to bTB in such settings. We utilized locally relevant cattle herd characteristics and management data from the Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement (HALI) project in south-central Tanzania to build a Reed-Frost model that compared the efficacy of alternative methods aimed at reducing the exposure of humans to infectious milk from a typical pastoralist cattle herd. During a 10-year simulation period, the model showed that boiling milk 80% of the time is necessary to obtain a reduction in liters of infectious milk approximately equivalent to what would be obtained with a standard 2-year testing and removal regimen, and that boiling milk was more effective than animal test and removal early in the time period. In addition, even with testing and removing infected cattle, a residual risk of exposure to infectious milk remained due to imperfect sensitivity of the skin test and a continuous risk of introduction of infectious animals from other herds. The model was sensitive to changes in initial bTB prevalence but not to changes in herd size. In conclusion, continuous complimentary treatment of milk may be an effective strategy to reduce human exposure to M. bovis-infected milk in settings where bTB is endemic and a comprehensive bTB control program is yet to be implemented. PMID:24853050
Roug, Annette; Perez, Andres; Mazet, Jonna A K; Clifford, Deana L; VanWormer, Elizabeth; Paul, Goodluck; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Smith, Woutrina A
Background Tanzania currently rolls out vaccination against rotavirus-diarrhea, a major cause of child illness and death. As the vaccine covers a limited number of rotavirus variants, this study describes the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under two years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, prior to implementation of vaccination. Methods Stool specimens, demographic and clinical information, were collected from 690 children admitted to hospital due to diarrhea (cases) and 545 children without diarrhea (controls) during one year. Controls were inpatient or children attending child health clinics. Rotavirus antigen was detected using ELISA and positive samples were typed by multiplex semi-nested PCR and sequencing. Results The prevalence of rotavirus was higher in cases (32.5%) than in controls (7.7%, P<0.001). The most common G genotypes were G1 followed by G8, G12, and G4 in cases and G1, G12 and G8 in controls. The Tanzanian G1 variants displayed 94% similarity with the Rotarix vaccine G1 variant. The commonest P genotypes were P, P and P, and the commonest G/P combination G1 P (n?=?123), G8 P and G12 P. Overall, rotavirus prevalence was higher in cool (23.9%) than hot months (17.1%) of the year (P?=?0.012). We also observed significant seasonal variation of G genotypes. Rotavirus was most frequently found in the age group of four to six months. The prevalence of rotavirus in cases was lower in stunted children (28.9%) than in non-stunted children (40.1%, P?=?0.003) and lower in HIV-infected (15.4%, 4/26) than in HIV-uninfected children (55.3%, 42/76, P<0.001). Conclusion This pre-vaccination study shows predominance of genotype G1 in Tanzania, which is phylogenetically distantly related to the vaccine strains. We confirm the emergence of genotype G8 and G12. Rotavirus infection and circulating genotypes showed seasonal variation. This study also suggests that rotavirus may not be an opportunistic pathogen in children infected with HIV.
Moyo, Sabrina J.; Blomberg, Bj?rn; Hanevik, Kurt; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Langeland, Nina
Background In Tanzania, half of all pregnant women access a health facility for delivery. The proportion receiving skilled care at birth is even lower. In order to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, the government has set out to increase health facility deliveries by skilled care. The aim of this study was to describe the weaknesses in the provision of acceptable and adequate quality care through the accounts of women who have suffered obstetric fistula, nurse-midwives at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities and local community members. Methods Semi-structured interviews involving 16 women affected by obstetric fistula and five nurse-midwives at maternity wards at both BEmOC and CEmOC health facilities, and Focus Group Discussions with husbands and community members were conducted between October 2008 and February 2010 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania and Temeke hospitals in Dar es Salaam, and Mpwapwa district in Dodoma region. Results Health care users and health providers experienced poor quality caring and working environments in the health facilities. Women in labour lacked support, experienced neglect, as well as physical and verbal abuse. Nurse-midwives lacked supportive supervision, supplies and also seemed to lack motivation. Conclusions There was a consensus among women who have suffered serious birth injuries and nurse midwives staffing both BEmOC and CEmOC maternity wards that the quality of care offered to women in birth was inadequate. While the birth accounts of women pointed to failure of care, the nurses described a situation of disempowerment. The bad birth care experiences of women undermine the reputation of the health care system, lower community expectations of facility birth, and sustain high rates of home deliveries. The only way to increase the rate of skilled attendance at birth in the current Tanzanian context is to make facility birth a safer alternative than home birth. The findings from this study indicate that there is a long way to go.
Background Universal salt iodation will prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Globally, salt-iodation technologies mostly target large and medium-scale salt-producers. Since most producers in low-income countries are small-scale, we examined and improved the performance of hand and knapsack-sprayers used locally in Tanzania. Methods We studied three salt facilities on the Bagamoyo coast, investigating procedures for preparing potassium-iodate solution, salt spraying and mixing. Different concentrations of solution were prepared and tested using different iodation methods, with the aim of attaining correct and homogeneous iodine levels under real-life conditions. Levels achieved by manual mixing were compared to those achieved by machine mixing. Results The overall median iodation level in samples of salt iodated using previously existing methods was 10.6 ppm (range 1.1 – 110.0 ppm), with much higher levels in the top than the bottom layers of the salt bags, p < 0.0001. Experimentation using knapsack-sprayers and manual mixing led to the reliable achievement of levels (60.9 ppm ± 7.4) that fell within the recommended range of 40 – 80 ppm. The improved methods yielded homogenous iodine concentrations in all layers of salt-bags (p = 0.58) with 96% of the samples (n = 45) falling within 40 – 80 ppm compared to only 9% (n = 45) before the experiment and training (p < 0.0001). For knapsack-spraying, a machine mixer improved the iodine levels and homogeneity slightly compared to manual mixing (p = 0.05). Conclusion Supervised, standardized salt iodation procedures adapted to local circumstances can yield homogeneous iodine levels within the required range, overcoming a major obstacle to universal salt iodation.
Assey, Vincent D; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Momburi, Philip B; Maganga, Michael; Mlingi, Nicholaus V; Reilly, Marie; Greiner, Ted; Peterson, Stefan
Background Obstetric fistula is a physically and socially disabling obstetric complication that affects about 3,000 women in Tanzania every year. The fistula, an opening that forms between the vagina and the bladder and/or the rectum, is most frequently caused by unattended prolonged labour, often associated with delays in seeking and receiving appropriate and adequate birth care. Using the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care (AAAQ) concept and the three delays model, this article provides empirical knowledge on birth care experiences of women who developed fistula after prolonged labour. Methods We used a mixed methods approach to explore the birthing experiences of women affected by fistula and the barriers to access adequate care during labour and delivery. Sixteen women were interviewed for the qualitative study and 151 women were included in the quantitative survey. All women were interviewed at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania in Dar es Salaam and Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza. Results Women experienced delays both before and after arriving at a health facility. Decisions on where to seek care were most often taken by husbands and mothers-in-law (60%). Access to health facilities providing emergency obstetric care was inadequate and transport was a major obstacle. About 20% reported that they had walked or were carried to the health facility. More than 50% had reported to a health facility after two or more days of labour at home. After arrival at a health facility women experienced lack of supportive care, neglect, poor assessment of labour and lack of supervision. Their birth accounts suggest unskilled birth care and poor referral routines. Conclusions This study reveals major gaps in access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. It illustrates how poor quality of care at health facilities contributes to delays that lead to severe birth injuries, highlighting the need to ensure women's rights to accessible, acceptable and adequate quality services during labour and delivery.
Tanzania has long suffered from lack of an organized seed production and distribution system. The report presents the results of an impact assessment of a project (1/70-12/82) to increase the quality and quantity of seeds produced in Tanzania.
C. B. Ratchford L. R. Meyers B. J. Ndunguru M. S. Zak
OBJECTIVE: To obtain baseline information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the Rwandan refugees camps in Tanzania, prior to establishment of STD services. SETTING: The largest camps of Rwandan refugees in the Ngara District of Tanzania (estimated population 300,000). The study was carried out in 8 days in August 1994. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A rapid assessment technique was used to
P. Mayaud; W Msuya; J Todd; G Kaatano; G Begkoyian; H Grosskurth; D Mabey
In Tanzania, pastoralists such as the Maasai and small urban farmers are responsible for the country's milk production, and 95% of the national milk supply is sold without regulation. This study was conducted using hygiene checklists and milk sampling to investigate milk quality and safety at various steps throughout the milk production chain. In regions of Dar es Salaam and Lake Victoria, 196 milk samples were collected: 109 samples of raw milk, 41 samples of packed or open served heat-treated products, and 46 samples of fermented products. Samples were taken from (i) the production level (pastoralists and urban farmers), (ii) the collection level (middlemen and depots), (iii) processors (dairies), and (iv) retailers (kiosks). Samples were analyzed for hygiene criteria (total bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and coagulase-positive staphylococci) and foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Adequate heating of milk for drinking was determined via heat labile alkaline phosphatase and lactoperoxidase analysis. Total bacterial counts indicated that only 67% (73 of 109) of raw milk samples and 46% (19 of 41) of heat-treated samples met national Tanzanian standards. Bulk milk samples taken from the traditional milking vessels of Maasai pastoralists had the lowest total bacterial counts: ? 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml. Foodborne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were isolated from 10.1% (11 of 109) of raw milk samples but were not detected in heat-treated or fermented products, and 83% of heat-treated milk samples were lactoperoxidase negative, indicating overpasteurization. Coliforms were detected in 41% (17 of 41) of processed milk samples, thus indicating a high rate of recontamination. A progressive decrease in microbial quality along the milk production chain was attributed to departures from traditional methods, inadequate milk containers, long transport distances, lack of cooling, and lack of a basic understanding of hygiene. PMID:24215695
Schoder, Dagmar; Maichin, Andreas; Lema, Benedict; Laffa, John
Background Traditional birth attendants retain an important role in reproductive and maternal health in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Government promotes TBAs in order to provide maternal and neonatal health counselling and initiating timely referral, however, their role officially does not include delivery attendance. Yet, experience illustrates that most TBAs still often handle complicated deliveries. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to describe (1) women’s health-seeking behaviour and experiences regarding their use of antenatal (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC); (2) their rationale behind the choice of place and delivery; and to learn (3) about the use of traditional practices and resources applied by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and how they can be linked to the bio-medical health system. Methods Qualitative and quantitative interviews were conducted with over 270 individuals in Masasi District, Mtwara Region and Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results The results from the urban site show that significant achievements have been made in terms of promoting pregnancy- and delivery-related services through skilled health workers. Pregnant women have a high level of awareness and clearly prefer to deliver at a health facility. The scenario is different in the rural site (Masasi District), where an adequately trained health workforce and well-equipped health facilities are not yet a reality, resulting in home deliveries with the assistance of either a TBA or a relative. Conclusions Instead of focusing on the traditional sector, it is argued that more attention should be paid towards (1) improving access to as well as strengthening the health system to guarantee delivery by skilled health personnel; and (2) bridging the gaps between communities and the formal health sector through community-based counselling and health education, which is provided by well-trained and supervised village health workers who inform villagers about promotive and preventive health services, including maternal and neonatal health.
Summary Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LV H) has been demonstrated to be a powerful predictor of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in diabetic as well as hypertensive patients. However, less is known about the prevalence of electrocardiographic LV H (ECG-LV H) and its relation to other CV risk factors in diabetic patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the aim was to assess the prevalence of ECG-LV H in diabetic patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and its relation to other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Two hundred and thirty-seven consecutive patients attending the Muhimbili diabetic clinic were studied. ECG-LVH was diagnosed by Sokolow-Lyon voltage and Cornell voltage-duration product criteria. Q waves, ST-segment deviation, T-wave abnormalities and intraventricular conduction defects were classified by the Minnesota codes. Blood pressure (BP), serum creatinine, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and HbA1c and urinary albumin and creatinine concentrations were determined. Results The prevalence of LV H in patients was 16% by either ECG criteria; 12.2% by Sokolow-Lyon and 5.1% by Cornell product criteria. Patients with LV H had significantly higher systolic and mean BP and pulse pressure, and a higher prevalence of ST-segment abnormalities, T-wave inversion and albuminuria than those without LV H (all p < 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, systolic BP was the only independent predictor of ECG-LV H. The prevalence of ECG-LV H increased by 15% per 10 mmHg higher systolic BP [OR 1.151 (95% CI 1.00921.314), p < 0.05]. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors differed significantly between type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. On average, type 1 patients had 0.8 and type 2 had 2.2 additional CV risk factors. Conclusion ECG-LV H was present in 16% of diabetic patients in Tanzania. Systolic BP was the most important predictor of ECG-LV H. Clustering of CV risks was significantly higher in type 2 than in type 1 diabetics, demonstrating the need for systematic multiple risk-factor assessment in these patients.
Lutale, JJK; Thordarson, H; Gulam-Abbas, Z; Vetvik, K; Gerdts, E
With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the probability of dry spell occurrence. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. This map is then related to the critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the probability of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels, which makes rainfed agricultural practices unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully practiced. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells, and subsequently to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
Fischer, B. M. C.; Mul, M. L.; Savenije, H. H. G.
BackgroundAs a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living
Katherine Penrose; Marcia Caldas de Castro; Japhet Werema; Edward T. Ryan
An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps’ concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps’ ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps’ concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts® soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency® and Dalan® exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex®, Roberts®, Family® and Protector® were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda® liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps’ antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora.
Mwambete, K. D.; Lyombe, F.
Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls are not aware about their right to such services. The paper concludes that the vulnerability of adolescent girls increases without the recognition that sexuality education and contraceptive services do not constitute a licence to practice illicit sex - but rather a means to create more mature and responsible attitudes and to increase sexual and reproductive health. PMID:11352408
Silberschmidt, M; Rasch, V
Introduction In Tanzania, only 27% of currently married women are using modern Family Planning (FP) methods. HIV counseling and testing outlets are potential avenues for addressing the unmet FP needs through integration of FP and HIV services, reaching out to sexually active people. This study assessed capacity for integrating family planning into HIV voluntary counseling and testing services (HTC) in Dar-es-Salaam (DSM) and Coast regions. Methods This was a mixed methods study using triangulation model conducted in two districts to represent rural and urban settings. Questionnaires were administered to 147 randomly selected service users and 35 health providers while 10 in-depth interviews were conducted among Ministry of Health and Local government. Four focus group discussions were conducted among HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service users. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics with aid of SPSS. Qualitative data were analyzed by thematic framework approach. Results Although there was gap in policy and guidelines with regards to integration, policy makers were willing to pioneer integration of FP and HIV services. Health providers support provision of FP/VCT services by the same health provider. Only 25% of health providers were trained on both FP and HTC services. Existing national monitoring and evaluation tools can be used with little modification to capture data for both services. Eighty five percent (85%) of clients indicated satisfaction with integrated services. Conclusion Integration of FP and HTC is feasible and acceptable with minor re-arrangement. Involvement of multiple stakeholders especially at district level is critical in enhancing integration.
Awadhi, Bayoum; Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Ngware, Zubeda
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) established the Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) mission to reduce and protect nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 80 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance security of facilities with these materials. In 2004, a GTRI delegation began working with the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, (TAEC). The team conducted site assessments for the physical protection of radiological materials in Tanzania. Today, GTRI and the Government of Tanzania continue cooperative efforts to enhance physical security at several radiological sites, including a central sealed-source storage facility, and sites in the cities of Arusha, Dar Es Salaam, and Tanga. This paper describes the scope of physical protection work, lessons learned, and plans for future cooperation between the GTRI program and the TAEC. Additionally the paper will review the cooperative efforts between TAEC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with regards to a remote monitoring system at a storage facility and to the repackaging of radioactive sources.
Banzi, Firmi Paul (Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania); Itamura, Michael Takeshi (U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC); Robinson, Phillip W. (U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC); Strosinski, Micheal Vernon
Attitude change approaches are common in the prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents. This study examined associations between perpetration or victimization and attitudes toward IPV with data from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an HIV prevention intervention among school students in three sites in South Africa and Tanzania. Data analyses were confined to students from the control group only, and to those with experience with romantic relationships. Boys and those more involved with violence reported more violence-supportive attitudes. For Cape Town (and to some extent Mankweng), the results of prospective prediction are consistent with the notion of a bidirectional attitudes-behavior interrelationship. For Dar es Salaam attitudes predicted behavior prospectively; however, prediction in the opposite direction was not confirmed. These results indicate that attitude change strategies may be useful complementary to structural approaches also in global South settings, although their effectiveness may vary. PMID:23763115
Wubs, Annegreet Gera; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mathews, Catherine; Onya, Hans E; Mbwambo, Jessie
Background Pyrethroid resistance has been slower to emerge in Anopheles arabiensis than in An. gambiae s.s and An. funestus and, consequently, studies are only just beginning to unravel the genes involved. Permethrin resistance in An. arabiensis in Lower Moshi, Tanzania has been linked to elevated levels of both P450 monooxygenases and ?-esterases. We have conducted a gene expression study to identify specific genes linked with metabolic resistance in the Lower Moshi An. arabiensis population. Methods Microarray experiments employing an An. gambiae whole genome expression chip were performed on An. arabiensis, using interwoven loop designs. Permethrin-exposed survivors were compared to three separate unexposed mosquitoes from the same or a nearby population. A subsection of detoxification genes were chosen for subsequent quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Microarray analysis revealed significant over expression of 87 probes and under expression of 85 probes (in pairwise comparisons between permethrin survivors and unexposed sympatric and allopatric samples from Dar es Salaam (controls). For qRT-PCR we targeted over expressed ABC transporter genes (ABC ‘2060’), a glutathione-S-transferase, P450s and esterases. Design of efficient, specific primers was successful for ABC ‘2060’and two P450s (CYP6P3, CYP6M2). For the CYP4G16 gene, we used the primers that were previously used in a microarray study of An. arabiensis from Zanzibar islands. Over expression of CYP4G16 and ABC ‘2060’ was detected though with contrasting patterns in pairwise comparisons between survivors and controls. CYP4G16 was only up regulated in survivors, whereas ABC ‘2060’ was similar in survivors and controls but over expressed in Lower Moshi samples compared to the Dar es Salaam samples. Increased transcription of CYP4G16 and ABC ‘2060’ are linked directly and indirectly respectively, with permethrin resistance in Lower Moshi An. arabiensis. Conclusions Increased transcription of a P450 (CYP4G16) and an ABC transporter (ABC 2060) are linked directly and indirectly respectively, with permethrin resistance in Lower Moshi An. arabiensis. Our study provides replication of CYP4G16 as a candidate gene for pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis, although its role may not be in detoxification, and requires further investigation.
The United Republic of Tanzania was formed in 1964 by the merger of Tanganyika and Zanzibar and is located on the eastern coast of Africa between the Great Lakes of the Rift Valley. Tanzania has a diverse mineral resource base that includes gold and base metals, diamond-bearing kimberlites, nickel, cobalt, copper, coal resources, and a variety of industrial minerals and rocks such as kaolin, graphite, and dimension stone. This web site was created by the Mineral Resources Department (MRD), a subsidiary of the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, and contains basic information about the country's logistical environment, mineral sector policy, geological database, and more.
A survey of the status of language usage in Tanzania begins with an overview of the three levels of language use: (1) Swahili, the national and official language, used in public life; (2) English, used in international affairs and in technical and intellectual matters; and (3) the over 120 vernacular languages used in family and religious life,…
Background Emerging research evidence suggests a potential benefit in being upright in the first stage of labour and a systematic review of trials suggests both benefits and harmful effects associated with being upright in the second stage of labour. Implementing evidence-based obstetric care in African countries with scarce resources is particularly challenging, and requires an understanding of the cumulative nature of science and commitment to applying the most up to date evidence to clinical decisions. In this study, we documented current practice rates, explored the barriers and opportunities to implementing these procedures from the provider perspective, and documented women's preferences and satisfaction with care. Methods This was an exploratory study using quantitative and qualitative methods. Practice rates were determined by exit interviews with a consecutive sample of postnatal women. Provider views were explored using semi-structured interviews (with doctors and traditional birth attendants) and focus group discussions (with midwives). The study was conducted at four government hospitals, two in Dar es Salaam and two in the neighbouring Coast region, Tanzania. Main outcome measures Practice rates for mobility during labour and delivery position; women's experiences, preferences and views about the care provided; and provider views of current practice and barriers and opportunities to evidence-based obstetric practice. Results Across all study sites more women were mobile at home (15.0%) than in the labour ward (2.9%), but movement was quite restricted at home before women were admitted to labour ward (51.6% chose to rest with little movement). Supine position for delivery was used routinely at all four hospitals; this was consistent with women's preferred choice of position, although very few women are aware of other positions. Qualitative findings suggest obstetricians and midwives favoured confining to bed during the first stage of labour, and supine position for delivery. Conclusions The barriers to change appear to be complicated and require providers to want to change, and women to be informed of alternative positions during the first stage of labour and delivery. We believe that highlighting the gap between actual practice and current evidence provides a platform for dialogue with providers to evaluate the threats and opportunities for changing practice.
Lugina, Helen; Mlay, Rose; Smith, Helen
A survey of the anaesthetic services in rural Tanzania was carried out in an area of 67500 km2 and population of 4 million in order to assess the quality of anaesthesia and the major obstacles to good practice. Lack of draw-over vaporizers, Ayre's T-pieces, and a supply of oxygen were found to be the major obstacles to safe practice in this area of Africa. PMID:11321255
Kimaro, E; Towey, R M
Background Despite the increased attention on maternal mortality during recent decades, which has resulted in maternal health being defined as a Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Continuous leaking of urine and the physical, emotional and social suffering associated with it, has a profound impact on women's quality of life. This study seeks to explore the physical, cultural and psychological dimensions of living with obstetric fistula, and demonstrate how these experiences shape the identities of women affected by the condition. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was used to explore the experiences of Tanzanian women living with obstetric fistula and those of their husbands. The study was conducted at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania hospital in Dar es Salaam, Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, and Mpwapwa district, in Dodoma region. Conveniently selected samples of 16 women were interviewed, and 151 additional women responded to a questionnaire. In addition, 12 women affected by obstetric fistula and six husbands of these affected women participated in a focus group discussions. Data were analysed using content data analysis framework and statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 15 for Microsoft windows. Results The study revealed a deep sense of loss. Loss of body control, loss of the social roles as women and wives, loss of integration in social life, and loss of dignity and self-worth were located at the core of these experiences. Conclusion The women living with obstetric fistula experience a deep sense of loss that had negative impact on their identity and quality of life. Acknowledging affected women's real-life experiences is important in order to understand the occurrence and management of obstetric fistula, as well as prospects after treatment. This knowledge will help to improve women's sense of self-worth and maintain their identity as women, wives, friends and community members. Educational programmes to empower women socially and economically and counselling of families of women living with obstetric fistula may help these women receive medical and social support that is necessary.
Introduction Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E) or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations<11 g/dL and severe anaemia<8.5 g/dL. Results Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03), 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004), and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02) of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.99; p=0.03). The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56–0.92; p=0.008), but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.79–1.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007). One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children are warranted in the context of antiretroviral therapy.
Liu, Enju; Duggan, Christopher; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Bosch, Ronald J; Kisenge, Rodrick R; Okuma, James; Fawzi, Wafaie W
BACKGROUND: In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. METHODS: We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in
Vincent D Assey; Stefan Peterson; Sabas Kimboka; Daniel Ngemera; Celestin Mgoba; Deusdedit M Ruhiye; Godwin D Ndossi; Ted Greiner; Thorkild Tylleskär
BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, drug-resistant malaria parasites are an increasing public health concern. Because of widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance Tanzania changed its first line treatment recommendations for uncomplicated malaria from CQ to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001. Loss of SP sensitivity is progressing rapidly. SP resistance is associated with mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes. METHODS: In
Mirjam Schönfeld; Isabel Barreto Miranda; Mirjam Schunk; Ibrahim Maduhu; Leonard Maboko; Michael Hoelscher; Nicole Berens-Riha; Andrew Kitua; Thomas Löscher
Background Eventual control of HIV/AIDS is believed to be ultimately dependent on a safe, effective and affordable vaccine. Participation of sub-Saharan Africa in the conduct of HIV trials is crucial as this region still experiences high HIV incidences. We describe the experience of recruiting and retaining volunteers in the first HIV vaccine trial (HIVIS03) in Tanzania. Methods In this trial enrolled volunteers from amongst Police Officers (POs) in Dar es Salaam were primed with HIV-1 DNA vaccine at months 0, 1 and 3; and boosted with HIV-1 MVA vaccine at months 9 and 21. A stepwise education provision/sensitization approach was employed to eventual recruitment. Having identified a “core” group of POs keen on HIV prevention activities, those interested to participate in the vaccine trial were invited for a first screening session that comprised of provision of detailed study information and medical evaluation. In the second screening session results of the initial assessment were provided and those eligible were assessed for willingness to participate (WTP). Those willing were consented and eventually randomized into the trial having met the eligibility criteria. Voluntary participation was emphasized throughout. Results Out of 408 POs who formed the core group, 364 (89.0%) attended the educational sessions. 263 out of 364 (72.2%) indicated willingness to participate in the HIV vaccine trial. 98% of those indicating WTP attended the pre-screening workshops. 220 (85.0%) indicated willingness to undergo first screening and 177 POs attended for initial screenings, of whom 162 (91.5%) underwent both clinical and laboratory screenings. 119 volunteers (73.5%) were eligible for the study. 79 were randomized into the trial, while 19 did not turn up, the major reason being partner/family advice. 60 volunteers including 15 females were recruited during a one-year period. All participated in the planned progress updates workshops. Retention into the schedule was: 98% for the 3 DNA/placebo vaccinations, while it was 83% and 73% for the first and second MVA/placebo vaccinations respectively. Conclusion In this first HIV vaccine trial in Tanzania, we successfully recruited the volunteers and there was no significant loss to follow up. Close contact and updates on study progress facilitated the observed retention rates. Trial registration numbers ISRCTN90053831 ISRNCT01132976 and ATMR2009040001075080
Optimum crop production depends, among other things, on the maintenance of adequate plant nutrients in the root zone. The objective of this study was to find a reliable index for assessing needs for supplemental phosphorus (P) in soils of Morogoro District, Tanzania. Six indices of P availability, namely: Bray and Kurtz No. 1 (BK1), Bray and KurtzNo.2 (BK2), Mehlich 1,
D. A. Ussiri; P. N. S. Mnkeni; A. F. MacKenzie; J. M. R. Semoka
Presents the experience encountered by the University of Dar es Salaam library in computerizing its catalogue using ADLIB software. Shows how the project was managed, the strengths and limitations of the software and the structure of the Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC). Other issues discussed include Retrospective Conversion of the catalogue, staff training, and sustainability of the project. In the
Beach sediments collected from the tidal flat and beach slope at the Msasani Beach, about 15 km north of the Dar es Salaam Harbour, are used to (1) establish the grain size distribution pattern, (2) assess the effect of man-made and natural structures (rivers, creeks, sea wall and groynes) on the grain size distribution, and (3) assess whether sediments are
Alfred N. N. Muzuka; Yohana W. Shaghude
With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource-intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the length of dry spells for fixed probabilities of non-exceedance. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. The dry spell map thus obtained is compared to the spatially variable critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure in different locations. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the length of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels that make rainfed agricultural unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully being practised. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells and, subsequently, to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
Fischer, B. M. C.; Mul, M. L.; Savenije, H. H. G.
