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Sample records for salar fall pre-smolt

  1. Annotated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a searchable data resource

    PubMed Central

    Adzhubei, Alexei A; Vlasova, Anna V; Hagen-Larsen, Heidi; Ruden, Torgeir A; Laerdahl, Jon K; Høyheim, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Background To identify as many different transcripts/genes in the Atlantic salmon genome as possible, it is crucial to acquire good cDNA libraries from different tissues and developmental stages, their relevant sequences (ESTs or full length sequences) and attempt to predict function. Such libraries allow identification of a large number of different transcripts and can provide valuable information on genes expressed in a particular tissue at a specific developmental stage. This data is important in constructing a microarray chip, identifying SNPs in coding regions, and for future identification of genes in the whole genome sequence. An important factor that determines the usefulness of generated data for biologists is efficient data access. Public searchable databases play a crucial role in providing such service. Description Twenty-three Atlantic salmon cDNA libraries were constructed from 15 tissues, yielding nearly 155,000 clones. From these libraries 58,109 ESTs were generated, of which 57,212 were used for contig assembly. Following deletion of mitochondrial sequences 55,118 EST sequences were submitted to GenBank. In all, 20,019 unique sequences, consisting of 6,424 contigs and 13,595 singlets, were generated. The Norwegian Salmon Genome Project Database has been constructed and annotation performed by the annotation transfer approach. Annotation was successful for 50.3% (10,075) of the sequences and 6,113 sequences (30.5%) were annotated with Gene Ontology terms for molecular function, biological process and cellular component. Conclusion We describe the construction of cDNA libraries from juvenile/pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), EST sequencing, clustering, and annotation by assigning putative function to the transcripts. These sequences represents 97% of all sequences submitted to GenBank from the pre-smoltification stage. The data has been grouped into datasets according to its source and type of annotation. Various data query options are offered

  2. Conceptual model for quantifying pre-smolt production from flow-dependent physical habitat and water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, S. C.; Bartholow, J. M.; Stalnaker, C. B.

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual model has been developed to test river regulation concepts by linking physical habitat and water temperature with salmonid population and production in cold water streams. Work is in progress to examine numerous questions as part of flow evaluation and habitat restoration programmes in the Trinity River of California and elsewhere. For instance, how much change in pre-smolt chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production in the Trinity River would result from a different annual instream allocation (i.e. up or down from 271 × 106 m3 released in the late 1980s) and how much change in pre-smolt production would result from a different release pattern (i.e. different from the 8.5 m3 s−1 year-round release). The conceptual model is being used to: design, integrate and improve young-of-year population data collection efforts; test hypotheses that physical habitat significantly influences movement, growth and mortality of salmonid fishes; and analyse the relative severity of limiting factors during each life stage. The conceptual model, in conjunction with previously developed tools in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology, should provide the means to more effectively manage a fishery resource below a regulated reservoir and to provide positive feedback to planning of annual reservoir operations.

  3. Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems with circulation, thyroid or nervous systems. Some medicines make people dizzy. Eye problems or alcohol can be factors. Any of these things can make a fall more likely. Babies and young children are also at risk of falling - off ...

  4. Aerobic training stimulates growth and promotes disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Helland, Ståle J; Kristensen, Torstein; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Helgerud, Jan; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P; Krasnov, Aleksei; Takle, Harald

    2011-10-01

    Improving fish robustness is of utmost relevance to reducing fish losses in farming. Although not previously examined, we hypothesized that aerobic training, as shown for human studies, could strengthen disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Thus, we exercised salmon pre-smolts for 6 weeks at two different aerobic training regimes; a continuous intensity training (CT; 0.8bls(-1)) and an interval training (IT; 0.8bl s(-1) 16h and 1.0bl s(-1) 8h) and compared them with untrained controls (C; 0.05bl s(-1)). The effects of endurance training on disease resistance were evaluated using an IPN virus challenge test, while the cardiac immune modulatory effects were characterized by qPCR and microarray gene expression analyses. In addition, swimming performance and growth parameters were investigated. Survival after the IPN challenge was higher for IT (74%) fish than for either CT (64%) or C (61%) fish. While both CT and IT groups showed lower cardiac transcription levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 prior to the IPN challenge test, IT fish showed the strongest regulation of genes involved in immune responses and other processes known to affect disease resistance. Both CT and IT regimes resulted in better growth compared with control fish, with CT fish developing a better swimming efficiency during training. Overall, interval aerobic training improved growth and increased robustness of Atlantic salmon, manifested by better disease resistance, which we found was associated with a modulation of relevant gene classes on the cardiac transcriptome. PMID:21726657

  5. Remote sensing of evaporite mineral zonation in salt flats (salars)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. E.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.; Francis, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    Compositional zoning within Salar de Atacama and Salar de Llulliallaco has been mapped from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. The data were enhanced using decorrelation stretching of TM bands 7, 5, and 4, which were considered to possess the majority of the mineralogical information. The resulting 7, 5, 4 (red, green, blue) color composites provide excellent discrimination of evaporite mineral zones within the salar. The interpretation is supported by fieldwork at the Salar de Atacama and spectral considerations. A strong relationship between the mineralogy of a unit and surface roughness was observed in the field, hence there is potential for imaging radar to provide complementary zonal data.

  6. Chemical composition and distribution of lithium-rich brines in salar de Uyuni and nearby salars in southwestern Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.; Vine, J.D.; Raul, Ballon A.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary investigations at Salar de Uyuni and the nearby salars (salt pans) of Coipasa and Empexa in the southern part of the Bolivian Altiplano show the presence of widespread lithium-rich brines. Widely scattered brine samples from Salar de Uyuni, which has an area of about 9000 km2 and is the largest salt pan on earth, show lithium values ranging from 80 to 1500 ppm. High values of 300-700 ppm are most prevalent in an area of about 2500 km2 in the east-central and southeastern part of the salar. A few brine samples in small areas in Coipasa and Empexa Salars have values ranging from 170 to 580 ppm Li. All the brines are essentially saturated with halite and are moderately high in sulfate (5000-15,000 ppm SO4) but low in carbonate (<500 ppm HCO3). Potassium and magnesium values are relatively high, chiefly in the range of 2000-20,000 ppm, and the K Mg ratio is about 1:1. The Li K and Li Mg ratios are relatively constant at about 1:20. The crystalline saline material and brines in these salars are residual from a former large lake, Lago Minchin, that occupied much of the southern Bolivian Altiplano during late Pleistocene time, augmented by saline material carried to the salars by streams since final drying of this lake. Thermal springs associated with rhyolitic volcanic rocks of Quaternary age may have been a major source of the lithium. ?? 1978.

  7. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... worsened. Improving your vision will help reduce falls. Images ... for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: ...

  8. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid the disability that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes and hearing tested often. Always wear your glasses when you ...

  9. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  10. Relationship between metabolism, sex and reproductive tactics in young Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Rossignol, O; Dodson, J J; Guderley, H

    2011-05-01

    Atlantic salmon can differ markedly in their growth and in the timing of reproductive maturation, leading to the dramatic contrast between the large anadromous adults and the diminutive mature male parr. This study examined the growth rates, anatomical and physiological characteristics of parr during the adoption of their discrete life histories to ascertain whether these properties can explain tactic choice. To minimise the impact of habitat differences upon these attributes, salmon were reared in the laboratory until 1.5years of age, when the "decisions" to undergo smoltification or to mature as parr had been taken. At 1.5years, both males and females showed bimodal size-frequency distributions. Neither the population of origin nor the paternal reproductive tactic influenced the "decision" to mature or the growth trajectories. Growth rate (% massday(-1) during their final 10months) and the % male and female offspring in the upper modal group were strongly correlated and varied markedly among families. Mean growth rate per family was negatively correlated with mean metabolic rate per family at emergence. Growth rate decreased as a function of parr size in January and the growth rates of upper modal fish were displaced upwards relative to those of lower modal fish. Most males in the smaller size mode matured, whereas all other fish began smoltification. Mature male parr did not differ from similarly sized female pre-smolt in routine metabolic rate, but these smaller fish had higher metabolic rates than larger male and female pre-smolts. However, mature parr differed markedly from similarly sized females and from larger male and female pre-smolts in possessing higher oxidative and lower glycolytic capacities in muscle. Overall, these data are consistent with the interpretation that growth rates dictate the distribution of parr between upper and lower modal groups. Individuals from faster growing families would be more likely to pass the threshold for smoltification

  11. The biogeography of the atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Martin S; McGinnity, Philip; Dionne, Melanie; Letourneau, Justine; Thonier, Florian; Carvalho, Gary R; Creer, Simon; Derome, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Although understood in many vertebrate systems, the natural diversity of host-associated microbiota has been little studied in teleosts. For migratory fishes, successful exploitation of multiple habitats may affect and be affected by the composition of the intestinal microbiome. We collected 96 Salmo salar from across the Atlantic encompassing both freshwater and marine phases. Dramatic differences between environmental and gut bacterial communities were observed. Furthermore, community composition was not significantly impacted by geography. Instead life-cycle stage strongly defined both the diversity and identity of microbial assemblages in the gut, with evidence for community destabilisation in migratory phases. Mycoplasmataceae phylotypes were abundantly recovered in all life-cycle stages. Patterns of Mycoplasmataceae phylotype recruitment to the intestinal microbial community among sites and life-cycle stages support a dual role for deterministic and stochastic processes in defining the composition of the S. salar gut microbiome. PMID:26517698

  12. Geochemical evolution of brines in the Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rettig, S.L.; Jones, B.F.; Risacher, F.

    1980-01-01

    Recent analyses of brines from the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa have been compared with published data for Lakes Titicaca and Poopo to evaluate solute compositional trends in these remnants of two large Pleistocene lakes once connected by overflow from the N to the S of the Bolivian Altiplano. From Titicaca to Poopo the water shows an increase in Cl and N somewhat greater than the total solutes. Ca and SO4 increase to a lesser extent than total dissolved solids, and carbonate species are relatively constant. Between Poopo and Coipasa proportions of Ca, SO4 and CO3 continue to decrease. At Coipasa and Uyuni, the great salars frequently evaporate to halite saturation. Halite crystallization is accompanied by an increased K, Mg and SO4 in residual brines. - from Authors

  13. Evaluation of LANDSAT-2 (ERTS) images applied to geologic structures and mineral resources of South America. [Salar de Coposa, Chile and Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. D. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Salar of Coposa is located in northern Chile along the frontier with Bolivia. The surface was divided into six general classes of materials. Analysis of LANDSAT image 1243-14001 by use of interactive multispectral computer (Image 100) enabled accurate repetition of these general classes based on reflectance. The Salar of Uyuni is the largest of the South American evaporite deposits. Using image 1243-13595, and parallel piped computer classification of reflectance units, the Salar was divided into nine classes ranging from deep to shallow water, water over salt, salt saturated with water, and several classes of dry salt.

  14. Validation of GLAS Range Measurement over Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) is Earth's first polar-orbiting satellite laser altimeter. Its primary purpose is to measure ice sheet elevation change, with a scientific requirement of detecting changes as low as 1.5 centimeters per year. This goal requires precise calibration and validation of the instrument. One approach for validating the GLAS range measurement involves comparison with a land reference target. Dry salt lakes are ideal for this purpose since they are large, stable, easily surveyed using kinematic GPS, and have albedos similar to that of ice. We selected the largest dry salt lake in the world, the salar de Uyuni in Bolivia, as a reference target for GLAS. In September 2002 we surveyed a 54 x 45 kilometer area of the salar with car-mounted kinematic GPS, using the data to construct a DEM of the surface. To date there have been six ICESat passes across our survey area, along two intersecting tracks. The first two passes occurred during "Laser 2A" operation (September to November 2003), the second two during "Laser 2B" operation (February to March 2004), and the final two during "Laser 2C" (June to July 2004). We compare GLAS elevations from all six passes with the salar de Uyuni DEM, showing how differing conditions between passes affected the performance of the GLAS instrument and providing an estimate of the relative and absolute accuracy of the range measurement. To check our results, we also compare the GLAS elevations along the same tracks with the mean sea-surface derived from TOPEX over the ocean on either side of South America.

  15. Falls and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... rises with age. Click for more information Falls Lead to Fractures, Trauma Each year, more than 1. ... and injury deaths. Fractures caused by falls can lead to hospital stays and disability. Most often, fall- ...

  16. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior ...

  17. Falls in Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for health care providers. Learn More Falls in Nursing Homes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... 5 Why do falls occur more often in nursing homes? Falling can be a sign of other ...

  18. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  19. Upstream migratory behaviour of wild and ranched Atlantic salmon Salmo salar at a natural obstacle in a coastal spate river.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R J; Moffett, I; Allen, M M; Dawson, S M

    2013-09-01

    The upstream migratory behaviour of wild and ranched Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in a small Irish coastal spate river was investigated using acoustic telemetry. Prespawning migratory behaviour was investigated including movement patterns at a large natural waterfall in the lower reaches of the river. A strong diurnal pattern was observed for upstream migrants at the waterfall indicative of the need for daylight to ascend this complex natural obstacle to migration. Successful passage of the waterfall was also associated with distinct environmental conditions and no difference in migratory ability was detected between wild and ranched origin S. salar. Wild S. salar tended to exhibit a non-erratic, stepwise upstream migration pattern after ascending the waterfall while ranched S. salar had an increased probability of displaying more erratic migratory behaviour. Wild S. salar penetrated further into the river catchment than ranched S. salar, although male ranched S. salar exhibited the greatest cumulative distance moved prior to the spawning period. The management implications of escaped or released ranched S. salar and movement at natural obstacles are discussed. PMID:23991871

  20. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J T; Lerner, D T; O'Dea, M F; Regish, A M; Monette, M Y; Hawkes, J P; Nislow, K H; McCormick, S D

    2015-11-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region. PMID:26399385

  1. SalmonDB: a bioinformatics resource for Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Di Génova, Alex; Aravena, Andrés; Zapata, Luis; González, Mauricio; Maass, Alejandro; Iturra, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    SalmonDB is a new multiorganism database containing EST sequences from Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus mykiss and the whole genome sequence of Danio rerio, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Tetraodon nigroviridis, Oryzias latipes and Takifugu rubripes, built with core components from GMOD project, GOPArc system and the BioMart project. The information provided by this resource includes Gene Ontology terms, metabolic pathways, SNP prediction, CDS prediction, orthologs prediction, several precalculated BLAST searches and domains. It also provides a BLAST server for matching user-provided sequences to any of the databases and an advanced query tool (BioMart) that allows easy browsing of EST databases with user-defined criteria. These tools make SalmonDB database a valuable resource for researchers searching for transcripts and genomic information regarding S. salar and other salmonid species. The database is expected to grow in the near feature, particularly with the S. salar genome sequencing project. Database URL: http://genomicasalmones.dim.uchile.cl/ PMID:22120661

  2. Environmental change influences the life history of salmon Salmo salar in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N; Albretsen, J

    2016-02-01

    Annual mean total length (LT) of wild one-sea-winter (1SW) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar of the Norwegian River Imsa decreased from 63 to 54 cm with a corresponding decrease in condition factor (K) for cohorts migrating to sea from 1976 to 2010. The reduction in LT is associated with a 40% decline in mean individual mass, from 2 to 1·2 kg. Hatchery fish reared from parental fish of the same population exhibited similar changes from 1981 onwards. The decrease in LT correlated negatively with near-surface temperatures in the eastern Norwegian Sea, thought to be the main feeding area of the present stock. Furthermore, S. salar exhibited significant variations in the proportion of cohorts attaining maturity after only one winter in the ocean. The proportion of S. salar spawning as 1SW fish was lower both in the 1970s and after 2000 than in the 1980s and 1990s associated with a gradual decline in post-smolt growth and smaller amounts of reserve energy in the fish. In wild S. salar, there was a positive association between post-smolt growth and the sea survival back to the River Imsa for spawning. In addition, among smolt year-classes, there were significant positive correlations between wild and hatchery S. salar in LT, K and age at maturity. The present changes may be caused by ecosystem changes following the collapse and rebuilding of the pelagic fish abundance in the North Atlantic Ocean, a gradual decrease in zooplankton abundance and climate change with increasing surface temperature in the Norwegian Sea. Thus, the observed variation in the life-history traits of S. salar appears primarily associated with major changes in the pelagic food web in the ocean. PMID:26725985

  3. Falls in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hodgetts, P. Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    Falls are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. One in three older people will fall every year. Assessing intrinsic (patient) factors and extrinsic (environmental) factors that increase the risk of falling is an important part of caring for the elderly. Physicians can readily assess balance and mobility as part of a preventive approach. PMID:21221300

  4. Predictability of multispecies competitive interactions in three populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Houde, A L S; Wilson, C C; Neff, B D

    2015-04-01

    Juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from three allopatric populations (LaHave, Sebago and Saint-Jean) were placed into artificial streams with combinations of four non-native salmonids: brown trout Salmo trutta, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Non-additive effects, as evidenced by lower performance than predicted from weighted summed two-species competition trials, were detected for S. salar fork length (LF ) and mass, but not for survival, condition factor or riffle use. These data support emerging theory on niche overlap and species richness as factors that can lead to non-additive competition effects. PMID:25753912

  5. Numerical taxonomy of moderately halophilic gram-positive cocci isolated from the Salar de Atacama (Chile).

    PubMed

    Valderrama, M J; Prado, B; del Moral, A; Ríos, R; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Campos, V

    1991-06-01

    A taxonomic study has been carried out on 22 strains of moderately halophilic motile cocci isolated from the Salar de Atacama (Chile). The 112 phenotypic tests were analyzed by numerical taxonomy using SSM coefficient and the unweighted pair group method of association (UPGMA). At the 67% similarity level, two phenons were obtained: phenon A included 11 strains and phenon B, 11 strains too, whereas the six reference strains did not cluster within these two phenons. These results suggest that moderately halophilic cocci with different phenotypic characteristics from previously described species can be isolated from the hypersaline habitat Salar de Atacama. PMID:1867776

  6. Phylogenetic position of a paramyxovirus from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Fridell, F; Devold, M; Nylund, A

    2004-04-21

    A paramyxovirus has been isolated from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar suffering from epitheliocystis. This virus does not cause any mortality when used to challenge disease-free salmon, but has been associated with 2 cases of mortality in salmon farms in Norway. Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV) has been suggested as a name for the virus. The ASP virus is a slow-growing virus in cell cultures (rainbow trout gill cells: RTgill-W1). Little is known about its importance and its phylogenetic position is uncertain. Hence, the need for a fast and sensitive diagnostic method for studying the prevalence of this virus in salmon farms and for more basic knowledge about its identity were the motivation for this study. A partial nucleotide sequence (816 bp) from the large protein (L protein) gene of the ASP virus has been sequenced from 2 different isolates. The putative amino acid sequence has been compared with the L protein of other paramyxoviruses. This sequence gives strong support to a relationship between the ASP virus and members of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, genus Respirovirus. PMID:15212287

  7. Quality grading of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by computer vision.

    PubMed

    Misimi, E; Erikson, U; Skavhaug, A

    2008-06-01

    In this study, we present a promising method of computer vision-based quality grading of whole Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Using computer vision, it was possible to differentiate among different quality grades of Atlantic salmon based on the external geometrical information contained in the fish images. Initially, before the image acquisition, the fish were subjectively graded and labeled into grading classes by a qualified human inspector in the processing plant. Prior to classification, the salmon images were segmented into binary images, and then feature extraction was performed on the geometrical parameters of the fish from the grading classes. The classification algorithm was a threshold-based classifier, which was designed using linear discriminant analysis. The performance of the classifier was tested by using the leave-one-out cross-validation method, and the classification results showed a good agreement between the classification done by human inspectors and by the computer vision. The computer vision-based method classified correctly 90% of the salmon from the data set as compared with the classification by human inspector. Overall, it was shown that computer vision can be used as a powerful tool to grade Atlantic salmon into quality grades in a fast and nondestructive manner by a relatively simple classifier algorithm. The low cost of implementation of today's advanced computer vision solutions makes this method feasible for industrial purposes in fish plants as it can replace manual labor, on which grading tasks still rely. PMID:18576993

  8. Molecular and physiological responses to long-term sublethal ammonia exposure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the underlying physiological and molecular responses to long-term sublethal ammonia exposure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Previous studies have pre- dominately focused on mechanisms during acute, short-term exposure. For that purpose Atlantic s...

  9. Influence of long term ammonia exposure on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr growth and welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of ambient unionized ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) combined with different feeding regimes on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L parr growth, welfare and smoltification. Previous studies on the parr stage of Atlantic salmon have mostly focused...

  10. Growth of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar fed diets containing barley protein concentrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an important cultured carnivorous species that in the past has not tolerated high levels of most plant protein feed ingredients in the diet. In order to increase efficiency, sustainability and production to meet global demand, new sources of protein must be incorpo...

  11. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, John T; Lerner, Darrren T.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Regish, Amy M.; Monette, Michelle Y.; Hawkes, J.P.; Nislow, Keith H.; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region.

  12. Mechanisms for Planetary Spherules Formation and Alteration: Salar Grande, Chile -- An Example of Volcanic/Aqueous Processes Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukstins Peate, I.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; French, R.; Dressing, C.; Franklin, T.; Parsons, K.; Piatek, J. L.; Chong, G.

    2009-03-01

    Silica nodules and hematite spherules are observed at Salar Grande and Monturaqui, Atacama Desert, Chile. The Planetary Spherules Project investigates formation, deposition and alteration processes as analogs to Gusev Crater and Meridiani, Mars.

  13. Weight loss and fillet quality characteristics of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after purging for 5, 10, 15 or 20 days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, are typically cultured in marine net pens. However, technological advancements in recirculating aquaculture systems have increased the feasibility of culturing Atlantic salmon in land-based systems to alleviate environmental and disease issues limiting sustainability. ...

  14. Fall Leaf Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  15. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  16. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  17. Fall armyworm migration patterns.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Cytochrome Oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup tha...