Background Fostering adolescents’ communication on sexuality issues with their parents and other significant adults is often assumed to be an important component of intervention programmes aimed at promoting healthy adolescent sexual practices. However, there are few studies describing the relationship between such communication and sexual practices, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the relationships between adolescents’ communication with significant adults and their condom use in three sites in this region. Methods Data stem from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a school-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Only data from comparison schools were used. The design is therefore a prospective panel study with three waves of data collections. Data were collected in 2004 from 6,251 participants in 40 schools. Associations between adolescents’ communication with adults about sexuality issues and their use of condoms were analysed cross-sectionally using analysis of variance, as well as prospectively using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that consistent condom users had significantly higher mean scores on communication (across topics and communication partners) than both occasional users and never-users, who had the lowest scores. After controlling for condom use at the first data collection occasion in each model as well as for possible confounders, communication scores significantly predicted consistent condom use prospectively in all three ordinal logistic regression models (Model R2 = .23 to .31). Conclusion The findings are consistent with the assertion that communication on sexuality issues between adolescents and significant adults results in safer sexual practices, as reflected by condom use, among in-school adolescents. The associations between communication variables and condom use might have been stronger if we had measured additional aspects of communication such as whether or not it was initiated by the adolescents themselves, the quality of advice provided by adults, and if it took place in a context of positive adult-adolescent interaction. Studies with experimental designs are needed in order to provide stronger evidence of causality.
The issue of poor solid waste management (SWM) is a challenge throughout the world, in both developed and developing countries. People always generate solid waste through their daily activities. This solid waste needs to be properly managed in a way that minimises risk to the environment and human health, which means storage, collection and proper disposal. At the same time
Salha M. Kassim; Mansoor Ali
This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct marketing research, identify opportunities for use of this technology, and to the extent possible, secure an agreement leading to a pre-commercialization demonstration or prototype plant. This was accomplished with the agreement to conduct the Noor al Salaam program as a tri-lateral project between Egypt, Israel, and the U.S. The tri-lateral project was led by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH); this included the Egyptian New and Renewable Energy Authority and the Israeli USISTC participants. This project, known was Noor al Salaam, was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Department of Energy (DOE). The Egyptian activity was under the auspices of the Egyptian Ministry of Energy and Electricity, New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) as part of Egypt's plans for renewable energy development. The objective of the Noor al Salaam project was to develop the conditions necessary to obtain funding and construct and operate an approximately 10 to 20 Megawatt hybrid solar/natural gas demonstration power plant in Zaafarana, Egypt that could serve both as a test bed for advanced solar technology evaluations, and as a forerunner to commercial plant designs. This plant, termed Noor Al Salaam, or “Light of Peace”, reached the initial phase of system definition before being curtailed, in part by changes in USAID objectives, coupled with various delays that were beyond the scope of the program to resolve. The background of the USISTF technology development and pre-commercialization effort is provided in this report, together with documentation of the technology developments conducted under the Noor al Salaam program. It should be noted that only a relatively small part of the Noor al Salaam funding was expended over the approximately five years for which UAH was prime contractor before the program was ordered closed (Reference 1) so that the remaining funds could be returned to USAID.
Blackmon, James B
Safe water storage and hand hygiene have been shown to reduce fecal contamination and improve health in experimental settings; however, triggering and sustaining such behaviors is challenging. This study investigates the extent to which personalized information about Escherichia coli contamination of stored water and hands influenced knowledge, reported behaviors, and subsequent contamination levels among 334 households with less than 5-year-old children in peri-urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. One-quarter of the study participants received information about strategies to reduce risk of water- and sanitation-related illness. Respondents in another three study cohorts received this same information, along with their household's water and/or hand-rinse test results. Findings from this study suggest that additional work is needed to elucidate the conditions under which such testing represents a cost-effective strategy to motivate improved household water management and hand hygiene.
Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J.; Rogers, Kirsten; Mamuya, Simon; Boehm, Alexandria B.
The film “Slumdog Millionaire” when viewed together with the earlier “Salaam Bombay!” penetrates into the cultural psychology\\u000a of urban India, revealing continuity with traditional Indian esthetic theories and commonality with psychoanalytic self psychologies.\\u000a In films where plot is secondary and character is everything, we are led deep into the essence of the heroes’ feelings and\\u000a learn to appreciate how being
Purpose: To test whether environmental pollutants could affect fertility in humans.\\u000a Methods: 31 women and 16 men from Tanzania and 21 couples from Germany were included (n=89). Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in serum, follicular fluid or seminal plasma by gaschromatography and related to sperm quality and pregnancy rates.\\u000a Results: Higher concentrations of DDT+DDE and dieldrin in Tanzania and
Jürgen M. Weiss; Otmar Bauer; Albrecht Blüthgen; Annika K. Ludwig; Elke Vollersen; Malise Kaisi; Safaa Al-Hasani; Klaus Diedrich; Michael Ludwig
It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…
Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax
Summary The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital warts, 2.6% had chlamydia infection, 2.2% had genital ulcers and 1.7% had gonorrhoea. The main factors associated with genital tract infections included genital warts (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7), genital ulcers (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–5.1) and abnormal vaginal discharge (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9–3.3) for trichomoniasis. BV was the most common genital tract infection followed by candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Differences in burdens and risk factors call for enhanced interventions for identification of genital tract infections among HIV-infected women.
Aboud, S; Msamanga, G; Read, J S; Mwatha, A; Chen, Y Q; Potter, D; Valentine, M; Sharma, U; Hoffmann, I; Taha, T E; Goldenberg, R L; Fawzi, W W
Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of < 0.5 was significant. Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years). The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05). Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor) being the commonest (20%). Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420); the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41) and higher (21.8%) in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045). Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%). All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4%) with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420) followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1%) whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7%) followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%). Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%). Thirty six children (8.6%) had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2%) in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004). The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4%) and pediculosis capitis (3.6%). Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%), non-specific dermatoses (10.7%), non-specific ulcers (5%) and atopic eczema (2.6%). Rare conditions (prevalence < 1%) included: vitiligo, alopecia areata and intertrigo. The majority of the affected children (67.2%) did not seek any medical assistance. Conclusions Skin disorders are common in primary school children; infectious dermatoses are still rampant and many children do not seek medical assistance.
Background Rising caesarean section (CS) rates have been observed worldwide in recent decades. This study sought to analyse trends in CS rates and outcomes among a variety of obstetric groups at a university hospital in a low-income country. Methods We conducted a hospital-based panel study at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All deliveries between 2000 and 2011 with gestational age???28 weeks were included in the study. The 12 years were divided into four periods: 2000 to 2002, 2003 to 2005, 2006 to 2008, and 2009 to 2011. Main outcome measures included CS rate, relative size of obstetric groups, contribution to overall CS rate, perinatal mortality ratio, neonatal distress, and maternal mortality ratio. Time trends were analysed within the ten Robson groups, based on maternal and obstetric characteristics. We applied the ?2 test for trend to determine whether changes were statistically significant. Odds ratios of CS were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression, accounting for maternal age, referral status, and private healthcare insurance. Results We included 137,094 deliveries. The total CS rate rose from 19% to 49%, involving nine out of ten groups. Multipara without previous CS with single, cephalic pregnancies in spontaneous labour had a CS rate of 33% in 2009 to 2011. Adjusted analysis explained some of the increase. Perinatal mortality and neonatal distress decreased in multiple pregnancies (p?0.001 and p?=?0.003) and nullipara with breech pregnancies (p?0.001 and p?=?0.024). Although not statistically significant, there was an increase in perinatal mortality (p?=?0.381) and neonatal distress (p?=?0.171) among multipara with single cephalic pregnancies in spontaneous labour. The maternal mortality ratio increased from 463/100, 000 live births in 2000 to 2002 to 650/100, 000 live births in 2009 to 2011 (p?=?0.031). Conclusion The high CS rate among low-risk groups suggests that many CSs might have been performed on questionable indications. Such a trend may result in even higher CS rates in the future. While CS can improve perinatal outcomes, it does not necessarily do so if performed routinely in low-risk groups.
This paper begins by telling the story of Edward, a preacher/teacher in Tanzania who, although poor and uneducated himself, managed to teach his parishioners how to read. The paper describes the experience of one man and his wife who spent 4 years at Katoke Teachers College in northwest Tanzania during the early 1970s, after which they returned to…
Watson, Alan J.
P. H. BARRY1*, D. R. HILTON1, T. P. FISCHER2, J. M. DE MOOR2, F. MANGASINI3 C. RAMIREZ4 1 Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, USA (*Correspondence: email@example.com) 2 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA. 3 Department of Mining and Mineral Processing Engineering, University of Dar Es Salaam, PO Box 35131, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. 4 Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Geologicas, Escuela Centroamericana de Geologia, Universidad de Costa Rica. The East African Rift (EAR) is the largest modern example of continental rifting, extending from the Afar depression in the north to the Rungwe region in southern Tanzania. EAR volcanism is attributed to the presence of one or more mantle plumes . Late Miocene to recent volcanism and geothermal activity mark the Rungwe region , with mafic eruptions as recently as 200 years ago. Our aim is to delineate the southern geographical extent of plume influence on the propagating EAR by investigating the He-CO2 characteristics of geothermal fluids in the Rungwe region. We report new helium (He) and carbon (C) isotopes (3He/4He, ?13C) and relative abundance (CO2/3He) characteristics for a suite of 20 geothermal gas and fluid samples from 11 different localities in the Rungwe region. He-isotopes are in good agreement with previous reports , and range from ~1 RA to ~7 RA (MORB-like values), indicating admixture between upper mantle He and variable proportions of radiogenic He. C-isotopes ranges from -2.8 to -6.5 ‰ (vs. PDB) with all falling in the MORB range (~4.5 ± 2‰). CO2/3He ratios vary over 5 orders of magnitude from ~3 x 10^9 (MORB-like) to higher values (up to ~3 x 10^13) normally associated with crustal lithologies. Taken together, the He-CO2 data can be explained by 2-component mixing of a deep-seated mantle source with crustal component(s). There are no observed latitudinal isotopic trends in He-CO2. However, the two localities with MORB-like 3He/4He ratios ~6 to 7 RA, ?13C ~ -4 to -5 ‰ and CO2/3He ~ 4 x10^9 are both cold temperature (~ 15°C) CO2 gas vents. The MORB-like characteristics of these cold vents are comparable to MORB-like values observed at Oldoinyo Lengai in northern Tanzania , suggesting that both Rungwe region and Oldoinyo Lengai may derive their volatile compositions from a homogeneous (MORB-like) mantle source common to the entire segment of the southern EAR.  Furman (2007) Journal of African Earth Sciences 48, 147-160.  Ebinger et al. (1989) Journal of Geophysical Research 94, 15,785-15,803.  Pik et al. (2006) Chemical Geology 226, 100-114.  Fisher et al. (2009) Nature 459, 77-80.
Barry, P. H.
OBJECTIVES--To seek differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other coronary heart disease risk factors, and to identify factors associated with these differences within a Hindu Indian community. DESIGN--Population based cross sectional survey. SETTING--Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. SUBJECTS--Of 20 Hindu subcommunities categorised by caste in Dar-es-Salaam, seven were randomly selected. 1147 (76.7%) of 1495 subjects aged 15 or over participated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Blood glucose concentrations (fasting and two hours after oral glucose loading), serum total cholesterol and serum triglyceride concentrations, blood pressure, and height and weight. RESULTS--The subcommunities differed substantially in socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle. Overall, 9.8% of subjects (109/1113) had diabetes, 17.0% (189/1113) impaired glucose tolerance, 14.5% (166/1143) hypertension, and 13.3% (151/1138) were obese. The mean fasting blood glucose concentration was 4.9 mmol/l, the blood glucose concentration two hours after oral loading (75 g) 6.0 mmol/l, the total cholesterol concentration 4.9 mmol/l, the serum triglyceride concentration 1.4 mmol/l, and body mass index (weight/height: kg/m2) 24.3. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 121 and 77 mm Hg respectively. There were important intercommunity differences even after standardisation for age, sex, and body mass index--for example, in mean fasting blood glucose concentration (range 4.5 (Jains) to 5.9 mmol/l (Patels)), serum total cholesterol concentration (range 4.5 (Jains) to 6.2 mmol/l (Suthars)), systolic blood pressure (range 110 (Limbachias) to 127 mm Hg (Bhatias)), and prevalences of diabetes (range 3.4% (3/87 Limbachias) to 18% (20/111 Navnats)) and hypertension (range 5.7% (5/87 Limbachias) to 19.4% (43/222 Bhatias). Variables which showed significant linear correlation with subcommunity variations were entered into a multiple regression model. Intercommunity variations persisted. The Limbachia and Jain communities had the lowest prevalence of and mean values for coronary heart disease risk factors and the Bhatia and Patel communities had the highest. CONCLUSIONS--In this series intercommunity variations in disease and risk factors might have been related to genetic, dietary, socioeconomic, and lifestyle differences but could not be explained by the characteristics studied. Studies of Indian subcommunities are warranted to confirm and extend these descriptive findings and explore the genetic basis of diabetes. Communities of Indian origin should not be perceived as homogeneous.
Ramaiya, K L; Swai, A B; McLarty, D G; Bhopal, R S; Alberti, K G
As a part of a comprehensive evaluation of post-treatment techniques for upgrading waste stabilization pond (WSP) effluents, coupled dynamic roughing filters (DyRF) and subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland system (HSSFCW) system was evaluated in Tanzania. Coupled DyRF and HSSFCW were considered as cheaper and yet effective and appropriate alternative technology for upgrading WSP effluents in tropical environments like Tanzania. The main objective of the study was to determine the performance treatment of coupled DyRF and HSSFCW for upgrading WSP effluents with respect to organic compounds (TSS and BOD 5) and pathogen (FC). A pilot of coupled DyRF and HSSFCW was constructed at the outlet of the Maturation WSP at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study was carried out in a 2.2 m × 0.7 m × 0.7 m deep DyRF as a first stage, using three different fractions of gravel ranging from 8 mm to 32 mm, from the top to the bottom respectively. In the second stage, a HSSFCW planted with Phragmites Mauritianus with 0.6-m wide, 1.75-m long and 0.6-m deep was used. The DyRF-HSSFCW system achieved TSS load reduction by 89.35%, which is 15.97 g TSS/m 2/day, while BOD 5 load reduction by 84.47% which is 9.29 g BOD 5/m 2/day was achieved. The FC mean removal rate of 99.99% was also achieved. By achieving mean effluent TSS (12.63 ± 4.12 mg/l), BOD 5 (14.12 ± 3.84 mg/l), and mean effluent FC concentrations of 790 FC/100 ml it was concluded that application of coupled DyRF and HSSFCW in the tropics can be considered technically one of the most appropriate technology for upgrading WSP effluents.
Kimwaga, R. J.; Mashauri, D. A.; Mbwette, T. S. A.; Katima, J. H. Y.; Jørgensen, S. E.
A descriptive account of factors that influence women's health in Tanzania is given. The social and cultural processes that enhance or undermine women's health are emphasized. Recommendations for changes to improve women's health are made. PMID:8169170
Lugina, H I
The production of high quality seeds of improved and adapted crop varieties is essential for economic improvement of Tanzania's agricultural sector. This report presents the findings of a survey of the components of Tanzania's modern seed industry: breede...
A. R. Hagan R. J. Bevins L. E. Cavanah J. M. Poehlamn
We conducted retrospective, comparative analyses of contamination rates for cultures of blood obtained in the emergency rooms of Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Lilongwe Central Hospital (LCH) in central Malawi; and the Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) in the United States. None of the emergency room patients had indwelling intravascular devices at the time that the blood samples for cultures were obtained. In addition, we reviewed the contamination rates for a cohort of patients already hospitalized in the DUMC inpatient medical service, most of whom had indwelling intravascular devices. The bloodstream infection rates among the patients at MNH (n = 513) and LCH (n = 486) were similar (?28%); the contamination rates at the two hospitals were 1.3% (7/513) and 0.8% (4/486), respectively. Of 54 microorganisms isolated from cultures of blood collected in the DUMC emergency room, 26 (48%) were identified as skin contaminants. Cultures of blood collected in the DUMC emergency room were significantly more likely to yield growth of contaminants than the cultures of blood collected in the emergency rooms at MNH and LCH combined (26/332 versus 11/1,003; P < 0.0001) or collected in the DUMC inpatient medical service (26/332 versus 7/283; P < 0.01). For the MNH and LCH blood cultures, lower contamination rates were observed when skin was disinfected with isopropyl alcohol plus tincture of iodine rather than isopropyl alcohol plus povidone-iodine. In conclusion, blood culture contamination was minimized in sub-Saharan African hospitals with substantially limited resources through scrupulous attention to aseptic skin cleansing and improved venipuncture techniques. Application of these principles when blood samples for culture are obtained in U.S. hospital emergency rooms should help mitigate blood culture contamination rates and the unnecessary microbiology workup of skin contaminants.
Archibald, Lennox K.; Pallangyo, Kisali; Kazembe, Peter; Reller, L. Barth
Background Due to escalating treatment costs, pharmacoeconomic analysis has been assigned a key role in the quest for increased efficiency in resource allocation for drug therapies in high-income countries. The extent to which pharmacoeconomic analysis is employed in the same role in low-income countries is less well established. This systematic review identifies and briefly describes pharmacoeconomic studies which have been conducted in Tanzania and further assesses their influence in the selection of essential medicines. Methods Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl and Cochrane databases were searched using “economic evaluation”, “cost-effectiveness analysis”, “cost-benefit analysis” AND “Tanzania” as search terms. We also scanned reference lists and searched in Google to identify other relevant articles. Only articles reporting full economic evaluations about drug therapies and vaccines conducted in Tanzania were included. The national essential medicine list and other relevant policy documents related to the identified articles were screened for information regarding the use of economic evaluation as a criterion for medicine selection. Results Twelve pharmacoeconomic studies which met our inclusion criteria were identified. Seven studies were on HIV/AIDS, malaria and diarrhoea, the three highest ranked diseases on the disease burden in Tanzania. Six studies were on preventive and treatment interventions targeting pregnant women and children under the age of five years. The national essential medicine list and the other identified policy documents do not state the use of economic evaluation as one of the criteria which has influenced the listing of the drugs. Conclusion Country specific pharmacoeconomic analyses are too scarce and inconsistently used to have had a significant influence on the selection of essential medicines in Tanzania. More studies are required to fill the existing gap and to explore whether decision-makers have the ability to interpret and utilise pharmacoeconomic evidence. Relevant health authorities in Tanzania should also consider how to apply pharmacoeconomic analyses more consistently in the future priority-setting decisions for selection of essential medicines.
BACKGROUND: Site preparation is a pre-requesite in conducting malaria vaccines trials. This study was conducted in 12 villages to determine malariometric indices and associated risk factors, during long and short rainy seasons, in an area with varying malaria transmission intensities in Korogwe district, Tanzania. Four villages had passive case detection (PCD) of fever system using village health workers. METHODS: Four
Bruno P Mmbando; Hamisi A Msangeni; Samwel H Sembuche; Deus S Ishengoma; Misago D Seth; Filbert Francis; Acleus S Rutta; Mathias L Kamugisha; Martha M Lemnge
This study describes changes in woody vegetation in the Mwanihana forest, Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania, over an altitude range of 470-1700 m. Two methods, fixed- and variable-area plots, are compared to elucidate altitudinal variation in tropical forest structure, diversity and community composition. Six 25 m · 100 m fixed area plots recorded a total of 2143 woody stems of
Jon C. Lovett; Andrew R. Marshall; Jeff Carr
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a common cause of bloodstream infections among HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We found no cases of mycobacteremia among 93 ill, HIV-infected children in northern Tanzania, despite optimization of laboratory methods and selection of patients thought to be at highest risk for disseminated infection.
Gray, Katherine D.; Cunningham, Coleen K; Clifton, Dana C.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Mushi, Godfrey S.; Msuya, Levina J.; Crump, John A.; Buchanan, Ann M.
BACKGROUND: Largely due to the lack of diagnostic reagents, the prevalence and clinical presentation of cryptococcal meningitis in Tanzania is poorly understood. This in turn is limiting the impact of increased fluconazole availability. METHODS: We evaluated a cohort of 149 consecutive HIV-infected adult inpatients presenting with headache or altered mental status for clinical features, CD4 count, cryptococcal infection, and outcome.
Peter R Kisenge; Alexander T Hawkins; Venance P Maro; John PD Mchele; Ndealilia S Swai; Andreas Mueller; Eric R Houpt
BACKGROUND: Clinicians at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, a rural hospital in northern Tanzania noted an unusually high case-fatality rate of pediatric meningitis and suspected an outbreak of an unknown agent or an organism resistant to the empirical therapy. METHODS: We established a provisional microbiology laboratory to investigate the suspected outbreak. Blood and spinal fluid specimens were taken from children below the
Hogne Vaagland; Bjørn Blomberg; Carsten Krüger; Naftali Naman; Roland Jureen; Nina Langeland
We report compositional data for several foods that comprise the annual diet among Hadza foragers near Lake Eyasi in northern Tanzania. Samples collected during daily gathering trips over three fieldwork seasons were prepared according to Hadza methods. All three types of honey show moisture and starch levels similar to United States' honeys but higher levels of protein, fat, and ash.
Shawn S. Murray; Margaret J. Schoeninger; Henry T. Bunn; Travis R. Pickering; Judith A. Marlett
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers of insecticide resistance can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in malaria vector populations. Monitoring of insecticide resistance in vector populations is an important component of current malaria control programmes. Knockdown resistance (kdr) confers resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides with cross-resistance to DDT through single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. METHODS:
Manisha A Kulkarni; Mark Rowland; Michael Alifrangis; Frank W Mosha; Johnson Matowo; Robert Malima; Justin Peter; Eliningaya Kweka; Issa Lyimo; Stephen Magesa; Ali Salanti; Manfred E Rau; Chris Drakeley
Objectives In resource-limited settings, it is a challenge to get quality clinical specimens due to poor infrastructure for their collection, transportation, processing and storage. Using dried blood spots (DBS) might be an alternative to plasma for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in this setting. The objectives of this study were to determine mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance among children <18 months old born to HIV-1-infected mothers enrolled in prevention of mother-to-child transmission services in northern Tanzania. Patients and methods Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC) Clinical Laboratory is the zonal centre for early infant diagnosis using DBS in northern Tanzania. DBS were collected from January 2011 to December 2012. Mothers were kept on triple therapy and single-dose nevirapine before pregnancy and during labour, respectively. Infants were given single-dose nevirapine and most of them were breastfed. Genotypic resistance was determined in those with a viral load of >400 copies/mL. Results Genotypic resistance mutations were detected in 13 of 46 children (28%). HIV-1 genotypes were A1 (n?=?27), C (n?=?10), A/D (n?=?4), D (n?=?3) and CRF10_CD (n?=?2). The median age was 12 weeks (IQR 6–28). The mean log10 viral load was 3.87 copies/mL (SD 0.995). All major mutations were detected in the reverse transcriptase gene and none in the protease gene region. The most frequent mutations were Y181C (n?=?8) and K103N (n?=?4), conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Conclusions One-third of infants newly diagnosed with HIV in northern Tanzania harboured major drug resistance mutations to currently used antiretroviral regimens. These mutations were detected from DBS collected from the field and stored at room temperature. Surveillance of drug resistance among this population in resource-limited settings is warranted.
Shao, Elichilia R.; Kifaro, Emmanuel G.; Chilumba, Innocent B.; Nyombi, Balthazar M.; Moyo, Sikhulile; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Musonda, Rosemary; Johannessen, Asgeir; Kibiki, Gibson; Essex, Max
The geology of Oldonyo Lengai volcano and the southernmost Lake Natron basin, Tanzania, is presented on this geologic map at scale 1:50,000. The map sheet can be downloaded in pdf format for online viewing or ready to print (48 inches by 36 inches). A 65-page explanatory pamphlet describes the geologic history of the area. Its goal is to place the new findings into the framework of previous investigations while highlighting gaps in knowledge. In this way questions are raised and challenges proposed to future workers. The southernmost Lake Natron basin is located along the East African rift zone in northern Tanzania. Exposed strata provide a history of volcanism, sedimentation, and faulting that spans 2 million years. It is here where Oldonyo Lengai, Tanzania’s most active volcano of the past several thousand years, built its edifice. Six new radiometric ages, by the 40Ar/39Ar method, and 48 new geochemical analyses from Oldonyo Lengai and surrounding volcanic features deepen our understanding of the area. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may download an electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications. The GIS database is in a Transverse Mercator projection, zone 36, New (1960) Arc datum. The database includes layers for hypsography (topography), hydrography, and infrastructure such as roads and trails.
Sherrod, David R.; Magigita, Masota M.; Kwelwa, Shimba
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the principal preparation programming available to school leaders in Kenya and Tanzania. Design/methodology/approach: The authors analyzed information about the educational leadership programmes offered by a range of public and private institutions in East Africa. Data were gathered…
Onguko, Brown; Abdalla, Mohammed; Webber, Charles F.
A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123
Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C
This study investigated the ways through which pre-service science and mathematics teachers at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) can acquire competencies for integrating technology pedagogy and content in teaching. Specifically the study investigated the preservice teachers' ICT integration competencies; practices that can be…
Kafyulilo, Ayoub C.