  18. Learning From Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joh, Amy, S.; Adolph, Karen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Walkers fall frequently, especially during infancy. Children (15, 21, 27, 33, and 39 month-olds) and adults were tested in a novel foam pit paradigm to examine age-related changes in the relationship between falling and prospective control of locomotion. In trial 1, participants walked and fell into a deformable foam pit marked with distinct…

  19. Effects of hydropeaking on the spawning behaviour of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Vollset, K W; Skoglund, H; Wiers, T; Barlaup, B T

    2016-06-01

    An in situ camera set-up was used to study the spawning activity of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta throughout two consecutive seasons in a spawning area affected by hydropower-related pulse flows due to hydropeaking. The purpose was to test whether the flow variation discouraged spawning in shallow areas or motivated spawning into areas with elevated risk of incubation mortality. There were more S. salar observed on the spawning ground during days with high discharge. The presence of S. salar in the spawning grounds was not affected by the hydropeaking cycles of the preceding night. Female S. salar were observed preparing nests within the first hour after water discharge had increased to levels suitable for spawning. In contrast, the number of S. trutta was not correlated with flow and nest preparation was also observed at a discharge corresponding to the lowest discharge levels during a hydropeaking cycle. Survival was generally high in nests excavated the following winter, with only 5·4% suffering mortality due to dewatering. The results suggest that S. salar may respond rapidly to variable-flow conditions and utilize short windows with suitable flows for spawning. Smaller S. trutta may utilize low-flow conditions to spawn in areas that are not habitable by larger S. salar during low flow. PMID:27125209

  20. Pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-01-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fall detection algorithms, and types of falls for fall detection evaluation. In addition, the performance of the existing pre-impact fall detection solutions were also reviewed and reported in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and detection/lead time. This review also summarized the limitations in the existing pre-impact fall detection research, and proposed future research directions in this field. PMID:27251528

  1. Injuries sustained by falls.

    PubMed Central

    Rozycki, G S; Maull, K I

    1991-01-01

    During a recent 4-year period, 381 patients were admitted with injuries sustained from falls. Equal numbers of patients were less than and greater than 50 years of age and included 53 children (less than or equal to 16 years) and 214 elderly (greater than or equal to 55 years). Falls from heights occurred predominantly in young males (mean age 34.2 years), were most commonly job or recreation related and resulted in higher injury severity scores (ISS). Falls in the elderly occurred more commonly in women, typically on a flat surface, and were less severe. Despite lower mean ISS, fall victims over 55 years of age had longer hospitalizations (11.4 vs. 4.5 days) and incurred higher hospital charges compared to younger patients. There were 35 deaths (9.2%). In patients under 55 years, deaths resulted from fall-related central nervous system (CNS) injury and/or multisystem trauma. In patients over 55 years, fatalities were most commonly related to pre-existent medical conditions. Based on a review of this experience, we conclude that: (1) unlike other causes of blunt and penetrating trauma, both sexes are equally at risk from fall-related injuries but sex incidence is age related; (2) falls from heights are more common in men; (3) advanced age and pre-existing medical conditions account for the increased morbidity and mortality following falls and; (4) cost containment measures for fall-related trauma must consider not only injury severity, but the age and pre-existent medical conditions of the patient. PMID:1772536

  2. Modeling the Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia as an Equipotential Surface of Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsa, Adrian; Bills, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The salar de Uyuni is a massive dry salt lake that lies at the lowest point of an internal/drainage basin in the Bolivian Altiplano. Its topography is remarkable for its extraordinary flatness over almost a full degree of latitude and longitude. We surveyed a 54 x 45 km region of the salar with kinematic GPS in September, 2002 and found a topographic range of only 80 cm over the entire surveyed area. Furthermore, the survey revealed distinct surface features with several dominant wavelengths and orientations. Some of these appear to be aligned with orographic features that intersect the salar, leading us to conjecture that they are the surface expression of high-density mountains that have been buried by low-density basin sediments. Over the oceans, a similar correspondence between basin bathymetry and surface topography is exploited to map the seafloor using sea-surface satellite altimetry measurements, with the sea surface following geoid undulations due to the underwater mass distribution. On the salar, annual flooding creates a shallow lake whose surface also lies on a equipotential surface shaped by the distribution of underlying mass. The link to the actual salar surface is via the dissolution and redeposition of salt by the lake waters, which appears to push the system to an equilibrium of constant water depth and the coincidence of the shapes of the lake surface and bottom. To test our hypothesis about the origin of the surface features on the salar, we compare our GPS survey elevations with the equipotential surface generated from local gravity measurements in conjunction with gravity and potential values from the EGM96 global geopotential model. 50% of the variance of the GPS elevations can be explained by equipotential surface undulations from the EGM96 model alone, and an additional 40% is explained by the shorter-wavelength equipotential surface derived from local gravity. We examine the unexplained 10% of elevation variance from the standpoint of

  3. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  4. Osteoporosis: Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

  5. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  6. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  7. The gill maggot Salmincola salmoneus as an indicator of repeat spawning in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Kusterle, S; Halttunen, E; Thorstad, E B; Naesje, T F; Jensen, J L A; Gallo-Bueno, A; Olague, E; Rikardsen, A H

    2013-03-01

    The potential of the gill maggot Salmincola salmoneus for use as an indicator of repeat spawning in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar was studied in adult fish captured during their return migration to the River Alta (n = 659) and River Namsen (n = 540) in Norway. Eighty-eight and 49% of previous spawners identified by scale readings were infected with S. salmoneus in the two rivers, respectively. Salmincola salmoneus can be used as a reliable, rapid and objective field indicator of repeat spawning in S. salar as nearly all infected fish (99·4%) were identified as repeat spawners, although it is important to have appropriate background information on S. salmoneus prevalence on the postspawning individuals within the same population. PMID:23464562

  8. Validation of satellite altimeter range measurements over salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, H. A.; Roca, M.; Laxon, S. W.; Carabajal, C. C.; Quinn, K.; Borsa, A. A.; Minster, J. B.

    2003-12-01

    The salar de Uyuni in the Bolivian altiplano covers approximately 9600 km2, and is the largest dry salt lake in the world. This vast, flat stable surface is ideal for estimation of the range bias on altimeter instruments such as GLAS on board ICESat (launched 12th January 2003), RA-2 on board ENVISAT (launched March 1st 2002) and the ERS-2 radar altimeter (RA, launched 1995), and to compare the measurements from these altimeters. Here we describe a kinematic GPS survey of the salar de Uyuni that was carried out in August/September 2002 and was designed to calibrate GLAS and RA-2. The eastern part of the salar was surveyed with 8 grids 22.5 km x 13.5 km at 2.25 km spacing, and with 2 grids which straddled one ascending and one descending ERS-2/ENVISAT orbit across this part of the salar, one 44.5 x 9 km, the other 18 x 13.5 km. Comparison of GPS heights from one GPS grid to the next and crossover analysis at intersections suggests that RMS accuracy of the GPS measurement is around 2 cm. We retracked the altimeter waveforms by fitting the system point target response to retrieve the altimeter surface elevation. We fitted a gaussian-smoothed surface to the GPS heights collected around the ERS-2/ENVISAT grids and interpolated these surfaces to the locations of altimeter footprints to obtain an estimate of the range bias for each instruments (GLAS, RA-2 and the ERS-2 RA). We also compare our results with data from one cycle of TOPEX data, which was collected during an orbit manoeuvre phase in September 2002. Ground tracks from this cycle serendipitously crossed our survey area at the same time we were on the ground.

  9. Evaporation and land surface energy budget at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Tyler, Scott W.; Ortiz, Cristián A.; Muñoz, José F.; Adkins, Paula L.

    2005-08-01

    Playa systems are driven by evaporation processes, yet the mechanisms by which evaporation occurs through playa salt crusts are still poorly understood. In this study we examine playa evaporation as it relates to land surface energy fluxes, salt crust characteristics, groundwater and climate at the Salar de Atacama, a 3000 km 2 playa in northern Chile containing a uniquely broad range of salt crust types. Land surface energy budget measurements were taken at eight representative sites on this playa during winter (August 2001) and summer (January 2002) seasons. Measured values of net all-wave radiation were highest at vegetated and rough halite crust sites and lowest over smooth, highly reflective salt crusts. Over most of the Salar de Atacama, net radiation was dissipated by means of soil and sensible heat fluxes. Dry salt crusts tended to heat and cool very quickly, whereas soil heating and cooling occurred more gradually at wetter vegetated sites. Sensible heating was strongly linked to wind patterns, with highest sensible heat fluxes occurring on summer days with strong afternoon winds. Very little energy available at the land surface was used to evaporate water. Eddy covariance measurements could only constrain evaporation rates to within 0.1 mm d -1, and some measured evaporation rates were less than this margin of uncertainty. Evaporation rates ranged from 0.1 to 1.1 mm d -1 in smooth salt crusts around the margin of the salar and from 0.4 to 2.8 mm d -1 in vegetated areas. No evaporation was detected from the rugged halite salt crust that covers the interior of the salar, though the depth to groundwater is less than 1 m in this area. These crusts therefore represent a previously unrecorded end member condition in which the salt crusts form a practically impermeable barrier to evaporation.

  10. Multi-temporal remote sensing analysis of salars in El Loa Province, Chile: Implications for water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovich, K.; Pierce, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Salar de Ascotán and Salar de Carcote are internally drained, evaporative basins located in the Atacama Desert, 200 km northeast of Antofogasta in Region II, Chile. The two salars are part of a regional groundwater system that recharges in the adjacent uplands to the east and terminates in the regional topographic low at Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia. This regional groundwater system is discharged locally as spring-fed perennial surface water that flows across the salar surface and either evaporates, or reinfiltrates, in lagoon-like environments. This perennial surface water supports diverse flora and fauna in the salar basins, including flamingo, vicuña, and the endemic fish species Orestias ascotanensis. Mining projects in the region began pumping the groundwater system in the Ascotán basin in the mid-1990's, leading to concern about the preservation of spring-fed surface flows. While hydrologic and ecologic monitoring efforts have been coordinated, data collection is limited to in-situ measurements and antecedent records precede extraction by approximately six months. Remote sensing can provide a means for large scale monitoring of the salars, as well as providing additional historical data to support environmental management of the systems. This comparative study utilizes satellite imagery to detect changes in surface water extent in the two salars and evaluate the results for possible correlation with climatic and/or anthropogenic factors. Landsat TM and ETM+ images from the time period of 1986-2011 are analyzed for surface water extent, and geographic information technologies are used to integrate the remotely sensed data with in-situ measurements. Early results indicate that surface water extent on the salar surface has diminished from 1986 and present day conditions. The decrease is most pronounced in the Ascotán basin, suggesting a possible correlation to anthropogenic influences. Also, the rate of decrease in surface water presence is most elevated in the

  11. The origin of brines and salts in Chilean salars: a hydrochemical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, François; Alonso, Hugo; Salazar, Carlos

    2003-11-01

    Northern Chile is characterized by a succession of north-south-trending ranges and basins occupied by numerous saline lakes and salt crusts, collectively called salars. Fossil salt crusts are found to the west in the extremely arid Central Valley, while active salars receiving permanent inflows fill many intravolcanic basins to the east in the semiarid Cordillera. Sea salts and desert dust are blown eastward over the Cordillera, where they constitute an appreciable fraction of the solute load of very dilute waters (salt content<0.1 g/l). The weathering of volcanic rocks contributes most components to inflow waters with salt content ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 g/l. However, the average salt content of all inflows is much higher: about 3.2 g/l. Chemical composition, Cl/Br ratio, and 18O- 2H isotope contents point to the mixing of very dilute meteoric waters with present lake brines for the origin of saline inflows. Ancient gypsum in deep sedimentary formations seems to be the only evaporitic mineral recycled in present salars. Saline lakes and subsurface brines are under steady-state regime. The average residence time of conservative components ranges from a few years to some thousands years, which indicates a permanent leakage of the brines through bottom sediments. The infiltrating brines are recycled in the hydrologic system where they mix with dilute meteoric waters. High heat flow is the likely driving force that moves the deep waters in this magmatic arc region. Active Chilean salars cannot be considered as terminal lakes nor, strictly speaking, as closed basin lakes. Almost all incoming salts leave the basin and are transported elsewhere. Moreover, the dissolution of fossil salt crusts in some active salars also carries away important fluxes of components in percolating brines. Evaporative concentration of inflow waters leads to sulfate-rich or calcium-rich, near-neutral brines. Alkaline brines are almost completely lacking. The alkalinity/calcium ratio of inflow

  12. Student Enrollments, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents demographic information about enrollment at public and independent institutions of higher education in Arkansas as of fall 1995. A listing of abbreviations for the public four-year, public two-year, and independent institutions is followed by a map of their locations. An executive summary identifies highlights such as the…

  13. Falling into Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects art, science, and nature in which elementary school students learn about deciduous trees. Explains that students create a torn-tissue collage, using fall colors for a background and drawing a silhouette of a tree without leaves on top of the background with black crayon. (CMK)

  14. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  15. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  16. The News, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over how to increase the…

  17. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  18. Falling film evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

  19. Epithelial Label-Retaining Cells Are Absent during Tooth Cycling in Salmo salar and Polypterus senegalus.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Sam; Willems, Maxime; Witten, P Eckhard; Hansen, Tom; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and African bichir (Polypterus senegalus) are both actinopterygian fish species that continuously replace their teeth without the involvement of a successional dental lamina. Instead, they share the presence of a middle dental epithelium: an epithelial tier enclosed by inner and outer dental epithelium. It has been hypothesized that this tier could functionally substitute for a successional dental lamina and might be a potential niche to house epithelial stem cells involved in tooth cycling. Therefore, in this study we performed a BrdU pulse chase experiment on both species to (1) determine the localization and extent of proliferating cells in the dental epithelial layers, (2) describe cell dynamics and (3) investigate if label-retaining cells are present, suggestive for the putative presence of stem cells. Cells proliferate in the middle dental epithelium, outer dental epithelium and cervical loop at the lingual side of the dental organ to form a new tooth germ. Using long chase times, both in S. salar (eight weeks) and P. senegalus (eight weeks and twelve weeks), we could not reveal the presence of label-retaining cells in the dental organ. Immunostaining of P. senegalus dental organs for the transcription factor Sox2, often used as a stem cell marker, labelled cells in the zone of outer dental epithelium which grades into the oral epithelium (ODE transition zone) and the inner dental epithelium of a successor only. The location of Sox2 distribution does not provide evidence for epithelial stem cells in the dental organ and, more specifically, in the middle dental epithelium. Comparison of S. salar and P. senegalus reveals shared traits in tooth cycling and thus advances our understanding of the developmental mechanism that ensures lifelong replacement. PMID:27049953

  20. Epithelial Label-Retaining Cells Are Absent during Tooth Cycling in Salmo salar and Polypterus senegalus

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Sam; Willems, Maxime; Witten, P. Eckhard; Hansen, Tom; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and African bichir (Polypterus senegalus) are both actinopterygian fish species that continuously replace their teeth without the involvement of a successional dental lamina. Instead, they share the presence of a middle dental epithelium: an epithelial tier enclosed by inner and outer dental epithelium. It has been hypothesized that this tier could functionally substitute for a successional dental lamina and might be a potential niche to house epithelial stem cells involved in tooth cycling. Therefore, in this study we performed a BrdU pulse chase experiment on both species to (1) determine the localization and extent of proliferating cells in the dental epithelial layers, (2) describe cell dynamics and (3) investigate if label-retaining cells are present, suggestive for the putative presence of stem cells. Cells proliferate in the middle dental epithelium, outer dental epithelium and cervical loop at the lingual side of the dental organ to form a new tooth germ. Using long chase times, both in S. salar (eight weeks) and P. senegalus (eight weeks and twelve weeks), we could not reveal the presence of label-retaining cells in the dental organ. Immunostaining of P. senegalus dental organs for the transcription factor Sox2, often used as a stem cell marker, labelled cells in the zone of outer dental epithelium which grades into the oral epithelium (ODE transition zone) and the inner dental epithelium of a successor only. The location of Sox2 distribution does not provide evidence for epithelial stem cells in the dental organ and, more specifically, in the middle dental epithelium. Comparison of S. salar and P. senegalus reveals shared traits in tooth cycling and thus advances our understanding of the developmental mechanism that ensures lifelong replacement. PMID:27049953

  1. Development of Ground and Remotely Based Evaporation Measurements at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, S. K.; Tyler, S. W.; Menz, S. F.; Muñoz, J. F.; Astete, C. O.

    2001-12-01

    Evaporation represents an important component of the water budget in desert playa lakes, and accurate spatial and temporal assessment of evaporation rates has the potential to greatly improve the accuracy of hydrologic models in such environments. To this end, evaporation at the Salar de Atacama, a large playa in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, has been examined at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Previous investigators have measured evaporation from the Salar using lysimeters and Bowen Ratio stations and have found that actual evaporation rates in much of the playa are extremely low (<10 mm yr-1), in spite of shallow groundwater. Lake-scale evaporation can, however, be difficult to determine based solely on such point measurements, as evaporation rates may vary spatially as a function of water depth, crust type and vegetation. In this study, eddy correlation techniques have been used to validate and expand the database of evaporation rates on the playa surface. These evaporation rates in conjunction with measurements of meteorological parameters and other components of the land surface energy balance allow determination of evaporation rates using remotely sensed images. Thermal and visible near infrared bands from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Radiation radiometer (ASTER) on Terra I are being used to determine ground surface temperature, emissivity and albedo, values which are implemented into a numerical energy balance model to extrapolate evaporation rates over the entire playa surface. Preliminary results of evaporation and energy budget measurements taken during the first field campaign at the Salar are presented along with an assessment of the ability of ASTER imagery to provide accurate measurements of evaporation rates in playa environments.

  2. Comparison of cadmium concentrations in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry fed different commercial feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Maage, A. )

    1990-05-01

    There has been a tremendous growth of the Norwegian fish farming industry from a production of 7,500 tons of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in 1980 to a production of about 90,000 tonnes (mostly salmon) in 1988. The great economic value of this production has also led to interest in any toxic substance that could possibly reduce fish growth and/or impair fish health. In this study the concentration of cadmium in four commercial feeds for salmon fry and the cadmium concentration in the growing fry fed these diets were studied.

  3. Geochemistry of Bolivian salars, Lipez, southern Altiplano: Origin of solutes and brine evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Risacher, F. ); Fritz, B. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper focuses on poorly understood processes related to saline lakes, or salars, of the southern Bolivian Altiplano. A morphologic classification system is described, and the origin of solutes in the inflow waters is discussed. Next, the actual chemical evolution of these inflow waters is compared with their theoretical evolution based on thermodynamic equilibria. The water chemistry of a specific sequence of evaporating waters is then scrutinized to determine which processes are responsible for a significant discrepancy which is apparent between the measured and the calculated evolution.

  4. Effects of environmental fluctuations on fish metabolism: Atlantic salmon Salmo salar as a case study.

    PubMed

    Enders, E C; Boisclair, D

    2016-01-01

    Using Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr as study species, recent findings are summarized on how (1) diurnal variations in water temperature affects standard metabolic rate, (2) shelter may reduce routine metabolic rate and (3) fluctuations of water speed affect the costs of activity. The results suggest that the accuracy of bioenergetics models can be hampered if the effects of environmental fluctuations are omitted. Incorporating environmental fluctuations into estimates and models of fish metabolism will not only improve the accuracy of energy budget calculations, but also have crucial management implications for conservation and improve the capacity to predict effects of climate change. PMID:26577543

  5. `In free fall'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that's a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and physics in a challenging book `In free fall' [2]. A good friend of hers, Bettina Bruinier, has put the core message of the book into a compelling play in the `Volkstheater' in Munich [1]. Yes, it can be done.

  6. Saxon Falls Dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.M.; Quist, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Saxon Falls Hydro Project is a high-head hydro owned and operated by Northern States Power Company (NSP) in northwest Wisconsin. Saxon Falls comprises a concrete buttress overflow spillway; mass-concrete tainter gate spillway, conduit intake, and nonoverflow section; earth dam; 1,600-foot-long, 72-inch-diameter steel conduit; two 150-foot-long, 54-inch-diameter penstocks; steel surge tank; and reinforced concrete powerhouse. All structures are founded on bedrock. Engineering inspections revealed severe concrete deterioration and leakage within the intake and deterioration of the middle nonoverflow section. Subsequent to the inspection, concrete cores confirmed the level of deterioration and indicated that immediate measures were necessary to correct the deficiencies and restore project integrity. Because the dam is located on the border between Michigan and Wisconsin, coordination with the respective Departments of Natural Resources was crucial to obtain permits to construct the repairs. Due to concerns regarding a sensitive fishery, a reservoir drawdown was not allowed. To accomplish the work and allow for a suitable construction area, a special braced sheetpile cofferdam was required to complete the project. NSP elected to complete the construction using its own special-construction crews. Close coordination allowed construction personnel, the owner, and the engineer to overcome difficulties encountered during construction.

  7. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident. PMID:26983186

  8. 50 CFR 226.217 - Critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... as defined by the ordinary high-water line (33 CFR 329.11). In areas where the ordinary high-water... Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). 226.217 Section 226.217 Wildlife...

  9. 50 CFR 226.217 - Critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... as defined by the ordinary high-water line (33 CFR 329.11). In areas where the ordinary high-water... Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). 226.217 Section 226.217 Wildlife...

  10. A Review of Factors Influencing Maturation of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar with Focus on Water Recirculation Aquaculture System Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maturation of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is an extremely complex process, particularly in aquaculture systems, with many variables (known or otherwise) having the capacity to influence the timing and prevalence of maturation, and acting as promoters and/or inhibitors of sexual development. The vast...

  11. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  12. [Falls in patients with dementia].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-11-01

    People with cognitive impairment are at about 2 to 3 times higher risk of falling compared with cognitively intact elderly. Incidence of falls among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is high, nevertheless the clinical feature common in patients with mild to moderate AD is the absence of motor impairment. Recent studies suggest that the divided attention markedly impairs the ability of patients with AD to regulate the gait. Falls are particularly common in Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients and may aid diagnosis, and the falls are associated with parkinsonism and other unclear factors. Treatment studies evaluating fall reduction strategies in dementia patients are a priority. PMID:18974447

  13. Ancient and Modern Salars of the Atacama Desert, Chile: A Terrestrial Analog for Evaporite Formation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungers, M. C.; Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.; Edwards, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The hyperarid (< 2 mm/yr MAP) Atacama Desert of northern Chile is a widely accepted terrestrial analog for the surface of Mars. Sulfate and chloride deposits are present in uncommonly high abundances throughout the Atacama. The formation and preservation of these evaporite deposits are a direct result of the arid-hyperarid climate of the region from the Triassic to the present. Mars, too, is known for a long history of aridity. Remotely sensed data from THEMIS, TES, and analyses conducted during Mars landing missions have revealed the presence of sulfate and chloride deposits covering some portions of Mars’ surface. We synthesize remotely sensed (ASTER) data from the Atacama with field observations and sample analyses by laboratory thermal spectroscopy and portable XRF to inform how best to interpret signatures of sulfate and chloride deposits on Mars. We focus on two salars, one ancient (Salar de Llamara) and one modern (Salar de Atacama), to better understand how evaporites’ spectral and geochemical signatures may evolve through time. The oldest deposits of the Salar de Llamara are Miocene in age, while the Salar de Atacama continues to develop today. Compositionally, both salars’ surfaces are dominated by sulfate (gypsum and anhydrite) and chloride (halite) deposits. We selected sample sites according to compositional boundaries inferred from decorrelation stretches of thermal infrared (TIR) ASTER bands supplemented by previous field reconnaissance. We collected surface samples along transects from the core of the salars to their shorelines, intersecting zones ranging from predominantly sulfate or chloride to near equal mixtures of each composition. This transect approach to sampling allowed us to collect samples that incorporated a range of both geochemical compositions and processes fundamental to the spatial and temporal evolution of evaporite deposits. Preliminary results show promise in refining our ability to identify sulfates and chlorides using lab

  14. Paleoenvironmental records from newly recovered sediment cores at the southeast margin of the Salar de Atacama, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutt, D. F.; Munk, L. A.; Hynek, S. A.; Corenthal, L.; Huff, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    A suite of new cores recovered from recent boreholes in the southeastern margin of the Salar de Atacama, Chile span a modern environmental gradient from distal alluvial fans, groundwater discharge marshes, sulfate-rich playas, saline lagoons, and the halite nucleus of the salar. These same environments are preserved as stratigraphic records of environmental change in the cores. Cores from the salar nucleus are dominated by halite, and similarly alluvial cores provide a poor paleoenvironmental record. However, the cores from the transition zone between the salar margin and the halite nucleus document alluvial, lagoonal, and evaporite environments. Cores near the halite nucleus record inter-bedded carbonate, gypsum, and halite. Finely laminated carbonates inter-bedded with cm-thick halite beds are a target for U-series geochronology. Cores near modern lagoons contain 2-6 m thick diatomites in addition to microbially-mediated carbonate, organic-rich mud, and minor alluvium. The uppermost 20 cm of diatomite deposits are commonly rooted with vascular plant material which is being processed for 14C geochronology. Ignimbrite and tephra deposits are also encountered and will provide important chronological control. The presence and absence of the 3.5-4.0 Ma Tucucaro ignimbrite in various cores documents a complex pattern of subsidence near the salar margin, some areas have accumulated little sediment since its deposition while in other areas the cores likely record only late Pleistocene deposition. Preliminary interpretations of the stratigraphic records within a paleohydrologic context are tenable. The specific control on this paleohydrologic record is likely to be a combination of increased inflow due to wetter climates and migration of the freshwater/brine interface which underlies the margins of the Salar de Atacama. Stratigraphic variations in the lithium content of evaporite minerals is being explored as a potential indicator of water balance. Lithium concentrations

  15. Retrospective analysis of fatal falls.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Preuss, Johanna; Lignitz, Eberhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-05-20

    Fatal falls are frequent and inhomogeneous events and affect every age. The criminalistic classification can often only be done on the basis of extensive investigations and the autopsy results. We retrospectively surveyed 291 cases of fatal falls on which a post-mortem examination had been carried out in the institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bonn and Greifswald. In large part, these cases are falls from height (n=123) and ground-level falls (n=122). These are compared to fatal falls down a stairs (n=46); the analysis is confined to injuries to the cranium. In ground-level falls the injury pattern in falls under the influence of alcohol differs from that of falls with no alcohol in the case history: all injuries are seen in higher relative frequency in casualties after the consumption of alcohol. In falls from height, the previous consumption of alcohol did not influence the injury pattern; the intracranial traumas are seen in decreasing frequency with increasing heights. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present injury patterns and influencing factors like fall heights and alcohol for the different kinds of falls on the basis of our collective and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the subgroups. PMID:20176452

  16. Kinetics of arsenite removal by halobacteria from a highland Andean Chilean Salar

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify arsenite-oxidizing halobacteria in samples obtained from Salar de Punta Negra, II Region of Chile. Seven bacterial isolates, numbered as isolates I to VII, grown in a culture medium with 100 ppm as NaAsO2 (As (III)) were tested. Bacterial growth kinetics and the percent of arsenite removal (PAR) were performed simultaneously with the detection of an arsenite oxidase enzyme through Dot Blot analysis. Results An arsenite oxidase enzyme was detected in all isolates, expressed constitutively after 10 generations grown in the absence of As (III). Bacterial growth kinetics and corresponding PAR values showed significant fluctuations over time. PARs close to 100% were shown by isolates V, VI, and VII, at different times of the bacterial growth phase; while isolate II showed PAR values around 40%, remaining constant over time. Conclusion Halobacteria from Salar de Punta Negra showed promising properties as arsenite removers under control conditions, incubation time being a critical parameter. PMID:23547876

  17. Fast detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Salmo salar serum through MALDI-TOF-MS profiling.

    PubMed

    Olate, Verónica R; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Santos, Leonardo S; Soto, Alex; Araya, Macarena; Oyanedel, Sandra; Díaz, Verónica; Marchant, Vanessa; Rios-Momberg, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a pathogenic bacteria known as the aetiological agent of the salmonid rickettsial syndrome and causes a high mortality in farmed salmonid fishes. Detection of P. salmonis in farmed fishes is based mainly on molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. These techniques are in most of the cases expensive and time consuming. In the search of new alternatives to detect the presence of P. salmonis in salmonid fishes, this work proposed the use of MALDI-TOF-MS to compare serum protein profiles from Salmo salar fish, including experimentally infected and non-infected fishes using principal component analysis (PCA). Samples were obtained from a controlled bioassay where S. salar was challenged with P. salmonis in a cohabitation model and classified according to the presence or absence of the bacteria by real time PCR analysis. MALDI spectra of the fish serum samples showed differences in its serum protein composition. These differences were corroborated with PCA analysis. The results demonstrated that the use of both MALDI-TOF-MS and PCA represents a useful tool to discriminate the fish status through the analysis of salmonid serum samples. PMID:26956387

  18. A quantitative history of precipitation and hydrologic variability for the last 45 ka: Lake Titicaca, Salar de Coipasa and Salar de Uyuni, Peru and Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnery, A.; Baker, P. A.; Coe, M. T.; Fritz, S. C.; Rigsby, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation on the Bolivian/Peruvian Altiplano is dominantly controlled by the South American summer Monsoon (SASM). Over long timescales moisture transport to the Altiplano by the SASM fluctuates in intensity due to precessional insolation forcing as well as teleconnections to millennial scale abrupt temperature shifts in the North Atlantic. These long-term changes in moisture transport have been observed in multiple paleoclimate and paleo-lake level records as advances and retreats of large lakes in the terminal basin (the Salar de Uyuni). Several previous studies using energy/water balance models have been applied to paleoclimate records in attempts to provide quantitative constraints on past precipitation and temperature (P and T). For example, Blodgett et al. concluded that high paleolake stands, first dated at ca. 16,000 cal. yr BP, required P 20% higher and T 5°C colder than modern. We expand on this work conducting two experiments. The first uses a latitudinal paleohydrologic profile to reconstruct hydrological history. The second uses a terrestrial hydrology model (THMB) to "predict" lake level given changes in P and T. The profile is constructed using records from Lake Titicaca (LT), Salar de Coipasa (SC) and Salar de Uyuni (SU). LT carbonate and diatom records indicate a deep, overflowing lake for much of the last 100 ka with a distinct dry, closed-basin phase in the early to mid Holocene. A continuous sediment core from SC indicates lake level fluctuations between deep and shallow phases for the last 45 ka. A natural gamma radiation log from SU, where large paleolakes alternated with shallow salt pans characteristic of drier and/or warmer periods, shows alternation between wet and dry phases through time. These three records give evidence to the complex nature of Altiplano hydrology, most notably the ability to sustain lakes in the SC basin while exhibiting dry conditions in SU. For the second experiment, THMB, which estimates water balance and

  19. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls and Older Adults How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... healthy and happy. There are simple ways to prevent most falls. "Injuries from falls are a major ...

  20. Tailored Prevention of Inpatient Falls

    PubMed Central

    ZUYEV, LYUBOV; BENOIT, ANGELA N.; CHANG, FRANK Y.; DYKES, PATRICIA C.

    2011-01-01

    Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

  1. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  2. Measurement of SO2 and BrO at Lastarria, Lascar, and Salar de Atacama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinger, Florian; Osorio, Matias; Gliß, Jonas; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Platt, Ulich; Frins, Erna; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In November 2014 the 12th CCVG (Commission of the Chemistry of Volcanic Gases) gas workshop took place in Northern Chile. Subject of the field trips were Lastarria (25°10' S, 68°30' W) and Lascar (23°22' S, 67°43' W), both stratovolcanoes with a height of 5700 and 5600 a.s.l., respectively. One of the goals was to investigate the SO2 and BrO emissions of these volcanoes by remote-sensing using Multi-AXial Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). The used 'mini MAX-DOAS' instrument measures scattered solar UV radiation recording spectra within a wavelength range of 294-437 nm and with a spectral resolution of 0.9 nm. The instrument took spectra sequentially at various elevation angles scanning the sky from horizon to zenith. The scanning geometry was adapted to each measurement location. At Lastarria volcano we observed SO2 slant column densities (SCDs) in the order of 1018 molecules/cm2 and BrO SCDs up to 5 - 1013 molecules/cm2. At Lascar volcano we observed SO2 SCDs up to 4 - 1017 molecules/cm2 but no significant BrO absorption features (in a preliminary evaluation). We will present SO2 fluxes and upper detection limits of BrO, and present maxima BrO/SO2 ratios of Lastarria and Lascar. Those ratios will be compared to BrO/SO2 ratios of other - previously studied - Andean volcanoes (e.g. Villarica). Furthermore, we measured the SO2 and BrO SCDs above the Salar de Atacama (23°30' S, 68°15' W), a salt pan with an area of 3000 km2. Spectra were taken in a direction where the Salar de Atacama has an extension of about 50 km and no other obvious emission sources were contributing to the SO2 and BrO absorption signals. At the Salar de Atacama we observed SO2 SCDs up to 2 - 1017 molecules/cm2 and BrO SCDs of up to 7 - 1013 molecules/cm2.

  3. Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern Salar de Atacama Basin, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pananont, P.; Mpodozis, C.; Blanco, N.; Jordan, T. E.; Brown, L. D.

    2004-12-01

    Since 90 Ma, the nonmarine Salar de Atacama Basin has been the largest, deepest, and most persistent sedimentary basin of northern Chile. Integration of 200 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection data with surface geological data clarifies Oligocene and Neogene evolution of the northern part of the basin. A normal fault with 6 ± 1 km of vertical separation controlled the western boundary of the basin during the accumulation of the Oligocene-lower Miocene Paciencia Group. The combination of this structure, a similar one in the Calama Basin, and regional structural data suggests that localized extension played an important role within a tectonic environment dominated by margin-perpendicular compression and margin-parallel strike-slip deformation. Seismic data substantiate the surface interpretation that much of the Cordillera de la Sal ridge resulted from diapiric flow of the Paciencia Group. Diapiric flow initiated during the late early Miocene or middle Miocene, associated with a deep reverse fault.

  4. Vibrio viscosus in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Scotland: field and experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Bruno, D W; Griffiths, J; Petrie, J; Hastings, T S

    1998-11-30

    Winter mortality occurred in market-sized (2 to 3 kg) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reared in sea cages in Scottish waters. Many of the fish had skin ulcers. Internally prominent dark-brown petechiae or ecchymotic haemorrhage was observed. Splenomegaly was associated with congestion and widespread necrosis. A Vibrio sp. was isolated from internal organs. Biochemically isolates of the bacterium were similar to a previously described bacterium, Vibrio viscosus, recorded in a phenotypic study from farmed salmon in Norway. This work examines the occurrence of V. viscosus in marine-reared Atlantic salmon for the first time in Scottish waters. An experimental study reproduced the field observations and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. The histopathology associated with natural infection was compared with that in laboratory-infected fish. PMID:9891731

  5. Not Just a Fall Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Hewes, Kathy A.

    2004-01-01

    Trees burst with color in the northern states. Autumn leaves dust the ground. Painting the fall landscape is nothing new. Teachers have been doing it in classrooms for decades. The approach, however, can make the difference between whether the fall landscape is simply painting for fun, or a real learning experience. Students learn best when they…

  6. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

    2014-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address. PMID:25046016

  7. Salares versus coastal ecotypes of quinoa: Salinity responses in Chilean landraces from contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Karina B; Aloisi, Iris; Del Duca, Stefano; Canelo, Valentina; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Silva, Herman; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly salt-tolerant species subdivided into five ecotypes and exhibiting broad intra-specific differences in tolerance levels. In a greenhouse study, Chilean landraces belonging either to the salares (R49) or coastal lowlands (VI-1, Villarrica) ecotype with contrasting agro-ecological origins were investigated for their responses to high salinity. The effects of two levels of salinity, 100 (T1) and 300 (T2) mM NaCl, on plant growth and on some physiological parameters were measured. Leaf and root Na(+) accumulation differed among landraces. T2 reduced growth and seed yield in all landraces with maximum inhibition relative to controls in R49. Salinity negatively affected chlorophyll and total polyphenol content (TPC) in VI-1 and Villarrica but not R49. Germination on saline or control media of seeds harvested from plants treated or not with NaCl was sometimes different; the best performing landrace was R49 insofar as 45-65% of seeds germinated on 500 mM NaCl-containing medium. In all landraces, average seedling root length declined strongly with increasing NaCl concentration, but roots of R49 were significantly longer than those of VI-1 and Villarrica up to 300 mM NaCl. Salt caused increases in seed TPC relative to controls, but radical scavenging capacity was higher only in seeds from T2 plants of R49. Total SDS-extractable seed proteins were resolved into distinct bands (10-70 kDa) with some evident differences between landraces. Salt-induced changes in protein patterns were landrace-specific. The responses to salinity of the salares landrace are discussed in relation to its better adaptation to an extreme environment. PMID:26841266

  8. Photoperiod control of downstream movements of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Stich, Daniel S.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first direct observations that photoperiod controls the initiation of downstream movement in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts. Under simulated natural day length (LDN) conditions and seasonal increases in temperature, smolts increased their downstream movements five-fold for a period of 1 month in late spring. Under the same conditions, parr did not show changes in downstream movement behaviour. When given a shortened day length (10L:14D) beginning in late winter, smolts did not increase the number of downstream movements. An early increase in day length (16L:8D) in late winter resulted in earlier initiation and termination of downstream movements compared to the LDN group. Physiological status and behaviour were related but not completely coincident: gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in all treatments and thyroid hormone was elevated prior to movement in 16L:8D treatment. The most parsimonious model describing downstream movement of smolts included synergistic effects of photoperiod treatment and temperature, indicating that peak movements occurred at colder temperatures in the 16L:8D treatment than in LDN, and temperature did not influence movement of smolts in the 10L:14D treatment. The complicated interactions of photoperiod and temperature are not surprising since many organisms have evolved to rely on correlations among environmental cues and windows of opportunity to time behaviours associated with life-history transitions. These complicated interactions, however, have serious implications for phenological adjustments and persistence ofS. salar populations in response to climate change.

  9. Cenozoic subsurface stratigraphy and structure of the Salar de Atacama Basin, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. E.; Mpodozis, C.; Muñoz, N.; Blanco, N.; Pananont, P.; Gardeweg, M.

    2007-02-01

    Sequence mapping of industry seismic lines and their correlation to exposed stratigraphic formations enable a description of the evolution of the nonmarine Salar de Atacama Basin. This major tectonic basin, located in the present-day forearc of the northern Chilean Andes, was first defined topographically by late Cretaceous inversion of the Jurassic-early Cretaceous extensional Tarapacá backarc Basin. Inversion led to both the uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko and subsidence of the Salar de Atacama Basin along its eastern flank. The basin evolved from a continental backarc in the Cretaceous and Paleogene to a forearc tectonic setting during the Neogene. The principal causes of basin-scale tectonic subsidence include late Cretaceous and earliest Paleocene shortening and Oligocene-early Miocene localized extension. The basin was not completely filled by late Cretaceous (Purilactis Group, sequence G) and Paleocene (sequence H) strata, and its empty space persisted through the Cenozoic. Eocene deformation caused long-wavelength rotation of a deeply weathered surface, generating an erosional unconformity across which coarse clastic strata accumulated (sequence J). Oligocene-early Miocene normal faulting, perhaps in a transtensional environment, repositioned the western basin margin and localized hangingwall subsidence, leading to the accumulation of thousands of meters of evaporitic strata (sequence K, Paciencia Group). By the close of the early Miocene, shortening resumed, first uplifting the intrabasinal Cordillera de la Sal and later generating Pliocene blind reverse faults within the topographically lowest part of the basin. Unequal deposition and tilting across the nascent Cordillera de la Sal induced diapirism of the Paciencia Group halite. In combination, inherited accommodation space and new tectonic subsidence, plus local salt-withdrawal subsidence, shaped the distribution of Upper Miocene-Recent ignimbrites, evaporites, and clastics (sequence M and Vilama

  10. A review of the likely effects of climate change on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta, with particular reference to water temperature and flow.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reviews the effects of water temperature and flow on migrations, embryonic development, hatching, emergence, growth and life-history traits in light of the ongoing climate change with emphasis on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta. The expected climate change in the Atlantic is for milder and wetter winters, with more precipitation falling as rain and less as snow, decrease in ice-covered periods and frequent periods with extreme weather. Overall, thermal limits for salmonids are species specific. Scope for activity and growth and optimal temperature for growth increase with temperature to an optimal point before constrain by the oxygen content of the water. The optimal temperature for growth decreases with increasing fish size and varies little among populations within species, whereas the growth efficiency may be locally adapted to the temperature conditions of the home stream during the growth season. Indirectly, temperature influences age and size at smolting through its effect on growth. Time of spawning, egg hatching and emergence of the larvae vary with temperature and selective effects on time of first feeding. Traits such as age at first maturity, longevity and fecundity decrease with increasing temperature whilst egg size increases with temperature. Water flow influences the accessibility of rivers for returning adults and speed of both upstream and downstream migration. Extremes in water flow and temperature can decrease recruitment and survival. There is reason to expect a northward movement of the thermal niche of anadromous salmonids with decreased production and population extinction in the southern part of the distribution areas, migrations earlier in the season, later spawning, younger age at smolting and sexual maturity and increased disease susceptibility and mortality. Future research challenges are summarized at the end of the paper. PMID:20738500

  11. Automatic fall detectors and the fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Brownsell, Simon; Hawley, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of automatic fall detection units on the fear of falling. Participants were community alarm users living in the community aged over 75 years or those aged 60-74 years who had experienced a fall in the previous six months. Of those approached, 31% consented to take part; the main reason given for potential participants declining involvement was that they were happy with the technology they already had. Subjects were assigned to a control group (n = 21) or intervention group (n = 34) based on age, the number of self-reported falls in the previous six months and their score on the self-administered Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), which measures fear of falling on a scale of 0-100, with higher scores indicating less fear. The monitoring period lasted a mean of 17 weeks (SD 3.1). There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their mean ratings of fear of falls (40.3 vs 37.5, difference 2.8, 95% CI 6.2 to 11.8), health-related quality of life or morale. Differences in fear of falling between an intervention subgroup who wore their detector at least occasionally (62%) and those who did not (38%) suggested that some people may benefit from a fall detector while others may lose confidence if they are provided with one. Most users who wore their detectors at least occasionally felt more confident and independent and considered that the detector improved their safety. PMID:15494083

  12. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  13. Trans-generational maternal effect: temperature influences egg size of the offspring in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2016-08-01

    Effect of increased temperature during egg maturation on the mass of single eggs produced by the offspring was investigated experimentally in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Mass of eggs produced by next-generation females was larger when their mothers experienced warmer water during the last two months of egg maturation, relative to those that experienced unheated river water. There was no similar trans-generational paternal effect on offspring egg mass. PMID:27350311

  14. A primary phosphorus-deficient skeletal phenotype in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: the uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Witten, P E; Owen, M A G; Fontanillas, R; Soenens, M; McGurk, C; Obach, A

    2016-02-01

    To understand the effect of low dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, a primary P deficiency was induced in post-smolts. The dietary P provision was reduced by 50% for a period of 10 weeks under controlled conditions. The animal's skeleton was subsequently analysed by radiology, histological examination, histochemical detection of minerals in bones and scales and chemical mineral analysis. This is the first account of how a primary P deficiency affects the skeleton in S. salar at the cellular and at the micro-anatomical level. Animals that received the P-deficient diet displayed known signs of P deficiency including reduced growth and soft, pliable opercula. Bone and scale mineral content decreased by c. 50%. On radiographs, vertebral bodies appear small, undersized and with enlarged intervertebral spaces. Contrary to the X-ray-based diagnosis, the histological examination revealed that vertebral bodies had a regular size and regular internal bone structures; intervertebral spaces were not enlarged. Bone matrix formation was continuous and uninterrupted, albeit without traces of mineralization. Likewise, scale growth continues with regular annuli formation, but new scale matrix remains without minerals. The 10 week long experiment generated a homogeneous osteomalacia of vertebral bodies without apparent induction of skeletal malformations. The experiment shows that bone formation and bone mineralization are, to a large degree, independent processes in the fish examined. Therefore, a deficit in mineralization must not be the only cause of the alterations of the vertebral bone structure observed in farmed S. salar. It is discussed how the observed uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization helps to better diagnose, understand and prevent P deficiency-related malformations in farmed S. salar. PMID:26707938

  15. A primary phosphorus‐deficient skeletal phenotype in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: the uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Owen, M. A. G.; Fontanillas, R.; Soenens, M.; McGurk, C.; Obach, A.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effect of low dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, a primary P deficiency was induced in post‐smolts. The dietary P provision was reduced by 50% for a period of 10 weeks under controlled conditions. The animal's skeleton was subsequently analysed by radiology, histological examination, histochemical detection of minerals in bones and scales and chemical mineral analysis. This is the first account of how a primary P deficiency affects the skeleton in S. salar at the cellular and at the micro‐anatomical level. Animals that received the P‐deficient diet displayed known signs of P deficiency including reduced growth and soft, pliable opercula. Bone and scale mineral content decreased by c. 50%. On radiographs, vertebral bodies appear small, undersized and with enlarged intervertebral spaces. Contrary to the X‐ray‐based diagnosis, the histological examination revealed that vertebral bodies had a regular size and regular internal bone structures; intervertebral spaces were not enlarged. Bone matrix formation was continuous and uninterrupted, albeit without traces of mineralization. Likewise, scale growth continues with regular annuli formation, but new scale matrix remains without minerals. The 10 week long experiment generated a homogeneous osteomalacia of vertebral bodies without apparent induction of skeletal malformations. The experiment shows that bone formation and bone mineralization are, to a large degree, independent processes in the fish examined. Therefore, a deficit in mineralization must not be the only cause of the alterations of the vertebral bone structure observed in farmed S. salar. It is discussed how the observed uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization helps to better diagnose, understand and prevent P deficiency‐related malformations in farmed S. salar. PMID:26707938

  16. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions. PMID:26394864

  17. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  18. Does size matter? A test of size-specific mortality in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts tagged with acoustic transmitters.

    PubMed

    Newton, M; Barry, J; Dodd, J A; Lucas, M C; Boylan, P; Adams, C E

    2016-09-01

    Mortality rates of wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters were assessed to determine if mortality was size dependent. The routinely accepted, but widely debated, '2% transmitter mass: body mass' rule in biotelemetry was tested by extending the transmitter burden up to 12·7% of body mass in small [mean fork length (LF ) 138·3 mm, range 115-168 mm] downstream migrating S. salar smolts. Over the short timescale of emigration (range 11·9-44·5 days) through the lower river and estuary, mortality was not related to S. salar size, nor was a relationship found between mortality probability and transmitter mass: body mass or transmitter length: LF ratios. This study provides further evidence that smolt migration studies can deviate from the '2% rule' of thumb, to more appropriate study-specific measures, which enables the use of fishes representative of the body size in natural populations without undue effects. PMID:27352823

  19. Water discharge affects Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt production: a 27 year study in the River Orkla, Norway.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, N A; Diserud, O H; Jensen, A J; Jensås, J G; Johnsen, B O; Ugedal, O

    2015-01-01

    A model that explains 48% of the annual variation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt production in the River Orkla, Norway, has been established. This variation could be explained by egg deposition, minimum daily discharge during the previous winter and minimum weekly discharge during the summer 3 years before smolt migration. All coefficients in the model were positive, which indicates that more eggs and higher minimum discharge levels during the winter before smolt migration and the summer after hatching benefit smolt production. Hence, when the spawning target of the river is reached, the minimum levels of river discharge, in both winter and summer, are the main bottlenecks for the parr survival, and hence for smolt production. The River Orkla was developed for hydropower production in the early 1980s by the construction of four reservoirs upstream of the river stretch accessible to S. salar. Although no water has been removed from the catchment, the dynamics of water flow has been altered, mainly by increasing discharges during winter and reducing spring floods. In spite of the higher than natural winter discharges, minimum winter discharge is still a determinant of smolt production. Hence, in regulated rivers, the maintenance of discharges to ensure that they are as high as possible during dry periods is an important means of securing high S. salar smolt production. PMID:25418585

  20. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing ... and easily. Do not hold your breath. Balance exercises You can do some balance exercises during everyday ...