OBJECTIVE--To study the antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid content, auxotype and serogroup of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from an urban population of STD clinic attenders in Northern Tanzania. METHODS--The minimum inhibitory concentrations of nine common antimicrobial agents were measured by the agar dilution method against 130 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in a free government STD clinic in Mwanza town. The
J Changalucha; H Grosskurth; P Mayaud; R M Gabone; G Ka-Gina; D Mabey
In preparation for a trial polystyrene beads and pyriproxyfen for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, surveys of their breeding were carried out in two contrasting areas of Dar es Salaam, Mikocheni and Ilala, during the dry season. Sanitation structures (latrines, soakage pits, septic tanks and cess pits) were the most profilic breeding places, totalling 780 in Mikocheni and 1544 in Ilala. Those in Mikocheni were estimated to contain about 1.4 times more mosquito pupae, per site, than in such structures in Ilala. This was both because a higher proportion of sites contained visible water and because sites with water were more likely to contain pupae in Mikocheni. The relative importance of the different types of structure, in terms of productivity, was the same in both areas. Although septic tanks and cess pits made up only 10.5% of the on-site sanitation structures in Ilala, they contained 53% of the total number of pupae in enclosed sites; they were therefore particularly important targets for treatment with polystyrene beads. A survey during the rainy season of sites in Ilala revealed little change in the proportion that were wet, or in the frequency of breeding in those with visible water. The number, type and area of open breeding sites varied greatly between the two study areas. In Mikocheni the area of open breeding sites was 100 times greater than in Ilala, with 97% of the 13,000 m2 being flooded grassland. In Ilala all but four of the sixty-six open breeding sites were puddles of sullage water derived from bathrooms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7787221
Chavasse, D C; Lines, J D; Ichimori, K; Marijani, J
This paper explores the impacts of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic on children and families in northern Tanzania using the concept of social resilience.1 The study is based on the findings of child-focused research with street children and children and families from HIV\\/AIDS-affected households. The paper illustrates the coping strategies that children and young people, and parents and caregivers adopt at the
Ruth M. C. Evans
This article contributes to the understanding of the changes in distribution and total area of mangrove forests along the mainland Tanzania coast over the past decade. Mangroves are recognized as critical coastal habitat requiring protection and special attention. The Tanzania coastline forms a suitable habitat for establishment of mangrove forests. Mangrove forests are distributed from Tanga in the north to
Yeqiao Wang; Gregory Bonynge; Jarunee Nugranad; Michael Traber; Amani Ngusaru; James Tobey; Lynne Hale; Robert Bowen; Vedast Makota
The extension of a development tax to women in Tanzania raises the general issue of the relevance of gender to patterns of economic development in a country with a ‘socialist’ reputation. This article looks at the link between gender and development in Tanzania, but equally importantly it focuses on the way in which the question of gender has been contested
Provides a brief overview of Tanzania; describes the infrastructure of the Tanzania Library Service, including public, school, government, special, and academic libraries, rural library service, training and staffing, professional organizations, and publishing; and reviews recent literature on Tanzanian libraries. (26 references) (LRW)
In Tanzania, the international microfinance network FINCA set up shop and began training its first Village Banking Groups in June 1998, disbursing its first loans in July with a grant from the US Agency for International Development. Within 2 months, the program reached 757 low-income women and distributed loans worth US$57,183 using the group support system in which 30-50 neighbors come together to guarantee one another's loans. With the loans from FINCA, entrepreneurs quickly became involved in a range of business activities, from selling tomatoes to starting a hair salon. Located in Mwanza, in the Lake Zone, FINCA Tanzania's clients include many members of the Sukuma tribe. It is noted that in this region there are a few job opportunities in the formal economy. In 1999, FINCA Tanzania reached 3632 clients, exceeding its targets despite a difficult economic environment. In that same year, FINCA partnered with Freedom from Hunger in launching a program that offers some of its members health education and basic business training at Village Banking Group meetings. PMID:12296252
BACKGROUND: Substantial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence has been observed within sub-Saharan Africa. It is not clear which factors can explain these differences. Our aim was to identify risk factors that could explain the large differences in HIV-1 prevalence among pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Moshi, Tanzania. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a two-centre study that enrolled pregnant women in Harare
Munyaradzi P Mapingure; Sia Msuya; Nyaradzai E Kurewa; Marshal W Munjoma; Noel Sam; Mike Z Chirenje; Simbarashe Rusakaniko; Letten F Saugstad; Sake J de Vlas; Babill Stray-Pedersen
Background Mid-level cadres are being used to address human resource shortages in many African contexts, but insufficient and ineffective human resource management is compromising their performance. Supervision plays a key role in performance and motivation, but is frequently characterised by periodic inspection and control, rather than support and feedback to improve performance. This paper explores the perceptions of district health management teams in Tanzania and Malawi on their role as supervisors and on the challenges to effective supervision at the district level. Methods This qualitative study took place as part of a broader project, “Health Systems Strengthening for Equity: The Power and Potential of Mid-Level Providers”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 district health management team personnel in Malawi and 37 council health team members in Tanzania. The interviews covered a range of human resource management issues, including supervision and performance assessment, staff job descriptions and roles, motivation and working conditions. Results Participants displayed varying attitudes to the nature and purpose of the supervision process. Much of the discourse in Malawi centred on inspection and control, while interviewees in Tanzania were more likely to articulate a paradigm characterised by support and improvement. In both countries, facility level performance metrics dominated. The lack of competency-based indicators or clear standards to assess individual health worker performance were considered problematic. Shortages of staff, at both district and facility level, were described as a major impediment to carrying out regular supervisory visits. Other challenges included conflicting and multiple responsibilities of district health team staff and financial constraints. Conclusion Supervision is a central component of effective human resource management. Policy level attention is crucial to ensure a systematic, structured process that is based on common understandings of the role and purpose of supervision. This is particularly important in a context where the majority of staff are mid-level cadres for whom regulation and guidelines may not be as formalised or well-developed as for traditional cadres, such as registered nurses and medical doctors. Supervision needs to be adequately resourced and supported in order to improve performance and retention at the district level.
OBJECTIVE: To obtain baseline information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the Rwandan refugees camps in Tanzania, prior to establishment of STD services. SETTING: The largest camps of Rwandan refugees in the Ngara District of Tanzania (estimated population 300,000). The study was carried out in 8 days in August 1994. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A rapid assessment technique was used to measure STD prevalences among: (i) 100 antenatal clinic attenders (ANC); (ii) 239 men from outpatient clinics (OPD); and (iii) 289 men from the community. Interviews (by questionnaire) and genital examination were performed for all participants; sampling for females included genital swabs for the the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Candida albicans (CA), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), bacterial vaginosis (BV) and a blood sample for syphilis serology. Men provided urine samples which were screened for leucocytes using the leucocyte esterase (LE) dipstick; urethral swabs for Gram stain were taken from men with a reactive LE test and from those with symptoms or signs of urethritis. OPD males provided a blood sample for syphilis serology. RESULTS: All groups reported frequent experience with STDs and engaging in risky sexual behaviour prior to the survey. During the establishment of the camps, sexual activity was reportedly low. Over 50% of ANC attenders were infected with agents causing vaginitis (TV/BV/CA) and 3% were infected with NG. The prevalence of active syphilis was 4%. In the male outpatients, the prevalence of urethritis was 2.6% and of serological syphilis was 6.1%. Among males in the community, the prevalence of urethritis was 2.9% (the majority being asymptomatic infections). We noted frequent over-reporting of STD symptoms, unconfirmed clinically or biologically. CONCLUSIONS: STD case detection and management should be improved by training health workers in using the WHO syndromic approach, and through IEC campaigns encouraging attendance at clinics. Rapid epidemiological methods provide quick and useful information at low cost in refugee camps.
Mayaud, P; Msuya, W; Todd, J; Kaatano, G; West, B; Begkoyian, G; Grosskurth, H; Mabey, D
Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. Methods This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. Results Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from livestock to humans. These can be achieved through health education to the communities where brucellosis is common.
John, Kunda; Fitzpatrick, Julie; French, Nigel; Kazwala, Rudovick; Kambarage, Dominic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; MacMillan, Alastair; Cleaveland, Sarah
Background In the Tanga District of coastal Tanzania, malaria is one of the primary causes of mortality for children under the age of five. While some children are treated with malaria medications in biomedical facilities, as the World Health Organization recommends, others receive home-care or treatment from traditional healers. Recognition of malaria is difficult because symptoms can range from fever with uncomplicated malaria to convulsions with severe malaria. This study explores why caregivers in the Tanga District of Tanzania pursue particular courses of action to deal with malaria in their children. Methods Qualitative data were collected through interviews with three samples: female caregivers of children under five (N = 61), medical practitioners (N = 28), and traditional healers (N = 18) in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas. The female caregiver sample is intentionally stratified to reflect the greater population of the Tanga District in level of education, marital status, gender of household head, religion, and tribal group affiliation. Qualitative data were counted, coded and analysed using NVivo7 software. Results Results indicate that a variety of factors influence treatment choice, including socio-cultural beliefs about malaria symptoms, associations with spiritual affliction requiring traditional healing, knowledge of malaria, and fear of certain anti-malaria treatment procedures. Most notably, some caregivers identified convulsions as a spiritual condition, unrelated to malaria. While nearly all caregivers reported attending biomedical facilities to treat children with fever (N = 60/61), many caregivers stated that convulsions are best treated by traditional healers (N = 26/61). Qualitative interviews with medical practitioners and traditional healers confirmed this belief. Conclusion Results offer insight into current trends in malaria management and have implications in healthcare policy, educational campaigns, and the importance of integrating traditional and biomedical approaches.
Background Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to 80% of men aged 15–49 within five years could avert 3.4 million new HIV infections in Eastern and Southern Africa by 2025. Since 2009, Tanzania and Zimbabwe have rapidly expanded VMMC services through different delivery (fixed, outreach or mobile) and intensity (routine services, campaign) models. This review describes the modality and intensity of VMMC services and its influence on the number and age of clients. Methods and Findings Program reviews were conducted using data from implementing partners in Tanzania (MCHIP) and Zimbabwe (PSI). Key informant interviews (N?=?13 Tanzania; N?=?8 Zimbabwe) were conducted; transcripts were analyzed using Nvivo. Routine VMMC service data for May 2009–December 2012 were analyzed and presented in frequency tables. A descriptive analysis and association was performed using the z-ratio for the significance of the difference. Key informants in both Tanzania and Zimbabwe believe VMMC scale-up can be achieved by using a mix of service delivery modality and intensity approaches. In Tanzania, the majority of clients served during campaigns (59%) were aged 10–14 years while the majority during routine service delivery (64%) were above 15 (p<0.0001). In Zimbabwe, significantly more VMMCs were done during campaigns (64%) than during routine service delivery (36%) (p<0.00001); the difference in the age of clients accessing services in campaign versus non-campaign settings was significant for age groups 10–24 (p<0.05), but not for older groups. Conclusions In Tanzania and Zimbabwe, service delivery modalities and intensities affect client profiles in conjunction with other contextual factors such as implementing campaigns during school holidays in Zimbabwe and cultural preference for circumcision at a young age in Tanzania. Formative research needs to be an integral part of VMMC programs to guide the design of service delivery modalities in the face of, or lack of, strong social norms.
Ashengo, Tigistu Adamu; Hatzold, Karin; Mahler, Hally; Rock, Amelia; Kanagat, Natasha; Magalona, Sophia; Curran, Kelly; Christensen, Alice; Castor, Delivette; Mugurungi, Owen; Dhlamini, Roy; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Background Substantial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence has been observed within sub-Saharan Africa. It is not clear which factors can explain these differences. Our aim was to identify risk factors that could explain the large differences in HIV-1 prevalence among pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Moshi, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional data from a two-centre study that enrolled pregnant women in Harare (N = 691) and Moshi (N = 2654) was used. Consenting women were interviewed about their socio-demographic background and sexual behaviour, and tested for presence of sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections. Prevalence distribution of risk factors for HIV acquisition and spread were compared between the two areas. Results The prevalence of HIV-1 among pregnant women was 26% in Zimbabwe and 7% in Tanzania. The HIV prevalence in both countries rises constantly with age up to the 25-30 year age group. After that, it continues to rise among Zimbabwean women, while it drops for Tanzanian women. Risky sexual behaviour was more prominent among Tanzanians than Zimbabweans. Mobility and such infections as HSV-2, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were more prevalent among Zimbabweans than Tanzanians. Reported male partner circumcision rates between the two countries were widely different, but the effect of male circumcision on HIV prevalence was not apparent within the populations. Conclusions The higher HIV-1 prevalence among pregnant women in Zimbabwe compared with Tanzania cannot be explained by differences in risky sexual behaviour: all risk factors tested for in our study were higher for Tanzania than Zimbabwe. Non-sexual transmission of HIV might have played an important role in variation of HIV prevalence. Male circumcision rates and mobility could contribute to the rate and extent of spread of HIV in the two countries.
Background In order to ensure their population’s regular access to essential medicines, many least developed countries and developing countries are faced with the policy question of whether to import or manufacture drugs locally, in particular for life-saving antiretroviral medicines for HIV/AIDS patients. In order for domestic manufacturing to be viable and cost-effective, the local industry must be able to compete with international suppliers of medicines by producing sufficiently low cost ARVs. Methods This paper considers the ‘make-or-buy’ dilemma by using Tanzania as a case study. Key informant interviews, event-driven observation, and purposive sampling of documents were used to evaluate the case study. The case study focused on Tanzania’s imitation technology transfer agreement to locally manufacture a first-line ARV (3TC?+?d4T?+?NVP), reverse engineering the ARV. Results Tanzania is limited by weak political support for the use of TRIPS flexibilities, limited production capacity for ARVs and limited competitiveness in both domestic and regional markets. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare encourages the use of flexibilities while others push for increased IP protection. Insufficient production capacity and lack of access to donor-financed tenders make it difficult to obtain economies of scale and provide competitive prices. Conclusions Within the “make-or-buy” context, it was determined that there are significant limitations in domestic manufacturing for developing countries. The case study highlights the difficulty of governments to make use of economies of scale and produce low-cost medicines, attract technology transfer, and utilize the flexibilities of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating barriers to the use of TRIPS flexibilities and long-term planning across sectors in future technology transfer and manufacturing initiatives.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test using venous blood sample has been used for many years in low resource settings for early infant diagnosis of HIV infection in children less than 18 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance characteristics of Amplicor HIV-1 DNA assay version 1.5 following processing of venous blood and dried blood spot (DBS) samples by Roche manual DNA extraction and automated Roche MagNA Pure LC instrument (MP) for HIV-1 DNA PCR testing in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in order to scale up early infant diagnosis of HIV infection in routine practice. Venous blood samples from children under 18 months born to HIV-infected mothers between January and April 2008 were collected. Venous blood was used to prepare cell pellet and DBS samples. DNA extractions by manual procedure and MP were performed each on cell pellet, venous blood and DBS samples and tested by Amplicor HIV-1 DNA assay. Of 325 samples included, 60 (18.5%) were confirmed HIV-infected by manual extraction performed on cell pellets. Sensitivity of the assay following MP processing of venous blood was 95% (95% CI; 86.1-99.0%) and 98.3% (95% CI; 91.1 to 99.9%) for the manual extraction and processing by MP performed on DBS samples. Specificity of the assay with all DNA extraction methods was 99.6% (95% CI; 97.9 to 100%). Performance of the assay with Roche manual extraction and processing by MP on DBS samples compared well with Roche manual extraction performed on cell pellet samples. The choice of DNA extraction method needs to be individualized based on the level of laboratory facility, volume of testing and cost benefit analysis before it is adopted for use. PMID:24409629
Nsojo, Anthony; Aboud, Said; Lyamuya, Eligius
CBPP reappeared in Arusha, Northern Tanzania in 1990, having been introduced from Kenya. The disease spread rapidly to Mara region through rustling of sick or infected animals. In November 1992, an unrelated outbreak occurred in Kagera, having spread from Southern Uganda. Up to the end of December 1994, the disease appeared to be confined to Kagera and Arusha. In January 1995, CBPP was observed in Morogoro region, south of the central railway line. Thereafter, the disease spread through western Tanzania. More recently, further disease has occurred in the Southern Highlands and Central regions. The contaminated area now stretches roughly between latitudes 1 degree and 9 degrees S and longitudes 30 degrees and 37 degrees E, with a cattle population of about 10 million. The direct losses incurred as a result of animal mortality, and vaccination campaign and disease surveillance costs have been assessed at over US$11 million. Indirect losses resulting from chronic disease are much more difficult to assess but are believed to be even higher. Control of the disease has been through restricting animal movements and a mass vaccination campaign. Uncontrolled animal movement during transhumance, trade, cattle thefts and vaccination breakthroughs facilitated the spread of the disease. PMID:11234189
Msami, H M; Ponela-Mlelwa, T; Mtei, B J; Kapaga, A M
The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.
Jeffery, Bill; Parthesius, Robert
Background Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs remains a major obstacle to the control of malaria. In 2001 Tanzania replaced chloroquine (CQ) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line drug, which in turn was replaced by artemisinin combination therapy in 2006. SP has however, continued to be used in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) despite reports of high levels of resistance to SP due to the lack of alternatives to SP for IPTp. Recent reports have indicated recovery of CQ-susceptibility in Malawi, Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania based on the prevalence of wild types at codon 76 of the Pfcrt gene in indigenous P. falciparum populations. The current prevalence of this Pfcrt-76 CQ resistance marker from six regions of Tanzania mainland is hereby reported. Methods DNA extracted from filter-paper dried blood spots and rapid diagnostics kit strips collected from finger-prick blood were used to genotype the Pfcrt-76 resistance marker using PCR-RFLP. Data from previously published studies were used to generate CQ susceptibility recovery trends using logistic regression model. Results Seven hundred and forty one (741) samples were genotyped. The current frequency of the CQ-susceptible Pfcrt-K76 was above 92% and did not differ between regions in Tanzania (?2?=?2.37; p?=?0.795). The K76 allelic prevalence was between 85.7 and 93% in regions (?2?=?7.88, p?=?0.163). The CQ resistance recovery trends showed regional variability that may be caused by differences in malaria transmission intensity, but overall the trends converge as the susceptibility levels in all regions approach >90%. Conclusions CQ withdrawal in Tanzania has resulted into >90% recovery of susceptibility in ten years of withdrawal. These findings are in support of the search for CQ-based combination drugs as a possible future alternative to SP for IPTp in places where full recovery of CQ-susceptibility will be evident.
Tanzania is embarking on a height modernization programme in support of the AFREF initiatives. This modernization program is such that in future it will not be necessary for the Surveys and Mapping Division (DSM) to create and maintain the old spirit leveled orthometric height benchmarks. The DSM shall only be required to measure and publish ellipsoidal heights and GPS derived orthometric heights for various survey markers. This paper focuses on the determination of the transformation parameters between the Tanzania National Levelling Datum (TNLD) and the geoid for facilitating GPS heighting in Tanzania. Least squares estimates of the transformation parameters have been determined from orthometric heights in the Tanzania Primary Levelling Network (TPLN) and GPS derived orthometric heights referred to a preliminary model of the African geoid called AGP2003 and a geoid implied by the EGM96 geopotential coefficients. Two transformation models were considered: The Molodensky's transformation formula and a 2D algebraic polynomial. The values of the transformation parameters which were obtained using the AG2003 model produced GPS derived orthometric heights that are closer to the TPLN heights than those produced using the EGM96 geopotential model. It is being proposed here that the new gravimetric geoids that have been developed for Tanzania be used with the GPS observations to obtain new GPS based orthometric heights for Tanzania.
John, S.; Deus, D.
Background Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like disease was first reported in Tanzania more than eight decades ago and the last large outbreak of the disease occurred in 2006–07. This study investigates the spatial and temporal pattern of RVF outbreaks in Tanzania over the past 80 years in order to guide prevention and control strategies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out based on disease reporting data from Tanzania at district or village level. The data were sourced from the Ministries responsible for livestock and human health, Tanzania Meteorological Agency and research institutions involved in RVF surveillance and diagnosis. The spatial distribution of outbreaks was mapped using ArcGIS 10. The space-time permutation model was applied to identify clusters of cases, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of outbreaks in the district. Principal Findings RVF outbreaks were reported between December and June in 1930, 1947, 1957, 1960, 1963, 1968, 1977–79, 1989, 1997–98 and 2006–07 in 39.2% of the districts in Tanzania. There was statistically significant spatio-temporal clustering of outbreaks. RVF occurrence was associated with the eastern Rift Valley ecosystem (OR?=?6.14, CI: 1.96, 19.28), total amount of rainfall of >405.4 mm (OR?=?12.36, CI: 3.06, 49.88), soil texture (clay [OR?=?8.76, CI: 2.52, 30.50], and loam [OR?=?8.79, CI: 2.04, 37.82]). Conclusion/Significance RVF outbreaks were found to be distributed heterogeneously and transmission dynamics appeared to vary between areas. The sequence of outbreak waves, continuously cover more parts of the country. Whenever infection has been introduced into an area, it is likely to be involved in future outbreaks. The cases were more likely to be reported from the eastern Rift Valley than from the western Rift Valley ecosystem and from areas with clay and loam rather than sandy soil texture.
Sindato, Calvin; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kivaria, Fredrick; Dautu, George; Bernard, Bett; Paweska, Janusz T.
A capture-mark-recapture study was conducted in crop fields in Morogoro, Tanzania, to investigate how the popu- lation dynamics of multimammate field rats, Mastomys natalensis, was influenced by the commonly practised land preparation methods and cropping systems. Two land pre- paration methods (tractor ploughing and slash and burn) and two cropping systems (mono-cropping with maize and inter-cropping with maize and beans)
A. W. Massawe; W. Rwamugira; H. Leirs; R. H. Makundi; Loth S. Mulungu
Background With a view to developing health systems strategies to improve reach to high-risk groups, we present information on health and survival from household and health facility perspectives in five districts of southern Tanzania. Methods We documented availability of health workers, vaccines, drugs, supplies and services essential for child health through a survey of all health facilities in the area. We did a representative cluster sample survey of 21,600 households using a modular questionnaire including household assets, birth histories, and antenatal care in currently pregnant women. In a subsample of households we asked about health of all children under two years, including breastfeeding, mosquito net use, vaccination, vitamin A, and care-seeking for recent illness, and measured haemoglobin and malaria parasitaemia. Results In the health facility survey, a prescriber or nurse was present on the day of the survey in about 40% of 114 dispensaries. Less than half of health facilities had all seven 'essential oral treatments', and water was available in only 22%. In the household survey, antenatal attendance (88%) and DPT-HepB3 vaccine coverage in children (81%) were high. Neonatal and infant mortality were 43.2 and 76.4 per 1000 live births respectively. Infant mortality was 40% higher for teenage mothers than older women (RR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 – 1.7), and 20% higher for mothers with no formal education than those who had been to school (RR 1.2, CI 1.0 – 1.4). The benefits of education on survival were apparently restricted to post-neonatal infants. There was no evidence of inequality in infant mortality by socio-economic status. Vaccine coverage, net use, anaemia and parasitaemia were inequitable: the least poor had a consistent advantage over children from the poorest families. Infant mortality was higher in families living over 5 km from their nearest health facility compared to those living closer (RR 1.25, CI 1.0 – 1.5): 75% of households live within this distance. Conclusion Relatively short distances to health facilities, high antenatal and vaccine coverage show that peripheral health facilities have huge potential to make a difference to health and survival at household level in rural Tanzania, even with current human resources.
Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna RM; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Manzi, Fatuma; Shirima, Kizito; Mbuya, Conrad; Mushi, Adiel K; Ketende, Sosthenes Charles; Alonso, Pedro L; Mshinda, Hassan; Tanner, Marcel; Schellenberg, David
Background Once malaria occurs, deaths can be prevented by prompt treatment with relatively affordable and efficacious drugs. Yet this goal is elusive in Africa. The paradox of a continuing but easily preventable cause of high mortality raises important questions for policy makers concerning care-seeking and access to health systems. Although patterns of care-seeking during uncomplicated malaria episodes are well known, studies in cases of fatal malaria are rare. Care-seeking behaviours may differ between these groups. Methods This study documents care-seeking events in 320 children less than five years of age with fatal malaria seen between 1999 and 2001 during over 240,000 person-years of follow-up in a stable perennial malaria transmission setting in southern Tanzania. Accounts of care-seeking recorded in verbal autopsy histories were analysed to determine providers attended and the sequence of choices made as the patients' condition deteriorated. Results As first resort to care, 78.7% of malaria-attributable deaths used modern biomedical care in the form of antimalarial pharmaceuticals from shops or government or non-governmental heath facilities, 9.4% used initial traditional care at home or from traditional practitioners and 11.9% sought no care of any kind. There were no differences in patterns of choice by sex of the child, sex of the head of the household, socioeconomic status of the household or presence or absence of convulsions. In malaria deaths of all ages who sought care more than once, modern care was included in the first or second resort to care in 90.0% and 99.4% with and without convulsions respectively. Conclusions In this study of fatal malaria in southern Tanzania, biomedical care is the preferred choice of an overwhelming majority of suspected malaria cases, even those complicated by convulsions. Traditional care is no longer a significant delaying factor. To reduce mortality further will require greater emphasis on recognizing danger signs at home, prompter care-seeking, improved quality of care at health facilities and better adherence to treatment.
de Savigny, Don; Mayombana, Charles; Mwageni, Eleuther; Masanja, Honorati; Minhaj, Abdulatif; Mkilindi, Yahya; Mbuya, Conrad; Kasale, Harun; Reid, Graham
Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness.
OBJECTIVES. To determine the association between maternal multivitamin supple- mentation and the mental and psychomotor development of children who are born to HIV-1-infected mothers in Tanzania, as secondary endpoints in a random- ized trial that investigated the effect of maternal multivitamin supplementation on HIV-1 vertical transmission and progression. METHODS. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Edition, were administered at
Nuala McGrath; David Bellinger; James Robins; Gernard I. Msamanga; Edward Tronick
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prospects, achievements, challenges and opportunities for implementing intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Tanzania in light of national antenatal care (ANC) guidelines and ability of service providers to comply with them. METHODS: In-depth interviews were made with national level malaria control officers in 2006 and 2007. Data was analysed manually using a qualitative
Godfrey M Mubyazi; Ib C Bygbjerg; Pascal Magnussen; Øystein Olsen; Jens Byskov; Kristian S Hansen; Paul Bloch
Ocular swabs collected in Tanzania were evaluated by Amplicor CT PCR and Aptima Combo2 assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis to determine if pooling could be used to reduce the cost of detection. Pooling would be an accurate method and has thus far resulted in a cost-savings of 62.2%. PMID:24079951
Dize, Laura; West, Sheila; Quinn, Thomas C; Gaydos, Charlotte A
BACKGROUND: The study examined the relationship between oral health status (periodontal disease and carious pulpal exposure (CPE)) and preterm low-birth-weight (PTLBW) infant deliveries among Tanzanian-African mothers at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Tanzania. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted, involving 373 postpartum mothers aged 14–44 years (PTLBW – 150 cases) and at term normal-birth-weight (TNBW) – 223 controls), using structured
Elifuraha GS Mumghamba; Karim P Manji
Background Breast cancer is more common in Western Countries compared to African populations. However in African population, it appears\\u000a that the disease tends to be more aggressive and occurring at a relatively young age at the time of presentation. The aim\\u000a of this study was to describe the trend of Breast Cancer in Northwestern Tanzania.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods This was a retrospective study which
Peter F Rambau; Philipo L Chalya; Mange M Manyama; Kahima J Jackson
Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a\\u000a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community\\u000a and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner\\u000a violence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A qualitative study
Rose M Laisser; Lennarth Nyström; Helen I Lugina; Maria Emmelin
Smallholder farmers’ knowledge and practice of dairy calf management on 129 farms with calves less than 10 months of age in Southeastern and Southern Highland areas of Tanzania was assessed. The method of study included both a farm visit and completion of a questionnaire. Most of the farmers were female, with a primary level of education, and majority kept 1–3 milking cows that yielded 6–10 l milk/cow/day. Most of the calves were fed milk using a residual calf suckling system. Weaning age was 3–8 months. Overall, the body condition of the calves was poor, ranged from 1 to 2.5 with a mode of 2. The majority of the farmers believed that helminthosis was the most common disease condition affecting the calves; diarrhea was ranked as the second. Calf death was reported by 20% of the farmers to have occurred in their herd lasting the 2 years prior to the study. Calf body condition score was related to body weight for calves younger than 9 weeks, and older than 23 weeks of age, whereas no such relationship existed in the age group 9 to 23 weeks. The sex distribution was skewed with less male calves being older than 23 weeks. We hypothesize that male calves experience inferior management compared with female calves. This study demonstrates a low level of knowledge on, and poor practices of calf management among the surveyed farmers that suggest the need for educational intervention.
Mdegela, Robinson H.; Ryoba, Ruth; L?ken, Torleiv; Reksen, Olav
Background The amount of CD4 T cells is used for monitoring HIV progression and improvement, and to make decisions to start antiretroviral therapy and prophylactic drugs for opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to determine normal reference values for CD4 T cells, lymphocytes, leucocytes and haemoglobin level in healthy, HIV negative adolescents and adults in rural northern Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from September 2006 to March 2007 in rural northern Tanzania. Participants were recruited from voluntary HIV counselling and testing clinics. Patients were counselled for HIV test and those who consented were tested for HIV. Clinical screening was done, and blood samples were collected for CD4 T cell counts and complete blood cell counts. Results We enrolled 102 participants, forty two (41.2%) males and 60 (58.8%) females. The mean age was 32.6 ± 95% CI 30.2–35.0. The mean absolute CD4 T cell count was 745.8 ± 95% CI 695.5–796.3, absolute CD8 T cells 504.6 ± 95% CI 461.7–547.5, absolute leukocyte count 5.1 ± 95% CI 4.8–5.4, absolute lymphocyte count 1.8 ± 95% CI 1.7–1.9, and haemoglobin level 13.2 ± 95% CI 12.7–13.7. Females had significantly higher mean absolute CD4 T cell count (p = 0.008), mean absolute CD8 T cell count (p = 0.009) and significantly lower mean haemoglobin level than males (p = 0.003) Conclusion Immunohaematological values found in this study were different from standard values for western countries. Females had significantly higher mean CD4 T cell counts and lower mean haemoglobin levels than males. This raises the issue of the appropriateness of the present reference values and guidelines for monitoring HIV/AIDS patients in Tanzania.