  1. Highlights of 2012 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This past December the streets of San Francisco, Calif., surrounding the Moscone Center were awash with a sea of Earth and space scientists attending the 45th consecutive AGU Fall Meeting, eager to share and expand their knowledge "for the benefit of humanity." As it has for many years, attendance at AGU's Fall Meeting—the largest gathering of Earth and space scientists in the world—continued to increase, this year passing the 24,000 mark. Attendees at the meeting, which took place on 3-7 December 2012, hailed from 97 countries; nearly 7000 of them were students. News from the Fall Meeting was carried in newspapers and on Web sites around the world, and the social media sphere lit up with talk of AGU and the Fall Meeting. It's even reported that for a short time we were a trending topic on Twitter.

  2. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  3. Fall prevention in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Summary Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment

  4. Catching a Falling Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry of thermal springs in saline salar-like environments in the High Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos Durán, L. V.; Reich, M.; Achurra, L.; Morata, D.

    2014-12-01

    Evaporitic deposits and precipitates represent significant sinks of mobile cations (Li, As, B) and halides (Cl, I) in salar-like basin environments along the Andean volcanic belt in northern Chile. Li and B are particularly interesting because of their high concentrations in evaporitic minerals and geothermal waters in the region. Although these compositional features have been previously recognized in high-altitude salt lakes in northern Chile, the nature and extent of mixing processes between true evaporitic and geothermal endmembers in such environments is poorly understood. In a context where geothermal targeting methods need to be increasingly precise, a clearer understanding of what controls the localization of concealed geothermal resources is a prerequisite for more efficient exploration. Therefore, it is necessary to constrain surface saline inputs that can mask the deep imprints of the geothermal reservoir. On this basis, northern Chile offers a unique opportunity to test these features due to the large number of evaporitic closed basins containing thermal springs. To date, only a very limited number of studies have reported trace element concentrations and B, Li and Sr isotopes in salar-like waters aimed at differentiating the relative contributions of both members. In this study, we sampled water from high-altitude lakes with and without surficial thermal activity. This was complemented with geothermal water analyses from northern Chile and previously published data. In addition, we report preliminary dissolution experiments of evaporite minerals (e.g. ulexite, halite, gypsum, aragonite) to pure distilled water. These minerals were taken from two selected hydrological domains, located in the southern and northern part of the Chilean Central Volcanic Zone. Geochemical analyses of water run products from the aforementioned experiments at different temperatures (25 and 87°C, 500 hours of interaction each), confirmed that selected common elements (Cl, Li

  6. [Accidental falls in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W

    2014-06-18

    Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%). PMID:24938159

  7. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  8. Morphological diversity of Paramoeba perurans trophozoites and their interaction with Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., gills.

    PubMed

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Mo, T A; Kolstad, H; Mohammad, S N; Hytterød, S; Powell, M D

    2016-09-01

    Amoebic gill disease (AGD) caused by the ectoparasite Paramoeba perurans affects several cultured marine fish species worldwide. In this study, the morphology and ultrastructure of P. perurans in vitro and in vivo was investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively). Amoebae cultures contained several different morphologies ranging from a distinct rounded cell structure and polymorphic cells with pseudopodia of different lengths and shapes. SEM studies of the gills of AGD-affected Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., revealed the presence of enlarged swellings in affected gill filaments and fusion of adjacent lamellae. Spherical amoebae appeared to embed within the epithelium, and subsequently leave hemispherical indentations with visible fenestrations in the basolateral surface following their departure. These fenestrated structures corresponded to the presence of pseudopodia which could be seen by TEM to penetrate into the epithelium. The membrane-membrane interface contained an amorphous and slightly fibrous matrix. This suggests the existence of cellular glycocalyces and a role for extracellular products in mediating pathological changes in amoebic gill disease. PMID:26775899

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Greenland fishery inferred from mixed-stock analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier-Ouellet, M.; Dionne, M.; Caron, F.; King, T.L.; Bernatchez, L.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-stock fisheries refer to the exploitation of admixed fish stocks coming from different origins. We identified the North American origin of 2835 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Greenland mixed-stock fishery during 11 years (1995-2006) at three localities using 13 microsatellites. The study included 52 baseline populations representing nine genetically distinct regional groups. The contribution of each group ranged from <1% (Maine) to 40% (Southern Qu??bec). Decreasing temporal contributions were observed for Southern Qu??bec (-22.0%) and New Brunswick (-17.4%), whereas an increasing contribution for Labrador (+14.9%) was observed during the time course of the study. The estimated regional contribution to the Greenland fishery was significantly correlated to the number of multi-sea-winter salmon regionally produced in 2002 (r = 0.79) and 2004 (r = 0.92). No difference in contribution was found between the three Greenland sampling localities. Ungava and Southern Qu??bec regions showed the highest mortality estimates caused by the fishery, ranging from 12.10% to 18.08%, for both years tested. No regional group was overrepresented in landings compared with their respective productivity. Yet, management precautions should still be taken as the fishery strongly selects large females, which could have evolutionary impacts on populations over the long term.

  10. Protective oral vaccination against infectious salmon anaemia virus in Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Caruffo, Mario; Maturana, Carlos; Kambalapally, Swetha; Larenas, Julio; Tobar, Jaime A

    2016-07-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a systemic disease caused by an orthomyxovirus, which has a significant economic impact on the production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Currently, there are several commercial ISA vaccines available, however, those products are applied through injection, causing stress in the fish and leaving them susceptible to infectious diseases due to the injection process and associated handling. In this study, we evaluated an oral vaccine against ISA containing a recombinant viral hemagglutinin-esterase and a fusion protein as antigens. Our findings indicated that oral vaccination is able to protect Atlantic salmon against challenge with a high-virulence Chilean isolate. The oral vaccination was also correlated with the induction of IgM-specific antibodies. On the other hand, the vaccine was unable to modulate expression of the antiviral related gene Mx, showing the importance of the humoral response to the disease survival. This study provides new insights into fish protection and immune response induced by an oral vaccine against ISA, but also promises future development of preventive solutions or validation of the current existing therapies. PMID:26994669

  11. Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgren, L. . Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm ); Andersson, T. . Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. . Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. )

    1993-11-01

    In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

  12. Population genomic analyses of early-phase Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) domestication/captive breeding

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Hannu; Vasemägi, Anti; McGinnity, Philip; Cross, Tom F; Primmer, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    Domestication can have adverse genetic consequences, which may reduce the fitness of individuals once released back into the wild. Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) populations are threatened by anthropogenic influences, and they are supplemented with captively bred fish. The Atlantic salmon is also widely used in selective breeding programs to increase the mean trait values for desired phenotypic traits. We analyzed a genomewide set of SNPs in three domesticated Atlantic salmon strains and their wild conspecifics to identify loci underlying domestication. The genetic differentiation between domesticated strains and wild populations was low (FST < 0.03), and domesticated strains harbored similar levels of genetic diversity compared to their wild conspecifics. Only a few loci showed footprints of selection, and these loci were located in different linkage groups among the different wild population/hatchery strain comparisons. Simulated scenarios indicated that differentiation in quantitative trait loci exceeded that in neutral markers during the early phases of divergence only when the difference in the phenotypic optimum between populations was large. This study indicates that detecting selection using standard approaches in the early phases of domestication might be challenging unless selection is strong and the traits under selection show simple inheritance patterns. PMID:25667605

  13. Differential effects of mercurial compounds on the electroolfactogram (EOG) of salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Baatrup, E; Døving, K B; Winberg, S

    1990-12-01

    The effects on the salmon (Salmo salar L.) electroolfactogram (EOG) of the two mercurials, mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercuric chloride (CH3HgCl), were studied. The EOG responses were evoked by stimulating the olfactory epithelium with 340 microM L-alanine for 10 sec every second minute during a 1-hr period. Each EOG response consisted of an initial peak component followed by a sustained component with an amplitude about 40% below the peak value. Three experimental series, each comprising six fish, were carried out. In the first series, the rosette was irrigated solely with artificial "fresh water." In the two other series, a 5-min exposure to mercury (HgCl2 or CH3HgCl, at 10(-5) M) was included after 10 min and a 15-min exposure after 45 min. The mercuric ion (Hg2+) eliminated the peak response within 2 min and suppressed the sustained response to about 35%. During the subsequent irrigation with mercury-free fresh water, both EOG components regained about 50% of their initial amplitudes. In contrast, methylmercury induced a steady and parallel decline of both the peak and the sustained responses, which were not reversed by rinsing the epithelium with fresh water. The results of this study demonstrate the vulnerability of the olfactory receptor function in fish to mercury exposure. Also, they show the very different effects of inorganic and organic mercurials upon the EOG. PMID:2090442

  14. Antigenic and molecular characterization of Vibrio ordalii strains isolated from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile.

    PubMed

    Silva-Rubio, Andrés; Acevedo, Claudia; Magariños, Beatriz; Jaureguiberry, Beltrán; Toranzo, Alicia E; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2008-03-01

    Biochemical, serological and molecular properties of a group of 14 Vibrio ordalii strains isolated from cultured Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile in recent years were studied. The characteristics of isolates were compared with the type strain V. ordalii ATCC 33509T. The Chilean V. ordalii represented a biochemically homogenous group; however, some minor differences with the type strain were observed. The serological relationships among isolates, as well as the study of their antigenic determinant (LPS) revealed a strong reaction with antisera raised against Atlantic salmon strains and the antiserum raised against Listonella anguillarum serotype O2. However, LPS electrophoretic patterns were completely different from the V. ordalii type strain, regardless of the serum employed, suggesting the possibility that the Chilean strains constitute a new serological subgroup within this bacterial species. Genetic analyses by PFGE, RAPD, REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR demonstrated that all V. ordalii strains were genetically homogenous, displaying similar DNA patterns, regardless of the techniques used. Moreover, the analysis of DNA banding patterns generated by ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR also clearly separated the type strain from the Chilean strains. This is the first report of characterization of V. ordalii strains from the Southeastern Pacific area, the results of which should facilitate the development of vaccines for protecting cultured Atlantic salmon against vibriosis in this area. PMID:18429439

  15. Hepatic proteome analysis of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after exposure to environmental concentrations of human pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Miriam; Alonso, Esteban; Aparicio, Irene; Santos, Juan Luis; Leaver, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals are pseudopersistent aquatic pollutants with unknown effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to Acetaminophen: 54.77 ± 34.67; Atenolol: 11.08 ± 7.98, and Carbamazepine: 7.85 ± 0.13 μg·L(-1) for 5 days. After Acetaminophen treatment, 19 proteins were differently expressed, of which 11 were significant with respect to the control group (eight up-regulated and three down-regulated). After Atenolol treatment, seven differently expressed proteins were obtained in comparison with the control, of which six could be identified (four up-regulated and two down-regulated). Carbamazepine exposure resulted in 15 differently expressed proteins compared with the control, with 10 of them identified (seven up-regulated and three down-regulated). Out of these, three features were common between Acetaminophen and Carbamazepine and one between Carbamazepine and Atenolol. One feature was common across all treatments. Principal component analysis and heat map clustering showed a clear grouping of the variability caused by the applied treatments. The obtained data suggest (1) that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceuticals alters the hepatic protein expression profile of the Atlantic salmon; and (2) the existence of treatment specific processes that may be useful for biomarker development. PMID:25394398

  16. Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) in red and melanised foci in white muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Bjørgen, Håvard; Wessel, Øystein; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Hansen, Tom; Sveier, Harald; Sæbø, Håkon Rydland; Enger, Katrine Bones; Monsen, Eirik; Kvellestad, Agnar; Rimstad, Espen; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Melanised focal changes (black spots) are common findings in the white skeletal muscle of seawater-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fillets with melanised focal changes are considered as lower quality and cause large economic losses. It has been suggested that red focal changes (red spots) precede the melanised focal changes. In the present work, we examined different populations of captive and wild salmon for the occurrence of both types of changes, which were investigated for the presence of different viruses by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. The occurrence of red or melanised foci varied significantly between the populations, from none in wild fish control group, low prevalence of small foci in fish kept in in-house tanks, to high prevalence of large foci in farm-raised salmon. Large amounts of Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) antigen were detected in all foci. No other viruses were detected. Red focal changes contained significantly higher levels of PRV RNA than apparently non-affected areas in white muscle of the same individuals. Some changes displayed a transient form between a red and melanised pathotype, indicating a progression from an acute to a chronic manifestation. We conclude that PRV is associated with the focal pathological changes in the white muscle of farmed Atlantic salmon and is a premise for the development of focal melanised changes. PMID:26346256

  17. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  18. Integrating across scales: Effectively applying science for the successful conservation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, M. E.; Parrish, D.L.; Folt, C.L.; DeGraaf, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an excellent species on which to focus synthetic, integrative investigations because it is an economically important species that captures the public imagination, is heavily impacted by humans, uses several ecosystems over its life, and is the subject of a large body of extant literature. The following 24 papers were solicited to provide the biological basis for effective and innovative approaches that biologists, managers, and social scientists can use to develop policies that sustain Atlantic salmon and related species. Together these papers highlight the need for and benefits of (a) synthesizing within populations, (b) choosing the appropriate scale, (c) comparing across populations using rigorous, focused, question-oriented methods, (d) integrating across disciplines, (e) incorporating the human perspective, (f) linking multiple ecosystems, and (g) applied problem solving. To show how Atlantic salmon can guide research and conservation efforts for other species in other systems, we review the justification for the supplement and summarize the defining concepts that emerge from the volume.

  19. Hepatic Proteome Analysis of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) After Exposure to Environmental Concentrations of Human Pharmaceuticals*

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Miriam; Alonso, Esteban; Aparicio, Irene; Santos, Juan Luis; Leaver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are pseudopersistent aquatic pollutants with unknown effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to Acetaminophen: 54.77 ± 34.67; Atenolol: 11.08 ± 7.98, and Carbamazepine: 7.85 ± 0.13 μg·L−1 for 5 days. After Acetaminophen treatment, 19 proteins were differently expressed, of which 11 were significant with respect to the control group (eight up-regulated and three down-regulated). After Atenolol treatment, seven differently expressed proteins were obtained in comparison with the control, of which six could be identified (four up-regulated and two down-regulated). Carbamazepine exposure resulted in 15 differently expressed proteins compared with the control, with 10 of them identified (seven up-regulated and three down-regulated). Out of these, three features were common between Acetaminophen and Carbamazepine and one between Carbamazepine and Atenolol. One feature was common across all treatments. Principal component analysis and heat map clustering showed a clear grouping of the variability caused by the applied treatments. The obtained data suggest (1) that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceuticals alters the hepatic protein expression profile of the Atlantic salmon; and (2) the existence of treatment specific processes that may be useful for biomarker development. PMID:25394398

  20. Experimentally induced marine flexibacteriosis in Atlantic salmon smolts Salmo salar. II. Pathology.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, Rebecca; Carson, Jeremy; Nowak, Barbara

    2011-06-16

    The fish disease marine flexibacteriosis is characterised by necrotic lesions on the body, head, fins, and occasionally gills, with erosive lesions on the external surface as the prominent clinical sign. In Australia, the main species affected are Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in sea-cage culture in Tasmania. Using a dose-dependent trial to determine pathology, 2 forms of the disease were noted in Atlantic salmon. The acute form occurs within 2 to 3 d after inoculation at high doses (1 x 10(8) cells ml(-1)) and is characterised by the disintegration of the epithelium. The chronic form of the disease began as small superficial blisters of the epidermis, which develop into ulcerative lesions that leave musculature exposed. The predominant lesion sites were the dorsum and pectoral fins. Jaws were commonly affected, and gill necrosis was also noted. Behaviour of Atlantic salmon as well as the conditions under which they were kept contribute to the size and distribution of lesions observed. Lack of an inflammatory response in pathology and rapid and destructive mortalities observed in higher inoculum doses suggested a role of toxins in the pathogenesis of Tenacibaculum maritimum. This is the first study to examine the development of marine flexibacteriosis lesions and to utilise immunohistochemistry to verify that the bacteria observed in histology was T. maritimum. PMID:21848120

  1. Experimental induction of gill disease in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts with Tenacibaculum maritimum.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mark; Carson, Jeremy; van Gelderen, Rebecca

    2004-11-01

    An experimentally induced bacterial infection of marine Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt gills was developed using strains of Tenacibaculum maritimum originally isolated from disease outbreaks in Tasmania. The gills of salmon were inoculated with a high concentration of bacteria (4 x 10(11) cells per fish) of either strain 00/3280 or 89/4747 T. maritimum. Gentle abrasion of the gills was used to enhance the progression of gill disease. One strain (00/3280) was highly pathogenic, causing morbidity and mortality within 24 h post-inoculation, and produced acute focal branchial necrosis associated with significant increases in plasma osmolality and lactate concentration compared with controls (non-inoculated) or strain 89/4747-inoculated fish. There were no differences in the whole body net ammonium flux between control (non-inoculated) and strain 00/3820-inoculated fish. Gill abrasion resulted in acute telangiectasis and focal lamellar hyperplasia in all fish regardless of bacterial inoculation. This work provides the basis of a challenge model suitable for investigating the pathophysiological processes associated with acute branchial necrosis in marine fish, suggesting that osmoregulatory and possibly respiratory dysfunction are the primary consequences of infection. PMID:15609873

  2. Experimentally induced marine flexibacteriosis in Atlantic salmon smolts Salmo salar. I. Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, Rebecca; Carson, Jeremy; Nowak, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    Tenacibaculum maritimum causes marine flexibacteriosis in many cultured fish species, including Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Tasmania, Australia. Several aspects of the pathogenicity of this bacterium were investigated in naive Atlantic salmon smolts using different isolates, growth conditions and doses to produce a model of infection. We found that T. maritimum is pathogenic to Atlantic salmon using either marine Shieh's or marine Ordal's culture medium. The use of aeration in broth culture produced a dose effect in challenge due to a 'clumping' of the bacteria during culture. The virulence of a strain appears to be connected with this 'clumping'; the more adherent the cells, the more pathogenic the strain. Differences in virulence between 3 strains was apparent, with 1 of the strains (89/4747) being non-pathogenic and unable to produce disease in the host. The 2 other strains (89/4762, 00/3280) were highly virulent, resulting in 100% mortalities within 3 d. A reproducible model of infection has been established in the present study using strain 89/4762. Results from the present study provide a better insight into the nature of the disease. PMID:21387991

  3. A concept for improving Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt migration past hydro power intakes.

    PubMed

    Fjeldstad, H P; Uglem, I; Diserud, O H; Fiske, P; Forseth, T; Kvingedal, E; Hvidsten, N A; Økland, F; Järnegren, J

    2012-07-01

    In this study, cost effective (in terms of reducing loss of power production) measures for increasing bypass migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar were developed and tested by establishing statistical models for timing of smolt migration and favourable diversion of water to the bypass. Initial tracking of radio-tagged smolts showed very low bypass migration under normal hydropower operations. Bypass migration increased when bypass discharge was experimentally increased and a model was developed that described relationships between total river discharge, bypass diversion and smolt migration route. Further improvements were obtained by installing two strobe lights at the power-production tunnel entrance that increased bypass migration during the night, but not during daytime. According to the behaviour of radio-tagged fish, the implemented measures contributed to increasing the annual percentage of bypass migration from 11 to 64%, and according to model predictions to 60-74% when the hydropower facilities were operated according to the developed models. To ensure correct timing of discharge diversion a smolt migration model was developed based on environmental variables that could successfully predict the general pattern of migration timing. The concept presented for improving smolt migration past hydropower intakes should be applicable in many systems where migration past hydropower installations cannot easily be solved by screening systems. PMID:22803728

  4. Transcriptomic responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to environmental enrichment during juvenile rearing.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melissa L; Hori, Tiago S; Rise, Matthew L; Fleming, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Captive rearing programs (hatcheries) are often used in conservation and management efforts for at-risk salmonid fish populations. However, hatcheries typically rear juveniles in environments that contrast starkly with natural conditions, which may lead to phenotypic and/or genetic changes that adversely affect the performance of juveniles upon their release to the wild. Environmental enrichment has been proposed as a mechanism to improve the efficacy of population restoration efforts from captive-rearing programs; in this study, we examine the influence of environmental enrichment during embryo and yolk-sac larval rearing on the transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Full siblings were reared in either a hatchery environment devoid of structure or an environment enriched with gravel substrate. At the end of endogenous feeding by juveniles, we examined patterns of gene transcript abundance in head tissues using the cGRASP-designed Agilent 4×44K microarray. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) indicated that 808 genes were differentially transcribed between the rearing environments and a total of 184 gene ontological (GO) terms were over- or under-represented in this gene list, several associated with mitosis/cell cycle and muscle and heart development. There were also pronounced differences among families in the degree of transcriptional response to rearing environment enrichment, suggesting that gene-by-environment effects, possibly related to parental origin, could influence the efficacy of enrichment interventions. PMID:25742646

  5. Proteomic analysis of epidermal mucus from sea lice-infected Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Provan, F; Jensen, L B; Uleberg, K E; Larssen, E; Rajalahti, T; Mullins, J; Obach, A

    2013-03-01

    Health diets that contain immunostimulants and other functional ingredients can strengthen the immune response in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and thereby reduce sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infection levels. Such diets can be used to supplement other treatments and will potentially reduce the need for delousing and medication. A sea lice infection trial was conducted on fish with an average weight of 215 g. One control diet and four experimental diets containing functional ingredients were produced. The diets were fed to salmon for 4 weeks before infection with sea lice copepodids. When lice had developed to chalimus III/IV, 88 fish per diet were examined for lice loads. Mucus samples from fish fed the different diets were taken before and after lice infection. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to characterize the protein composition in the epidermal mucus of Atlantic salmon and to identify quantitative alterations in protein expression. Multivariate analysis of the generated data sets was performed to identify protein biomarkers. Putative biomarkers associated with functional feed intake and with sea lice infection have been identified and can form the basis for strategic validation experiments with selected functional feeds. PMID:23305410

  6. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt production: the relative importance of survival and body growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.; Bailey, M.M.; Kinnison, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The complex life history of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) coupled with interacting abiotic and biotic factors leads to extreme demographic variability across the species' range. Our goal was to evaluate the relative importance of survival and body growth in determining smolt production across space and time. We used passive integrated transponder tags and capture-mark-recapture analyses to estimate survival, emigration, and growth for six cohorts of presmolt Atlantic salmon in two streams (three cohorts per stream) in New England, USA. We observed remarkable among-cohort consistency in mean monthly survival during a 17-month period from age-0+ autumn to age-2+ spring yet high variability in monthly survival over shorter time intervals (seasons). Despite this latter variability, survival did not translate into amongcohort differences in proportions of age-2+ versus age-3+ smolts. Alternatively, the high variability across seasons and cohorts in mean individual growth rate did lead to differences in within-cohort proportions of age-2+ versus age-3+ smolts (regardless of stream). We conclude that in our two small study streams, variability in growth and size impacted smolt age and, ultimately, smolt production. Density-dependent effects on growth at the scale of the entire study site represent a possible mechanism underlying our observations.

  7. Differential metabolite levels in response to spawning-induced inappetence in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Rocco C; Smith, McKenzie L; Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Dove, Alistair D M; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-03-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar undergo months-long inappetence during spawning, but it is not known whether this inappetence is a pathological state or one for which the fish are adapted. Recent work has shown that inappetent whale sharks can exhibit circulating metabolite profiles similar to ketosis known to occur in humans during starvation. In this work, metabolite profiling was used to explore differences in analyte profiles between a cohort of inappetent spawning run Atlantic salmon and captively reared animals that were fed up to and through the time of sampling. The two classes of animals were easily distinguished by their metabolite profiles. The sea-run fish had elevated ɷ-9 fatty acids relative to the domestic feeding animals, while other fatty acid concentrations were reduced. Sugar alcohols were generally elevated in inappetent animals, suggesting potentially novel metabolic responses or pathways in fish that feature these compounds. Compounds expected to indicate a pathological catabolic state were not more abundant in the sea-run fish, suggesting that the animals, while inappetent, were not stressed in an unnatural way. These findings demonstrate the power of discovery-based metabolomics for exploring biochemistry in poorly understood animal models. PMID:25668602

  8. Winter growth and survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in experimental raceways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, D.L.; Hawes, E.J.; Whalen, K.G.

    2004-01-01

    We used experimental raceways to determine overwinter mortality of wild-reared immature and mature post-young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Secondarily, we investigated the effects of differing treatments (velocity and shelter) on winter growth and survival. Overall survival from November to April was 94%, and survival of immature (98%) and mature (90%) parr, although statistically different, was very similar. Immature parr grew more in length than mature parr, and both immature and mature parr in higher velocity (12 cm??s-1) raceways grew more than those in lower velocity (0.6 cm??s-1) raceways. Stomach contents were twofold greater in parr occupying higher velocity raceways than those in lower velocity raceways. Caloric content of immature and mature parr did not differ in any of five monthly samples. Lowest caloric content occurred in early February and increased between February and March when water temperatures were well below those considered optimal for growth. Although ice cover was present, isolating parr from conditions that occur in natural settings may have helped parr achieve nearly 2.5 times greater survival than parr in the wild. Further, whereas previous studies showed parr select habitats to minimize energetic loss, our results show a distinct advantage for parr to expend energy to feed during winter. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  9. Biomineralization of carbonates by Marinococcus albus and Marinococcus halophilus isolated from the Salar de Atacama (Chile).

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra, M A; Delgado, G; Soriano, M; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Delgado, R

    1999-07-01

    We studied the precipitation of carbonates in 17 strains of moderately halophilic, Gram-positive cocci belonging to two species: Marinococcus halophilus and Marinococcus albus, isolated from the Salar de Atacama (Chile). They were cultivated in solid and liquid laboratory media for 42 days at salt concentrations (wt/vol) of 3%, 7.5%, 15%, and 20%. The bioliths precipitated were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. M. halophilus formed crystals at each of the salt concentrations, with a maximum number of strains capable of precipitating carbonates at 7.5% and 15% salt concentrations. M. albus did not precipitate at 20% and showed a maximum at 7.5%. This behavior is similar to that of other gram-positive bacteria and differs from that found in gram-negative bacteria. The bioliths precipitated were spherical, generally isolated, with a size of 10-100 microm, varying with salinity. They were of magnesium calcite (CO3 Ca1-x Mgx) with Mg content increasing with increasing salinity and Mg/Ca molar ratio of the culture medium. These results demonstrate the active role played by M. halophilus and M. albus in the precipitation of carbonates. PMID:10387118

  10. Paternal reproductive strategy influences metabolic capacities and muscle development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) embryos.

    PubMed

    Morasse, Sébastien; Guderley, Helga; Dodson, Julian J

    2008-01-01

    Male Atlantic salmon follow a conditional strategy, becoming either "combatants" that undertake a seaward migration and spend at least a year at sea or "sneakers" that remain in freshwater and mature as parr. A variety of physiological indices showed significant but small differences between the offspring of males that use these two reproductive tactics. Offspring fathered by anadromous male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) showed greater muscular development and muscle metabolic capacities but lower spontaneous movements than those fathered by mature male parr. At hatch and at maximum attainable wet weight (MAWW), offspring fathered by anadromous males had higher activities of mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase and citrate synthase) and glycolytic (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) enzymes than progeny of mature male parr. Enzymatic profiles of progeny of anadromous fathers also suggested greater nitrogen excretion capacity (glutamate dehydrogenase) and increased muscular development (creatine kinase and LDH) than in the progeny of mature parr. At MAWW, juveniles fathered by mature parr made considerably more spontaneous movements, presumably increasing their energy expenditures. For juveniles fathered by anadromous males, total cross-sectional areas of white and red muscle at hatch were higher due to the greater number of large-diameter fibers. We suggest that the slightly lower metabolic capacities and muscular development of alevins fathered by mature parr could reflect differences in energy partitioning during their dependence on vitellus. Greater spontaneous movements of offspring of mature male parr could favor feeding and growth after the resorption of the vitellus. PMID:18537471

  11. The ultrastructure of hypersymbionts on the monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris infecting Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Bakke, T A; Cable, J; Ostbø, M

    2006-12-01

    There is increasing pressure to develop alternative control strategies against the pathogen Gyrodactylus salaris, which has devastated wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Norway. Hyperparasitism is one option for biological control and electron microscopy has revealed two ectosymbionts associated with G. salaris: unidentified rod-shaped bacteria, and the protist, Ichthyobodo necator. No endosymbionts were detected. The flagellate I. necator occurred only occasionally on fish suffering costiosis, whereas bacterial infections on the tegument of G. salaris were observed throughout the year, but at variable densities. Bacteria were seldom observed attached to fish epidermis, even when individuals of G. salaris on the same host were heavily infected. Wounds on salmon epidermis caused by the feeding activity of bacteria-infected G. salaris did not appear to be infected with bacteria. On heavily infected gyrodactylids, bacteria were most abundant anteriorly on the cephalic lobes, including the sensory structures, but no damaged tissue was detected by transmission electron microscopy in the region of bacterial adherence. Furthermore, transmission and survival of infected G. salaris on wild salmon did not appear to be influenced by the bacterial infection. The lack of structural damage and impact on G. salaris biology indicates that these bacteria are not a potential agent for control of gyrodactylosis. However, this may not be the case for all gyrodactylid-bacterial interactions and a review of bacterial infections of platyhelminths is presented. PMID:17125547

  12. Falls prevention for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Katrin; Bremer, Martina; Schramm, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Background An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention. Research questions The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years), living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed. Results Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria

  13. Pupil Membership and Related Information. Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamboldt, Martina

    Information used to prepare this report on Colorado's public school enrollment was collected from the state's public school districts. In fall 1996, there were 673,438 students in Colorado's public schools, an increase of 17,159 students (2.6%) over the fall 1995 membership. Membership increased by 9.9% from fall 1992 to fall 1996, and this…

  14. Fall management of eastern gamagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Most extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG recommend avoiding harvest within 6 weeks of first frost. Using this guid...

  15. Student Characteristics Report, Fall 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Community Colleges of Kansas City, MO. Div. of Planning and Development.

    As part of a continuing survey of student population characteristics at the Metropolitan Community Colleges, this report presents questionnaire responses of 14,630 regular credit enrollment students for fall 1976. Twenty-eight tables organize information by campus in terms of: male and female students by part- or full-time status; enrollment…

  16. Student Characteristics Report, Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Community Colleges of Kansas City, MO. Div. of Planning and Development.

    As part of a continuing survey of student characteristics at the Metropolitan Community Colleges, this report presents data from 14,918 regular credit enrollment students for fall 1977 and compares them to data from 1972. For the first time in the district's history, the majority of students (54%) were female, a shift that has only occurred in the…

  17. Student Characteristics Report, Fall, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Community Colleges of Kansas City, MO. Div. of Planning and Development.

    This report provides basic characteristics data for 15,329 students enrolled in the Metropolitan Community Colleges during the fall 1975 semester. Twenty-nine tables organize information by campus in terms of: males/females by part-and full-time status; enrollment by college and day/other; freshmen/sophomores; race and ethnic origin; student age…

  18. New Student Survey, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weglarz, Shirley

    The Fall 1998 annual survey of new Johnson County Community College (JCCC) students was designed to determine new students' educational objectives and what factors influence new students' decisions to attend JCCC. Surveys mailed to 3874 students identified by the Admissions Office resulted in 713 usable returned surveys. This evaluation reports…

  19. Fellows Celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 15 December 2010. President-Elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  20. Fellows celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 14 December 2011, during which President-Elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  1. Fellows celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    The 2012 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 5 December 2012, during which President-elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  2. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  3. Continuing Education Survey, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCalle, James F.; And Others

    In fall 1981, all students attending a continuing education course at Harford Community College (HCC) were asked to complete a survey instrument designed to collect information on student demographics, reasons for attendance, tuition payment, sources of information about the non-credit courses, registration and commuting patterns, satisfaction…

  4. Space Utilization Analysis, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    In an effort to inform space allocation decisions, Gainesville College (GC) in Georgia, undertook a project to analyze classroom usage for fall 1995 and make projections to the year 2000 based on annual enrollment increases of 3%. Factors potentially affecting the use of space were determined to include the following: (1) conversion to the…

  5. Fall Armyworm in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two separate experiments testing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) migration patterns were set up in the southeastern U.S. in 2012. Previous results showed that moths from progeny of overwintering populations from south Texas were found west of the Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola river basin, ...

  6. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret Garden". It provides activity set-ups related to the programs…

  7. Historical record of Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida among sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Coll, J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite restoration efforts, only about 2,000 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) salmon have annually returned to New England Rivers and more than 71% of these fish migrate to the Penobscot River alone. This report provides a historical compilation on the prevalence's of both Yersinia ruckeri, cause of enteric redmouth disease, and Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis, among mature sea-run Atlantic salmon that returned to the Penobscot River from 1976 to 2003. Aeromonas salmonicida was detected in 28.6% and Yersinia ruckeri was detected among 50% of the yearly returns. Consequently, Atlantic salmon that return to the river are potential reservoirs of infection.

  8. Egg-to-fry survival of two strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in stream incubators under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Egg-to-fry survival of two strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in two commercial stream egg incubators. The survival was also examined based on egg developmental stage (i.e., green eggs, eyed egggs, advanced eggs). There was no significant difference in survival of eggs in the Jordan-Scotty and Whitlock-Vibert incubators. However, the survival of Sebago strain Atlantic slamon eggs was significantly higher than that of Penobscot stream eggs, and survival increased with advanced egg developmental stage.

  9. Characterization of Mycobacterium salmoniphilum as causal agent of mycobacteriosis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., from a freshwater recirculation system.

    PubMed

    Aro, L; Correa, K; Martínez, A; Ildefonso, R; Yáñez, J M

    2014-04-01

    Thirty Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., with low corporal condition relative to other fish present in the culture system, were sampled from a freshwater recirculation pisciculture located in Chile. The most characteristic signs and lesions were cachexia and presence of multiple greyish-white granulomas within internal organs. The external and internal lesions, along with the microscopic, histologic and biochemical findings, were consistent with mycobacteriosis. The identification of Mycobacterium salmoniphilum as the causal agent of the lesions was possible through the use of molecular analyses. This study represents the first report of Mycobacterium salmoniphilum in a freshwater recirculation system and the first case of fish mycobacteriosis described in Chile. PMID:23952471

  10. Zygosity at the major histocompatibility class IIB locus predicts susceptibility to Renibacterium salmoninarum in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Turner, S M; Faisal, M; DeWoody, J A

    2007-10-01

    Major histocompatibility (MH) class II genes play an important role in the vertebrate immune response. Here, we investigate the relationship between Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) MH class IIB zygosity and susceptibility to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causal agent of bacterial kidney disease. By combining DNA sequences from the salmon MH class IIB gene with quantitative ELISA data on R. salmoninarum antigen levels, we found that MH class IIB homozygotes were significantly more susceptible to R. salmoninarum than heterozygotes. These findings are discussed in the context of current evolutionary theory. PMID:17627802

  11. Falling Magnets and Electromagnetic Braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culbreath, Christopher; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The slow fall of a rare earth magnet through a copper pipe is a striking example of electromagnetic braking; this remarkable phenomenon has been the subject of a number of scientific paper s [1, 2]. In a pipe having radius R and wall thickness D, the terminal velocity of the falling magnet is proportional to (R̂4)/D. It is interesting to ask what happens in the limit as D becomes very large. We report our experimental observations and theoretical predictions of the dependence of the terminal velocity on pipe radius R for large D. [1] Y. Levin, F.L. da Silveira, and F.B. Rizzato, ``Electromagnetic braking: A simple quantitative model''. American Journal of Physics, 74(9): p. 815-817 (2006). [2] J.A. Pelesko, M. Cesky, and S. Huertas, Lenz's law and dimensional analysis. American Journal of Physics, 3(1): p. 37-39. 2005.

  12. Growth evaluation of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) raised in seawater or freshwater and fed either fishmeal based or marine-free diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A forty week feeding study was conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in two recirculating aquaculture systems. Two identical systems were used and contained either freshwater (0 ppt) or seawater (about 30 ppt). Fish were fed one of two diets, a control diet containing fishmeal and fi...

  13. The impact of water exchange rate and treatment processes on water-borne hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually maturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A controlled seven-month study was conducted in six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) to assess post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) performance in relation to WRAS water exchange rate. Unexpectedly high numbers of precocious sexually mature fish were observed in all WRAS...

  14. Passing a seawater challenge test is not indicative of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts performing as well at sea as their naturally produced conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A J; Berg, M; Bremset, G; Finstad, B; Hvidsten, N A; Jensås, J G; Johnsen, B O; Lund, E

    2016-06-01

    Despite satisfactory reactions to seawater challenge tests indicative of appropriate physiological state, hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts stocked in the Eira River in Norway between 2001 and 2011 performed less well at sea in terms of growth, age at maturity and survival than smolts of natural origin. The mean rates of return to the river for hatchery-reared and naturally produced S. salar were 0·98 and 2·35%. In the Eira River, c. 50 000 hatchery-reared S. salar smolts of local origin were stocked annually to compensate for reduced natural smolt production following regulation for hydroelectric purposes, while a mean of 17 262 smolts were produced naturally in the river. This study demonstrates that, although captive S. salar perform well in seawater challenge tests, hatchery-reared smolts are not necessarily as adaptable to marine life as their naturally produced counterparts. These findings suggest that production of hatchery-reared smolts more similar to naturally produced individuals in morphology, physiology and behaviour will be necessary to improve success of hatchery releases. Where possible, supplementary or alternative measures, including habitat restoration, could be implemented to ensure the long-term viability of wild stocks. PMID:27133912

  15. Investigating the influence of nitrate nitrogen on post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reproductive physiology in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 8-month trial was carried out to assess the effects of NO3-N on a variety of performance and physiological outcomes in post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (initial weight 102 plus or minus 1 g) reared in six replicated laboratory-scale water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Three RAS r...

  16. Potential use of the invasive European green crab (Carcinus maenas) as an ingredient in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) diets; a preliminary analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an important cultured carnivorous species with wide comsumer acceptance. With the finite supply of available fishmeal and fish oil available for aquafeeds, research on and utilization of alternative protein and lipid sources is expandingWe examined the nutritional p...

  17. Production of market-size North American strain Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in a land-based recirculation aquaculture system using freshwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is interest in culturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to market-size in land-based, closed containment systems that use recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), as this technology often enables facilities to locate near major markets, obtain permits, exclude obligate pathogens, and/or reduce en...

  18. Growth evaluation of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) raised in seawater or freshwater and fed either fishmeal based on marine-free diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A forty week feeding study was conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in two recirculating aquaculture systems. Twelve salmon (average initial weight 117 g; initial density 9.4 kg/m3) were stocked per tank. Two identical systems were used and contained either freshwater (0 ppt) or sea...

  19. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  20. Weathering and solute transport to the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, S. A.; Munk, L. A.; Boutt, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Salar de Atacama is situated in a tectonic basin on the Tropic of Capricorn, adjacent to the Central Andean Volcanic Zone in hyper-arid northern Chile. This basin has been hydrographically closed for most, if not all, of the Cenozoic. Since the late Miocene, chemical sediment (primarily halite, but also sulphate) and Na-Cl brines have accumulated. The volume of these deposits provides a constraint on long term average solute fluxes. We have undertaken an extensive multiple isotope study of surface and shallow groundwater in the basin to constrain processes and pathways affecting solute fluxes to the basin. By comparing these inflow waters to brackish waters and brines, we are able to place constraints on modern weathering with the ultimate goal of comparing it to longer term fluxes estimated from the geologic record. The volcanic arc and extensive large volume silicic magma chambers provide potential sources of solutes to the basin which are not a direct result of surficial weathering (hydrothermal waters/magmatic brines). For most freshwater, this possibility is ruled out. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in water provide no strong evidence for high temperature water-rock interaction. Further, the isotopic composition of helium dissolved in groundwater demonstrates that most groundwater carries an atmospheric signal (air saturated water), though some evidence for the influence of magmatic brines is found in shallow groundwater with high concentrations of helium-3, methane, and carbon dioxide. The strontium isotopic composition of waters and brines exhibits geographic variation that is related to at least four sources; 1) weathering of Andean volcanic arc along the eastern margin of the basin (87/86 ratios ~0.708), 2) thermal waters sourced in the northern headwaters of the Río San Pedro and 3) high calcium weathering fluxes from the Cordón de Lila on the southern margin of the basin, both of which have more radiogenic 87/86 ratios than the Andean volcanic arc

  1. Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

    2014-05-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

  2. Effects of feeding and stocking density on digestion of cultured Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guoxiang; Zheng, Jimeng; Liu, Baoliang; Liu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects of feeding rate (0.8%, 1.0%, and 1.2% initial body weight/day), feeding frequency (two, three, and four times/day) and stocking density (10, 15, and 20 kg/m3) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on growth performance, digestion and waste generation of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) were investigated in an 8-week orthogonal experiment (L9(3)3) with a constant daily water renewal at 7.50% of total volume. No mortality occurred during the experimental period. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) varied from 0.90 to 1.13 and specific growth rate (SGR) ranged from 0.48% to 0.69%/day. SGR, thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and FCR were not significantly ( P>0.05) affected by the three factors, while net protein utilization (NPU) was significantly ( P<0.05) affected. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter in the present study were in the range 66.12%-73.55%. ADC in protein, lipid and energy were statistically different among all treatments and in the range of 90.07%-93.67%, 81.54%-89.15%, and 67.55%-71.87%, respectively. The proportion of mean total ammonia nitrogen excreted ranged from 1.37% to 1.64% of feed nitrogen at steady state, and the concentration of nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds were differently correlated to the three factors. The results will provide valuable reference data for culture management decisions in the Atlantic salmon farming industry.

  3. The Impact of Escaped Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) on Catch Statistics in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Green, Darren M.; Penman, David J.; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E.; Taggart, John B.; McAndrew, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

  4. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  5. Tenacibaculum sp. associated with winter ulcers in sea-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Olsen, A B; Nilsen, H; Sandlund, N; Mikkelsen, H; Sørum, H; Colquhoun, D J

    2011-05-01

    Coldwater-associated ulcers, i.e. winter ulcers, in seawater-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. have been reported in Norway since the late 1980s, and Moritella viscosa has been established as an important factor in the pathogenesis of this condition. As routine histopathological examination of winter ulcer cases in our laboratory revealed frequent presence in ulcers of long, slender rods clearly different from M. viscosa, a closer study focusing on these bacteria was conducted. Field cases of winter ulcers during 2 sampling periods, 1996 and 2004-2005, were investigated and long, slender rods were observed by histopathological examination in 70 and 62.5% of the ulcers examined, respectively, whereas cultivation on marine agar resulted in the isolation of yellow-pigmented colonies with long rods from 3 and 13% of the ulcers only. The isolates could be separated into 2 groups, both identified as belonging to the genus Tenacibaculum based on phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing. Bath challenge for 7 h confirmed the ability of Group 1 bacterium to produce skin and cornea ulcers. In fish already suffering from M. viscosa-induced ulcers, co-infection with the Group 1 bacterium was established within 1 h. Ulcers from field cases of winter ulcers and from the transmission experiments tested positive by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antiserum against the Group 1 bacterium but not the Group 2 bacterium. Our results strongly indicate the importance of the Group 1 bacterium in the pathogenesis of winter ulcers in Norway. The bacterium is difficult to isolate and is therefore likely to be underdiagnosed based on cultivation only. PMID:21790066

  6. Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rønnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

    2013-12-14

    In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through an elevated polyamine turnover. Dietary lysine was held at a constant concentration, just below the requirement. All other amino acids were balanced and equal in the diets. Arginine supplementation increased protein and fat accretion, without affecting the hepatosomatic or visceralsomatic indices. Dietary arginine correlated with putrescine in the liver (R 0·78, P= 0·01) and with ornithine in the muscle, liver and plasma (P= 0·0002, 0·003 and 0·0002, respectively). The mRNA of ornithine decarboxylase, the enzyme producing putrescine, was up-regulated in the white adipose tissue of fish fed the high-arginine inclusion compared with those fed the low-arginine diet. Concomitantly, spermidine/spermine-(N1)-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine turnover that consumes acetyl-CoA, showed an increased activity in the liver of fish fed the arginine-supplemented diets. In addition, lower acetyl-CoA concentrations were observed in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet, while ATP, which is used in the process of synthesising spermidine and spermine, did not show a similar trend. Gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was up-regulated in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet. Taken together, the data support that increased dietary arginine activates polyamine turnover and β-oxidation in the liver of juvenile Atlantic salmon and may act to improve the metabolic status of the fish. PMID:23656796

  7. Archaeal diversity along a subterranean salt core from the Salar Grande (Chile).

    PubMed

    Gramain, Audrey; Díaz, Guillermo Chong; Demergasso, Cecilia; Lowenstein, Tim K; McGenity, Terry J

    2011-08-01

    The Salar Grande in the Coastal Range of Northern Chile is a fossil evaporitic basin filled with almost pure halite (95% NaCl average). It is assumed that the basin has not received input of brines since the Pliocene (5.3 to 1.8 million years). Below 1 m the halite has remained undissolved since this time, whereas the upper layer has been dissolved and recrystallized by dripping fogs and occasional rainfall. We compared the archaeal community at different depths using both nested PCR and cultivation. The upper 10 cm of halite crust contained diverse haloarchaeal species, including several from new genera, but their provenance is unknown. For samples deeper in the core, a new and rigorous procedure for chemically sterilizing the surface of single halite crystals was developed. These halite crystals contained only species of the genus Halobacterium (Hbt.). Halobacterium salinarum-like sequences were detected by PCR, and evidence that they were from ancient DNA include: comparison with numerous negative controls; detection of 16S rRNA sequence differences in non-conserved regions, indicating genuine evolutionary mutations rather than PCR-cloning artefacts; independent isolation of Hbt. salinarum from ancient halite; and diverse mechanisms possessed by this species for minimizing radiation damage and thus enhancing its potential for long-term survival. Haloarchaea related to Hbt. noricense were obtained from enrichment cultures from ≈ 0.4 and 15.4 m depth. We investigated Hbt. noricense strain A1 and found that when trapped inside halite crystals its recovery was as rapid after 27 months of entombment as at day 0, faring much better than other extreme halophiles. A biogeographical investigation showed that Hbt. noricense-like organisms were: commonly found in surface-sterilized ancient halite, associated with salt mines, in halite crusts, and, despite a much more intense search, only rarely detected in surface environments. We conclude that some Halobacterium species