Introduction Globally, health facility delivery is encouraged as a single most important strategy in preventing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, access to facility-based delivery care remains low in many less developed countries. This study assesses facilitators and barriers to institutional delivery in three districts of Tanzania. Methods Data come from a cross-sectional survey of random households on health behaviours and service utilization patterns among women and children aged less than 5 years. The survey was conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania, using a closed-ended questionnaire. This analysis focuses on 915 women of reproductive age who had given birth in the two years prior to the survey. Chi-square test was used to test for associations in the bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors that influence institutional delivery. Results Overall, 74.5% of the 915 women delivered at health facilities in the two years prior to the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the better the quality of antenatal care (ANC) the higher the odds of institutional delivery. Similarly, better socioeconomic status was associated with an increase in the odds of institutional delivery. Women of Sukuma ethnic background were less likely to deliver at health facilities than others. Presence of couple discussion on family planning matters was associated with higher odds of institutional delivery. Conclusion Institutional delivery in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga district of Tanzania is relatively high and significantly dependent on the quality of ANC, better socioeconomic status as well as between-partner communication about family planning. Therefore, improving the quality of ANC, socioeconomic empowerment as well as promoting and supporting inter-spousal discussion on family planning matters is likely to enhance institutional delivery. Programs should also target women from the Sukuma ethnic group towards universal access to institutional delivery care in the study area.
Background The number of adults with diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide, particularly in Asia and Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, renal complications of diabetes may go unrecognized due to limited diagnostic resources. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among adult diabetics in sub-Saharan Africa has not been well described. Methods This study was conducted at the diabetes mellitus clinic of Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total 369 consecutive adult diabetic patients were enrolled and interviewed. Each patient provided a urine sample for microalbuminuria and proteinuria and a blood sample for serum creatinine level. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault equation. CKD was staged according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes system. Results A total of 309 (83.7%) study participants had CKD; 295 (80.0%) had significant albuminuria and 91 (24.7%) had eGFR?60 ml/min. None of these patients were aware of their renal disease, and only 5 (1.3%) had a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy recorded in their file. Older age was significantly associated with CKD in this population [OR 1.03, p?=?0.03, 95%CI (1.00-1.05)]. Conclusions Chronic kidney disease is highly prevalent among adult diabetic outpatients attending our clinic in Tanzania, but is usually undiagnosed. Nearly ¼ of patients had an eGFR low enough to require dose adjustment of diabetic medications. More diagnostic resources are needed for CKD screening among adults in Tanzania in order to slow progression and prevent complications.
Background There is a renewed interest in community health workers (CHWs) in Tanzania, but also a concern that low motivation of CHWs may decrease the benefits of investments in CHW programs. This study aimed to explore sources of CHW motivation to inform programs in Tanzania and similar contexts. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 CHWs in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded prior to translation and thematic analysis. The authors then conducted a literature review on CHW motivation and a framework that aligned with our findings was modified to guide the presentation of results. Results Sources of CHW motivation were identified at the individual, family, community, and organizational levels. At the individual level, CHWs are predisposed to volunteer work and apply knowledge gained to their own problems and those of their families and communities. Families and communities supplement other sources of motivation by providing moral, financial, and material support, including service fees, supplies, money for transportation, and help with farm work and CHW tasks. Resistance to CHW work exhibited by families and community members is limited. The organizational level (the government and its development partners) provides motivation in the form of stipends, potential employment, materials, training, and supervision, but inadequate remuneration and supplies discourage CHWs. Supervision can also be dis-incentivizing if perceived as a sign of poor performance. Conclusions Tanzanian CHWs who work despite not receiving a salary have an intrinsic desire to volunteer, and their motivation often derives from support received from their families when other sources of motivation are insufficient. Policy-makers and program managers should consider the burden that a lack of remuneration imposes on the families of CHWs. In addition, CHWs’ intrinsic desire to volunteer does not preclude a desire for external rewards. Rather, adequate and formal financial incentives and in-kind alternatives would allow already-motivated CHWs to increase their commitment to their work.
In this article Dr. Sutton of the University College, Dar es Salaam considers critically supposedly ancient field systems and other remains that have been reported in the south-central part of Tanganyika, showing that most of these result from modern cultivation.
J. E. G. Sutton
Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a resource constrained health system where church-run health facilities are vital in the provision of health care in rural areas and where patients tend to prefer these services. In order to ensure equity in distribution of qualified health workers in Tanzania, a national regulation and legislation of the pension schemes is required.
Background Many factors have been mentioned as contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of zoonotic diseases particularly in the sub-Sahara African region. These include poor disease surveillance coverage, poor diagnostic capacity, the geographical distribution of those most affected and lack of clear strategies to address the plight of zoonotic diseases. The current study investigates the knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases as a potential contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and hence under-reporting. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was administered to medical practitioners to establish the knowledge of anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, trypanosomiasis, echinococcosis and bovine tuberculosis in selected health facilities within urban and rural settings in Tanzania between April and May 2005. Frequency data were analyzed using likelihood ratio chi-square in Minitab version 14 to compare practitioners' knowledge of transmission, clinical features and diagnosis of the zoonoses in the two settings. For each analysis, likelihood ratio chi-square p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Fisher's exact test was used where expected results were less than five. Results Medical practitioners in rural health facilities had poor knowledge of transmission of sleeping sickness and clinical features of anthrax and rabies in humans compared to their urban counterparts. In both areas the practitioners had poor knowledge of how echinococcosis is transmitted to humans, clinical features of echinococcosis in humans, and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in humans. Conclusion Knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases could be a contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and under-reporting in Tanzania. Refresher courses on zoonotic diseases should be conducted particularly to practitioners in rural areas. More emphasis should be put on zoonotic diseases in teaching curricula of medical practitioners' training institutions in Tanzania to improve the diagnosis, reporting and control of zoonotic diseases. Veterinary and medical collaboration should be strengthened to enable more effective control of zoonotic diseases in Tanzania.
John, Kunda; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S
Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Wooste?s scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over smaller fires with fewer observations yields unstable results due to undersampling issues and uncertainty in the start and end time of the fire events. Options for mitigating these issues using ancillary data such as fire weather information are discussed.
Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles
Background Resistance to anti-malarials is a major public health problem worldwide. After deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) there have been reports of reduced sensitivity to ACT by malaria parasites in South-East Asia. In Tanzania, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) is the recommended first-line drug in treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study surveyed the distribution of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased parasite tolerance to ALu, in Tanzania. Methods A total of 687 Plasmodium falciparum positive dried blood spots on filter paper and rapid diagnostic test strips collected by finger pricks from patients attending health facilities in six regions of Tanzania mainland between June 2010 and August 2011 were used. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to detect Pfmdr1 SNPs N86Y, Y184F and D1246Y. Results There were variations in the distribution of Pfmdr1 polymorphisms among regions. Tanga region had exceptionally high prevalence of mutant alleles, while Mbeya had the highest prevalence of wild type alleles. The haplotype YFY was exclusively most prevalent in Tanga (29.6%) whereas the NYD haplotype was the most prevalent in all other regions. Excluding Tanga and Mbeya, four, most common Pfmdr1 haplotypes did not vary between the remaining four regions (?2 =?2.3, p =?0.512). The NFD haplotype was the second most prevalent haplotype in all regions, ranging from 17% - 26%. Conclusion This is the first country-wide survey on Pfmdr1 mutations associated with ACT resistance. Distribution of individual Pfmdr1 mutations at codons 86, 184 and 1246 varies throughout Tanzanian regions. There is a general homogeneity in distribution of common Pfmdr1 haplotypes reflecting strict implementation of ALu policy in Tanzania with overall prevalence of NFD haplotype ranging from 17 to 26% among other haplotypes. With continuation of ALu as first-line drug this haplotype is expected to keep rising, thus there is need for continued pharmacovigilance studies to monitor any delayed parasite clearance by the drug.
A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Stephens, C.; Masamu, E. T.; Kiama, M. G.; Keto, A. J.; Kinenekejo, M.; Ichimori, K.; Lines, J.
Seeing a need for more teachers in the sciences, including physics, the Tanzanian government upgraded two teachers' training colleges to become constituent colleges of the University of Dar es Salaam. The government has also been aware of the underrepresentation of women in a number of programs, notably science and engineering. The university created two programs-the Pre-Entry Program and the Female Undergraduate Scholarship Program (FUSP)-to facilitate female enrollment in science courses. In 2007 the physics department, in collaboration with the UNESCO Basic Science Program, conducted a workshop for physics teachers in secondary schools. Of 31 participants, six were female. As a result of these efforts, the number of female students who show interest in physics and other fields of science has increased by 5% since 2002.
Samiji, M. E.
The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…
Johnson, Megan Patricia
This article examines farmers’ livelihood responses and vulnerability to climate variability and other stressors in Morogoro, Tanzania, to understand their implications for adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in developing world more generally. In Morogoro, agricultural households have extended cultivation, intensified agriculture, diversified livelihoods and migrated to gain access to land, markets and employment as a response to climatic
On the 1 : 100 000 series of airborne magnetic maps prepared for the Tanzanian Government, a high-amplitude and pronounced total magnetic field intensity anomaly forms an oval pattern around Zanzui Hill in the north of Tanzania. The anomaly is produced by an ultramafic intrusive complex with some extremely high remanent magnetism; the causative body shows the features of a
M. Krs; M. M. Pondaga; B. P. Savary
This study analyses how childhood health determines future academic performance in Kagera region in Tanzania. Academic outcomes considered are years of education and delay in enrollment, while the measure of childhood health is (relative to the median) height. The repercussions of malnutrition in childhood on subsequent learning and school performance are analyzed by using a unique longitudinal dataset. Results indicate
Harold Alderman; Johannes Hoogeveen; Mariacristina Rossi
This study analyzes how childhood health determines future academic performance in the Kagera region in Tanzania. Academic outcomes considered are years of education and delay in enrollment, and the measure of childhood health is height (relative to the median). The repercussions of malnutrition in childhood on subsequent learning and school performance are analyzed by using a unique longitudinal data set.
Harold Alderman; Hans Hoogeveen; Mariacristina Rossi
The state of agricultural libraries and potentials of electronic communications in disseminating agricultural information in Tanzania are discussed. Poor communication between the Sokoine National Agricultural Library and its partner libraries within the country is cited to be one of the reasons for inferior information services to library users. Due to low level of information technology development and financial constraints facing
F. W. Dulle
Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity. PMID:23347529
Dill, Tatjana; Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Elias; Machibya, Harun; Maboko, Leonard; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert
Equines are minor species in Tanzania’s array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue.
WILSON, R. Trevor
Trachoma remains a public health problem in a number of sub-Saharan Africa countries; behavioral change and environmental improvements are cornerstones of prevention efforts. Evidence of successful health education are few in Africa. Health education efforts through primary schools have recently been developed and adopted in Tanzania. We evaluated…
Lewallen, Susan; Massae, Patrick; Tharaney, Manisha; Somba, Margareth; Geneau, Robert; MacArthur, Chad; Courtright, Paul
This paper details the state of renewable energy development in Tanzania and biomass energy supply and consumption. It also highlights the various levels of renewable energy programmes in the country and the Government strategy to improve renewable energy production and utilization technologies. A number of problems hindering the development of renewable energy technologies have been identified and discussed. Biomass accounts
Mohammed S. Sheya; Salvatory J. S. Mushi
We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…
Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant
Two cases of periorbital dermatitis and one case of keratoconjunctivitis following contact with blister beetle are presented. In Tanzania and Kenya the commonest blister beetle is known as Nairobi Fly and is of the genus Paederus, Ocular symptoms are common, usually secondary to transfer by the fingers of the toxic chemical involved from elsewhere on the skin. Blister beetle keratoconjunctivitis
T R G Poole
Describes the outdoor/experiential learning curriculum of the International School Moshi in Tanzania which is inspired by the geographical and environmental features of the region (Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti Plains). Includes the objectives, organizational and attitudinal problems, and benefits of the program. (NEC)
Donnan, Graeme E.
Using a stochastic frontier production model proposed by Battese and Coelli (1995), the paper estimates the levels of technical efficiency of 233 smallholder maize farmers in Tanzania and provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of inefficiency with the aim of finding way to increase smallholders’ maize production and productivity. Results shows that smallholder productivity is very low and highly
Elibariki Emmanuel Msuya; Shuji Hisano; Tatsuhiko Nariu
The young child study in Tanzania is part of a global study undertaken by UNICEF in several countries. UNICEF commissioned the study for its global programmes on the welfare of children. It was also hoped that the findings and conclusions of the study wil...
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model to be used further in understanding credit risk management (CRM) system of commercial banks (CBs) in an economy with less developed financial sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews existing literature that consists mostly evidence from developed countries. A study model is proposed with amendment to fit Tanzania's
Evelyn Richard; Marcellina Chijoriga; Erasmus Kaijage; Christer Peterson; Hakan Bohman
This article explores the dynamics of property rights in irrigation water in Sonjo, Tanzania. It analyses an unsuccessful attempt by the ruling political group to change the institutional arrangements of water control, to serve better their private goals. This example shows that not all internal institutional innovations in the field of utilising natural resources lead to increased efficiency of the
Tomasz Potkanski; William M. Adams
Organizations have become more dependent on information technology (IT) in the 21st century. But IT implementation and use is resisted in certain sectors of Tanzania, particularly in government-run enterprises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and consequences of resistance to IT development and implementation in the…
The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, children's rights challenged by lack of agency, was supported by eight categories. Aware but distressed portrayed feelings of hopelessness, lack of trust in the healthcare and legal systems reflected perceived malpractice,
Felix Kisanga; Lennarth Nystrom; Nora Hogan; Maria Emmelin
Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity.
Dill, Tatjana; Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Elias; Machibya, Harun; Maboko, Leonard; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael
The article analyses the different income portfolios of households using survey data from rural Ethiopia and rural Tanzania. It suggests that the different portfolios held by households cannot be explained by their behaviour towards risk as is usually suggested. It is better explained by differences in ability, location, and in access to credit. A logit analysis of households with different
Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan
The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of hopelessness, "lack of…
Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria
This report on the key findings from a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000. The aim of the assessments was to identify key lessons learned from the successful processes and outcomes in these programs. The report is divided into eight chapters: (1)…
Iannotti, Lora; Gillespie, Stuart
Background Rabies remains a major public health threat in many parts of the world and is responsible for an estimated 55,000 human deaths annually. The burden of rabies is estimated to be around US$20 million in Africa, with the highest financial expenditure being the cost of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, these calculations may be substantial underestimates because the costs to households of coping with endemic rabies have not been investigated. We therefore aimed to estimate the household costs, health-seeking behaviour, coping strategies, and outcomes of exposure to rabies in rural and urban communities in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Extensive investigative interviews were used to estimate the incidence of human deaths and bite exposures. Questionnaires with bite victims and their families were used to investigate health-seeking behaviour and costs (medical and non-medical costs) associated with exposure to rabies. We calculated that an average patient in rural Tanzania, where most people live on less than US$1 per day, would need to spend over US$100 to complete WHO recommended PEP schedules. High costs and frequent shortages of PEP led to poor compliance with PEP regimens, delays in presentation to health facilities, and increased risk of death. Conclusion The true costs of obtaining PEP were twice as high as those previously reported from Africa and should be considered in re-evaluations of the burden of rabies.
Sambo, Maganga; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ferguson, Heather; Lembo, Tiziana; Simon, Cleophas; Urassa, Honorati; Hampson, Katie
Objective: Assess whether reform in the Tanzanian medicines delivery system from a central ‘push' kit system to a decentralized ‘pull' Integrated Logistics System (ILS) has improved medicines accountability. Methods: Rufiji District in Tanzania was used as a case study. Data on medicines ordered and patients seen were compiled from routine information at six public health facilities in 1999 under the kit system and in 2009 under the ILS. Three medicines were included for comparison: an antimalarial, anthelmintic and oral rehydration salts (ORS). Results: The quality of the 2009 data was hampered by incorrect quantification calculations for orders, especially for antimalarials. Between the periods 1999 and 2009, the percent of unaccounted antimalarials fell from 60 to 18%, while the percent of unaccounted anthelmintic medicines went from 82 to 71%. Accounting for ORS, on the other hand, did not improve as the unaccounted amounts increased from 64 to 81% during the same period. Conclusions: The ILS has not adequately addressed accountability concerns seen under the kit system due to a combination of governance and system-design challenges. These quantification weaknesses are likely to have contributed to the frequent periods of antimalarial stock-out experienced in Tanzania since 2009. We propose regular reconciliation between the health information system and the medicines delivery system, thereby improving visibility and guiding interventions to increase the availability of essential medicines.
Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Cowley, Peter; Kasale, Harun; Mbuya, Conrad; Reid, Graham; de Savigny, Don
Background Understanding the factors which determine a household's or individual's risk of malaria infection is important for targeting control interventions at all intensities of transmission. Malaria ecology in Tanzania appears to have reduced over recent years. This study investigated potential risk factors and clustering in face of changing infection dynamics. Methods Household survey data were collected in villages of rural Muheza district. Children aged between six months and thirteen years were tested for presence of malaria parasites using microscopy. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to identify significant risk factors for children. Geographical information systems combined with global positioning data and spatial scan statistic analysis were used to identify clusters of malaria. Results Using an insecticide-treated mosquito net of any type proved to be highly protective against malaria (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.96). Children aged five to thirteen years were at higher risk of having malaria than those aged under five years (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.91). The odds of malaria were less for females when compared to males (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.98). Two spatial clusters of significantly increased malaria risk were identified in two out of five villages. Conclusions This study provides evidence that recent declines in malaria transmission and prevalence may shift the age groups at risk of malaria infection to older children. Risk factor analysis provides support for universal coverage and targeting of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) to all age groups. Clustering of cases indicates heterogeneity of risk. Improved targeting of LLINs or additional supplementary control interventions to high risk clusters may improve outcomes and efficiency as malaria transmission continues to fall under intensified control.
Background Job satisfaction is an important determinant of health worker motivation, retention, and performance, all of which are critical to improving the functioning of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. A number of small-scale surveys have measured the job satisfaction and intention to leave of individual health worker cadres in different settings, but there are few multi-country and multi-cadre comparative studies. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a stratified cluster sample of 2,220 health workers, 564 from Tanzania, 939 from Malawi, and 717 from South Africa. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic information, a 10-item job satisfaction scale, and one question on intention to leave. Multiple regression was used to identify significant predictors of job satisfaction and intention to leave. Results There were statistically significant differences in job satisfaction and intention to leave between the three countries. Approximately 52.1% of health workers in South Africa were satisfied with their jobs compared to 71% from Malawi and 82.6% from Tanzania (?2=140.3, p<0.001). 18.8% of health workers in Tanzania and 26.5% in Malawi indicated that they were actively seeking employment elsewhere, compared to 41.4% in South Africa (?2=83.5, p<0.001). The country differences were confirmed by multiple regression. The study also confirmed that job satisfaction is statistically related to intention to leave. Conclusions We have shown differences in the levels of job satisfaction and intention to leave between different groups of health workers from Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Our results caution against generalising about the effectiveness of interventions in different contexts and highlight the need for less standardised and more targeted HRH strategies than has been practised to date.
Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Maseko, Fresier; Chirwa, Maureen; Mwisongo, Aziza; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles
Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. PMID:23543222
Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke
Background Promoting family planning (FP) is a key strategy for health, economic and population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa, with one of the lowest contraceptive prevalence and highest fertility rates globally, contributes half of the global maternal deaths. Improving the quality of FP services, including enhancing pre-service FP teaching, has the potential to improve contraceptive prevalence. In efforts to improve the quality of FP services in Tanzania, including provider skills, this study sought to identify gaps in pre-service FP teaching and suggest opportunities for strengthening the training. Methods Data were collected from all medical schools and a representative sample of pre-service nursing, Assistant Medical Officer (AMO), Clinical Officer (CO) and assistant CO schools in mainland Tanzania. Teachers responsible for FP teaching at the schools were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Observations on availability of teaching resources and other evidence of FP teaching and evaluation were documented. Relevant approved teaching documents were assessed for their suitability as competency-based FP teaching tools against predefined criteria. Quantitative data were analyzed using EPI Info 6 and qualitative data were manually analyzed using content analysis. Results A total of 35 pre-service schools were evaluated for FP teaching including 30 technical education and five degree offering schools. Of the assessed 11 pre-service curricula, only one met the criteria for suitability of FP teaching. FP teaching was typically theoretical with only 22.9% of all the schools having systems in place to produce graduates who could skillfully provide FP methods. Across schools, the target skills were the same level of competence and skewed toward short acting methods of contraception. Only 23.3% (n?=?7) of schools had skills laboratories, 76% (n?=?22) were either physically connected or linked to FP clinics. None of the degree providing schools practiced FP at its own teaching hospital. Teachers were concerned with poor practical exposure and lack of teaching material. Conclusions Pre-service FP teaching in Tanzania is theoretical, poorly guided, and skewed toward short acting methods; a majority of the schools are unable to produce competent FP service providers. Pre-service FP training should be strengthened with more focus on practical skills.
The tectonic framework of northeastern Tanzania consists of three major elements, the Archean Tanzania Craton, the Proterozoic Mozambique Belt, and a portion of the Eastern arm of the Cenozoic East African rift system, which developed within the Mozambique Belt adjacent to the craton margin. We present some 1500 new point gravity measurements from northeastern Tanzania that, when combined with existing
Aloyce L. Tesha; Andrew A. Nyblade; G. Randy Keller; Diane I. Doser
Tanzania is an area of moderate to high risk for severe anaemia during pregnancy. There is extensive literature examining the consequences of severe anaemia for pregnant women, but the impact this problem has on their infants in malaria-endemic regions is poorly understood. Between 1999 and 2001 we used a demographic surveillance system in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania to link morbidity and socio-economic status data for 301 pregnant women to the survival of 365 days of their singleton babies, looking for evidence of an association between infant mortality and maternal haemoglobin (Hb). The hazards ratio for infant mortality amongst women who had been severely anaemic in pregnancy (Hb < 8 g/dl) was 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-9.1, P = 0.04] compared with women with Hb above this level after controlling for other factors. Prevention of anaemia in pregnancy may lead to an improvement in infant survival. PMID:15040564
Marchant, Tanya; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Nathan, Rose; Abdulla, Salim; Mukasa, Oscar; Mshinda, Hassan; Lengeler, Christian
Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (?3.5–4.5Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (?2.6–2.7Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the
Terry Harrison; Charles P. Msuya
A variety of macroplants has been recorded and collected from the eastern paleolake margin of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, from Upper Bed I and Lower Bed II, dated at ?1.7–1.85 Ma. The plant groups represented are sedges, grasses, and woody and herbaceous dicotyledons. Most of these plants are fragmented, but the roots are in situ. The modes and quality of preservation, however,
Marion K. Bamford
Most autism has a genetic cause although post-encephalitis cases are reported. In a case-series (N = 20) from Tanzania, 14 met research criteria for autism. Three (M:F = 1:2) had normal development to age 22, 35, and 42 months,\\u000a with onset of autism upon recovery from severe malaria, attended by prolonged high fever, convulsions, and in one case prolonged\\u000a loss of consciousness. In four other
Raymond E. Mankoski; Martha Collins; Noah K. Ndosi; Ella H. Mgalla; Veronica V. Sarwatt; Susan E. Folstein
Throughout all stages of programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT), high dropout rates\\u000a are common. Increased male involvement and couples’ joint HIV counselling\\/testing during antenatal care (ANC) seem crucial\\u000a for improving PMTCT outcomes. Our study assessed male attitudes regarding partner involvement into ANC\\/PMTCT services in Mbeya\\u000a Region, Tanzania, conducting 124 individual interviews and six focus group discussions.
Stefanie Theuring; Paulina Mbezi; Hebel Luvanda; Brigitte Jordan-Harder; Andrea Kunz; Gundel Harms
Of the three East African British colonies (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania), Tanzania was the least well off at the time of independence in 1961. At that time, only 16,691 students were enrolled in secondary schools, and all general education at higher levels was provided outside the country. Thus, the goals of post-independence educational policy…
Galabawa, C. J.
The assertion of cratonic stability put forward in the model for deep continental structure can be tested by examining upper mantle structure beneath the Tanzania Craton, which lies within a tectonically active region in east Africa. Tomographic inversions of about 1200 teleseismic P and $ travel times indicate that high-velocity lithosphere beneath the Tanzania Craton extends to a depth of
Jeroen Ritsema; Andrew A. Nyblade; Thomas J. Owens; Charles A. Langston; John C. VanDecar
In Tanzania access to urban and rural primary health care is relatively widespread, yet there is evidence of considerable bypassing of services; questions have been raised about how to improve functionality. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of health workers working in the primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation
Rachel N Manongi; Tanya C Marchant; Ib Christian Bygbjerg
This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…
Compares Tanzania and Cuba to show how, in each case, the state has used education in political and socioeconomic development as a means of achieving socialism. In Cuba, the school system has contributed to creation of the new society, whereas Tanzania continues with piecemeal reconstruction of the educational system. (SLD)
Mtonga, Harry L.
This report presents lessons from Tanzania's development experience of the past four decades, with emphasis on the period since the last report (1996), and assesses the imperatives for higher sustained growth and better livelihood for its citizens in the future. The background papers review and assess Tanzania's actual growth and poverty reduction…
World Bank, Washington, DC.
In order to collect ethnobotanical information about antimalarial plants which is essential for the further evaluation of the efficacy of plants as antimalarial remedies, we investigated the management of malaria with traditional herbal remedies, including the use, preparation and administration, by traditional healers in Tanzania. Interviews with traditional healers were conducted in different rural and urban places in Tanzania: in
M. C. Gessler; D. E. Msuya; M. H. H. Nkunya; L. B. Mwasumbi; A. Schär; M. Heinrich; M. Tanner
Background Diagnostic imaging services are scarce in much of the developing world. Ultrasound is a low-cost, safe, and widely applicable\\u000a imaging modality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims We delivered a portable ultrasound machine to the Lugufu refugee camp in Tanzania and conducted a course on its use in order\\u000a to assess the feasibility of introducing this technology into a very low-resource setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We conducted an intensive
David Adler; Katanga Mgalula; Daniel Price; Opal Taylor
Background The implementation of decentralisation reforms in the health sector of Tanzania started in the 1980s. These reforms were intended to relinquish substantial powers and resources to districts to improve the development of the health sector. Little is known about the impact of decentralisation on recruitment and distribution of health workers at the district level. Reported difficulties in recruiting health workers to remote districts led the Government of Tanzania to partly re-instate central recruitment of health workers in 2006. The effects of this policy change are not yet documented. This study highlights the experiences and challenges associated with decentralisation and the partial re-centralisation in relation to the recruitment and distribution of health workers. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted among informants recruited from five underserved, remote districts of mainland Tanzania. Additional informants were recruited from the central government, the NGO sector, international organisations and academia. A comparison of decentralised and the reinstated centralised systems was carried out in order to draw lessons necessary for improving recruitment, distribution and retention of health workers. Results The study has shown that recruitment of health workers under a decentralised arrangement has not only been characterised by complex bureaucratic procedures, but by severe delays and sometimes failure to get the required health workers. The study also revealed that recruitment of highly skilled health workers under decentralised arrangements may be both very difficult and expensive. Decentralised recruitment was perceived to be more effective in improving retention of the lower cadre health workers within the districts. In contrast, the centralised arrangement was perceived to be more effective both in recruiting qualified staff and balancing their distribution across districts, but poor in ensuring the retention of employees. Conclusion A combination of centralised and decentralised recruitment represents a promising hybrid form of health sector organisation in managing human resources by bringing the benefits of two worlds together. In order to ensure that the potential benefits of the two approaches are effectively integrated, careful balancing defining the local-central relationships in the management of human resources needs to be worked out.
Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights perspective of violence, as well as actively engaging men. At the macro level, preventive efforts must be prioritized through re-enforcement of legal rights, and provision of adequate medical and social welfare services for both survivors and perpetrators.
Abstract Background Leptospirosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are prevalent in many areas, including northern Tanzania, yet little is known about their interaction. Methods We enrolled febrile inpatients at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania, over 1 year and performed HIV antibody testing and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for leptospirosis. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as ?four-fold rise in MAT titer between acute and convalescent serum samples, and probable leptospirosis was defined as any reciprocal MAT titer ?800. Results Confirmed or probable leptospirosis was found in 70 (8.4%) of 831 participants with at least one serum sample tested. At total of 823 (99.0%) of 831 participants had HIV testing performed, and 203 (24.7%) were HIV infected. Among HIV-infected participants, 9 (4.4%) of 203 had confirmed or probable leptospirosis, whereas among HIV-uninfected participants 61 (9.8%) of 620 had leptospirosis. Leptospirosis was less prevalent among HIV-infected as compared to HIV-uninfected participants [odds ratio (OR) 0.43, p=0.019]. Among those with leptospirosis, HIV-infected patients more commonly presented with features of severe sepsis syndrome than HIV-uninfected patients, but differences were not statistically significant. Among HIV-infected patients, severe immunosuppression was not significantly different between those with and without leptospirosis (p=0.476). Among HIV-infected adolescents and adults, median CD4 percent and median CD4 count were higher among those with leptospirosis as compared to those with other etiologies of febrile illness, but differences in CD4 count did not reach statistical significance (p=0.015 and p=0.089, respectively). Conclusions Among febrile inpatients in northern Tanzania, leptospirosis was not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Although some indicators of leptospirosis severity were more common among HIV-infected patients, a statistically significant difference was not demonstrated. Among HIV-infected patients, those with leptospirosis were not more immunosuppressed relative to those with other etiologies of febrile illness.
Biggs, Holly M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Bui, Duy M.; Morrissey, Annie B.; Maro, Venance P.
Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker cadres with little pre-service training. Attention should be paid to the identification of informal practices resulting from individual coping strategies and "street-level bureaucracy" in order to tackle problems before they become part of the organizational culture.
Background Between 2007 and 2013, the Tanzanian public sector received 93.1 million doses of first-line anti-malarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the form of artemether-lumefantrine entirely supplied by funding partners. The introduction of a health facility ACT stock monitoring system using SMS technology by the National Malaria Control Programme in mid 2011 revealed a high frequency of stock-outs of ACT in primary care public health facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of availability of ACT and possible causes of observed stock-outs across public health facilities in Tanzania since mid-2011. Methods Data were collected weekly by the mobile phone reporting tool SMS for Life on ACT availability from over 5,000 public health facilities in Tanzania starting from September 2011 to December 2012. Stock data for all four age-dose levels of ACT across health facilities were summarized and supply of ACT at the national level was also documented. Results Over the period of 15 months, on average 29% of health facilities in Tanzania were completely stocked out of all four-age dose levels of the first-line anti-malarial with a median duration of total stock-out of six weeks. Patterns of total stock-out by region ranged from a low of 9% to a high of 52%. The ACT stock-outs were most likely caused by: a) insufficient ACT supplies entering Tanzania (e.g. in 2012 Tanzania received 10.9 million ACT doses compared with a forecast demand of 14.4 million doses); and b) irregular pattern of ACT supply (several months with no ACT stock). Conclusion The reduced ACT availability and irregular pattern of supply were due to cumbersome bureaucratic processes and delays both within the country and from the main donor, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Tanzania should invest in strengthening both the supply system and the health information system using mHealth solutions such as SMS for Life. This will continue to assist in tracking ACT availability across the country where all partners work towards more streamlined, demand driven and accountable procurement and supply chain systems.
The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR) of 38 (28–50) sequences per subject). Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ?0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84%) subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60%) subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69%) to 36 (82%) over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design.
Kiwelu, Ireen E.; Novitsky, Vladimir; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Essex, M.
The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR) of 38 (28-50) sequences per subject). Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ?0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84%) subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60%) subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69%) to 36 (82%) over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:23940702
Kiwelu, Ireen E; Novitsky, Vladimir; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F; Kapiga, Saidi H; Essex, M
Objective The dearth of age-appropriate formulations of many medicines for children poses a major challenge to pediatric therapeutic practice, adherence, and health care delivery worldwide. We provide information on current administration practices of pediatric medicines and describe key stakeholder preferences for new formulation characteristics. Patients and Methods We surveyed children aged 6–12 years, parents/caregivers over age 18 with children under age 12, and healthcare workers in 10 regions of Tanzania to determine current pediatric medicine prescription and administration practices as well as preferences for new formulations. Analyses were stratified by setting, pediatric age group, parent/caregiver education, and healthcare worker cadre. Results Complete data were available for 206 children, 202 parents/caregivers, and 202 healthcare workers. Swallowing oral solid dosage forms whole or crushing/dissolving them and mixing with water were the two most frequently reported methods of administration. Children frequently reported disliking medication taste, and many had vomited doses. Healthcare workers reported medicine availability most significantly influences prescribing practices. Most parents/caregivers and children prefer sweet-tasting medicine. Parents/caregivers and healthcare workers prefer oral liquid dosage forms for young children, and had similar thresholds for the maximum number of oral solid dosage forms children at different ages can take. Conclusions There are many impediments to acceptable and accurate administration of medicines to children. Current practices are associated with poor tolerability and the potential for under- or over-dosing. Children, parents/caregivers, and healthcare workers in Tanzania have clear preferences for tastes and formulations, which should inform the development, manufacturing, and marketing of pediatric medications for resource-limited settings.
Adams, Lisa V.; Craig, Sienna R.; Mmbaga, Elia John; Naburi, Helga; Lahey, Timothy; Nutt, Cameron T.; Kisenge, Rodrick; Noel, Gary J.; Spielberg, Stephen P.
Background SYMMACS, the Systematic Monitoring of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up, tracked the implementation and adoption of six elements of surgical efficiency— use of multiple surgical beds, pre-bundled kits, task shifting, task sharing, forceps-guided surgical method, and electrocautery—as standards of surgical efficiency in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Methods and Findings This multi-country study used two-staged sampling. The first stage sampled VMMC sites: 73 in 2011, 122 in 2012. The second stage involved sampling providers (358 in 2011, 591 in 2012) and VMMC procedures for observation (594 in 2011, 1034 in 2012). The number of VMMC sites increased significantly between 2011 and 2012; marked seasonal variation occurred in peak periods for VMMC. Countries adopted between three and five of the six elements; forceps-guided surgery was the only element adopted by all countries. Kenya and Tanzania routinely practiced task-shifting. South Africa and Zimbabwe used pre-bundled kits with disposable instruments and electrocautery. South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe routinely employed multiple surgical bays. Conclusions SYMMACS is the first study to provide data on the implementation of VMMC programs and adoption of elements of surgical efficiency. Findings have contributed to policy change on task-shifting in Zimbabwe, a review of the monitoring system for adverse events in South Africa, an increased use of commercially bundled VMMC kits in Tanzania, and policy dialogue on improving VMMC service delivery in Kenya. This article serves as an overview for five other articles following this supplement.
Bertrand, Jane T.; Rech, Dino; Omondi Aduda, Dickens; Frade, Sasha; Loolpapit, Mores; Machaku, Michael D.; Oyango, Mathews; Mavhu, Webster; Spyrelis, Alexandra; Perry, Linnea; Farrell, Margaret; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Background Human resource capacity is vital to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services. VMMC providers are at risk of “burnout” from performing a single task repeatedly in a high volume work environment that produces long work hours and intense work effort. Methods and findings The Systematic Monitoring of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up (SYMMACS) surveyed VMMC providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe in 2011 (n?=?357) and 2012 (n?=?591). Providers self-reported on their training, work experience, levels of job-fulfillment and work fatigue/burnout. Data analysis included a descriptive analysis of VMMC provider characteristics, and both bivariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with provider work fatigue/burnout. In 2012, Kenyan providers had worked in VMMC for a median of 31 months compared to South Africa (10 months), Tanzania (15 months), and Zimbabwe (11 months). More than three-quarters (78 – 99%) of providers in all countries in 2012 reported that VMMC is a personally fulfilling job. However, 67% of Kenyan providers reported starting to experience work fatigue/burnout compared to South Africa (33%), Zimbabwe (17%), and Tanzania (15%). Despite the high level of work fatigue/burnout in Kenya, none of the measured factors (i.e., gender, age, full-time versus part-time status, length of service, number of operations performed, or cadre) were significantly associated with work fatigue/burnout in 2011. In 2012, logistic regression found increases in age (p<.05) and number of months working in VMMC (p<.01) were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing work fatigue/burnout, while higher career total VMMCs decreased the likelihood of experiencing burnout. Conclusion Given cross-country differences, further elucidation of cultural and other contextual factors that may influence provider burnout is required. Continuing to emphasize the contribution that providers make in the fight against HIV/AIDS is important.
Perry, Linnea; Rech, Dino; Mavhu, Webster; Frade, Sasha; Machaku, Michael D.; Onyango, Mathews; Aduda, Dickens S. Omondi.; Fimbo, Bennett; Cherutich, Peter; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Bertrand, Jane T.
Background Recent years have seen an unprecedented increase in funds for procurement of health commodities in developing countries. A major challenge now is the efficient delivery of commodities and services to improve population health. With this in mind, we documented staffing levels and productivity in peripheral health facilities in southern Tanzania. Method A health facility survey was conducted to collect data on staff employed, their main tasks, availability on the day of the survey, reasons for absenteeism, and experience of supervisory visits from District Health Teams. In-depth interview with health workers was done to explore their perception of work load. A time and motion study of nurses in the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) clinics documented their time use by task. Results We found that only 14% (122/854) of the recommended number of nurses and 20% (90/441) of the clinical staff had been employed at the facilities. Furthermore, 44% of clinical staff was not available on the day of the survey. Various reasons were given for this. Amongst the clinical staff, 38% were absent because of attendance to seminar sessions, 8% because of long-training, 25% were on official travel and 20% were on leave. RCH clinic nurses were present for 7 hours a day, but only worked productively for 57% of time present at facility. Almost two-third of facilities had received less than 3 visits from district health teams during the 6 months preceding the survey. Conclusion This study documented inadequate staffing of health facilities, a high degree of absenteeism, low productivity of the staff who were present and inadequate supervision in peripheral Tanzanian health facilities. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of decentralized health care in Tanzania.
Health worker training is a key component of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). However, training coverage remains low in many countries. We conducted in-depth case studies in two East African countries to examine the factors underlying low training coverage 10 years after IMCI had been adopted as policy. A document review and in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at facility, district, regional/provincial and national levels in two districts in Kenya (Homa Bay and Malindi) and Tanzania (Bunda and Tarime) were carried out in 2007–08. Bunda and Malindi achieved higher levels of training coverage (44% and 25%) compared with Tarime and Homa Bay (5% and 13%). Key factors allowing the first two districts to perform better were: strong district leadership and personal commitment to IMCI, which facilitated access to external funding and encouraged local-level policy adaptation; sensitization and training of district health managers; and lower staff turnover. However, IMCI training coverage remained well below target levels across all sites. The main barrier to expanding coverage was the cost of training due to its duration, the number of facilitators and its residential nature. Mechanisms for financing IMCI also restricted district capacity to raise funds. In Tanzania, districts could not spend more than 10% of their budgets on training. In Kenya, limited financial decentralization meant that district managers had to rely on donors for financial support. Critically, the low priority given to IMCI at national and international levels also limited the expansion of training. Levels of domestic and donor support for IMCI have diminished over time in favour of vertical programmes, partly due to the difficulty in monitoring and measuring the impact of an integrated intervention like IMCI. Alternative, lower cost methods of IMCI training need to be promoted, and greater advocacy for IMCI is needed both nationally and internationally.
Mushi, Hildegalda P; Mullei, Kethi; Macha, Janet; Wafula, Frank; Borghi, Josephine; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy
Health worker training is a key component of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). However, training coverage remains low in many countries. We conducted in-depth case studies in two East African countries to examine the factors underlying low training coverage 10 years after IMCI had been adopted as policy. A document review and in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at facility, district, regional/provincial and national levels in two districts in Kenya (Homa Bay and Malindi) and Tanzania (Bunda and Tarime) were carried out in 2007-08. Bunda and Malindi achieved higher levels of training coverage (44% and 25%) compared with Tarime and Homa Bay (5% and 13%). Key factors allowing the first two districts to perform better were: strong district leadership and personal commitment to IMCI, which facilitated access to external funding and encouraged local-level policy adaptation; sensitization and training of district health managers; and lower staff turnover. However, IMCI training coverage remained well below target levels across all sites. The main barrier to expanding coverage was the cost of training due to its duration, the number of facilitators and its residential nature. Mechanisms for financing IMCI also restricted district capacity to raise funds. In Tanzania, districts could not spend more than 10% of their budgets on training. In Kenya, limited financial decentralization meant that district managers had to rely on donors for financial support. Critically, the low priority given to IMCI at national and international levels also limited the expansion of training. Levels of domestic and donor support for IMCI have diminished over time in favour of vertical programmes, partly due to the difficulty in monitoring and measuring the impact of an integrated intervention like IMCI. Alternative, lower cost methods of IMCI training need to be promoted, and greater advocacy for IMCI is needed both nationally and internationally. PMID:21047808
Mushi, Hildegalda P; Mullei, Kethi; Macha, Janet; Wafula, Frank; Borghi, Josephine; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy
Background Development of resistance to different classes of insecticides is a potential threat to malaria control. With the increasing coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania, the continued monitoring of resistance in vector populations is crucial. It may facilitate the development of novel strategies to prevent or minimize the spread of resistance. In this study, metabolic-based mechanisms conferring permethrin (pyrethroid) resistance were investigated in Anopheles arabiensis of Lower Moshi, Kilimanjaro region of north-eastern Tanzania. Methods WHO susceptibility test kits were used to detect resistance to permethrin in An. arabiensis. The levels and mechanisms of permethrin resistance were determined using CDC bottle bioassays and microplate (biochemical) assays. In bottle bioassays, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and s,s,s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) were used as synergists to inhibit mixed function oxidases and non-specific esterases respectively. Biochemical assays were carried out in individual mosquitoes to detect any increase in the activity of enzymes typically involved in insecticide metabolism (mixed function oxidases, ?- and ?-esterases). Results Anopheles arabiensis from the study area was found to be partially resistant to permethrin, giving only 87% mortality in WHO test kits. Resistance ratios at KT50 and KT95 were 4.0 and 4.3 respectively. The permethrin resistance was partially synergized by DEF and by PBO when these were mixed with permethrin in bottle bioassays and was fully synergized when DEF and PBO were used together. The levels of oxidase and ?-esterase activity were significantly higher in An. arabiensis from Lower Moshi than in the laboratory susceptible strain. There was no difference in ?-esterase activity between the two strains. Conclusion Elevated levels of mixed function oxidases and ?-esterases play a role in detoxification of permethrin in the resistant An. arabiensis population of Lower Moshi.
Background The planning and assessment of malaria interventions is complicated due to fluctuations in the burden of malaria over time. Recently, it has been reported that the burden of malaria in some parts of Africa has declined. However, community-based longitudinal data are sparse and the reasons for the apparent decline are not well understood. Methods Malaria prevalence and morbidity have been monitored in two villages in north-eastern Tanzania; a lowland village and a highland village from 2003 to 2008. Trained village health workers treated presumptive malaria with the Tanzanian first-line anti-malarial drug and collected blood smears that were examined later. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia across years was monitored through cross-sectional surveys. Results The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in the lowland village decreased from 78.4% in 2003 to 13.0% in 2008, whereas in the highland village, the prevalence of parasitaemia dropped from 24.7% to 3.1% in the same period. Similarly, the incidence of febrile malaria episodes in the two villages dropped by almost 85% during the same period and there was a marked reduction in the number of young children who suffered from anaemia in the lowland village. Conclusion There has been a marked decline in malaria in the study villages during the past few years. This decline is likely to be due to a combination of factors that include improved access to malaria treatment provided by the trained village helpers, protection from mosquitoes by increased availability of insecticide-impregnated bed nets and a reduced vector density. If this decline in malaria morbidity is sustained, it will have a marked effect on the disease burden in this part of Tanzania.
In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing water in these dryland areas. It can therefore be concluded that utilization of local knowledge has wide impact on integrated water resource management. These implications are important considerations for development of adaptive water system innovations at community level.
Liwenga, Emma T.
Background Artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) has been widely adopted as one of the main malaria control strategies. However, its promise to save thousands of lives in sub-Saharan Africa depends on how effective the use of ACT is within the routine health system. The INESS platform evaluated effective coverage of ACT in several African countries. Timely access within 24 hours to an authorized ACT outlet is one of the determinants of effective coverage and was assessed for artemether-lumefantrine (Alu), in two district health systems in rural Tanzania. Methods From October 2009 to June 2011we conducted continuous rolling household surveys in the Kilombero-Ulanga and the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Surveys were linked to the routine HDSS update rounds. Members of randomly pre-selected households that had experienced a fever episode in the previous two weeks were eligible for a structured interview. Data on individual treatment seeking, access to treatment, timing, source of treatment and household costs per episode were collected. Data are presented on timely access from a total of 2,112 interviews in relation to demographics, seasonality, and socio economic status. Results In Kilombero-Ulanga, 41.8% (CI: 36.6–45.1) and in Rufiji 36.8% (33.7–40.1) of fever cases had access to an authorized ACT provider within 24 hours of fever onset. In neither of the HDSS site was age, sex, socio-economic status or seasonality of malaria found to be significantly correlated with timely access. Conclusion Timely access to authorized ACT providers is below 50% despite interventions intended to improve access such as social marketing and accreditation of private dispensing outlets. To improve prompt diagnosis and treatment, access remains a major bottle neck and new more innovative interventions are needed to raise effective coverage of malaria treatment in Tanzania.
Introduction According to the 2011–2012 HIV and Malaria Indicator Survey, the prevalence of HIV infection in Tanzania is 5.1%, with limited information on its magnitude among older people, as the community believes that the elderly are not at risk. Consequently, little attention is given to the fight against HIV and AIDS in this group. The present study investigated the magnitude of HIV and AIDS infection among older people in rural and urban areas of the Tanzania mainland. Subjects and methods The study was conducted in Mufindi and Babati districts of Iringa and Manyara regions, respectively, through multistage sampling procedures. Dried blood spot cards were used to collect blood samples for HIV testing among consenting participants. HIV testing was done and retested using different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results A total of 720 individuals, 340 (47.2%) males and 380 (52.8%) females, were randomly selected, of whom 714 (99.2%) consented to HIV testing while six (0.8%) refused to donate blood. The age ranged from 50 to 98 years, with a mean age of 64.2 years. Overall, a total of 56 (7.8%) participants were HIV-positive. Females had a higher prevalence (8.3%) than males (7.4%), with Mufindi district recording the higher rate (11.3%) compared to the 3.7% of Babati district. The prevalence was higher in the rural population (9.4%) compared to 6.4% of their urban counterparts. Conclusion Although HIV/AIDS is considered a disease of individuals aged 15–49 years, the overall prevalence among the older people aged 50 years and above for Mufindi and Babati districts was higher than the national prevalence in the general population. These findings point to the need to consider strengthening interventions targeting older populations against HIV/AIDS in these districts while establishing evidence countrywide to inform policy decisions.
Nyigo, Vitus; Kilale, Andrew; Kilima, Stella; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Mshana, Jonathan; Mushi, Adiel K; Matemba, Lucas; Massaga, Julius
After 5 years of stagnant exploration in East Africa, Canadian independent Tanganyika Oil Co. of Vancouver, B.C., will drill two wildcats in Tanzania to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the coastal Jurassic Mandawa salt basin. Mita-1, spudded around Oct. 1, will be drilled to about 7,000 ft, East Lika-1 will be drilled in early December 1996 to approximately 6,000 ft. The two wells will test different structures and play concepts. The paper describes the exploration history, source rock potential, hydrocarbon shows, potential reservoir, and the prospects.
Nagati, M. [Tanganyika Oil Co., Dubai (United Arab Emirates)
We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children’s allocation of time to school and work. Children attend school for more days per week—but not for more hours per day—as a result of accessing better healthcare. There are no significant effects on child labor, but the results suggest that time spent in physically strenuous activities such as farming and herding increases.
Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant
The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised. PMID:23006770
Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy
A number of adult education innovations were introduced in Tanzania in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This article analyzes the context of three innovations, namely functional literacy, workers' education and the programme of the Folk Development Colleges. The analysis reveals that these innovations had firm roots within the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country in the 1960s and 1970s, Nyerere's influence as President and Party leader, Tanzania's ideology of development, the policy of popular participation, the roots of educational policy in a humanistic philosophy of education, and indigenous education. Some of the factors which affected their implementation included lack of trained educators, inadequate financial resources, ineffective evaluation mechanisms, and a mis-match between participants' needs and actual programmes. It is suggested that there is a need to introduce economic innovations alongside educational innovations, to involve participants in determining their training needs, and to train and retain adult educators with a view to improving adult education initiatives in the country.
Mushi, Philemon A. K.
We report 12 new focal mechanisms from earthquakes in NE and SW Tanzania where the stress regime within the East African rift system is not well constrained. Focal mechanisms for events at the intersection of the Lake Tanganyika and Rukwa rifts in SW Tanzania indicate a complicated stress pattern with possible dextral strike-slip motion on some faults but oblique motion on others (either sinistral on NW striking faults or dextral on NE striking faults). Within the Rukwa rift, focal mechanisms indicate normal dip-slip motion with NE-SW opening. In NE Tanzania where the Eastern rift impinges on the margin of the Tanzania Craton, fault motions are consistent with a zone of distributed block faults and sub E-W extension. All twelve earthquakes likely nucleated within the crust.
Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Florentin, Juliette
Cooking oil and soap are essential consumer goods which are in great shortage in Tanzania. Although the natural conditions for producing vegetable oils in the country are good, the recorded production has been declining sharply during the last ten years. ...
V. Fupi K. Stenberg
The document reprints the petroleum exploration and production laws of 6 member countries of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC). Those countries included in the document are Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and...
Objective(s) We evaluated changes in characteristics of clients presenting for Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) before and during Care and Treatment Center (CTC) scale-up activities in Moshi, Tanzania between November 2003 and December 2007. Methods Consecutive clients were surveyed following pre-test counseling, and rapid HIV antibody testing was performed. Trend tests were used to assess changes in seroprevalence and client characteristics over time. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of changes in sociodemographic and behavioral risk characteristics, and symptoms, to changes in seroprevalence before and during CTC scale-up. Results Data from 4391 first-time VCT clients were analyzed. HIV seroprevalence decreased from 26.2% to 18.9% following the availability of free antiretroviral therapy and expansion of CTCs beyond regional and referral hospitals. Seroprevalence decreased by 27 % for females (p=0.0002) and 34% for males (p =0.0125). Declines in seropositivity coincided with decreases in symptoms among males and females (p<0.0001), and a more favorable distribution of sociodemographic risks among females (p=0.002). No changes in behavioral risk characteristics were observed. Conclusions Concurrent with the scale-up of CTCs, HIV seroprevalence and rates of symptoms declined sharply at an established free-standing VCT site in Moshi, Tanzania. If more HIV-infected persons access VCT at sites where antiretrovirals are offered, free-standing VCT sites may become a less cost-effective means for HIV case-finding.
Mayhood, Meghan K.; Ostermann, Jan; Crump, John A.; Tribble, Alison C.; Itemba, Dafrosa K.; Mgonja, Anna; Mtalo, Antipas; Bartlett, John A.; Shao, John F.; Schimana, Werner; Thielman, Nathan M.
Economic development and public health are tied to water resources development in many parts of the world. Effective use of water management infrastructure investments requires projections of future climatic and water use conditions. This is particularly true in developing countries. We explore in this work water resource availability in the Rovuma River, which lies in a sparsely-populated region of southeastern Africa, on the border of Mozambique and Tanzania. While there are only limited documented observations of flow of the Rovuma River and it's tributaries, particularly in recent years, there is widespread interest in development of the water resources of the region. The national governments are interested in hydropower potential while private companies, many of them large multinational organizations, have started irrigation programs to increase agricultural output. While the Mozambique and Tanzania governments have a joint agreement over the river development, there is a need to assess both current and potential future water resource conditions in the basin. The sustainability of these developments, however, may be affected by climate change. Here we quantify potential changes in streamflow in the Rovuma River under dry and wet climate projection scenarios using the delta method and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro-scale hydrology model. We then evaluate streamflow changes relative to water withdrawals required for a range of irrigated agriculture scenarios. Our analysis is intended to be a starting point for planners to consider potential impacts of both streamflow withdrawal permits (for irrigated agriculture) and future uncertain climate conditions.
Minihane, M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.
Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small-scale Soil and Terrain (SOTER) map. Prediction uncertainty was quantified by the 90% prediction interval and the predictions were validated by cross-validation. The SOTER map proved to be the best predictor of SOC content, followed by the terrain parameters, mid-infrared reflectance, surface temperature, several vegetation indices, and the land cover map. The maps show that the SOC content decreases with depth, which is typically observed in soils. For the 0-10 cm layer the average predicted SOC content is 1.31%, for the 10-20 cm layer this is 0.93%, for the 20-30cm layer 0.72%, and for the 0-30cm layer 1.00%. The mean absolute error of the 0-10cm layer was 0.54%, that of the 10-20cm layer 0.38%, that of the 20-30cm layer 0.31%, and that of the 0-30cm layer 0.34%. The R2-value of the 0-10 cm layer was 0.47, that of the 10-20cm layer 0.49, that of the 20-30cm layer 0.44, and that of the 0-30cm layer 0.59. The next step will be the development of maps of SOC stock and key properties that are of interest for soil fertility management such as pH and the textural fractions.
Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren
Tanzania's health care provider shortage, especially in rural areas, makes it challenging to meet women's support needs in hospitals. We describe women's perceptions of childbirth support at a hospital in rural Tanzania. We interviewed 25 women within 24 hours after delivery using semi-structured interviews. Most women sought life-saving technological support in case of complications. They also valued having family present to
Yoko Shimpuku; Crystal L. Patil; Kathleen F. Norr; Pamela D. Hill
Background The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) is a legal instrument binding all World Health Organization (WHO) member States. It aims to prevent and control public health emergencies of international concern. Country points of entry (POEs) have been identified as potential areas for effective interventions to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases across borders. The agreement postulates that member states will strengthen core capacities detailed in the IHR (2005), including those specified for the POE. This study intended to assess the challenges faced in implementing the IHR (2005) requirements at Julius Nyerere International Airport (JNIA), Dar es Salaam. Design A cross-sectional, descriptive study, employing qualitative methods, was conducted at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW), WHO, and JNIA. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and documentary reviews were used to obtain relevant information. Respondents were purposively enrolled into the study. Thematic analysis was used to generate study findings. Results Several challenges that hamper implementation of the IHR (2005) were identified: (1) none of the 42 Tanzanian POEs have been specifically designated to implement IHR (2005). (2) Implementation of the IHR (2005) at the POE was complicated as it falls under various uncoordinated government departments. Although there were clear communication channels at JNIA that enhanced reliable risk communication, the airport lacked isolated rooms specific for emergence preparedness and response to public health events. Conclusions JNIA is yet to develop adequate core capacities required for implementation of the IHR (2005). There is a need for policy managers to designate JNIA to implement IHR (2005) and ensure that public health policies, legislations, guidelines, and practice at POE are harmonized to improve international travel and trade. Policy makers and implementers should also ensure that implementation of the IHR (2005) follow the policy implementation framework, particularly the contextual interaction theory which calls for the availability of adequate resources (inputs) and well-organized process for the successful implementation of the policy.
Bakari, Edith; Frumence, Gasto
Background To control malaria in Tanzania, two primary vector control interventions are being scaled up: long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The main threat to effective malaria control is the selection of insecticide resistance. While resistance to pyrethroids, the primary insecticide used for LLINs and IRS, has been reported among mosquito vectors in only a few sites in Tanzania, neighbouring East African countries are recording increasing levels of resistance. To monitor the rapidly evolving situation, the resistance status of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l to different insecticides and the prevalence of the kdr resistance allele involved in pyrethroid resistance were investigated in north-western Tanzania, an area that has been subject to several rounds of pyrethroid IRS since 2006. Methods Household collections of anopheline mosquitoes were exposed to diagnostic dosages of pyrethroid, DDT, and bendiocarb using WHO resistance test kits. The relative proportions of An. gambiae s.s and Anopheles arabiensis were also investigated among mosquitoes sampled using indoor CDC light traps. Anophelines were identified to species and the kdr mutation was detected using real time PCR TaqMan assays. Results From the light trap collections 80% of An. gambiae s.l were identified as An. gambiae s.s and 20% as An. arabiensis. There was cross-resistance between pyrethroids and DDT with mortality no higher than 40% reported in any of the resistance tests. The kdr-eastern variant was present in homozygous form in 97% of An. gambiae s.s but was absent in An. arabiensis. Anopheles gambiae s.s showed reduced susceptibility to the carbamate insecticide, bendiocarb, the proportion surviving WHO tests ranging from 0% to 30% depending on season and location. Conclusion Anopheles gambiae s.s has developed phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids and DDT and kdr frequency has almost reached fixation. Unlike in coastal Tanzania, where the ratio of An. gambiae s.s to An. arabiensis has decreased in response to vector control, An. gambiae s.s persists at high frequency in north-western Tanzania, probably due to selection of pyrethroid resistance, and this trend is likely to arise in other areas as resistance spreads or is subject to local selection from IRS or LLINs.
In a cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI)=11.6-17.3) of cows had developed clinical mastitis during the previous year. The point prevalence of subclinical mastitis, defined as a quarter positive by the California Mastitis Test (CMT) or by bacteriological culture, was 46.2% (95% CI=43.6-48.8) and 24.3% (95% CI=22.2-26.6), respectively. In a longitudinal disease study in Iringa, the incidence of clinical mastitis was 31.7 cases per 100 cow-years. A randomised intervention trial indicated that intramammary antibiotics significantly reduced the proportion of bacteriologically positive quarters in the short-term (14 days post-infusion) but teat dipping had no detectable effect on bacteriological infection and CMT positive quarters. Other risk and protective factors were identified from both the cross-sectional and longitudinal included animals with Boran breeding (odds ratio (OR)=3.40, 95% CI=1.00-11.57, P<0.05 for clinical mastitis, and OR=3.51, 95% CI=1.29-9.55, P<0.01 for a CMT positive quarter), while the practice of residual calf suckling was protective for a bacteriologically positive quarter (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.48-0.81, P
Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Bell, C E; Swai, E S; Kambarage, D M; Ogden, N H; Bryant, M J; French, N P
Public health recommendations promote prolonged breastfeeding of all children; however, parental investment (PI) theory predicts that breastfeeding will be allocated among a mothers' offspring to maximize her reproductive success. We evaluated PI in terms of risk for weaning before age two among 283 children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Results demonstrate: (i) a Trivers-Willard effect--high socioeconomic status (SES) females and low SES males were more likely to be weaned early; (ii) later-born children were less likely to be weaned early; (iii) higher birthweight children were less likely to be weaned early, and (iv) no effect of cattle (a source of supplementary milk) ownership. These associations were largely independent and remained significant in models controlling for potential confounders; however, the inverse association between early weaning and birth order lost significance in the model containing birthweight. These patterns were observed despite public health recommendations encouraging breastfeeding for at least two years. PMID:23926151
Wander, Katherine; Mattison, Siobhán M
A survey of trichinellosis among sylvatic carnivore mammals from the Serengeti ecosystem (Tanzania) demonstrated the presence of Trichinella nelsoni in 5 of 9 species examined. Muscle samples were collected from carcasses of 56 carnivores from 1993 to 1995 and frozen before transport and examination. Following artificial digestion of the samples, collected larvae were analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. Trichinella nelsoni was identified in 1 bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), 1 cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), 1 leopard (Panthera pardus), 3 lions (Panthera leo), and 3 spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). The numbers of bat-eared foxes (6), cheetahs (5), and leopards (3) examined were too small to reveal the roles of these carnivore species in the ecology of T. nelsoni. The numbers of lions and spotted hyenas examined, with a prevalence of 12% and 23%, respectively, suggest that these species may be reservoirs of T. nelsoni in the area under study. PMID:9406805
Pozio, E; De Meneghi, D; Roelke-Parker, M E; La Rosa, G
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an acute, zoonotic viral disease caused by a Phlebovirus, which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. Among livestock, outbreaks of the disease are economically devastating. They are often characterised by large, sweeping abortion storms and have significant mortality in adult livestock. The aim of the current study was to investigate RVFV infection in the Kigoma region, which is nestled under the hills of the western arm of the Great Rift Valley on the edge of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. A region-wide serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated small ruminants (sheep and goats, n = 411). Sera samples were tested for the presence of anti-RVFV antibodies and viral antigen, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The overall past infections were detected in 22 of the 411 animals, 5.4% (Confidence Interval (CI) 95% = 3.5% - 8.1%). The Kigoma rural area recorded the higher seroprevalence of 12.0% (CI 95% = 7.3% - 18.3%; p < 0.0001), followed by Kibondo at 2.3% (CI 95% = 0.5% - 6.5%; p > 0.05) and the Kasulu district at 0.8% (CI 95% = 0.0% - 4.2%; p > 0.05). The prevalence was 12.5% and 4.7% for sheep and goats, respectively. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that only eight samples were found to be positive (n = 63). This study has confirmed, for the first time, the presence of the RVFV in the Kigoma region four years after the 2007 epizootic in Tanzania. The study further suggests that the virus activity exists during the inter-epizootic period, even in regions with no history of RVFV. PMID:25005550
Kifaro, Emmanuel G; Nkangaga, Japhet; Joshua, Gradson; Sallu, Raphael; Yongolo, Mmeta; Dautu, George; Kasanga, Christopher J
Environmental conditions play an important role in the transmission of malaria; therefore, regulating these conditions can help to reduce disease burden. Environmental management practices for disease control can be implemented at the community level to complement other malaria control methods. This study assesses current knowledge and practices related to mosquito ecology and environmental management for malaria control in a rural, agricultural region of Tanzania. Household surveys were conducted with 408 randomly selected respondents from 10 villages and qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Results show that respondents are well aware of the links between mosquitoes, the environment, and malaria. Most respondents stated that cleaning the environment around the home, clearing vegetation around the home, or draining stagnant water can reduce mosquito populations, and 63% of respondents reported performing at least one of these techniques to protect themselves from malaria. It is clear that many respondents believe that these environmental management practices are effective malaria control methods, but the actual efficacy of these techniques for controlling populations of vectors or reducing malaria prevalence in the varying ecological habitats in Mvomero is unknown. Further research should be conducted to determine the effects of different environmental management practices on both mosquito populations and malaria transmission in this region, and increased participation in effective techniques should be promoted. PMID:20694503
Randell, Heather Fawn; Dickinson, Katherine L; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Mboera, Leonard E G; Kramer, Randall A
Access to household water connections remains low in sub-Saharan Africa, representing a public health concern. Previous studies have shown water stored in the home to be more contaminated than water at the source; however, the mechanisms of post-supply contamination remain unclear. Using water quality measurements and structured observations of households in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, this study elucidates the causal mechanisms of the microbial contamination of drinking water after collection from a communal water source. The study identifies statistically significant loadings of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) occurring immediately after filling the storage container at the source and after extraction of the water from the container in the home. Statistically significant loadings of FIB also occur with various water extraction methods, including decanting from the container and use of a cup or ladle. Additionally, pathogenic genes of Escherichia coli were detected in stored drinking water but not in the source from which it was collected, highlighting the potential health risks of post-supply contamination. The results of the study confirm that storage containers and extraction utensils introduce microbial contamination into stored drinking water, and suggest that further research is needed to identify methods of water extraction that prevent microbial contamination of drinking water. PMID:23981881
Harris, Angela R; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B
The Tanganyika Library Service (TLS) was the national public library service set up in Tanzania, East Africa, in the 1960s. By the end of the decade, it was generally regarded as a model of Western-style public library development in Africa. This is an account of its establishment and early years based on accessible documentary sources in Tanzania…
Since 1999, Tanzania has been actively pursuing reforms of way in which the central government finances local government activities. Although local government authorities in Tanzania play a significant role in the delivery of key government services, the resources which the central government provides to the local level are tightly controlled by the central government. Based on the unique context of
Jameson Boex; Jorge Martinez-Vazquez
The Local Government Reform Program (LGRP) in Tanzania was introduced to improve the access and quality of services provided by Local Government Authorities (LGAs). The main aim of the study is to clarify the practice and impact of Human Resource Capacity Building with reference to the LGRP in Tanzania. The study adopted a three-dimensional framework involving Human Resource Development (HRD),
William Pallangyo; Christopher J. Rees
The impact of large vertebrates on the sedimentary record in an East African groundwater-fed wetland in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania, is used as a modern analog to interpret an ancient (Plio-Pleistocene) wetland record in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. The 3 km wetland at Olduvai is characterized by massive silty claystones produced by intense vertebrate trampling, as well as trails by vertebrates frequenting
Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania.
Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee
Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year), 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years), 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years) and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years). 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%). Half of nets used by young children (50.0%) and over a third of those used by older children (37.2%) were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use) and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use). All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily suppressed the net market, illustrating that in this setting that these are complementary rather than mutually exclusive approaches.
Khatib, Rashid A; Killeen, Gerry F; Abdulla, Salim MK; Kahigwa, Elizeus; McElroy, Peter D; Gerrets, Rene PM; Mshinda, Hassan; Mwita, Alex; Kachur, S Patrick
Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their risk. Rather than simply focusing on knowledge-based strategies, comprehensive interventions are needed to reduce both exposure and health risks, including training, improvements in labeling, measures to reduce cost barriers to the adoption of safe behaviours, , promotion of control measures other than PPE and support for Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
Background Adolescents in Tanzania require health services that respond to their sexual and reproductive health – and other – needs and are delivered in a friendly and nonjudgemental manner. Systematizing and expanding the reach of quality adolescent friendly health service provision is part of the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare's (MOHSW) multi-component strategy to promote and safeguard the health of adolescents. Objective We set out to identify the progress made by the MOHSW in achieving the objective it had set in its National Adolescent Health and Development Strategy: 2002–2006, to systematize and extend the reach of Adolescent Friendly Health Services (AFHS) in the country. Methods We reviewed plans and reports from the MOHSW and journal articles on AFHS. This was supplemented with several of the authors’ experiences of working to make health services in Tanzania adolescent friendly. Results The MOHSW identified four key problems with what was being done to make health services adolescent friendly in the country – firstly, it was not fully aware of the various efforts under way; secondly, there was no standardized definition of AFHS; thirdly, it had received reports that the quality of the AFHS being provided by some organizations was poor; and fourthly, only small numbers of adolescents were being reached by the efforts that were under way. The MOHSW responded to these problems by mapping existing services, developing a standardized definition of AFHS, charting out what needed to be done to improve their quality and expand their coverage, and integrating AFHS within wider policy and strategy documents and programmatic measurement instruments. It has also taken important preparatory steps to stimulate and support implementation. Conclusion The MOHSW is aware that the focus of the effort must now shift from the national to the regional, council and local levels. The onus is on regional and council health management teams as well as health facility managers to take the steps needed to ensure that all adolescents in the country obtain the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services they need, delivered in a friendly and non-judgemental manner. But they cannot do this without substantial and ongoing support.
Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+) approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1) during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999); and (2) three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002). A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70%) (p = 0.04). Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a need to monitor the effect of such campaigns on the routine health system and on equity of coverage. Documentation of vitamin A supplementation campaign contacts on routine maternal and child health cards would be a simple step to facilitate this monitoring.
Masanja, Honorati; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mshinda, Hassan M; Shekar, Meera; Mugyabuso, Joseph KL; Ndossi, Godwin D; de Savigny, Don
Background Trauma remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in resource limited countries. There is paucity of published reports on trauma care in Tanzania, particularly the study area. This study was carried out to describe our experiences in trauma management outlining the etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of trauma patients at our local setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. Methods A descriptive prospective study of trauma patients was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre from April 2010 to March 2012. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Results A total of 5672 trauma patients were enrolled in the study. The male to female ratio was 2.3: 1. The majority of patients were in the 2nd decade of life. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of trauma accounting for 60.7% of cases. The majority of patients (76.6%) sustained blunt injuries. Musculoskeletal (68.5%) and head/neck (52.6%) were the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (open wounds) and fractures were the most common injuries accounting for 82.8% and 76.8% respectively. Majority of patients (74.4%) were treated surgically with wound debridement (94.0%) being the most frequently performed procedure. Postoperative complications were recorded in 31.5% of cases. The overall median duration of hospitalization was 26 days (range 1 day to 144 days). Mortality rate was 16.7%. Patients who had polytrauma, burn injuries and those who had tetanus and long bone fractures stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (P?0.001), whereas the age?>?65 years, severe trauma, admission Systolic Blood Pressure?90 mmHg, presence of tetanus, severe head injury, the duration of loss of consciousness, the need for intensive care unit admission and finding of space occupying lesion on CT scan of the brain significantly influenced mortality (P?0.001). Conclusion Trauma resulting from road traffic accidents remains a major public health problem in this part of Tanzania. Urgent preventive measures targeting at reducing the occurrence of road traffic accidents is necessary to reduce the incidence of trauma in this region.
Background Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Tanzania. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a new opportunity to control this disease. This study aimed to estimate the costs of a school-based HPV vaccination project in three districts in Mwanza Region (NCT ID: NCT01173900), Tanzania and to model incremental scaled-up costs of a regional vaccination program. Methods We first conducted a top-down cost analysis of the vaccination project, comparing observed costs of age-based (girls born in 1998) and class-based (class 6) vaccine delivery in a total of 134 primary schools. Based on the observed project costs, we then modeled incremental costs of a scaled-up vaccination program for Mwanza Region from the perspective of the Tanzanian government, assuming that HPV vaccines would be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Results Total economic project costs for delivering 3 doses of HPV vaccine to 4,211 girls were estimated at about US$349,400 (including a vaccine price of US$5 per dose). Costs per fully-immunized girl were lower for class-based delivery than for age-based delivery. Incremental economic scaled-up costs for class-based vaccination of 50,290 girls in Mwanza Region were estimated at US$1.3 million. Economic scaled-up costs per fully-immunized girl were US$26.41, including HPV vaccine at US$5 per dose. Excluding vaccine costs, vaccine could be delivered at an incremental economic cost of US$3.09 per dose and US$9.76 per fully-immunized girl. Financial scaled-up costs, excluding costs of the vaccine and salaries of existing staff were estimated at US$1.73 per dose. Conclusions Project costs of class-based vaccination were found to be below those of age-based vaccination because of more eligible girls being identified and higher vaccine uptake. We estimate that vaccine can be delivered at costs that would make HPV vaccination a very cost-effective intervention. Potentially, integrating HPV vaccine delivery with cost-effective school-based health interventions and a reduction of vaccine price below US$5 per dose would further reduce the costs per fully HPV-immunized girl.
Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to be effective against heterosexual acquisition of HIV infection and is being scaled up as an additional strategy against HIV in several countries of Africa. However, the policy environment (whether to formulate new specific policy on MC or adapts the existing ones); and the role of various stakeholders in the MC scale up process in Tanzania was unclear. We conducted this study as part of a situation analysis to understand the attitudes of policy makers and other key community and health authority decision makers towards MC, policy and regulatory environment, and the readiness of a health system to accommodate scaling up of MC services. Methods We conducted 36 key informants' interviews with a broad range of informants including civil servants, religious leaders, cultural and traditional gatekeepers and other potential informants. Study informants were selected at the national level, regional, district and community levels to represent both traditionally circumcising and non-circumcising communities. Results Study informants had positive attitudes and strong beliefs towards MC. Key informants in traditionally non-circumcising districts were willing to take their sons for medically performed MC. Religious leaders and traditional gatekeepers supported MC as it has been enshrined in their holy scripts and traditional customs respectively. Civil servants highlighted the need for existence of enabling policy and regulatory environment in the form of laws, regulations and guidelines that will ensure voluntary accessibility, acceptability, quality and safety for those in need of MC services. Majority of informants urged the government to make improvements in the health system at all levels to ensure availability of adequate trained personnel, infrastructure, equipment, and supplies for MC scale up, and insisted on the involvement of different MC stakeholders as key components in effective roll out of medically performed MC programme in the country. Conclusions Findings from the situation analysis in Tanzania have shown that despite the absence of a specific policy on MC, basic elements of enabling policy environment at national, regional, district and community levels are in place for the implementation of MC scale up programme.
Background Splenic injuries constitute a continuing diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the trauma or general surgeons practicing in developing countries where sophisticated imaging facilities are either not available or exorbitantly expensive. The purpose of this review was to describe our own experience in the management of the splenic injuries outlining the aetiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of splenic injuries in our local environment and to identify predictors of outcome among these patients. Methods A prospective descriptive study of splenic injury patients was carried out at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania between March 2009 and February 2011. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Results A total of 118 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 6.4:1. Their ages ranged from 8 to 74 years with a median age of 22 years. The modal age group was 21-30 years. The majority of patients (89.8%) had blunt trauma and road traffic accidents (63.6%) were the most frequent cause of injuries. Most patients sustained grade III (39.0%) and IV (38.1%) splenic injuries. Majority of patients (86.4%) were treated operatively with splenectomy (97.1%) being the most frequently performed procedure. Postoperative complications were recorded in 30.5% of cases. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 120 days with a median of 18 days. Mortality rate was 19.5%. Patients who had severe trauma (Kampala Trauma Score II ? 6) and those with associated injuries stayed longer in the hospital (P < 0.001), whereas age of the patient, associated injuries, trauma scores (KTS II), grade of splenic injuries, admission systolic blood pressure ? 90 mmHg, estimated blood loss > 2000 mls, HIV infection with CD4 ? 200 cells/?l and presence of postoperative complications were significantly associated with mortality (P < 0.001). Conclusion Trauma resulting from road traffic accidents (RTAs) remains the most common cause of splenic injuries in our setting. Most of the splenic injuries were Grade III & IV and splenectomy was performed in majority of the cases. Non-operative management can be adopted in patients with blunt isolated and low grade splenic injuries but operative management is still indispensable in this part of Tanzania. Urgent preventive measures targeting at reducing the occurrence of RTAs is necessary to reduce the incidence of splenic injuries in our centre.
Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…
Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly
Efficacy of pyrethroid-treated nets against malaria vectors and nuisance-biting mosquitoes in Tanzania in areas with long-term insecticide-treated net use: Pyrethroid-treated nets against malaria vectors and nuisance-biting mosquitoes
treatment. methods Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l., An. funestus Giles s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say were collected during three national surveys and two insecticide-treated net (ITN) studies in Tanzania. Knockdown effect and mortality were measured in standard WHO susceptibility tests and ball-frame bio-efficacy tests. Test results from 1999 to 2004 were compared to determine trends in resistance development. results Anopheles gambiae
Manisha A. Kulkarni; Robert Malima; Frank W. Mosha; Shandala Msangi; Ezra Mrema; Bilali Kabula; Boniface Lawrence; Safari Kinung’hi; John Swilla; William Kisinza; Manfred E. Rau; Jane E. Miller; Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg; Caroline Maxwell; Mark Rowland; Stephen Magesa; Chris Drakeley
Background Resting mosquitoes can easily be collected using an aspirating device. The most commonly used mechanical aspirator is the\\u000a CDC Backpack aspirator. Recently, a simple, and low-cost aspirator called the Prokopack has been devised and proved to have\\u000a comparable performance. The following study evaluates the Prokopack aspirator compared to the CDC backpack aspirator when\\u000a sampling resting mosquitoes in rural Tanzania.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Mosquitoes
Marta F Maia; Ailie Robinson; Alex John; Joseph Mgando; Emmanuel Simfukwe; Sarah J Moore
Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) represent the front-line tools for malaria vector control\\u000a globally, but are optimally effective where the majority of baseline transmission occurs indoors. In the surveyed area of\\u000a rural southern Tanzania, bed net use steadily increased over the last decade, reducing malaria transmission intensity by 94%.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Starting before bed nets were introduced (1997), and
Tanya L Russell; Nicodem J Govella; Salum Azizi; Christopher J Drakeley; S Patrick Kachur; Gerry F Killeen
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed. PMID:23307198
Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne
OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and consequences of a social marketing approach to malaria control in children by means of insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of the United Republic of Tanzania, compared with no net use. METHODS: Project cost data were collected prospectively from accounting records. Community effectiveness was estimated on the basis of a nested case-control study and a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. FINDINGS: The social marketing approach to the distribution of insecticide-treated nets was estimated to cost 1560 US dollars per death averted and 57 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted. These figures fell to 1018 US dollars and 37 US dollars, respectively, when the costs and consequences of untreated nets were taken into account. CONCLUSION: The social marketing of insecticide-treated nets is an attractive intervention for preventing childhood deaths from malaria.
Hanson, Kara; Kikumbih, Nassor; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Mponda, Haji; Nathan, Rose; Lake, Sally; Mills, Anne; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian
Background Diagnostic delay in patients with tuberculosis (TB) leads to ongoing TB transmission, higher mortality rates and increased patient and government health expenditure. Qualitative research focussed on patients’ self-perceptions of disease and their care-seeking behaviour helps to guide health education programmes by providing us with the understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices that underlie diagnostic delay. Patients and methods Semi-structured interviews with 28 recently diagnosed TB patients and four traditional healers were conducted. The interviews were audio-recorded and content analysis was performed. Results The median total delay was 188 days. The health provider delay (31 days) was longer than the patient delay (21 days) and the health system delay (26 days). The health system delay was longest in patients not being diagnosed at their first hospital visit and subsequently visiting other health care providers, mostly traditional healers. Conclusions A poor knowledge of TB signs and symptoms and patients’ beliefs about curses as the origin of diseases lead to delayed care-seeking at the hospital level in an area of North-Western Tanzania. Failure to identify TB cases by formal and non-formal health providers indicates that the education of both communities as well as health workers is essential in order to reduce diagnostic delays.
Kapinga, R.; van Rosmalen-Nooijens, K. A. W. L.
SUMMARY The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition. The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care seekers obtaining appropriate treatment. Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels.
GOODMAN, CATHERINE; KACHUR, S. PATRICK; ABDULLA, SALIM; BLOLAND, PETER; MILLS, ANNE
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 randomly selected farms in each of the Iringa and Tanga regions of Tanzania to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in dairy cows kept by smallholders. Subclinical mastitis was assessed using the California mastitis test (cmt), and by the bacteriological culture of 1500 milk samples collected from 434 clinically normal cows. The percentages of the cows (and quarters) with subclinical mastitis were 75.9 per cent (46.2 per cent) when assessed by the cmt and 43.8 per cent (24.3 per cent) when assessed by culture. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of a cmt-positive quarter were Boran breed (odds radio [or]=3.51), a brought-in cow (rather than homebred) (or=2.39), peak milk yield, and age. The stripping method of hand milking was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of cmt-positive quarters (or=0.51). The cmt-positive cows were more likely to be culture positive (or=4.51), as were brought-in (or=2.10) and older cows. PMID:18603630
Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Swai, E S; Bell, C; Bryant, M J; Ogden, N H; Kambarage, D M; French, N P
Background To design effective, tailored interventions to support antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, a thorough understanding of the barriers and facilitators of ART adherence is required. Factors at the individual and interpersonal level, ART treatment characteristics and health care factors have been proposed as important adherence determinants. Methods To identify the most relevant determinants of adherence in northern Tanzania, in-depth interviews were carried out with 61 treatment-experienced patients from four different clinics. The interviews were ad-verbatim transcribed and recurrent themes were coded. Results Coding results showed that the majority of patients had basic understanding of adherence, but also revealed misconceptions about taking medication after alcohol use. Adherence motivating beliefs were the perception of improved health and the desire to live like others, as well as the desire to be a good parent. A de-motivating belief was that stopping ART after being prayed for was an act of faith. Facilitators of adherence were support from friends and family, and assistance of home based care (HBC) providers. Important barriers to ART adherence were the use of alcohol, unavailability of food, stigma and disclosure concerns, and the clinics dispensing too few pills. Strategies recommended by the patients to improve adherence included better Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) services, recruitment of patients to become Home Based Care ( HBC) providers, and addressing the problem of stigma through education. Conclusion This study underscores the importance of designing tailored, patient-centered adherence interventions to address challenges at the patient, family, community and health care level.
Objective To explore the equity of utilization of inpatient health care at rural Tanzanian health centers through the use of a short wealth questionnaire. Methods Patients admitted to four rural health centers in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania from May 2008 to May 2009 were surveyed about their illness, asset ownership and demographics. Principal component analysis was used to compare the wealth of the inpatients to the wealth of the region's general population, using data from a previous population-based survey. Results Among inpatients, 15.3% were characterized as the most poor, 19.6% were characterized as very poor, 16.5% were characterized as poor, 18.9% were characterized as less poor, and 29.7% were characterized as the least poor. The wealth distribution of all inpatients (p < 0.0001), obstetric inpatients (p < 0.0001), other inpatients (p < 0.0001), and fee-exempt inpatients (p < 0.001) were significantly different than the wealth distribution in the community population, with poorer patients underrepresented among inpatients. The wealth distribution of pediatric inpatients (p = 0.2242) did not significantly differ from the population at large. Conclusion The findings indicated that while current Tanzanian health financing policies may have improved access to health care for children under five, additional policies are needed to further close the equity gap, especially for obstetric inpatients.