  8. The optimum dietary indispensable amino acid pattern for growing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Xavier; Mambrini, Muriel; Abboudi, Tarik; Larondelle, Yvan; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2003-11-01

    To determine the optimum indispensable (I) amino acid (AA) balance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry, a single protocol established for the pig was adapted. The balance was calculated from the reduction in N gain after replacing about 45% of a single IAA by a mixture of dispensable AA in isonitrogenous diets. We confirmed that the mixture of AA simulating the AA pattern of cod-meal protein and gelatine (46:3, w/w) was used with the same efficiency as cod-meal protein and gelatine. From the deletion experiment an optimum balance between the IAA was derived. Expressed relative to lysine = 100, the optimal balance was: arginine 76 (SE 0.2), histidine 28 (SE 2.2), methionine + cystine 64 (SE 1.7), phenylalanine + tyrosine 105 (SE 1.6), threonine 51 (SE 2.4), tryptophan 14 (SE 0.7), valine 59 (SE 1.7). No estimates were made for isoleucine and leucine. Expressed as g/16 g N, the optimal balance was: arginine 4.0 (SE 0.0), histidine 1.5 (SE 0.1), lysine 5.3 (SE 0.2), methionine + cystine 3.4 (SE 0.1), phenylaline + tyrosine 5.6 (SE 0.1), threonine 2.7 (SE 0.1), tryptophan 0.7 (SE 0.0), valine 3.1 (SE 0.1). This AA composition is close to that of the Atlantic salmon whole-body, but using it as an estimation of the IAA requirements may lead to an overestimation of the branched-chain AA requirements and an underestimation of aromatic and S-containing AA requirements. The results are discussed in accordance with the key assumptions associated with the model used (broken-line model, IAA efficiencies and maintenance requirements). PMID:14667180

  9. Identification and characterisation of TLR18-21 genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Lee, P T; Zou, J; Holland, J W; Martin, S A M; Collet, B; Kanellos, T; Secombes, C J

    2014-12-01

    Teleost fish possess many types of toll-like receptor (TLR) some of which exist in other vertebrate groups and some that do not (ie so-called "fish-specific" TLRs). In this study, we identified in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) contigs seven TLRs that are not found in mammals, including six types of fish-specific TLRs (one TLR18, one TLR19, and four TLR20 members (two of which are putative soluble forms (s)) and one TLR21. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that teleost TLR19-21 are closely related with murine TLR11-TLR13, whilst teleost TLR18 groups with mammalian TLR1, 2, 6 and 10. A typical TLR protein domain structure was found in all these TLRs with the exception of TLR20b(s) and TLR20c(s). TLR-GFP expression plasmids transfected into SHK-1 cells showed that salmon TLR19, TLR20a and TLR20d were preferentially localised to the intracellular compartment. Real time PCR analysis suggested that salmon TLR19-TLR21 are mainly expressed in immune related organs, such as spleen, head kidney and gills, while TLR18 transcripts are more abundant in muscle. In vitro stimulation of primary head kidney cells with type I IFN, IFNγ and IL-1β had no impact on TLR expression. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection, in vivo, down-regulated TLR20a, TLR20b(s), TLR20d and TLR21 in infected salmon kidney tissue. In contrast, up-regulation of TLR19 and TLR20a expression was found in posterior kidney in rainbow trout with clinical proliferative kidney disease (PKD). PMID:25450999

  10. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) on catch statistics in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren M; Penman, David J; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; McAndrew, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

  11. Survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts through a hydropower complex.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Bailey, M M; Zydlewski, J D

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt survival through the lower Penobscot River, Maine, U.S.A., and characterized relative differences in proportional use and survival through the main-stem of the river and an alternative migration route, the Stillwater Branch. The work was conducted prior to removal of two main-stem dams and operational changes in hydropower facilities in the Stillwater Branch. Survival and proportional use of migration routes in the lower Penobscot were estimated from multistate (MS) models based on 6 years of acoustic telemetry data from 1669 smolts and 2 years of radio-telemetry data from 190 fish. A small proportion (0·12, 95% c.i. = 0·06-0·25) of smolts used the Stillwater Branch, and mean survival through the two operational dams in this part of the river was relatively high (1·00 and 0·97). Survival at Milford Dam, the dam that will remain in the main-stem of the Penobscot River, was relatively low (0·91), whereas survival through two dams that were removed was relatively high (0·99 and 0·98). Smolt survival could decrease in the Stillwater Branch with the addition of two new powerhouses while continuing to meet fish passage standards. The effects of removing two dams in the main-stem are expected to be negligible for smolt survival based on high survival observed from 2005 to 2012 at those locations. Survival through Milford Dam was been well below current regulatory standards, and thus improvement of passage at this location offers the best opportunity for improving overall smolt survival in the lower river. PMID:25130320

  12. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) dynamics evidence immunomodulation during ISAV-Infected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Aguilar, Andrea; Mackenzie, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for participation in the host response to infection, the roles of many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) remain unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify lncRNAs in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and evaluate their transcriptomic regulation during ISA virus (ISAV) infection, an Orthomyxoviridae virus associated with high mortalities in salmonid aquaculture. Using next-generation sequencing, whole-transcriptome analysis of the Salmo salar response to ISAV infection was performed, identifying 5,636 putative lncRNAs with a mean length of 695 base pairs. The transcriptional modulation evidenced a similar number of differentially expressed lncRNAs in the gills (3,294), head-kidney (3,275), and liver (3,325) over the course of the infection. Moreover, analysis of a subset of these lncRNAs showed the following: (i) Most were similarly regulated in response to ISA virus infection; (ii) The transcript subsets were uniquely modulated in each tissue (gills, liver, and head-kidney); and (iii) A subset of lncRNAs were upregulated for each tissue and time analysed, indicating potential markers for ISAV infection. These findings represent the first discovery of widespread differential expression of lncRNAs in response to virus infection in non-model species, suggesting that lncRNAs could be involved in regulating the host response during ISAV infection. PMID:26939752

  13. Effects of feeding regimes and early maturation on migratory behaviour of landlocked hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Norrgård, J R; Bergman, E; Schmitz, M; Greenberg, L A

    2014-10-01

    The migratory behaviour of hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised under three different feeding regimes was monitored through the lower part of the River Klarälven, Sweden. The smolts were implanted with acoustic transmitters and released into the River Klarälven, 25 km upstream of the outlet in Lake Vänern. Early mature males, which had matured the previous autumn, were also tagged and released. To monitor migration of the fish, acoustic receivers were deployed along the migratory route. The proportion of S. salar that reached Lake Vänern was significantly greater for fish fed fat-reduced feed than for fish given rations with higher fat content, regardless of ration size. Fish from the early mature male group remained in the river to a greater extent than fish from the three feeding regimes. Smolt status (degree of silvering), as visually assessed, did not differ among the feeding regime groups, and moreover, fully-silvered fish, regardless of feeding regime, migrated faster and had a greater migration success than fish with less developed smolt characteristics. Also, successful migrants had a lower condition factor than unsuccessful ones. These results indicate that the migration success of hatchery-reared S. smolts released to the wild can be enhanced by relatively simple changes in feeding regimes and by matching stocking time with smolt development. PMID:25263187

  14. A Polyprotein-Expressing Salmonid Alphavirus Replicon Induces Modest Protection in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Azila; Olsen, Christel M.; Hodneland, Kjartan; Rimstad, Espen

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is an important strategy for the control and prevention of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the post-smolt stage in sea-water. In this study, a heterologous gene expression system, based on a replicon construct of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), was used for in vitro and in vivo expression of IPN virus proteins. The large open reading frame of segment A, encoding the polyprotein NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH, as well as pVP2, were cloned and expressed by the SAV replicon in Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214) and epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. The replicon constructs pSAV/polyprotein (pSAV/PP) and pSAV/pVP2 were used to immunize Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by a single intramuscular injection and tested in a subsequent IPN virus (IPNV) challenge trial. A low to moderate protection against IPN was observed in fish immunized with the replicon vaccine that encoded the pSAV/PP, while the pSAV/pVP2 construct was not found to induce protection. PMID:25606973

  15. Characterization of an Atlantic salmon Salmo salar stream at the southern limit of its eastern Atlantic distribution.

    PubMed

    Costas, N; Alvarez, M; Pardo, I

    2009-12-01

    Ten reaches of an Atlantic stream located in north-west Spain were sampled intensively during one summer to characterize the conditions where Atlantic salmon Salmo salar have been re-introduced along the stream. Fish species richness and diversity showed a downstream increase, which was mainly attributed to the higher number of cyprinid species found in the lower reaches. Moreover, except for brown trout Salmo trutta that appeared to be the most ubiquitous species, the densities of the other species was higher in the lower than in the upper stream reaches. Redundancy analysis showed that the pattern of fish assemblages observed along the studied stream was mainly related to the expected gradient observed in the levels of dissolved oxygen, discharge and mean current speed. There was a significant differentiation between midstream and downstream reaches, both in terms of the composition of their fish assemblages and the freshwater habitat. This study emphasizes the importance of describing the variations in fish assemblages and habitat characteristics along a river to explore its relation to potential changes in the survival of fish populations. In particular, the development of habitat-fish relationships may be a useful tool for water managers to assess the effects of development and restoration projects on the habitat of S. salar. PMID:20738507

  16. Investigations on the effect of high surface albedo on erythemally effective UV irradiance: results of a campaign at the Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Reuder, Joachim; Ghezzi, Flavio; Palenque, Eduardo; Torrez, Rene; Andrade, Marco; Zaratti, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    Measurements and model calculations have been performed to study the effect of high surface albedo on erythemally effective UV irradiance. A central part of the investigation has been a one week measurement campaign at Salar de Uyuni in the Southern part of the Bolivian Altiplano. The Salar de Uyuni, the largest salt lake of the world, is characterized by largely homogeneous surface conditions during most of the year. Albedo measurements performed by an UV radiometer result in a reflectivity for erythemally effective radiation of 0.69+/-0.02. The measurements show hardly any dependency on solar elevation, indicating the homogeneity of the surface and nearly isotropic reflection properties of the Salar. The effects of the high albedo surface on the erythemally effective irradiance, i.e. the UV index (UVI), has been experimentally determined by simultaneous measurements of several UV radiometers located at different sites around and on the Salar. In this context a method for the minimization of systematic deviations between the individual detectors used for the investigation is presented. It ensures the intercomparability of the performed UV measurements within +/-2% which is a distinct improvement compared to the typical absolute accuracy of UV irradiance measurements in the order of +/-5%. For solar elevations around 50 degrees the UVI measured close to the center of the Salar is typically enhanced by 20% compared to the values determined outside. Towards lower solar elevations this increase becomes slightly weaker. The measurements agree well with both, own corresponding 1D and previously published 3D radiative transfer calculations from literature. PMID:17227712

  17. The effect of catch-and-release angling at high water temperatures on behaviour and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar during spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Havn, T B; Uglem, I; Solem, Ø; Cooke, S J; Whoriskey, F G; Thorstad, E B

    2015-08-01

    In this study, behaviour and survival following catch-and-release (C&R) angling was investigated in wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (n = 75) angled on sport fishing gear in the River Otra in southern Norway at water temperatures of 16.3-21.1 °C. Salmo salar were tagged externally with radio transmitters and immediately released back into the river to simulate a realistic C&R situation. The majority of S. salar (91%) survived C&R. Most S. salar that were present in the River Otra during the spawning period 3-4 months later were located at known spawning grounds. Downstream movements (median furthest position: 0.5 km, range: 0.1-11.0 km) during the first 4 days after release were recorded for 72% of S. salar, presumably stress-induced fallback associated with C&R. Individuals that fell back spent a median of 15 days before commencing their first upstream movement after release, and 34 days before they returned to or were located above their release site. Mortality appeared to be somewhat elevated at the higher end of the temperature range (14% at 18-21 °C), although sample sizes were low. In conclusion, C&R at water temperatures up to 18 °C had small behavioural consequences and was associated with low mortality (7%). Nevertheless, low levels of mortality occur due to C&R angling and these losses should be accounted for by management authorities in rivers where C&R is practised. Refinement of best practices for C&R may help to reduce mortality, particularly at warmer temperatures. PMID:26179562

  18. After a fall in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... use a backboard or a lift. Watch the patient closely after the fall. You may need to check the person's alertness, blood pressure and pulse, and possibly blood sugar. Document the fall according to your hospital's policies.

  19. Detecting Falling Snow from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Ben; Munchak, Joe

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earth's surface in order to fully capture the atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations, snow event cloud structures and microphysics, snowflake particle electromagnetic properties, and surface types. In this work, cloud resolving model simulations of a lake effect and synoptic snow event were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W -band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) Ku and Ka band, and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) channels from 10 to 183 plus or minus 7 GHz. Eleven different snowflake shapes were used to compute radar reflectivities and passive brightness temperatures. Notable results include: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM sensors, (2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels, (3) the snowflake microphysics plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments, (4) with reasonable assumptions, "the passive 166 GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to the GPM DPR Ku and Ka band radars with approximately 0.05 g per cubic meter detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1 millimeter per hr. melted snow rate (equivalent to 0.5-2 centimeters per hr. solid fluffy snowflake rate). With detection levels of falling snow known, we can focus current and future retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. We will also have an understanding of the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in the global estimates.

  20. A fully relativistic radial fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.; Ritter, Patxi

    2014-10-01

    Radial fall has historically played a momentous role. It is one of the most classical problems, the solutions of which represent the level of understanding of gravitation in a given epoch. A gedankenexperiment in a modern frame is given by a small body, like a compact star or a solar mass black hole, captured by a supermassive black hole. The mass of the small body itself and the emission of gravitational radiation cause the departure from the geodesic path due to the back-action, that is the self-force. For radial fall, as any other non-adiabatic motion, the instantaneous identity of the radiated energy and the loss of orbital energy cannot be imposed and provide the perturbed trajectory. In the first part of this paper, we present the effects due to the self-force computed on the geodesic trajectory in the background field. Compared to the latter trajectory, in the Regge-Wheeler, harmonic and all others smoothly related gauges, a far observer concludes that the self-force pushes inward (not outward) the falling body, with a strength proportional to the mass of the small body for a given large mass; further, the same observer notes a higher value of the maximal coordinate velocity, this value being reached earlier during infall. In the second part of this paper, we implement a self-consistent approach for which the trajectory is iteratively corrected by the self-force, this time computed on osculating geodesics. Finally, we compare the motion driven by the self-force without and with self-consistent orbital evolution. Subtle differences are noticeable, even if self-force effects have hardly the time to accumulate in such a short orbit.

  1. The 2008 AGU Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    The 2008 AGU Fall Meeting, to be held 15-19 December in San Francisco, is likely to be the largest AGU meeting to date. More than 15,800 presentations are scheduled, and more than 11,000 participants registered prior to the early-bird deadline of 14 November. This year, all oral sessions and the exhibit hall will be in Moscone West, and all poster sessions will be in Moscone North. (The American Society for Cell Biology will be holding its annual meeting in Moscone South.) Meeting attendees will receive general information including an author index, maps, and a list of sessions by discipline, cosponsors, day, time, and location.

  2. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  3. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  4. Pupil Membership and Related Information, Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamboldt, Martina

    This document contains information about student membership in the Colorado public schools as of fall 1997. At that time, there were 687,167 students in Colorado's public schools, an increase of 2.0% over the fall 1996 membership. This increase was greater at the secondary level. Beginning in fall 1990, membership each year has surpassed the…

  5. Imager displays free fall in stop action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled imaging system displays sequence of "frozen" images of free-falling object, using video cameras positioned along fall. Strobe lights flash as object passes each camera's viewfield. Sequence stored on video disk and displayed on television monitor is stop-action record of fall dynamics. With modification, system monitiors other high speed phenomena.

  6. Swan falls instream flow study

    SciTech Connect

    Anglin, D.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Ecklund, A.E.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of the Swan Falls Instream Flow Study was to define the relationship between streamflows and instream habitat for resident fish species and to assess the relative impact of several different hydrographs on resident fish habitat. Specific objectives included the following: (1) Conduct a literature search to compile life history, distribution, and habitat requirements for species of interest. Physical and hydrologic characteristics of the Snake River were also compiled. (2) Determine physical habitat versus discharge relationships and conduct habitat time series analysis for each species/lifestage using the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (3) Examine the impacts on resident fish habitat of proposed hydrographs, including Swan Falls Agreement flows, relative to current conditions. (4) Characterize water quality conditions, including water temperature and dissolved oxygen, in the vicinity of the study area and determine the implications of those conditions for the resident species of interest. (5) Determine streamflows necessary to protect and maintain resident fish habitat in the study area.

  7. Transcriptional changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after embryonic exposure to road salt.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Song, You; Kleiven, Merethe; Mahrosh, Urma; Meland, Sondre; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Teien, Hans-Christian

    2015-12-01

    Road salt is extensively used as a deicing chemical in road maintenance during winter and has in certain areas of the world led to density stratifications in lakes and ponds, and adversely impacted aquatic organisms in the recipients of the road run-off. Aquatic vertebrates such as fish have been particularly sensitive during fertilisation, as the fertilisation of eggs involves rapid uptake of the surrounding water, reduction in egg swelling and in ovo exposure to high road salt concentrations. The present study aimed to identify the persistent molecular changes occurring in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) eggs after 24h exposure to high concentrations (5000 mg/L) of road salt at fertilisation. The global transcriptional changes were monitored by a 60k salmonid microarray at the eyed egg stage (cleavage stage, 255 degree days after fertilisation) and identified a high number of transcripts being differentially regulated. Functional enrichment, pathway and gene-gene interaction analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly associated with toxiciologically relevant processes involved in osmoregulation, ionregulation, oxidative stress, metabolism (energy turnover), renal function and developmental in the embryos. Quantitative rtPCR analysis of selected biomarkers, identified by global transcriptomics, were monitored in the eggs for an extended range of road salt concentrations (0, 50, 100, 500 and 5000 mg/L) and revealed a positive concentration-dependent increase in cypa14, a gene involved in lipid turnover and renal function, and nav1, a gene involved in neuraxonal development. Biomarkers for osmoregulatory responses such as atp1a2, the gene encoding the main sodium/potassium ATP-fueled transporter for chloride ions, and txdc9, a gene involved in regulation of cell redox homeostasis (oxidative stress), displayed apparent concentration-dependency with exposure, although large variance in the control group precluded robust statistical

  8. The Salar Llamara, Chile: A Possible Analogue for Etched Terrain on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.; Jungers, M.; Chong, G.; Demergasso, C.

    2009-12-01

    The “etched terrain” on Mars is reported to consist of mesas, pits, ridges, etc. formed by differential erosion of layered sedimentary deposits (Griffes et al. 2007). Here we present our work on a unique landscape in northern Chile that possesses many of the features of etched terrain on Mars, offering an Earth-based perspective on the eolian and aqueous processes involved in the formation of these landscapes. The Quillagua-Llamar Basin is largely infilled by Miocene to Pliocene aged lacustrine and salt deposits, and likely represented the terminal, and highly saline, facies of an internally drained river system that originated in the Andes (Sáez et al., 1999). This deposition continues more slowly today, with water, sediment and salts delivered to portions of the basin by streams originating to the east. The surficial deposits in the present Salar Llamara consist of a complex of Tertiary to Holocene alluvial fans and nearly pure Tertiary Ca-sulfate and halite outcrops. Ancient sulfate deposits exhibit complex topography with large (eolian?) depressions and modest soil weathering in the largely hyperarid climate. Fluvial deposits have experienced apparent deflation (relative to the coeval sulfate deposits) of several m, have a pronounced stepped topography caused by differential deflation of soil horizons of sulfate, and exhibit an accumulation of dark fluvial gravels and sand in the deflation zones. Most halite outcrops, in contrast, are highly impacted by frequent fog and quickly develop (~ 103 y) a cobbly or “nut like” surface of halite fragments that undergo repeated hydration and dehydration. The halite cobbles are habitats for abundant photosynthesizing organisms. Isolated saline lakes contain unusual stromatolitic structures. Additionally, halite deposits contain occasional sink holes and caves caused by long term aqueous dissolution of the soluble matrix. Satellite imagery, field observations, and geochemical analyses of the surficial deposits will

  9. Genome-wide transcription analysis of histidine-related cataract in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L)

    PubMed Central

    Waagbø, Rune; Breck, Olav; Stavrum, Anne-Kristin; Petersen, Kjell; Olsvik, Pål A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Elevated levels of dietary histidine have previously been shown to prevent or mitigate cataract formation in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). The aim of this study was to shed light on the mechanisms by which histidine acts. Applying microarray analysis to the lens transcriptome, we screened for differentially expressed genes in search for a model explaining cataract development in Atlantic salmon and possible markers for early cataract diagnosis. Methods Adult Atlantic salmon (1.7 kg) were fed three standard commercial salmon diets only differing in the histidine content (9, 13, and 17 g histidine/kg diet) for four months. Individual cataract scores for both eyes were assessed by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Lens N-acetyl histidine contents were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total RNA extracted from whole lenses was analyzed using the GRASP 16K salmonid microarray. The microarray data were analyzed using J-Express Pro 2.7 and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR). Results Fish developed cataracts with different severity in response to dietary histidine levels. Lens N-acetyl histidine contents reflected the dietary histidine levels and were negatively correlated to cataract scores. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) revealed 248 significantly up-regulated transcripts and 266 significantly down-regulated transcripts in fish that were fed a low level of histidine compared to fish fed a higher histidine level. Among the differentially expressed transcripts were metallothionein A and B as well as transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, regulation of ion homeostasis, and protein degradation. Hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis plot confirmed differences in gene expression between the feeding groups. The differentially expressed genes could be categorized as “early” and “late” responsive according to their expression pattern relative to

  10. Effects of temperature on the final stages of sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Vikingstad, Erik; Andersson, Eva; Hansen, Tom Johnny; Norberg, Birgitta; Mayer, Ian; Stefansson, Sigurd Olav; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Taranger, Geir Lasse

    2016-06-01

    Maturing male and female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were held under three temperature regimes for 10 weeks between September and December: warm (constant 14-16 °C), ambient (decreasing from 11 to 5 °C), and cold (decreasing from 7 to 3 °C). Blood samples were analyzed for plasma steroid levels, and the fish were inspected for the presence of expressible milt (total volume and spermatocrit) and ovulation weekly. Samples of eggs were dry-fertilized with milt stripped from three males held at the same temperatures and incubated until the eyed stage. In females, levels of plasma testosterone (T) and 17β-oestradiol (E2) dropped as ovulation approached, concurrent with a rapid increase in levels of plasma 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P). In males, levels of T and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) peaked 2-3 weeks after the first appearance of expressible milt, while levels of 17,20β-P increased steadily and did not exhibit a definite peak. Exposure of females to cold water amplified and advanced the profiles of all three steroids compared with the ambient group, and increased the survival rates to the eyed egg stage. Cold water had no immediate effect on the male steroid profiles, but later, higher levels of 17,20β-P were evident compared with both the ambient controls and the warm water group, while the effects on 11-KT and T were more variable. Exposure to warm water completely inhibited both milt production and ovulation. Moreover, warm water modulated the steroid profiles of the males with lower 11-KT levels compared with ambient controls and lower 17,20β-P level compared with cold-water-treated males. In females, warm water resulted in total inhibition of the peri-ovulatory peak in 17,20β-P and prevented the normal decline of T and E2 levels associated with ovulation. The findings of the present study are highly relevant for broodstock management in aquaculture, as well in understanding the impact of climate change

  11. Quantitative PCR analysis of CYP1A induction in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, C.B.; McCormick, S.D.; Vanden, Heuvel J.P.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental pollutants are hypothesized to be one of the causes of recent declines in wild populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) across Eastern Canada and the United States. Some of these pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, are known to induce expression of the CYP1A subfamily of genes. We applied a highly sensitive technique, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for measuring the levels of CYP1A induction in Atlantic salmon. This assay was used to detect patterns of CYP1A mRNA levels, a direct measure of CYP1A expression, in Atlantic salmon exposed to pollutants under both laboratory and field conditions. Two groups of salmon were acclimated to 11 and 17??C, respectively. Each subject then received an intraperitoneal injection (50 mg kg-1) of either ??-naphthoflavone (BNF) in corn oil (10 mg BNF ml-1 corn oil) or corn oil alone. After 48 h, salmon gill, kidney, liver, and brain were collected for RNA isolation and analysis. All tissues showed induction of CYP1A by BNF. The highest base level of CYP1A expression (2.56??1010 molecules/??g RNA) was found in gill tissue. Kidney had the highest mean induction at five orders of magnitude while gill tissue showed the lowest mean induction at two orders of magnitude. The quantitative RT-PCR was also applied to salmon sampled from two streams in Massachusetts, USA. Salmon liver and gill tissue sampled from Millers River (South Royalston, Worcester County), known to contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), showed on average a two orders of magnitude induction over those collected from a stream with no known contamination (Fourmile Brook, Northfield, Franklin County). Overall, the data show CYP1A exists and is inducible in Atlantic salmon gill, brain, kidney, and liver tissue. In addition, the results obtained demonstrate that quantitative PCR analysis of CYP1A expression is useful in studying ecotoxicity in populations of Atlantic salmon in the wild. ?? 2003

  12. Linkage maps of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) genome derived from RAD sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are useful tools for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing variation in traits of interest in a population. Genotyping-by-sequencing approaches such as Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) now enable the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide SNP markers suitable for the development of dense SNP linkage maps, including in non-model organisms such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). This paper describes the development and characterisation of a high density SNP linkage map based on SbfI RAD-Seq SNP markers from two Atlantic salmon reference families. Results Approximately 6,000 SNPs were assigned to 29 linkage groups, utilising markers from known genomic locations as anchors. Linkage maps were then constructed for the four mapping parents separately. Overall map lengths were comparable between male and female parents, but the distribution of the SNPs showed sex-specific patterns with a greater degree of clustering of sire-segregating SNPs to single chromosome regions. The maps were integrated with the Atlantic salmon draft reference genome contigs, allowing the unique assignment of ~4,000 contigs to a linkage group. 112 genome contigs mapped to two or more linkage groups, highlighting regions of putative homeology within the salmon genome. A comparative genomics analysis with the stickleback reference genome identified putative genes closely linked to approximately half of the ordered SNPs and demonstrated blocks of orthology between the Atlantic salmon and stickleback genomes. A subset of 47 RAD-Seq SNPs were successfully validated using a high-throughput genotyping assay, with a correspondence of 97% between the two assays. Conclusions This Atlantic salmon RAD-Seq linkage map is a resource for salmonid genomics research as genotyping-by-sequencing becomes increasingly common. This is aided by the integration of the SbfI RAD-Seq SNPs with existing reference maps and the draft reference genome, as well

  13. Patient Engagement in Hospital Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Injurious falls are the most prevalent in-hospital adverse event, and hospitalized patients are at a greater risk of falling than the general population. Patient engagement in hospital fall prevention could be a possible approach to reducing falls and fall-related injuries. To engage patients, bedside nursing staff must first understand the concept of patient centeredness and then incorporate patient centeredness in clinical practice. Clinicians should move from being experts to being enablers. To conceptualize the knowledge gaps identified, a conceptual model was developed to guide future research and quality improvement efforts in hospital settings. This model could be used as a guide to advance nursing leadership in hospital fall prevention via promoting patient engagement (e.g., developing patient-centered fall prevention interventions with patients' input). PMID:26845821

  14. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095

  15. Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions to Mitigate Patient-Specific Fall Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. PMID:27106881

  16. Salar de Atacama basin: A record of compressional tectonics in the central Andes since the mid-Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriagada, Cesar; Cobbold, Peter R.; Roperch, Pierrick

    2006-02-01

    The Salar de Atacama basin lies in the inner fore arc of northern Chile. Topographically and structurally, it is a first-order feature of the central Andes. The sedimentary fill of the basin constrains the timing and extent of crustal deformation since the mid-Cretaceous. We have studied good exposures along the western edge of the basin and have correlated them with seismic reflection sections and data from an exploration well. Throughout most of its history, the basin developed in a foreland setting, during periods of thin-skinned and thick-skinned thrusting. Growth strata provide evidence for coeval sedimentation and thrust motions during mid-Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene times. Pre-Neogene deformation was significant in the basin and in surounding areas of the early central Andes. Models that attempt to explain the current thickness of the central Andes should consider Late Cretaceous and Paleogene shortening, as well as the more obvious Neogene and Quaternary shortening.

  17. Spatial characterization of land surface energy fluxes and uncertainty estimation at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Tyler, Scott W.

    2006-02-01

    We use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) data to estimate spatial energy flux and evaporation distributions at the Salar de Atacama, a playa in Northern Chile. Our approach incorporates ASTER surface kinetic temperature, emissivity, and reflectance data, ground-based meteorological measurements, and empirical parameters. Energy flux distributions are estimated using either spatially constant or spatially distributed values of model parameters, with spatially distributed parameters assigned separately to each land cover category in an image classification. We test the sensitivity of energy budget calculations to state variable and parameter values by conducting Monte Carlo simulations for regions with ground energy budget measurements. Results show that assigning spatially distributed model parameters via land cover classifications yields significant improvements to ground and sensible heat flux predictions. Latent heat fluxes cannot, however, be predicted with sufficient accuracy to allow estimation of area-integrated evaporative moisture loss at this low-evaporation playa.

  18. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: effects of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, J G; Rikardsen, A H; Halttunen, E; Thorstad, E B; Økland, F; Letcher, B H; Skardhamar, J; Naesje, T F

    2009-11-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97.0 to 99.5% km(-1). On average, the post-smolts spent 1.5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1.8 LF s(-1)) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3.0 LF s(-1)). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. PMID:20738643

  19. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Zydlewski, G B; Zydlewski, J D

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival. PMID:26693828

  1. Gill Damage to Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Caused by the Common Jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) under Experimental Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Emily J.; Sturt, Michael M.; Ruane, Neil M.; Doyle, Thomas K.; McAllen, Rob; Harman, Luke; Rodger, Hamish D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp.) are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita) on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered. Conclusions Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future. PMID:21490977

  2. Microbial characterization of microbial ecosystems associated to evaporites domes of gypsum in Salar de Llamara in Atacama desert.

    PubMed

    Rasuk, Maria Cecilia; Kurth, Daniel; Flores, Maria Regina; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel; Farias, Maria Eugenia

    2014-10-01

    The Central Andes in northern Chile contains a large number of closed basins whose central depression is occupied by saline lakes and salt crusts (salars). One of these basins is Salar de Llamara (850 m a.s.l.), where large domed structures of seemingly evaporitic origin forming domes can be found. In this work, we performed a detailed microbial characterization of these domes. Mineralogical studies revealed gypsum (CaSO(4)) as a major component. Microbial communities associated to these structures were analysed by 454 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing and compared between winter and summer seasons. Bacteroidetes Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes remained as the main phylogenetic groups, an increased diversity was found in winter. Comparison of the upper air-exposed part and the lower water-submerged part of the domes in both seasons showed little variation in the upper zone, showing a predominance of Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), Rhodospirillales (Alphaproteobacteria), and Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes). However, the submerged part showed marked differences between seasons, being dominated by Proteobacteria (Alpha and Gamma) and Verrucomicrobia in summer, but with more diverse phyla found in winter. Even though not abundant by sequence, Cyanobacteria were visually identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which also revealed the presence of diatoms. Photosynthetic pigments were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography, being more diverse on the upper photosynthetic layer. Finally, the system was compared with other endoevaporite, mats microbialite and Stromatolites microbial ecosystems, showing higher similitude with evaporitic ecosystems from Atacama and Guerrero Negro. This environment is of special interest for extremophile studies because microbial life develops associated to minerals in the driest desert all over the world. Nevertheless, it is endangered by mining activity associated to copper and lithium extraction; thus, its

  3. Characterization of land surface energy fluxes at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile using ASTER image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, S. K.; Tyler, S. W.

    2003-12-01

    Models of land surface energy fluxes often use remotely sensed data to derive surface temperature, albedo, and emissivity, important parameters in energy budget calculations. The ability to determine the spatial distribution of these parameters can lead to improved estimations of the spatial variability of land surface energy fluxes. However, other parameters used in energy flux calculations such as aerodynamic resistance are not directly linked to quantities commonly derived from remotely sensed data. If images can be accurately classified into separate land cover types, empirically determined values of unknown parameters can then be assigned separately to each land cover classification. This study examines several techniques of determining the spatial distribution of land surface energy fluxes at the Salar de Atacama, a large playa in northern Chile. Fluxes are calculated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Level 2 surface kinetic temperature, surface emissivity, and surface reflectance data in conjunction with ground-based meteorological measurements. Energy fluxes are calculated initially by applying a single value of aerodynamic resistance to the entire image area. Subsequently, the ASTER scene is classified into distinct land cover types, and land surface roughness is characterized using the ratio of ASTER band 3N (nadir-viewing) to band 3B (back-viewing). Separate values of aerodynamic resistance are then assigned to each land cover type, and energy fluxes over the entire Salar de Atacama are calculated using these spatially distributed aerodynamic resistance values. Results of both energy flux calculation techniques are evaluated at several sites on the playa using ground-based energy flux measurements.

  4. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2000-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 20001, Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  5. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 2001 Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  6. Impact loads of falling rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, W.

    2009-04-01

    Depending on the chosen protection system the planning engineer has to proceed differently. If the impact energies stay below 3'000 - 5'000 kJ solutions using flexible protection systems are recommended in many cases being the most efficient solution. Since 2001, such systems are type tested in Switzerland. The results are published on the internet (www.umwelt-schweiz.ch/typenpruefung). Therefore, the engineers can concentrate on the design of the anchorage and do not need to consider the brake down process of the falling rock because its details including the acting forces within the barrier are given. This is different to the design of rockfall protection earth dams. Here, the evidence of the structural safety is the major task and questions like the following ones have to be answered: What magnitude are the forces that have to be carried for a certain kinetic energy? How are the forces influenced by mass or impact velocity? What is the influence of the soil properties such as strength, density and friction angle? How deep does the rock penetrate? Previous research on the impact loads on the cushion layer of protection galleries were performed by EPFL in the mid-nineties and led to a Swiss Guideline (ASTRA/SBB 1998) to calculate an equivalent static load for the structure underneath. This approach also delivers a function to predict the penetration depth. This contribution now checks whether above approach can also be used to design earth dams or how it can be modified. For that, the results of previous experiments performed by different institutions were analysed and, if possible, compared to the guideline. This could confirm above mentioned function to predict the penetration depth. In addition, an experimental series with different bodies (800 kg, 4000 kg) falling from different heights (2 - 15 m) on differently conditioned soils were performed. Measurements were taken through accelerometers attached to the blocks and measuring the vertical deceleration. The

  7. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-22

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  8. Preventing falls in your elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J

    1991-01-01

    An elderly patient who falls is at significant risk for disability or death. In this article, Dr Costa explains how a carefully taken history, detailed physical examination, and appropriate laboratory studies can help to discern the cause of a fall. He also describes a multifaceted approach to preventing falls in elderly patients that involves a partnership of the physician, the patient, and the family. PMID:1985306

  9. [Falls and renal function: a dangerous association].

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, Alfredo; Fabbian, Fabio; Pala, Marco; Mallozzi Menegatti, Alessandra; Misurati, Elisa; Manfredini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Falls are an important health problem and the risk of falling increases with age. The costs due to falls are related to the progressive decline of patients' clinical conditions, with functional inability inducing increasing social costs, morbidity and mortality. Renal dysfunction is mostly present in elderly people who often have several comorbidities. Risk factors for falls have been classified as intrinsic and extrinsic, and renal dysfunction is included among the former. Chronic kidney disease per se is an important risk factor for falls, and the risk correlates negatively with creatinine clearance. Vitamin D deficiency, dysfunction of muscles and bones, nerve degeneration, cognitive decline, electrolyte imbalance, anemia, and metabolic acidosis have been reported to be associated with falls. Falls seem to be very frequent in dialysis patients: 44% of subjects on hemodialysis fall at least once a year with a 1-year mortality due to fractures of 64%. Male sex, comorbidities, predialysis hypotension, and a history of previous falls are the main risk factors, together with events directly related to renal replacement therapy such as biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane, arrhythmias, fluid overload and length of dialysis treatment. Peripheral nerve degeneration and demyelination as well as altered nerve conduction resulting in muscular weakness and loss of peripheral sensitivity are frequent when the glomerular filtration rate is less than 12 mL/min. Moreover, depression and sleep disorders can also increase the risk of falls. Kidney function is an important parameter to consider when evaluating the risk of falls in the elderly, and the development of specific guidelines for preventing falls in the uremic population should be considered. PMID:22718453

  10. 1. Photocopy of a photographca. 1920 VIEW OF AMERICAN FALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of a photograph--ca. 1920 VIEW OF AMERICAN FALLS PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  11. Radar fall detection using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokanovic, Branka; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older. Radar has the potential to become one of the leading technologies for fall detection, thereby enabling the elderly to live independently. Existing techniques for fall detection using radar are based on manual feature extraction and require significant parameter tuning in order to provide successful detections. In this paper, we employ principal component analysis for fall detection, wherein eigen images of observed motions are employed for classification. Using real data, we demonstrate that the PCA based technique provides performance improvement over the conventional feature extraction methods.

  12. Fall Incidence as the Primary Outcome in Multiple Sclerosis Falls-Prevention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Gunn, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide recommendations on behalf of the International MS Falls Prevention Research Network (IMSFPRN) for the primary outcome measure for multiple sclerosis (MS) falls-prevention interventions. The article will consider the definition of a fall, methods of measuring falls, and the elements of falls that should be recorded, as well as how these elements should be presented and analyzed. While this information can be used to inform the content of falls-prevention programs, the primary aim of the article is to make recommendations on how the outcome of these programs should be captured. PMID:25694776

  13. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. From foreland rift to forearc basin: Tectono-thermal controls on subsidence and stratigraphic development in the Mesozoic-Recent Salar de Atacama basin, Chilean Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S. ); Turner, P. ); Hartley, A. ); Jolley, E. )

    1991-03-01

    The Salar de Atacama and westerly adjacent Domeyko basins originated as Permian foreland rifts, containing some 2 km of Triassic synrift red beds. Continued extension and volcanic are establishment resulted in deposition of important Jurassic marine source rocks in the Domeyko basin. Rift basin subsidence was controlled by extension, followed by thermal sagging. Middle Cretaceous contraction (opening of the south Atlantic) inverted the Domeyko back-arc basin as a thrustbelt. To the east, the Salar basin subsequently accommodated 4 km of Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene continental detritus. Accommodation space reflected the interplay between limited flexural loading and thermal effects related to a 150 km eastward jump of the Andean volcanic arc to the margin of the arc-related, foreland-style basin. Late Eocene transpression (high rate of oblique convergence between the Farallon and South American plates) inverted the western basin margin, sourcing a 2 km thick Oligocene intra-arc basin-fill component. Accommodation space was controlled by thermal sagging associated with a further 100 km eastward arc jump. The Salar de Atacama basin thus provides a model for the evolution of complex, mixed origin basins associated with a migrating volcanic arc and varying crustal stress regime. The complex interplay between variable tectonic style and thermal processes in controlling subsidence and resultant stratigraphic development is not yet adequately constrained. However, simple, single stage tectono-sedimentary models commonly used in play definition may not be appropriate in complex, arc-related basin settings.

  15. Assessing groundwater recharge in an Andean closed basin using isotopic characterization and a rainfall-runoff model: Salar del Huasco basin, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Javier; Muñoz, José F.; Gironás, Jorge; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Aguirre, Evelyn; Aravena, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Closed basins are catchments whose drainage networks converge to lakes, salt flats or alluvial plains. Salt flats in the closed basins in arid northern Chile are extremely important ecological niches. The Salar del Huasco, one of these salt flats located in the high plateau (Altiplano), is a Ramsar site located in a national park and is composed of a wetland ecosystem rich in biodiversity. The proper management of the groundwater, which is essential for the wetland function, requires accurate estimates of recharge in the Salar del Huasco basin. This study quantifies the spatio-temporal distribution of the recharge, through combined use of isotopic characterization of the different components of the water cycle and a rainfall-runoff model. The use of both methodologies aids the understanding of hydrological behavior of the basin and enabled estimation of a long-term average recharge of 22 mm/yr (i.e., 15 % of the annual rainfall). Recharge has a high spatial variability, controlled by the geological and hydrometeorological characteristics of the basin, and a high interannual variability, with values ranging from 18 to 26 mm/yr. The isotopic approach allowed not only the definition of the conceptual model used in the hydrological model, but also eliminated the possibility of a hydrogeological connection between the aquifer of the Salar del Huasco basin and the aquifer that feeds the springs of the nearby town of Pica. This potential connection has been an issue of great interest to agriculture and tourism activities in the region.

  16. Articulation Report: Report for the Florida Community College System, Data for Fall 1995, Fall 1996, Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This articulation report presents descriptive headcount statistics for undergraduates in Florida's State University System (SUS) institutions who, prior to enrolling in the university, were enrolled in a Florida public community college. In fall 1997, there were 66,299 such students, a decrease of 0.7 percent from fall 1995 in which there were…

  17. Prevalence and cost of imaging in inpatient falls: the rising cost of falling

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jessica; Alturkistani, Tahani; Kumar, Neal; Kanuri, Arjun; Salem, Deeb N; Munn, Samson; Blazey-Martin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the type, prevalence, and cost of imaging following inpatient falls, identify factors associated with post-fall imaging, and determine correlates of positive versus negative imaging. Design Single-center retrospective cohort study of inpatient falls. Data were collected from the hospital’s adverse event reporting system, DrQuality. Age, sex, date, time, and location of fall, clinical service, Morse Fall Scale/fall protocol, admitting diagnosis, and fall-related imaging studies were reviewed. Cost included professional and facilities fees for each study. Setting Four hundred and fifteen bed urban academic hospital over 3 years (2008–2010). Patients All adult inpatient falls during the study period were included. Falls experienced by patients aged <18 years, outpatient and emergency patients, visitors to the hospital, and staff were excluded. Measurements and main results Five hundred and thirty inpatient falls occurred during the study period, average patient age 60.7 years (range 20–98). More than half of falls were men (55%) and patients considered at risk of falls (56%). Falls were evenly distributed across morning (33%), evening (34%), and night (33%) shifts. Of 530 falls, 178 (34%) patients were imaged with 262 studies. Twenty percent of patients imaged had at least one positive imaging study attributed to the fall and 82% of studies were negative. Total cost of imaging was $160,897, 63% ($100,700) from head computed tomography (CT). Conclusion Inpatient falls affect patients of both sexes, all ages, occur at any time of day and lead to expensive imaging, mainly from head CTs. Further study should be targeted toward clarifying the indications for head CT after inpatient falls and validating risk models for positive and negative imaging, in order to decrease unnecessary imaging and thereby limit unnecessary cost and radiation exposure. PMID:26082653

  18. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with P<0.15 were included in a forward logistic regression model to identify factors predictive of falls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was P<0.05. During follow-up, 59% of participants had one or more falls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (P<0.05). Sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying a faller using the positive history of falls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls may

  19. Fall Meeting by the numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti

    2012-02-01

    - Visits to the Fall Meeting Web site: 650,000 - Total participants at the meeting: 20,890 - Abstracts submitted to the meeting: 20,087 - Donors who attended and took advantage of donor lounges: 1835 - Total attendance at Simon Winchester's Presidential Forum Lecture: 1200 - Total attendance at the Honors Banquet: 905 - Books sold at the AGU Marketplace: 671 - Individuals registered for the Fun Run: 487 - Students who participated in the Student Breakfast: 450 - Individuals who crossed the finish line at the Fun Run: 384 - Total attendees at Exploration Station: 307 - Total booths sold in the Exhibit Hall: 304 - registered for the meeting: 288 - Membership transactions completed for renewing and registering members at AGU Marketplace: 156 - Meeting attendees who were past Congressional Visits Day participants: 82 - Editors, associate editors, and their student guests who visited the Editors Resource Center: 63 - Copies of Navigating Graduate School and Beyond: A Career Guide for Graduate Students and a Must Read for Every Advisor sold during and after the talk and book signing by author Sundar A. Christopher: 50 - Kegs of beer consumed during the Ice Breaker on Sunday, 4 December: 48 - Hours of video footage shot at the meeting by the AGU videographer: 40 - Potential geopress authors and editors who attended the daily "Come Publish With geopress" sessions in the AGU Marketplace: 31 - Press conferences held at the meeting: 25 - Average age of minors attending Exploration Station: 8.7 - Educational seminars sponsored by AGU Publications: 2 (one on how to write a good scientific paper and the other on the rewards of reviewing) - Watching three preschoolers in space suits waiting to meet astronaut Andrew Feustel after the Public Lecture: Priceless (with apologies to Mastercard®)

  20. How Fast Does a Building Fall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the time required for a tower block to collapse is calculated. The tower collapses progressively, with one floor falling onto the floor below, causing it to fall. The rate of collapse is found to be not much slower than freefall. The calculation is an engaging and relevant application of Newton's laws, suitable for undergraduate…

  1. Non-Matriculant Survey Report, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Stephen

    In fall 1995, Pennsylvania College of Technology undertook a study of students who were accepted for admission but did not enroll to determine their reasons for not enrolling. Surveys were mailed to the 1,619 students, out of 3,524 accepted in fall 1995, who did not enroll, receiving responses from 52.4% (n=849). Study results included the…

  2. Washington Community Colleges Fall Quarter Report, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Sherie; And Others

    This three-part report presents a series of 46 tables providing data about enrollments, student characteristics, and personnel in the Washington community college system for Fall Quarter 1980. After a summary of the statistical highlights of the study, Chapter I offers historical data on Fall Quarter, full-time equivalent (FTE) and student…

  3. 1978-1979 Fall Enrollment Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillberg, Rebecca

    Enrollment in the Los Angeles Community Colleges in fall 1978 dropped to 124,523, a 3.7% decrease from fall 1977. Instructional Television and West Los Angeles College showed the only increases, although the increase at West (and the decrease at Trade-Technical College) were related to the administrative tranfer of the Airport Center from Trade to…

  4. Trends, Fall 1993. Diablo Valley College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les

    Providing data on institutional trends up to fall 1993 at Diablo Valley College, in California, this report consists of 14 charts on enrollment and student characteristics. Following an introduction describing a general decline in enrollments due to a statewide increase in fees, the following tables are provided: (1) fall enrollment from 1984 to…

  5. The Latino Experience in Central Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Central Falls is, by far, the poorest community in Rhode Island. More than 40 percent of the children under 18 live in poverty, and 40 percent of that group live in severe poverty. At Central Falls High School, low-income Latino students have fallen behind their white counterparts, with shockingly low graduation, poor literacy, and low…

  6. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be...