Aims Diabetes increases the risk of tuberculosis and the prevalence of diabetes is rising in tuberculosis-endemic regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. Resource-appropriate strategies for tuberculosis case finding among African adults with diabetes are needed. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence of tuberculosis and evaluate one screening strategy among adult Tanzanians with diabetes. Methods In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated a “cough-triggered” strategy for tuberculosis case finding among adults with diabetes at our zonal hospital in Tanzania. All adults with diabetes and cough underwent further tuberculosis symptom assessment and those with productive cough had sputum collected for microscopy and M. tuberculosis culture. Results Between September 2011 and March 2012, 700 adults with diabetes attended our hospital. A total of 693 were enrolled, 121/693 (17.5%) had cough and 32/693 (4.6%) had at least 2 of the classic symptoms of tuberculosis. Of note, 87/121 (71.9%) of patients with cough could not produce sputum spontaneously. Nine patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis for a prevalence of 1299/100,000 (1.3%), 7-fold greater than the national average. Conclusions Tuberculosis is common among Tanzanian adults with diabetes but tuberculosis case finding is challenging due to the high prevalence of non-productive cough. This low-cost, ‘cough-triggered’ tuberculosis case-finding strategy may serve as a reasonable first step for improving tuberculosis screening among adults with diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa.
Mtwangambate, G; Kalluvya, SE; Kidenya, BR; Kabangila, R; Downs, JA; Smart, LR; Fitzgerald, DW; Peck, RN
Objective The Helping Babies Breathe” (HBB) program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH) in rural Tanzania. Methods Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health. Findings Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY) averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide) 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated. Conclusion The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness.
Vossius, Corinna; Lotto, Editha; Lyanga, Sara; Mduma, Estomih; Msemo, Georgina; Perlman, Jeffrey; Ersdal, Hege L.
Introduction The aim of this study was to describe the extent of self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) recipients in Kagera region in Tanzania and their effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study was conducted 2 years after HAART administration was started in Kagera region. Methods The SF-36 questionnaire was used to collect the HRQOL data of 329 HAART recipients. Questions on the NCDs, socio-demographic characteristics and treatment information were validated and added to the SF-36. Bivariate analyses involving socio-demographic characteristics and SF-36 scores of the recipients were performed. Multiple logistic regression was employed to compute adjusted odds ratios for different explanatory variables on physical functioning and mental health scores. Results Respondents who reported having 1 or more NCDs were 57.8% of all the respondents. Arthritis was the commonest NCD (57.8%). Respondents with the NCDs were more likely to have HRQOL scores below the mean of the general Tanzanian population. The population attributable fraction (PAF) for the NCDs on physical functioning was 0.28 and on mental health was 0.22. Conclusion Self-reported NCDs were prevalent among the HAART recipients in Kagera region. They accounted for 28% of the physical functioning scores and 22% of the mental health scores that were below the mean of the general Tanzanian population. Therefore, the integration of NCD care is important in the management of HIV/AIDS.
Magafu, Mgaywa Gilbert Mjungu Damas; Moji, Kazuhiko; Igumbor, Ehimario Uche; Magafu, Naoko Shimizu; Mwandri, Michael; Mwita, Julius Chacha; Habte, Dereje; Rwegerera, Godfrey Mutashambara; Hashizume, Masahiro
Hypertension, congestive heart failure, and valvular heart disease are frequently seen among hospital inpatients in the United Republic of Tanzania. A population survey was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension and cardiac murmurs in a random sample of people aged 25-64 years living in an undeveloped rural area. Standard cardiovascular survey methods as recommended by WHO were used. Only mean systolic blood pressure in women increased with age; even so, the difference in mean levels between those aged 25-34 and 55-64 years was only about 1.6 kPa (12 mmHg). Hypertension was found to be uncommon, only 2% of subjects having blood pressures ? 21.3/ 12.7 kPa (? 160/95 mmHg). By means of multiple regression analysis, less than 10% of the variance in blood pressure levels could be explained by age and anthropometric measurements. Murmurs of grade 2 or more were detected in 17% of the men and 22% of the women, being most commonly heard at the apex (54%) and the left lower border of the sternum (31%). Mitral valve diastolic murmurs were heard in 4 of 275 women and these were asymptomatic. The cause of the high prevalence of systolic murmurs is unknown.
Vaughan, J. P.
Background: The WHO recommendation for parasitological diagnosis of malaria wherever possible is challenged by evidence of poor-quality microscopy in African hospitals but the reasons are not clear. Methods: All 12 of the busier district hospital laboratories from three regions of Tanzania were assessed for quality of the working environment and slide readers read 10 reference slides under exam conditions. Slides that had been routinely read were removed for expert reading. Results: Of 44 slide readers in the study, 39 (88.6%) correctly read >90% of the reference slides. Of 206 slides that had been routinely read, 33 (16%) were judged to be unreadable, 104 (51%) were readable with difficulty, and 69 (34%) were easily readable. Compared to expert reading of the same slide, the sensitivity of routine slide results of easily readable slides was 85.7% (95% confidence interval: 77.4–94.0), falling to 44.4% (95% confidence interval: 34.5–54.4) for slides that were ‘readable with difficulty’. Conclusions: The commonest cause of inaccurate results was the quality of the slide itself, correction of which is likely to be achievable within existing resources. A minority of slide readers were unable to read slides even under ideal conditions, suggesting the need for a ‘slide reading licence’ scheme.
Mbakilwa, Hilda; Manga, Chacha; Kibona, Stafford; Mtei, Frank; Meta, Judith; Shoo, Aikande; Amos, Ben; Reyburn, Hugh
Objectives. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) in rural western Tanzania, where only one third of women deliver children in a health facility, to evaluate health-system factors that influence women's delivery decisions. Methods. Women were shown choice cards that described 2 hypothetical health centers by means of 6 attributes (distance, cost, type of provider, attitude of provider, drugs and equipment, free transport). The women were then asked to indicate which of the 2 facilities they would prefer to use for a future delivery. We used a hierarchical Bayes procedure to estimate individual and mean utility parameters. Results. A total of 1203 women completed the DCE. The model showed good predictive validity for actual facility choice. The most important facility attributes were a respectful provider attitude and availability of drugs and medical equipment. Policy simulations suggested that if these attributes were improved at existing facilities, the proportion of women preferring facility delivery would rise from 43% to 88%. Conclusions. In regions in which attended delivery rates are low despite availability of primary care facilities, policy experiments should test the effect of targeted quality improvements on facility use.
Paczkowski, Magdalena; Mbaruku, Godfrey; de Pinho, Helen; Galea, Sandro
Background Injuries rank high among the leading causes of death and disability annually, injuring over 50 million and killing over 5 million people globally. Approximately 90% of these deaths occur in developing countries. Objectives To estimate and identify the risk factors for injury mortality in the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (RHDSS) in Tanzania. Methods Secondary data from the RHDSS covering the period 2002 and 2007 was examined. Verbal autopsy data was used to determine the causes of death based on the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Trend and Poisson regression tests were used to investigate the associations between risk factors and injury mortality. Results The overall crude injury death rate was 33.4/100?000 population. Injuries accounted for 4% of total deaths. Men were three times more likely to die from injuries compared with women (adjusted IRR (incidence risk ratios)=3.04, p=0.001, 95% CI (2.22 to 4.17)). The elderly (defined as 65+) were 2.8 times more likely to die from injuries compared with children under 15?years of age (adjusted IRR=2.83, p=0.048, 95% CI (1.01 to 7.93)). The highest frequency of deaths resulted from road traffic crashes. Conclusions Injury is becoming an important cause of mortality in the Rufiji district. Injury mortality varied by age and gender in this area. Most injuries are preventable, policy makers need to institute measures to address the issue.
Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi; Masanja, Honorati; Kellerman, Ronel; Owusu-Agyei, Seth
Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa remains high despite global efforts to reduce it. In order to lower maternal morbidity and mortality in the immediate term, reduction of delay in the provision of quality obstetric care is of prime importance. The aim of this study is to assess the occurrence of severe maternal morbidity and mortality in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania as proposed by the WHO near miss approach and to assess implementation levels of key evidence-based interventions in women experiencing severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed from November 2009 until November 2011 in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. All maternal near misses and maternal deaths were included. As not all WHO near miss criteria were applicable, a modification was used to identify cases. Data were collected from medical records using a structured data abstraction form. Descriptive frequencies were calculated for demographic and clinical variables, outcome indicators, underlying causes, and process indicators. Results In the two-year period there were 216 maternal near misses and 32 maternal deaths. The hospital-based maternal mortality ratio was 350 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (95% CI 243–488). The maternal near miss incidence ratio was 23.6 per 1,000 live births, with an overall case fatality rate of 12.9%. Oxytocin for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage was used in 96 of 201 women and oxytocin for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage was used in 38 of 66 women. Furthermore, eclampsia was treated with magnesium sulphate in 87% of all cases. Seventy-four women underwent caesarean section, of which 25 women did not receive prophylactic antibiotics. Twenty-eight of 30 women who were admitted with sepsis received parenteral antibiotics. The majority of the cases with uterine rupture (62%) occurred in the hospital. Conclusion Maternal morbidity and mortality remain challenging problems in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. Key evidence-based interventions are not implemented in women with severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Progress can be made through up scaling the use of evidence-based interventions, such as the use of oxytocin for prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage.
Background Development and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) constitutes a major threat to recent global malaria control achievements. Surveillance of molecular markers could act as an early warning system of ACT-resistance before clinical treatment failures are apparent. The aim of this study was to analyse temporal trends of established genotypes associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance before and after its deployment as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Tanzania 2006. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) N86Y, Y184F, D1246Y and P. falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) K76T were analysed from dried blood spots collected during six consecutive studies from children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Fukayosi village, Bagamoyo District, Tanzania, between 2004–2011. Results There was a statistically significant yearly increase of pfmdr1 N86, 184F, D1246 and pfcrt K76 between 2006–2011 from 14% to 61% (yearly OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.25-1.52] p < 0.0001), 14% to 35% (OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.07-1.30] p = 0.001), 54% to 85% (OR = 1.21 [95% CI 1.03-1.42] p = 0.016) and 49% to 85% (OR = 1.33 [95% CI 1.17-1.51] p < 0.0001), respectively. Unlike for the pfmdr1 SNP, a significant increase of pfcrt K76 was observed already between 2004–2006, from 26% to 49% (OR = 1.68 [95% CI 1.17-2.40] p = 0.005). From 2006 to 2011 the pfmdr1 NFD haplotype increased from 10% to 37% (OR = 1.25 [95% CI 1.12-1.39] p < 0.0001), whereas the YYY haplotype decreased from 31% to 6% (OR = 0.73 [95% CI 0.56-0.98] p = 0.018). All 390 successfully analysed samples had one copy of the pfmdr1 gene. Conclusion The temporal selection of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance may represent an early warning sign of impaired future drug efficacy. This calls for stringent surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine efficacy in Tanzania and emphasizes the importance of molecular surveillance as a complement to standard in vivo trials.
Background In 2006, researchers and decision-makers launched a five-year project - Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) - to improve planning and priority-setting through implementing the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in Mbarali District, Tanzania. The objective of this paper is to explore the acceptability of Accountability for Reasonableness from the perspectives of the Council Health Management Team, local government officials, health workforce and members of user boards and committees. Methods Individual interviews were carried out with different categories of actors and stakeholders in the district. The interview guide consisted of a series of questions, asking respondents to describe their perceptions regarding each condition of the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in terms of priority setting. Interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Documentary data were used to support, verify and highlight the key issues that emerged. Results Almost all stakeholders viewed Accountability for Reasonableness as an important and feasible approach for improving priority-setting and health service delivery in their context. However, a few aspects of Accountability for Reasonableness were seen as too difficult to implement given the socio-political conditions and traditions in Tanzania. Respondents mentioned: budget ceilings and guidelines, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, as well as the limited capacity of the district to generate local resources as the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation of the framework in their context. Conclusion This study was one of the first assessments of the applicability of Accountability for Reasonableness in health care priority-setting in Tanzania. The analysis, overall, suggests that the Accountability for Reasonableness framework could be an important tool for improving priority-setting processes in the contexts of resource-poor settings. However, the full implementation of Accountability for Reasonableness would require a proper capacity-building plan, involving all relevant stakeholders, particularly members of the community since public accountability is the ultimate aim, and it is the community that will live with the consequences of priority-setting decisions.
Background In 1995, Tanzania introduced the voluntary Community Health Fund (CHF) with the aim of ensuring universal health coverage by increasing financial investment in the health sector. The uptake of the CHF is low, with an enrolment of only 6% compared to the national target of 75%. Mandatory models of community health financing have been suggested to increase enrolment and financial capacity. This study explores communities’ views on the introduction of a mandatory model, the Compulsory Community Health Fund (CCHF) in the Liwale district of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study which involved 387 participants in a structured face to face survey and 33 in qualitative interviews (26 in focus group discussions (FGD) and 7 in in-depth interviews (IDI). Structured survey data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 to produce descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results 387 people completed a survey (58% males), mean age 38 years. Most participants (347, 89.7%) were poor subsistence farmers and 229 (59.2%) had never subscribed to any form of health insurance scheme. The idea of a CCHF was accepted by 221 (57%) survey participants. Reasons for accepting the CCHF included: reduced out of pocket expenditure, improved quality of health care and the removal of stigma for those who receive waivers at health care delivery points. The major reason for not accepting the CCHF was the poor quality of health care services currently offered. Participants suggested that enrolment to the CCHF be done after harvesting when the population were more likely to have disposable income, and that the quality care of care and benefits package be improved. Conclusions The CHF is acceptable to the most of study participants and feasible in rural Tanzania as an alternative mechanism to finance health care for the rural poor. Community members are willing to join the scheme provided they are well informed, involved in the design and implementation, and assured quality health care. Strong political will and a supportive environment are key ingredients for the success of the CCHF.
Background The ACCESS programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. Between 2004 and 2008 the programme implemented a social marketing campaign for improved treatment-seeking. To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO) was created in Tanzania in 2006. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) in 2007 and subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on understanding and treatment of malaria was studied in rural Tanzania. The data also enabled an investigation of the determinants of access to treatment. Methods Three treatment-seeking surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006 and 2008 in the rural areas of the Ifakara demographic surveillance system (DSS) and in Ifakara town. Each survey included approximately 150 people who had suffered a fever case in the previous 14 days. Results Treatment-seeking and awareness of malaria was already high at baseline, but various improvements were seen between 2004 and 2008, namely: better understanding causes of malaria (from 62% to 84%); an increase in health facility attendance as first treatment option for patients older than five years (27% to 52%); higher treatment coverage with anti-malarials (86% to 96%) and more timely use of anti-malarials (80% to 93-97% treatments taken within 24 hrs). Unfortunately, the change of treatment policy led to a low availability of ALu in the private sector and, therefore, to a drop in the proportion of patients taking a recommended malaria treatment (85% to 53%). The availability of outlets (health facilities or drug shops) is the most important determinant of whether patients receive prompt and effective treatment, whereas affordability and accessibility contribute to a lesser extent. Conclusions An integrated approach aimed at improving understanding and treatment of malaria has led to tangible improvements in terms of people's actions for the treatment of malaria. However, progress was hindered by the low availability of the first-line treatment after the switch to ACT.
Background The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. Objectives To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania. Methods Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology. Findings FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women's use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and 3) service providers' application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. Conclusion A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of selected public health services, including IPTp, are urgently needed measures for increasing equity in health services in Tanzania.
Background There is growing evidence that patients frequently bypass primary health care (PHC) facilities in favour of higher level hospitals regardless of substantial additional time and costs. Among the reasons given for bypassing are poor services (including lack of drugs and diagnostic facilities) and lack of trust in health workers. The World Health Report 2008 “PHC now more than ever” pointed to the importance of organizing health services around people’s needs and expectations as one of the four main issues of PHC reforms. There is limited documentation of user’s expectations to services offered at PHC facilities. The current study is a community extension of a hospital-based survey that showed a high bypassing frequency of PHC facilities among caretakers seeking care for their underfive children at two district hospitals. We aimed to explore caretakers’ perceptions and expectations to services offered at PHC facilities in their area with reference to their experiences seeking care at such facilities. Methods We conducted four community-based focus group discussions (FGD’s) with 47 caretakers of underfive children in Muheza district of Tanga region, Tanzania in October 2009. Results Lack of clinical examinations and laboratory tests, combined with shortage of drugs and health workers, were common experiences. Across all the focus group discussions, unpleasant health workers’ behaviors, lack of urgency and unnecessary delays were major complaints. In some places, unauthorized fees reduced access to services. Conclusion The study revealed significant disappointments among caretakers with regard to the quality of services offered at PHC facilities in their areas, with implications for their utilization and proper functioning of the referral system. Practices regarding partial drugs administrations, skipping of injections, unofficial payments and consultations by unskilled health care providers need urgent action. There is also a need for proper accountability mechanisms to govern appropriate allocation and monitoring of health care resources and services in Tanzania.
Introduction Although malaria has been the leading cause of fever for many years, with improved control regimes malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality have decreased. Recent studies have increasingly demonstrated the importance of non-malaria fevers, which have significantly improved our understanding of etiologies of febrile illnesses. A number of non-malaria febrile illnesses including Rift Valley Fever, dengue fever, Chikungunya virus infection, leptospirosis, tick-borne relapsing fever and Q-fever have been reported in Tanzania. This study aimed at assessing the awareness of communities and practices of health workers on non-malaria febrile illnesses. Methods Twelve focus group discussions with members of communities and 14 in-depth interviews with health workers were conducted in Kilosa district, Tanzania. Transcripts were coded into different groups using MaxQDA software and analyzed through thematic content analysis. Results The study revealed that the awareness of the study participants on non-malaria febrile illnesses was low and many community members believed that most instances of fever are due to malaria. In addition, the majority had inappropriate beliefs about the possible causes of fever. In most cases, non-malaria febrile illnesses were considered following a negative Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) result or persistent fevers after completion of anti-malaria dosage. Therefore, in the absence of mRDTs, there is over diagnosis of malaria and under diagnosis of non-malaria illnesses. Shortages of diagnostic facilities for febrile illnesses including mRDTs were repeatedly reported as a major barrier to proper diagnosis and treatment of febrile patients. Conclusion Our results emphasize the need for creating community awareness on other causes of fever apart from malaria. Based on our study, appropriate treatment of febrile patients will require inputs geared towards strengthening of diagnostic facilities, drugs availability and optimal staffing of health facilities.
Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Mayumana, Iddy; Amuri, Mbaraka; Makungu, Christina; Gwakisa, Paul S.
Background Of global concern is the decline in under five children mortality which has reversed in some countries in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) since the early 1990 s which could be due to disparities in access to preventive services including immunization. This paper is aimed at determining the trend in disparities in completion of immunization using Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Methods DHS studies randomly selected representative households from all regions in Tanzania since 1980 s, is repeated every five years in the same enumeration areas. The last three data sets (1990, 1996 and 2004) were downloaded and analyzed using STATA 9.0. The analysis included all children of between 12-23 months who would have completed all vaccinations required at 12 months. Results Across the time periods 1990, 1996 to 2004/05 the percentage of children completing vaccination was similar (71.0% in 1990, 72.7% in 1996 and 72.3% in 2005). There was no disparity in completion of immunization with wealth strata in 1990 and 1996 (p > 0.05) but not 2004. In 2004/05 there was marked disparity as most poor experienced significant decline in immunization completion while the least poor had significant increase (p < 0.001). All three periods children from households whose head had low education were less likely to complete immunization (p < 0.01). Conclusion Equity that existed in 1990 and more pronounced in 1996 regressed to inequity in 2005, thus though at national level immunization coverage did not change, but at sub-group there was significant disparity associated with the changing contexts and reforms. To address sub-group disparities in immunization it is recommended to adopt strategies focused at governance and health system to reach all population groups and most poor.
Background To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. Methods In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007 2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. Results There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. Conclusion The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria.
Background Lack of rapid and reliable susceptibility testing for second-line drugs used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) may limit treatment success. Methods Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients referred to Kibong’oto National TB Hospital in Tanzania for second-line TB treatment underwent confirmatory speciation and susceptibility testing. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing on MYCOTB Sensititre plates was performed for all drugs available in the second-line formulary. We chose to categorize isolates as borderline susceptible if the MIC was at or one dilution lower than the resistance breakpoint. M. tuberculosis DNA was sequenced for resistance mutations in rpoB (rifampin), inhA (isoniazid, ethionamide), katG (isoniazid), embB (ethambutol), gyrA (fluoroquinolones), rrs (amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin), eis (kanamycin) and pncA (pyrazinamide). Results Of 22 isolates from patients referred for second-line TB treatment, 13 (59%) were MDR-TB and the remainder had other resistance patterns. MIC testing identified 3 (14%) isolates resistant to ethionamide and another 8 (36%) with borderline susceptibility. No isolate had ofloxacin resistance, but 10 (45%) were borderline susceptible. Amikacin was fully susceptible in 15 (68%) compared to only 11 (50%) for kanamycin. Resistance mutations were absent in gyrA, rrs or eis for all 13 isolates available for sequencing, but pncA mutation resultant in amino acid change or stop codon was present in 6 (46%). Ten (77%) of MDR-TB patients had at least one medication that could have logically been modified based on these results (median 2; maximum 4). The most common modifications were a change from ethioniamide to para-aminosalicylic acid, and the use of higher dose levofloxacin. Conclusions In Tanzania, quantitative second-line susceptibility testing could inform and alter MDR-TB management independent of drug-resistance mutations. Further operational studies are warranted.
Background Increased understanding of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 is challenging but important in the development of an effective vaccine. We aimed to describe the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in northern Tanzania among women enrolled in studies preparing for HIV-1 prevention trials (hospitality facility-worker cohorts), and among men and women in an open cohort demographic surveillance system (Kisesa cohort). Methods The polymerase encompassing partial reverse transcriptase was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed and subtype determined. Questionnaires documented demographic data. We examined factors associated with subtype using multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for study, age, and sex. Results Among 140 individuals (125 women and 15 men), subtype A1 predominated (54, 39%), followed by C (46, 33%), D (25, 18%) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) (15, 11%). There was weak evidence to suggest different subtype frequencies by study (for example, 18% URFs in the Kisesa cohort versus 5–9% in the hospitality facility-worker cohorts; adjusted relative-risk ratio (aRR)?=?2.35 [95% CI 0.59,9.32]; global p?=?0.09). Compared to men, women were less likely to have subtype D versus A (aRR?=?0.12 [95% CI 0.02,0.76]; global p?=?0.05). There was a trend to suggest lower relative risk of subtype D compared to A with older age (aRR?=?0.44 [95% CI 0.23,0.85] per 10 years; global p?=?0.05). Conclusions We observed multiple subtypes, confirming the complex genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in northern Tanzania, and found some differences between cohorts and by age and sex. This has important implications for vaccine design and development, providing opportunity to determine vaccine efficacy in diverse HIV-1 strains.
Njai, Harr F.; Ewings, Fiona M.; Lyimo, Eric; Foulongne, Vincent; Ngerageza, Dhamira; Mongi, Aika; Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Andreasen, Aura; Nyombi, Balthazar; Ao, Tony; Michael, Denna; Urassa, Mark; Todd, Jim; Zaba, Basia; Changalucha, John; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi H.
The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) varies worldwide from 7 to 450 per 100,000, and appears low in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) but few data exist. We conducted a prevalence study of PD in rural Tanzania. A door-to-door study was conducted in the Hai district project area (population 161,071), using a screening questionnaire followed by structured history and examination of positive responders. Diagnosis was based on the UK PD Society Brain Bank Criteria. 33 (23 men) cases of PD were detected, with mean age 74 years (range 38-94). One patient died before the prevalence date. 78% were previously undiagnosed and untreated. Mean duration of symptoms was 5 years, and median Hoehn and Yahr stage 3. Crude prevalence rates were 30/100,000 (men), 11/100,000 (women) and 20/100,000 (combined). The direct age-standardized prevalence rates compared with the UK population were 64/100,000 (men), 20/100,000 (women) and 40/100,000 (combined). These rates are higher than previously reported from SSA, but still lower than the developed world. Many PD patients in SSA may never be diagnosed or treated, with consequent reduction in their life expectancy and quality of life. With the world population ageing PD is predicted to become an increasing problem. PMID:18581482
Dotchin, Catherine; Msuya, Olivia; Kissima, John; Massawe, John; Mhina, Ali; Moshy, Addess; Aris, Eric; Jusabani, Ahmed; Whiting, David; Masuki, Gabriel; Walker, Richard
We derived the characteristic drainage timescale (K) from river discharge records across the Kilombero Valley in central Tanzania to explore seasonal variability and spatiotemporal patterns in dominant hydrologic processes. This was done using streamflow recession analysis to isolate storage-discharge relationships drawing from hydraulic groundwater theory. Such an approach may be advantageous in this and other data limited environments as it allows utilization of streamflow records with large time gaps and limited consistency. The observed K values during the wet season and for the relatively smaller catchments draining upland positions are consistent with those expected from hydraulic groundwater theory (e.g., K = 45 × 15 days). In the dry season, however, the timescales estimated for these catchments are larger than expected from hydraulic groundwater theory. Further, larger catchments draining part of the valley bottom, which is dominated by wetlands, never exhibited K values consistent with those expected from hydraulic groundwater theory. These hydrometric results are consistent with initial hydrologic tracer investigations with implications for the transit times of water moving through this upland-wetland seasonally-connected region and resultant regional groundwater recharge. Identifying these spatiotemporal shifts (i.e., isolating when general hydraulic groundwater theory may not be valid) facilitates process representation relevant for improved hydrologic modeling and water resources management in regions like Kilombero Valley.
Lyon, S. W.; Koutsouris, A.
Following earlier observations on the snout (SR) and palmomental(PMR) reflexes in AIDS in Tanzania, a series of 1127 adults, 649 HIV-positive and 478 HIV-negative, from 4 groups at different risk of HIV infection were examined neurologically between 1987 and 1992. The prevalence of SR and PMR was calculated according to HIV status, HIV stage, demographic factors and neurologic findings. In the total series of HIV positives the prevalence ranged from SR 39.3% and PMR 22.6% in asymptomatic HIV disease to SR 87% and PMR 69% in terminal AIDS. In HIV negatives the prevalence of SR was 19.2% and PMR 15.3%, and increased with age. There was no relationship with age in the HIV positives and no gender differences. SR and PMR were also associated with neuropathy, myelopathy and AIDS dementia complex independent of HIV stage. This study shows a strong association between SR and PMR and HIV disease in Africa. The prevalence increased with HIV stage and related neurological disorders. PMID:7572042
Howlett, W P; Nkya, W M; Kvále, G; Nilssen, S
The extinct Quaternary Kerimasi volcano located in the southern part of the Gregory Rift, northern Tanzania, contains both intrusive and extrusive calciocarbonatites. One carbonate mineral with a high content of Na and Ca has been found in a sample of volcanic carbonatite, which is probably a cumulate rock. On the basis of Raman spectroscopy and SEM/EDS, this mineral was identified as nyerereite, ideally Na2Ca(CO3)2. It occurs as solid inclusions up to 300 × 200 ?m in size in magnetite and contains (wt. %) 25.4-27.4 Na2O, 26.0-26.8 CaO, 1.6-1.9 K2O, 0.6-1.8 FeO, 0.3-0.6 SrO, <0.4 BaO, 1.4-2.3 SO3, and 0.6-0.9 P2O5. The average mineral formula is (Na1.84K0.08)?1.92(Ca1.00Fe0.03Sr0.01)?1.04[(CO3)1.91(SO4)0.05(PO4)0.02]?1.98. A few inclusions in magnetite also contain calcite, which is considered here to be a late-stage, subsolidus mineral. The occurrence of nyerereite in carbonatite supports Hay's (1983) idea that some of the extrusive carbonatites at the Kerimasi volcano were originally alkaline rich and contained both calcite and nyerereite as primary minerals.
Zaitsev, A. N.
Pollen, spore, macrofossil and stable isotope (C and N) analyses from a 266-cm sediment core collected from a swamp on the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, are used to reconstruct vegetation and environmental history. An estimated time scale based on five 14C ages records approximately 38,000 yr. This palaeorecord is the first from this biodiversity hotspot and importantly extends through the last glacial maximum (LGM). The altitudinal transition from montane to upper montane forest shifted from 1700-1800 m (38,000 14C yr BP) to 1800-1900 m (35,000-29,000 14C yr BP). From 29,000 to 10,000 14C yr BP, it shifted from 1850-1950 m across the LGM to 1750-1800 m (during 10,000-3500 14C yr BP), and to present-day elevations at 2000 m during the last 3500 14C yr BP. The relative ecosystem stability across the LGM may be explained by the Indian Ocean's influence in maintaining continuous moist forest cover during a period of East African regional climate aridity. During the late Holocene, presence of abundant coprophilous fungi and algal blooms demonstrates increasing human impact. Neurospora spores indicate frequent fires, coinciding with clear signals of decline in Podocarpus and Psychotria trees that possibly represent selective logging.
Mumbi, C. T.; Marchant, R.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Wooller, M. J.
Coccidial oocysts were detected in 35% of 445 cattle in four medium-scale and 20 small-scale dairy farms in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. The highest prevalence (56%) was observed in animals aged between 5 and 18 months, whereas lower prevalences were observed in calves (29%) aged between 12 days and 4 months and adults (30%). No coccidial oocysts were detected in calves less than 12 days old. The oocyst output was high in calves, followed by weaners; adults had the lowest oocyst output. The number of oocysts per gram of faeces was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in diarrhoeic animals than in non-diarrhoeic animals, and more so in young calves. Eimeria species infecting the animals included Eimeria bovis (68%) and Eimeria zuernii (57%), Eimeria ellipsoidalis (25%), Eimeria cylindrica (23%), Eimeria auburnensis (22%), Eimeria alabamensis (12%) and Eimeria subspherica (5%). Mixed infections involving two or three species were common. Our findings indicate that eimeriosis is common in cattle in Morogoro municipality. PMID:9234443
Chibunda, R T; Muhairwa, A P; Kambarage, D M; Mtambo, M M; Kusiluka, L J; Kazwala, R R
Adolescent pregnancy places girls at increased risk for poor health and educational outcomes that limit livelihood options, economic independence, and empowerment in adulthood. In Tanzania, adolescent pregnancy remains a significant concern, with over half of all first births occurring before women reach the age of 20. A participatory research and action project (Vitu Newala) conducted formative research in a rural district on the dynamics of sexual risk and agency among 82 girls aged 12-17. Four major risk factors undermined girls' ability to protect their own health and well-being: poverty that pushed them into having sex to meet basic needs, sexual expectations on the part of older men and boys their age, rape and coercive sex (including sexual abuse from an early age), and unintended pregnancy. Transactional sex with older men was one of the few available sources of income that allowed adolescent girls to meet their basic needs, making this a common choice for many girls, even though it increased the risk of unintended (early) pregnancy. Yet parents and adult community members blamed the girls alone for putting themselves at risk. These findings were used to inform a pilot project aimed to engage and empower adolescent girls and boys as agents of change to influence powerful gender norms that perpetuate girls' risk. PMID:23684192
McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Douglas, Zayid; Rwehumbiza, Annagrace; Hamisi, Aziza; Mabala, Richard
The challenge of violence for youth in low-income countries includes a range of experiences from witnessing to experiencing to participating in violence. Although boys and young men are often the perpetrators of such violence, they may also be its victims. Yet little evidence exists from the voiced experiences of boys themselves on perceptions and interpretations of the violence around them. Given the numerous negative health implications of violence for boys, for the girls and other boys with whom they interact, and for the health of their future partners and families, we conducted an in-depth study in rural and urban Tanzania with adolescent boys on the masculinity norms shaping their transitions through puberty that might be contributing to high-risk behaviours, including engagement in violence. The findings identified underlying societal gendered norms influencing the enactment of violence, and recommendations from the boys on how to diminish the violence around them. Additional research is needed with boys on the social norms and structural factors influencing their engagement in violence.
Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia
Background Efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission through treatment rely on HIV testing programs that are acceptable to broad populations. Yet, testing preferences among diverse at-risk populations in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) to evaluate factors that influence HIV-testing preferences in a low-resource setting. Methods Using formative work, a pilot study, and pretesting, we developed a DCE survey with five attributes: distance to testing, confidentiality, testing days (weekday vs. weekend), method for obtaining the sample for testing (blood from finger or arm, oral swab), and availability of HIV medications at the testing site. Cluster-randomization and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) sampling methodology were used to enroll 486 community members, ages 18–49, in an urban setting in Northern Tanzania. Interviewer-assisted DCEs, presented to participants on iPads, were administered between September 2012 and February 2013. Results Nearly three of five males (58%) and 85% of females had previously tested for HIV; 20% of males and 37% of females had tested within the past year. In gender-specific mixed logit analyses, distance to testing was the most important attribute to respondents, followed by confidentiality and the method for obtaining the sample for the HIV test. Both unconditional assessments of preferences for each attribute and mixed logit analyses of DCE choice patterns suggest significant preference heterogeneity among participants. Preferences differed between males and females, between those who had previously tested for HIV and those who had never tested, and between those who tested in the past year and those who tested more than a year ago. Conclusion The findings suggest potentially significant benefits from tailoring HIV testing interventions to match the preferences of specific populations, including males and females and those who have never tested for HIV.
Ostermann, Jan; Njau, Bernard; Brown, Derek S.; Muhlbacher, Axel; Thielman, Nathan
Background In 2006, the first-line anti-malarial drug treatment in Tanzania was changed from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu), an artemisinin-based combination (ACT), since when the use of SP has been restricted for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). A number of Plasmodium falciparum mutations are known to be associated with resistance to SP, but it is not known if the prevalence of these mutations is increasing or decreasing under the conditions of reduced levels of SP use. This study reports on the current SP resistant quintuple Pfdhfr-Pfdhps mutations in six regions of Tanzania. Methods Finger-prick blood on filter paper and rapid diagnostic test strips from P. falciparum-positive individuals of all age groups attending health facilities in six regions of Tanzania between June 2010 and August 2011 were obtained. Using chelex-100 extracted DNA, genotyping was done for mutations on codons 51, 59 and 108 of Pfdhfr and 437 and 540 of Pfdhps genes using PCR-RFLP technique. Results A total of 802 malaria-positive samples were screened and genotyped. The prevalence of Pfdhfr 51I, Pfdhps 437G and 540E varied between the regions (p?0.001) whereas Pfdhfr 59R (FE 10.79, p?=?0.225) and 108 N (FE 10.61, p?=?0.239) did not vary between the regions. The Pfdhfr triple mutant was above 84% and close to fixation levels in all regions, whereas the Pfdhps double mutation ranged from 43.8 to 97% between the regions. The quintuple mutant (IRNGE) was the most prevalent in all regions and it varied significantly from 37.5 to 90.2% (?2?=?1.11, p <0.001). Conclusions There is evidence of persistent high levels of SP resistance markers in Tanzania with evidence of quintuple mutations that are likely to become fixed in the population. This threatens the future of SP not only in IPTp programmes, but as a combination drug for ACT. Continuous monitoring of SP-IPTp efficacy should be encouraged subsequent to searching for alternative drugs for IPTp in East Africa.
Background After a national voucher scheme in 2004 provided pregnant women and infants with highly subsidized insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), use among children under five years (U5s) in mainland Tanzania increased from 16% in 2004 to 26.2% in 2007. In 2008, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare planned a catch-up campaign to rapidly and equitably deliver a free long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) to every child under five years in Tanzania. Methods The ITN Cell, a unit within the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP), coordinated the campaign on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. Government contractors trained and facilitated local government officials to supervise village-level volunteers on a registration of all U5s and the distribution and issuing of LLINs. The registration results formed the basis for the LLIN order and delivery to village level. Caregivers brought their registration coupons to village issuing posts during a three-day period where they received LLINs for their U5s. Household surveys in five districts assessed ITN ownership and use immediately after the campaign. Results Nine donors contributed to the national campaign that purchased and distributed 9.0 million LLINs at an average cost of $7.07 per LLIN, including all campaign-associated activities. The campaign covered all eight zones of mainland Tanzania, the first region being covered separately during an integrated measles immunization/malaria LLIN distribution in August 2008, and was implemented one zone at a time from March 2009 until May 2010. ITN ownership at household level increased from Tanzania's 2008 national average of 45.7% to 63.4%, with significant regional variations. ITN use among U5s increased from 28.8% to 64.1%, a 2.2-fold increase, with increases ranging from 22.1-38.3% percentage points in different regions. Conclusion A national-level LLIN distribution strategy that fully engaged local government authorities helped avoid additional burden on the healthcare system. Distribution costs per net were comparable to other public health interventions. Particularly among rural residents, ITN ownership and use increased significantly for the intended beneficiaries. The upcoming universal LLIN distribution and further behaviour change communication will further improve ITN ownership and use in 2010-2011.
Background Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with optimal doses (two+) of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) protects pregnant women from malaria-related adverse outcomes. This study assesses the extent and predictors of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP in six districts of Tanzania. Methods The data come from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in six districts in Tanzania in 2012. A total of 1,267 women, with children aged less than two years and who had sought antenatal care (ANC) at least once during pregnancy, were selected for the current analysis. Data analysis involved the use of Chi-Square (?2) for associations and multivariate analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Results Overall, 43.6% and 28.5% of the women received optimal (two+) and partial (one) doses of IPTp-SP respectively during pregnancy. Having had been counseled on the dangers of malaria during pregnancy was the most pervasive determinant of both optimal (RRR?=?6.47, 95% CI 4.66-8.97) and partial (RRR?=?4.24, 95% CI 3.00-6.00) uptake of IPTp-SP doses. Early ANC initiation was associated with a higher likelihood of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP (RRR?=?2.05, 95% CI 1.18-3.57). Also, women with secondary or higher education were almost twice as likely as those who had never been to school to have received optimal SP doses during pregnancy (RRR?=?1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.56). Being married was associated with a 60% decline in the partial uptake of IPTp-SP (RRR?=?0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). Inter-district variations in the uptake of both optimal and partial IPTp-SP doses existed (P?0.05). Conclusion Counseling to pregnant women on the dangers of malaria in pregnancy and formal education beyond primary school is important to enhance uptake of optimal doses of SP for malaria control in pregnancy in Tanzania. ANC initiation in the first trimester should be promoted to enhance coverage of optimal doses of IPTp-SP. Programmes should aim to curb geographical barriers due to place of residence to enhance optimal coverage of IPTp-SP in Tanzania.
Background The relationship between the environment and infection of cattle with trematodes was studied at Arumeru District, Arusha Region, northern Tanzania. Randomly selected villages were grouped into three cattle management strata, (i) zero-grazing (ZZ) (ii) communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) and (iii) communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI). Methods Faecal samples were collected from 241 cattle, and processed using the Flukefinder® method. Snail intermediate hosts were collected with a snail scoop from the water bodies in the study villages and identified morphologically. Results The overall prevalence of F. gigantica, paramphistomes and S. bovis were 33%, 37% and 2% respectively. Prevalence for F. gigantica, paramphistomes, and S. bovis for each stratum were, zero-grazing (ZZ) (29.7%, 36.0% and 0%), communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) (6.3%, 15.0% and 3.8%) and communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI) (57.7%, 56.7% and 1.0%) respectively. The differences between strata were significant for F. gigantica (p < 0.001) and paramphistomes (p < 0.05) but not for S. bovis. Irrigation could account for the high prevalence of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZCI stratum as compared to the ZZ and ZC strata. The higher prevalences of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZZ stratum compared with the ZC stratum were unexpected and attributed to the practice of farmers in some ZZ stratum villages buying fodder for their cattle obtained from pastures in ZCI villages. Conclusion Trematode infections in cattle are prevalent in Arumeru District. Fasciola gigantica and paramphistomes are associated with grazing in areas with irrigation of crops. Zero-grazing of cattle does not necessarily prevent the risk of infection.
Background For many years social economic status has been used as an indicator to characterize malaria treatment seeking behaviors of communities and their adherence to malaria control programs. The present study was therefore conducted to assess the influence of household social economic status, knowledge, attitude and practice on treatment seeking behaviors, distance to health facilities and vector control measures in the Lower Moshi area, northern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out, a quantitative method was used to collect information from the households, and the household socio-economic status was estimated by employing a household asset-based approach. The structured questionnaire also collected information on malaria knowledge, attitudes and treatment seeking behaviors. Results A total of 197 (68.8% were female) household heads were interviewed. Distance to the health centers influenced malaria treatment seeking behaviors especially for children (P?=?0.001) and the number of visits to the health facilities made by the household members (P?=?0.001). The head of the households' level of education had an influence on bed-net retreatment (P?0.001) and acceptability of larval control programmes (P <0.001). Similarly, a significant association was observed between bed-net retreatment, larval control and occupation of the head of the household . Conclusion Distance to the health centre influenced malaria treatment seeking behaviors, and the number of visits made by the household members. In addition, the education level of the household heads played a role in understanding and in the selection of malaria interventions for the households. Increasing the number of health facilities close to rural areas will improve malaria treatment seeking behavior, case management and hence reduce malaria-associated morbidities, especially in high risk groups.
Objective To examine the prevalence of key WHO breastfeeding indicators and identify determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding practices among children aged less than 24?months in Tanzania. Design, setting and participants Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. The survey used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of 10?312 households from eight geographical zones of Tanzania. The sample consisted of 3112 children aged 0–23?months. Main outcome measures Outcome measures were factors significantly associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding in the first 6?months. Results Breastfeeding was initiated within the first hour of birth in 46.1% of mothers. In infants aged less than 6?months, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 49.9% but only 22.9% were exclusively breastfed at 4–5?months. Seventeen per cent of infants, less than 6?months of age, were ‘predominantly breastfed’. At 12–15?months, 94.0% of infants were still breastfed but the proportion decreased to 51.1% at 20–23?months of age. Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of delayed initiation of breastfeeding within 1?h after birth was significantly higher among young mothers aged <24?years, uneducated and employed mothers from rural areas who delivered by caesarean section and those who delivered at home and were assisted by traditional birth attendants or relatives. The risk factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding, during the first 6?months, were lack of professional assistance at birth and residence in urban areas. The risk of predominant breastfeeding was significantly higher among infants from the Zanzibar geographical zone. Conclusions Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding indicators were unsatisfactory and are below the national targets for Tanzania. To improve breastfeeding practices, national level programmes will be required, but with a focus on the target groups with suboptimal breastfeeding practices.
Victor, Rose; Baines, Surinder K; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J
Summary In this paper, remotely sensed (RS) satellite sensor environmental data, using logistic regression, are used to develop prediction maps of the probability of having infection prevalence exceeding 50%, and warranting mass treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The model was developed using data from one area of coastal Tanzania and validated with independent data from different areas
Simon Brooker; Simon I. Hay; Wahab Issae; Andrew Hall; Charles M. Kihamia; Nicholas J. S. Lwambo; William Wint; David J. Rogers; Don A. P. Bundy
Tanzania, like many other African countries, has experienced a rapid expansion of its secondary education sector. This has resulted in large numbers of secondary school graduates struggling to build a future through continuing education or finding employment.1 Students are faced with the difficult task of assessing their opportunities in the face…
This paper addresses information extraction from IKONOS imagery over the Lukole refugee camp in Tanzania. More specific, it describes automatic image analysis procedures for a rapid and reliable identification of refugee tents as well as their spatial extent. From the identified tents, the number of refugees can be derived and a map of the camp can be generated, which can
S. Giada; T. de Groeve; D. Ehrlich; P. Soille
This paper is based on primary fieldwork conducted in Lugufu refugee camp in the rural Kigoma Region of western Tanzania. It is an anthropological inquiry into the paradox of refugee food aid based on the prevailing dynamic of domination and submission currently advanced by the international aid community. This inquiry asks fundamental questions…
A questionnaire survey was conducted among 72 randomly selected households in Bukoba district, Tanzania from August to November 1991. The objective of the study was to identify the major constraints to increased productivity in homegardens and farmers response to these constraints. Declining of homegarden productivity seems to have been influenced by the gradual decline of soil fertility mainly as a
G. H. Rugalema; F. H. Johnsen; J. Rugambisa
This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…
Nalkur, Priya G.
In this paper we discuss to what extent the international and national equality goals regarding gender balance and inclusive education have been reached in the education sector development in Tanzania. According to recent reports, the development trend has been generally positive, and the country is close to achieving its primary education…
Okkolin, Mari-Anne; Lehtomaki, Elina; Bhalalusesa, Eustella
Small ruminants represent an important role in the pastoral life of the Maasai people of northern Tanzania. Although the Maasai culture centers on cattle, East African goats and Fat-tailed sheep are the predominant livestock in this area and are extensive...
M. W. Lehman
A Solow-style model is developed to study the effects of the AIDS epidemic on the growth path of the economy and GDP per capita. The model uses conjectures about the demographic effects of AIDS in Tanzania to estimate the macroeconomic effects on the economy. The findings suggest that, without decisive policy action, AIDS may reduce Tanzanian DGP in the year
John T. Cuddington
The distribution of Taenia saginata cysts among organs and muscle groups was determined by slicing the heart, masseters, liver and muscles of the half carcass of 21 naturally infected Zebu cattle from Morogoro abattoir, Tanzania. The carcasses harboured from 1 to 310 cysts. In the muscle groups, normally considered predilection sites, the heart and Musculus triceps brachii harboured the highest
Godfrey E. Maeda; Niels Chr. Kyvsgaard; Peter Nansen; Henrik O. Bøgh
This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected…
A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 randomly selected smallholder farms from a mixed dairy farming system in Tanga, Tanzania, between January and April 1999. We estimated the frequency and determinants of long calving interval (LCI), retention of fetal membrane (RFM), dystocia, and abortion in smallholder crossbred cattle and explored birth trends. The mean calving interval was 500 days
E. S. Swai; M. J. Bryant; E. D. Karimuribo; N. P. French; N. H. Ogden; J. L. Fitzpatrick; D. M. Kambarage
BACKGROUNDA study was undertaken to assess the interactions between prenatal exposures, early life infections, atopic predisposition, and allergen exposures in the development of wheezing up to the age of 4 years in a tropical region of Africa.METHODSThe study subjects comprised children born at the district hospital in Ifakara, Tanzania during a 1 year period who were participating in a trial
J Sunyer; C Mendendez; P J Ventura; J J Aponte; D Schellenberg; E Kahigwa; C Acosta; J M Antó; P L Alonso
Small-scale mining in developing countries is generally labour-intensive and carried out with low levels of mechanization. In the Mererani area in the northern part of Tanzania, there are about 15000 underground miners who are constantly subjected to a poor working environ- ment. Gemstones are found at depths down to 500 m. The objectives of this pilot study were to monitor
M. BRATVEIT; BENTE E. MOEN; YOHANA J. S. MASHALLA; HATUA MAALIM
This study investigated mammalian involvement in an outbreak of bubonic plague in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania, in March 2007. Plague is a rodent-borne zoo- notic disease that spreads to humans through fleas infected with Yersinia pestis. Live trapping of rodents and shrews was conducted in fallow and crop fields, peri- domestic areas, houses and the neighboring forest reserve. Serum was
Rhodes H. Makundi; Loth S. Mulungu; Abdul Katakweba; Thomas J. Mbise; Georgies Mgode
This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country's big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues with a large potential for anaerobic conversion into
Amelia K. Kivaisi; M. S. T. Rubindamayugi
Presence of antimicrobial residues in broiler meat was determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in Morogoro, Tanzania between January and February, 2007. Twenty smallholder broiler chicken farmers were interviewed on the types of antimicrobials used and their awareness on withdrawal period. In addition, 70 broiler chicken liver samples were collected for qualitative antimicrobial residues analysis by use of two parallel
H. E. Nonga; M. Mariki; E. D. Karimuribo; R. H. Mdegela
Clinical and laboratory findings are described from 77 persons from Nairobi, Kenya, of whom 66 were diagnosed with acute Schistosoma mansoni infection following a trip to Mwanza, Tanzania. Unusual ocular symptoms were observed as a rare manifestation of acute schistosomiasis. The outbreak highlights the risk of swimming in Lake Victoria. PMID:22017717
Chunge, Charles N; Chunge, Ruth N; Masinde, Michael S; Atinga, John N
In this paper the results of studies on activity and ambient radiation background around the Minjingu phosphate mine in Tanzania are presented. The outdoor dose rate in air and the activity levels of samples from and outside the mine were determined by thermoluminiscent dosimeters and a gamma spectrometer system with a Hyper Pure germanium detector system respectively. The determination of
Firmi P. Banzi; Leonard D. Kifanga; Felician M. Bundala
1. A multitude of non-biological and biological criteria were investigated to assess the suitability and feasibility of establishing a black rhino sanctuary in Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania. 2. The area was found to offer good habitat in an isolated setting suitable for the establishment a rhino sanctuary. 3. Attention needs to be granted to upgrading the security training of the
MH Knight; P Morkel
Since the 1940s, the concept of community participation has framed, mobilized, and legitimated national development agendas in the Singida Region of rural central Tanzania. Based on 19 months of ethnographic and archival research, this study examines the forms of community participation elicited through state and international development…
Phillips, Kristin D.
The article examines the outcomes of affirmative action policies aimed at improving access for women students to university education in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Different interpretations of affirmative action are found in the three countries. These include lower entry scores, remedial pre-university programmes and financial assistance. There…
This article provides the first comprehensive scientific data on land-use and land-cover change in the coastal zone of Tanzania over the 1990 and 2000 time periods. The research was part of an African region initiative to demonstrate the practical application of geographic information for sustainable development. Remotely sensed images from close to 1990 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor and 2000
YEQIAO WANG; JAMES TOBEY; GREGORY BONYNGE; JARUNEE NUGRANAD; VEDAST MAKOTA; AMANI NGUSARU; MICHAEL TRABER
Lithium, Sr and Nd isotope compositions of mineral separates from refractory and metasomatised peridotite xenoliths are used to investigate the effects of plume inpingement, heating and melt intrusion on cratonic and off-craton lithospheric mantle in Tanzania. In Labait peridotites (craton margin) olivine delta7Li correlates positively with Li concentration and negatively with forsterite content, suggesting that Fe and heavy Li were
S. Aulbach; R. L. Rudnick; W. F. McDonough
January 2000In Tanzania, a poor country experiencing a severe AIDS epidemic, the children whose health is hit hardest by the death of a parent or other adult are those in the poorest households, those with uneducated parents, and those with the least access to health care. Three important health interventions mitigate the impact of adult deaths: immunization against measles, oral
Martha Ainsworth; Innocent Semali
The report analyzes the food strategies of Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe during the 1980's. The overall objectives of these countries' food policies were to achieve food self-sufficiency and improve the nutritional status of the population. With p olicy r...
S. Shapouri M. Missiaen S. Rosen
Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) imagery, we examined changes in vegetative cover across Tanzania and found that overall greenness increased over 13 years from 1982 to 1994. We then assigned 8 km pixels to different habitat types using a vegetation map compiled from Landsat satellite imagery between 1978 and 1982. We found that woodland and forest pixels increased in
N. W Pelkey; C. J Stoner; T. M Caro
Tanzania is facing energy problems and since the provision of commercial energy will remain limited for some time to come, largely for technical and economic reasons, cost effective renewable energy technologies (RETs) are considered as an option for improving the access to energy services. Solar photovoltaic (PV) is regarded by the government as one of the potential RETs for providing
G. R. Kassenga
This Capstone Paper attempted to answer the following question: how are the intercultural competencies as they are proposed in the WorldLearning, Inc.\\/SIT Intercultural Competency Checklist at the present time evaluated in the College Semester Abroad (CSA), Tanzania Wildlife Ecology and Conservation program (Tze). The study includes a review of institutional documents and program guidelines as well as an overview of
Charlotte KirKirkegaard Blessing
Objective: Even though the traffic fatality risk (fatalities per 100 000 inhabitants) in Tanzania is quite low, the fatality rate (fatalities per 10 000 vehicles) is one of the highest in the world. With increasing vehicle density this means that the number of people dying in traffic will increase dramatically in the near future. Therefore it is important to implement
Katja Kircher; Jan Andersson
A study mapped out the current provision of and needs for post-literacy facilities in Tanzania, in particular in the rural regions. Study activities included the following: literature review on post-literacy provision and participation; review of the Ministry of Education and Culture's (MEC's) official statistics on post-literacy provision and…
Kadege, Nyasugara P.; And Others
Failure to accumulate human capital is one of the pressing problems of developing countries. Lacking human capital formation bears consequences on an economy wide level, since education contributes to labor productivity. We examine the impact of increased school enrollment with regard to economic growth and income inequality. A dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model applying a 2000 SAM for Tanzania
Holger Seebens; Peter Wobst
Since 1981, in an attempt to deal withTanzania's present social and economic crisis which dates back to the late 1970s, the government has adopted a variety of policy measures including The National Economic Survival Plan (NESP), Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), Economic Recovery Programme (ERP) I (1986) and II (1989); the Economic and Social Action Plan (ESAP) and Priority Social Action
Joe L. P. Lugalla
This paper examines girls' voiced experiences of menstruation, puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted in Moshi and Rombo Districts of Kilimanjaro, a predominantly Chagga region with historically strong support for girls' education. The major question explored was how the onset of menses and puberty may be impacting on girls' school participation, given societal implications of pubertal
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) established the Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) mission to reduce and protect nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 80 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance security of facilities with these materials. In 2004, a GTRI delegation began working with the Tanzania Atomic Energy
Firmi Paul Banzi; Michael Takeshi Itamura; Phillip W. Robinson; Micheal Vernon Strosinski
Social development policies in Tanzania are exemplary in terms of their recognition of the rights of access to higher education institutions by specific demographic groups. Policy documents such as the 2005 "National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty" (known as the MKUKUTA) and the 2004 "National Policy on Disability" emphasise this…
Mwaipopo, Rosemarie Nyigulila; Lihamba, Amandina; Njewele, Delphine Cosmas
This study examined the relationship between pre-primary educational policy and actual practice in Tanzania. Policy relevant to pre-primary education was analyzed and 15 pre-primary lessons from two urban and two rural schools were videotaped. Although the national educational policy specifies the same standards for pre-primary education…
Mtahabwa, Lyabwene; Rao, Nirmala
Flora, vegetation and seed bank were studied in a dry Afromontane forest in the Kondoa Irangi Hills, Tanzania with the objective to obtain information necessary for the promotion of conservation of this forest, which is rapidly degenerating due to human pressure. A preliminary checklist of 104 vascular plants occurring in the forest is provided. Based on 27 plots, each of
Herbert V. Lyaruu; Shadrack Eliapenda; Ingvar Backéus