  8. Compton Community College Information Notebook, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Julian S.

    This notebook serves the purpose of informing the Compton Community College District about the student body population, faculty and classified employees in reference to gender, race/ethnicity and age. Findings from an analysis of the period from fall 1991 to fall 1995 included the following: (1) over the period, the enrollment of Black students…

  9. Compton Community College Information Notebook, Fall 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Julian S.

    Each year, Compton Community College (CCC), in California, collects statistical information on current trends related to the gender, race/ethnicity, and age of the college's student body, faculty, and classified employees. Findings from an analysis of the period from fall 1991 to fall 1994 included the following: (1) the vast majority of CCC…

  10. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  11. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be...

  13. Studies on fall armyworm migration and monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in thewestern hemisphere. Two morphologically identical host strains of fall armyworm exist, the rice-strain and corn-strain, with the latter inflicting substantial eco...

  14. The Fall River Institute for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopf, Gordon; Caruso, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    The Fall River Institute for Leadership was established in 1984 to aid administrators in learning about recent studies, programs, and practices in the field of leadership development and to help Fall River's 102 administrators refine their leadership skills. This article provides an overview of the institute's program. (MT)

  15. Falls - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... السقوط في المستشفى - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Safety Tips to Prevent Falls at Home (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Preventing Falls in the Hospital Sprječavanje ...

  16. Osteosarcopenic obesity and fall prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-02-01

    Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls. PMID:25533145

  17. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? Print A A A Text Size ... while you might have lost feeling in your foot, it might have felt heavy, or you might ...

  18. State of Stress in the Interseismic in the Salar Grande Area and its Relationship with the Foreshock Sequence of Mw8.1 Pisagua Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, P.; Gonzalez, G.; Latorre, C.; Pasten, F.; Sarmiento, A.; Kummerow, J.; Wigger, P.; Bloch, W.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    We have installed short period network in order to monitor the crustal seismicity in the Tarapacá region. The main task is to try to understand the stress transference from the interplate contact to the upper crustal. The network consisted in a total of 21 short period stations, which were installed in the Coastal Cordillera (around Salar Grande) and the Precordillera (around Quebrada Blanca). The processing of the records in this network permitted the analysis of ~5000 events occurred during 2005-2012, each were localized using the NonLinLoc software. A part of this catalog, specifically the data collected during 2010, were processed in order to obtain some parameters associated to the stress as stress tensor, b-value and the maximum horizontal stress (σHMAX). The results of the σHMAX and the stress tensor show that the direction of shortening in the upper crust is NS, which is clearly deviated from the direction of convergence. This pattern, found in the Salar Grande, is practically the same that we observed in the Mw6.7 earthquake occurred on March 16th -event that triggered the sequence of foreshock associated to the Mw8.1 Pisagua earthquake (ca. 170 km to the NW of the Salar Grande area). The NS direction of shortening is also seen in several upper crustal events occurred in the first days, before Mw8.1 Pisagua earthquake. On the other hand, the b-value > 0.9, calculated for the Salar Grande area, coincides with places where the seismic activity is associated to EW reverse faults mapped in the surface by geological studies -these structures are a common feature in the Atacama Fault System at these latitudes. They are also an indication of a NS direction of shortening, being in agreement with our seismological observations. The NS direction of shortening is not restricted to shallow depth, but it is extended to the interplate contact between the deeper part of the couple zone and the transitional zone. The last indicates that the NS shortening is a

  19. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    PubMed

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user. PMID:25915965

  20. Building an infrastructure to prevent falls in older Californians: the Fall Prevention Center of Excellence.

    PubMed

    Rose, Debra J; Alkema, Gretchen E; Choi, In Hee; Nishita, Christy M; Pynoos, Jon

    2007-10-01

    The Fall Prevention Center of Excellence (Center), a consortium of federal, state, and private organizations, was established in 2005 to guide the implementation of a statewide initiative to prevent falls among older Californians. The process began with the convening of a representative group of recognized leaders in California's health and human services in 2003. This group engaged in a 2-day strategic planning process that culminated in the development of the California Blueprint for Fall Prevention. The overarching goal of the Blueprint is to build a statewide infrastructure for fall prevention services and programs that will serve as a model for the rest of the country. The specific goals of the Center are to establish fall prevention as a key public health priority in California; create, test, and evaluate effective and sustainable fall prevention programs; and build a comprehensive and sustainable fall prevention system in California. To accomplish these goals, the Center is currently engaged in developing and disseminating fall prevention tools and informational resources directed at the needs of both consumer and professional audiences; linking organizations involved in fall prevention while increasing awareness of fall prevention as an important public health issue; and helping communities build their capacity to effectively address falls in older adults through the delivery of integrated fall prevention services and "best practice" programs. PMID:17986582

  1. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1990, with Trends from Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    Data are presented on the utilization of residence hall facilities at campuses of the State University of New York (excluding community colleges) for fall 1990, with summary data from fall 1981 through fall 1990. Part One offers seven tables on utilization of original design capacity of residence hall facilities; utilization by institution within…

  2. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1977, With Trends From Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    Data collected in the fourth annual survey of use of residence hall facilities in the fall of 1977, as well as summary data from fall 1974 through fall 1977 is presented in tabular form. The study includes all state-operated institutions which have residence hall facilities except facilities available at locally sponsored community colleges under…

  3. Gavilan College Student Profile of Opening Enrollment, Fall 2000-Fall 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Terrence

    This report contains the student profile of opening enrollment for Gavilan College between Fall 2000 and Fall 2003. The document provides highlights of the data as well as tables and graphs that visually depict the data. Some of the highlights of the report are as follows: (1) Fall 2003 headcount is similar to Spring 2003 but with a slight…

  4. Pathogenesis and treatment of falls in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Pasquetti, Pietro; Apicella, Lorenzo; Mangone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Summary Falls in the elderly are a public health problem. Consequences of falls are increased risk of hospitalization, which results in an increase in health care costs. It is estimated that 33% of individuals older than 65 years undergoes falls. Causes of falls can be distinguished in intrinsic and extrinsic predisposing conditions. The intrinsic causes can be divided into age-related physiological changes and pathological predisposing conditions. The age-related physiological changes are sight disorders, hearing disorders, alterations in the Central Nervous System, balance deficits, musculoskeletal alterations. The pathological conditions can be Neurological, Cardiovascular, Endocrine, Psychiatric, Iatrogenic. Extrinsic causes of falling are environmental factors such as obstacles, inadequate footwear. The treatment of falls must be multidimensional and multidisciplinary. The best instrument in evaluating elderly at risk is Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). CGA allows better management resulting in reduced costs. The treatment should be primarily preventive acting on extrinsic causes; then treatment of chronic and acute diseases. Rehabilitation is fundamental, in order to improve residual capacity, motor skills, postural control, recovery of strength. There are two main types of exercises: aerobic and muscular strength training. Education of patient is a key-point, in particular through the Back School. In conclusion falls in the elderly are presented as a “geriatric syndrome”; through a multidimensional assessment, an integrated treatment and a rehabilitation program is possible to improve quality of life in elderly. PMID:25568657

  5. Transcriptomic and physiological responses to fishmeal substitution with plant proteins in formulated feed in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aquaculture of piscivorous fish is in continual expansion resulting in a global requirement to reduce the dependence on wild caught fish for generation of fishmeal and fish oil. Plant proteins represent a suitable protein alternative to fish meal and are increasingly being used in fish feed. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to a high marine protein (MP) or low fishmeal, higher plant protein replacement diet (PP), formulated to the same nutritional specification within previously determined acceptable maximum levels of individual plant feed materials. Results After 77 days of feeding the fish in both groups doubled in weight, however neither growth performance, feed efficiency, condition factor nor organ indices were significantly different. Assessment of histopathological changes in the heart, intestine or liver did not reveal any negative effects of the PP diet. Transcriptomic analysis was performed in mid intestine, liver and skeletal muscle, using an Atlantic salmon oligonucleotide microarray (Salar_2, Agilent 4x44K). The dietary comparison revealed large alteration in gene expression in all the tissues studied between fish on the two diets. Gene ontology analysis showed, in the mid intestine of fish fed PP, higher expression of genes involved in enteritis, protein and energy metabolism, mitochondrial activity/kinases and transport, and a lower expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis compared to fish fed MP. The liver of fish fed PP showed a lower expression of immune response genes but a higher expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis processes that may lead to cell reorganization in this tissue. The skeletal muscle of fish fed PP vs MP was characterized by a suppression of processes including immune response, energy and protein metabolism, cell proliferation and apoptosis which may reflect a more energy efficient tissue. Conclusions The PP diet resulted in

  6. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Santosh K.; Willetts, Joanna L.; Corns, Helen L.; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R.; Lombardi, David A.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004–2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+), 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45–64) and 0.7% of young adults (18–44) reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%–7%) from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010. Conclusions Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a

  7. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients).

    PubMed

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65-101). Falls were defined "accidental" (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), "medical" (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), "dementia-related" (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and "unexplained" (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury. PMID:23533394

  8. Fall from Grace: The Decline of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepper, Jeff A.; Schnepper, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    Asks whether the United States is about to join the Roman Empire as a historical lesson of inevitable rise and fall. The government, economic and industrial leaders, and social scientists are examined. (Editor/RK)

  9. Ocular problems in military free fall parachutists.

    PubMed

    Gruppo, Leonard; Mader, Thomas H; Wedmore, Ian

    2002-10-01

    Military free fall parachutists may be unaware of the risk of corneal freezing and desiccation keratitis should their goggles come off during free fall in subfreezing temperatures. We determine the incidence of ocular difficulties in military free fall parachutists and the role freezing temperatures may play in causing these problems. We found that 79% of those who responded to the survey had lost their goggles at least once during free fall and 69% experienced ocular symptoms after goggle loss. Analysis shows a 30-fold increase in the duration of symptoms in subfreezing vs. above-freezing temperatures, with the odds of the ground mission being affected at 7.3 per 100 jumps in the subfreezing group. The rate of goggles coming off per jump is 3.3 times less with >75 jumps. Contact lenses are not protective and photorefractive keratectomy was not detrimental. PMID:12392242

  10. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... and no handrails along stairs or in the bathroom. Most falls are caused by a combination of ... online]. Accessed August 15, 2013. National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), National Center for Health Statistics. Health Data ...

  11. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Sleep Problems Stroke Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to ... difficulties. Optimizing Management of Congestive Heart Failure and COPD Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Many older people develop ...

  12. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  13. Corrosion of retractable type fall arresters.

    PubMed

    Baszczyński, Krzysztof; Jachowicz, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    Retractable type fall arresters constitute a most effective group of components used in personal protection systems protecting against falls from a height. They are designed primarily for outdoor use, which results in exposure to atmospheric factors associated with risk of corrosion of metal elements. This paper presents the results of a study, in which retractable type fall arresters were exposed to a simulated corrosive environment, a neutral salt spray. It discusses the development of corrosion processes depending on the duration of exposure to corrosive conditions. Tests demonstrated that corrosion of elements decreased their strength and impaired the functioning of mobile parts. The article presents methods of testing the correct functioning of devices, necessary for assessing their resistance to corrosion, which have been developed for this purpose. It also analyzes the correlation between corrosion-related damage of retractable type fall arresters and potential hazards for their users. PMID:19744368

  14. Siena, 1794: History's Most Consequential Meteorite Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1995-09-01

    In the mythos of meteoritics, the fall of stones at L'Aigle in Normandy at 1 p. m. on April 26, 1803, is commonly regarded as the event that turned skeptics into believers and opened the way for the new science. A strong case can be made, however, that the fall of stones at Siena at 7:00 p.m. on June 16, 1794, established the authenticity of meteorite falls and set in motion the reexaminations of entrenched beliefs that led to the founding of the new science. The Siena fall was heralded by the appearance of an extraordinarily high, dark cloud emitting smoke, sparks like rockets, and bolts of unusually slow-moving red lightning. With a tremendous explosion a shower of stones, ranging in weight from a few milligrams to 3 kg, fell southeast of Siena. This was the first meteorite fall to occur in the vicinity of a sizeable European city and the first to be witnessed by so many people, including English visitors, that the fall of the stones from the sky could not be denied. It also was the first fall to be seriously investigated by scholars, at several universities in Italy, who collected eye-witness reports and specimens and formulated hypotheses of origin. Their task was greatly complicated by the timing of the fall which occurred 18 hours after Mt. Vesuvius sprang into full eruption. Some believed that the two events were entirely coincidental; others thought that the stones either were ejecta from the volcano (which lay about 320 km to the southeast of Siena) or had consolidated in the fiery masses of dust and ash expelled by the mountain. No explanations seemed entirely satisfactory, but, in an age when the very possibility of falling stones had been decisively ruled out by savants of the Enlightenment, the well-observed fall at Siena opened a new dialog on this subject. The Siena fall occurred only two months after the publication in Riga and Leipzig of Ernst F. F. Chladni's book On the Origin of Ironmasses in which he concluded from historical records that

  15. 155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 1). 1912 CONDITION REPORT OF MILNER DAM AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; MAP, LEFT SIDE ONLY. CROSS REFERENCE: ID-15-192. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. [Care for the elderly with frequent falls: the fall clinic in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen, the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Faber, M; Vet-Heijne, F

    2005-09-01

    A fall-clinic forms part of the fall-prevention program in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. In this paper it is explained how elderly who are prone to falling are examined in the fall-clinic to find the underlying cause of their fall problem. The complete examination is termed the fall-risk analysis (FRA). In a six year period 121 elderly visited the fall-clinic. On average they were 78 +/- 8 years of age (mean +/- standarddeviation) and 76% was female. An insufficient muscle force of the hip flexors was the most prominent limitation that could be related to the increased fall risk. Based on the FRA on average 4.3 +/- 1.7 actions were proposed, where a referral to a specialist or physical therapist was most frequently proposed. The fall-clinic is integrated into existing structures of the Dutch health care services. Additional attention is given to case finding by means of district-nurses and family physicians. In this way a highly qualitative health care chain is being created for the falling elderly. PMID:16194064

  3. Validation of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Sara Nicole; Zaluski, Neal; Petrie, Amanda; Arnold, Cathy; Basran, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the concurrent validity of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm (FSRA). Method: A total of 29 older adults (mean age 77.7 [SD 4.0] y) residing in an independent-living senior's complex who met inclusion criteria completed a demographic questionnaire and the components of the FSRA and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The FSRA consists of the Elderly Fall Screening Test (EFST) and the Multi-factor Falls Questionnaire (MFQ); it is designed to categorize individuals into low, moderate, or high fall-risk categories to determine appropriate management pathways. A predictive model for probability of fall risk, based on previous research, was used to determine concurrent validity of the FSRI. Results: The FSRA placed 79% of participants into the low-risk category, whereas the predictive model found the probability of fall risk to range from 0.04 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.35 (SD 0.25). No statistically significant correlation was found between the FSRA and the predictive model for probability of fall risk (Spearman's ρ=0.35, p=0.06). Conclusion: The FSRA lacks concurrent validity relative to to a previously established model of fall risk and appears to over-categorize individuals into the low-risk group. Further research on the FSRA as an adequate tool to screen community-dwelling older adults for fall risk is recommended. PMID:24381379

  4. Simulated unobtrusive falls detection with multiple persons.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Arni; Redmond, Stephen J; Chang, David; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-11-01

    One serious issue related to falls among the elderly living at home or in a residential care facility is the "long lie" scenario, which involves being unable to get up from the floor after a fall for 60 min or more. This research uses a simulated environment to investigate the potential effectiveness of using wireless ambient sensors (dual-technology (microwave/infrared) motion detectors and pressure mats) to track the movement of multiple persons and to unobtrusively detect falls when they occur, therefore reducing the rate of occurrence of "long lie" scenarios. A path-finding algorithm (A*) is used to simulate the movement of one or more persons through the residential area. For analysis, the sensor network is represented as an undirected graph, where nodes in the graph represent sensors, and edges between nodes in the graph imply that these sensors share an overlapping physical region in their area of sensitivity. A second undirected graph is used to represent the physical adjacency of the sensors (even where they do not overlap in their monitored regions). These graphical representations enable the tracking of multiple subjects/groups within the environment, by analyzing the sensor activation and adjacency profiles, hence allowing individuals/groups to be isolated when multiple persons are present, and subsequently monitoring falls events. A falls algorithm, based on a heuristic decision tree classifier model, was tested on 15 scenarios, each including one or more persons; three scenarios of activity of daily living, and 12 different types of falls (four types of fall, each with three postfall scenarios). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the falls algorithm are 100.00%, 77.14%, and 89.33%, respectively. PMID:22835529

  5. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  6. Thermal and oxidative stability of Atlantic salmon oil (Salmo salar L.) and complexation with β-cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    Ünlüsayin, Mustafa; Gruia, Alexandra T; Birău (Mitroi), Cristina; Rusu, Gerlinde; Hădărugă, Nicoleta G

    2016-01-01

    Summary The thermal and oxidative stability of Atlantic salmon oil (Salmo salar L.) as well as its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexation ability has been verified for the first time. The main omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, were significantly degraded, even at 50 °C. Their relative concentrations decrease from 6.1% for EPA and 4.1% for DHA to 1.7% and 1.5% after degradation at 150 °C, respectively. On the other hand, the relative concentrations of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids remained constant or slightly increased by a few percent after degradation (e.g., from 10.7% to 12.9% for palmitic acid). Co-crystallization of ASO with β-CD at a host–guest ratio of 1:1 and 3:1 from an ethanol–water mixture and kneading methods has been used for the preparation of β-CD/ASO complexes. The analysis of the complexes by thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Karl Fischer titration (KFT) as well as the decrease of the “strongly-retained” water content confirm the formation of the inclusion compound. Furthermore, the DSC parameters correlate well with the KFT kinetic data for β-CD/ASO complexes. PMID:26977177

  7. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  8. Evidence for cumulative temperature as an initiating and terminating factor in downstream migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Haro, A.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Temperature control of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt migration was tested using a novel technique allowing nearly continuous monitoring of behavior with complete control over environmental conditions. Parr and presmolts were implanted with passive integrated transponder tags, placed in simulated streams, and monitored for upstream and downstream movements. Beginning 18 April, temperature was increased 1??C every third day (advanced), fourth day (ambient), and tenth day (delayed). Smolt downstream movements were initially low, peaked in mid-May, and subsequently declined under all conditions. Parr downstream movements were significantly lower than those of smolts in all treatments (0.8 ?? 0.5 movement??day-1 versus 26.5 ?? 4.5 movements??day-1, mean ?? SE) and showed no increase. At delayed temperatures, smolts sustained downstream movements through July; those under ambient and advanced conditions ceased activity by mid-June. Initiation and termination of downstream movements occurred at significantly different temperatures but at the same number of degree-days in all treatments. Physiological changes associated with smolting (gill Na+,K +-ATPase activity and plasma thyroxine) were coincident with behavioral changes. This is the first evidence of a behavioral component to the smolt window. We found that temperature experience over time is more relevant to initiation and termination of downstream movement than a temperature threshold. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  9. The occurrence of Dechlorane Plus and related norbornene-based flame retardants in Baltic wild salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Rjabova, Jekaterina; Bartkevics, Vadims; Zacs, Dzintars

    2016-03-01

    Twenty five Baltic wild salmon (Salmo salar) specimens were analysed for the content of Dechlorane-related compounds (DRCs). Out of the ten analysed DRCs, seven compounds were detected in the muscle tissues of salmon, including Dechlorane (Dec) 602, Dec 603, syn- and anti-stereoisomers of Dechlorane Plus (DP), Dechlorane Plus monoadduct (1,3-DPMA), hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane (DBHCTD), and Mirex. The concentrations of Dec 604 and two DP dechlorinated compounds - decachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl10DP) and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl11DP) - were below the limit of detection in all samples. The aggregated concentrations of DRCs (ΣDRC) were in the range of 551-3339 pg g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.) with 1,3-DPMA being the predominant DRC component contributing up to 70% to the ΣDRC. The fractional abundance of syn- and anti-DP stereoisomers showed a pronounced enrichment of anti-DP and was close to the composition of OxyChem(®) DP commercial product. The obtained concentrations of DRCs were substantially lower than those reported in previous studies of biotic samples (among them fish, mollusks, white stork and peregrine falcon eggs) from inland freshwater reservoirs in more industrialised areas throughout Europe and North America. A statistically significant relationships between the concentrations of Dec 602 and the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was observed. PMID:26766358

  10. [Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids during embryonic development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L].

    PubMed

    Murzina, S A; Nefedova, Z A; Ripatti, P O; Nemova, N N; Markova, L V

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids was studied for freshwater salmon Salmo salar L. during its embryonic development from blastula (3 hours) up to hatching (108 days) as well as in unfertilized eggs. Stable amount of total and some saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of total lipids was observed during embryonic development. Considerable changes in fatty acid composition were observed at the stage of prelarvae hatching, i.e., significant decrease of (n-6) PUFA (18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6)) and (n-3) PUFA and increase of total and some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was registered. Change in saturation ratio of membrane lipids justifies the presence of the biochemical mechanism forwarded on regulation of cell membrane enzymes in accordance with the changes of internal physiological processes taking place in the organism and fluctuations of external environmental conditions or the preparation period (as reproduction). Data on peculiarities of transformation and utilization of fatty acids during salmon embryonic development may be used for understanding of their functional role in the developing organism as well as for assessing the quality of the caviar. PMID:22650081

  11. Thermal and oxidative stability of Atlantic salmon oil (Salmo salar L.) and complexation with β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Hădărugă, Daniel I; Ünlüsayin, Mustafa; Gruia, Alexandra T; Birău Mitroi, Cristina; Rusu, Gerlinde; Hădărugă, Nicoleta G

    2016-01-01

    The thermal and oxidative stability of Atlantic salmon oil (Salmo salar L.) as well as its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexation ability has been verified for the first time. The main omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, were significantly degraded, even at 50 °C. Their relative concentrations decrease from 6.1% for EPA and 4.1% for DHA to 1.7% and 1.5% after degradation at 150 °C, respectively. On the other hand, the relative concentrations of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids remained constant or slightly increased by a few percent after degradation (e.g., from 10.7% to 12.9% for palmitic acid). Co-crystallization of ASO with β-CD at a host-guest ratio of 1:1 and 3:1 from an ethanol-water mixture and kneading methods has been used for the preparation of β-CD/ASO complexes. The analysis of the complexes by thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Karl Fischer titration (KFT) as well as the decrease of the "strongly-retained" water content confirm the formation of the inclusion compound. Furthermore, the DSC parameters correlate well with the KFT kinetic data for β-CD/ASO complexes. PMID:26977177

  12. Variation in freshwater growth and development among five New England Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations reared in a common environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obedzinski, M.; Letcher, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    We examined phenotypic variation in growth and development from the eyed-egg stage to the age-1+ smolt stage among five New England populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: East Machias, Narraguagus, Sheepscot, Penobscot, Connecticut) reared in a common laboratory environment. Study populations originated from rivers varying in size, latitude, and level of hatchery supplementation and included one reintroduced population (Connecticut was a recipient of Penobscot origin stock). Phenotypic trait differences were found among populations, and the degree of stock variation depended on ontogeny. Eggs were smaller and hatched sooner in the Penobscot (a northern, intensively managed population), but no stock differences were detected in size or growth efficiency from the onset of exogenous feeding to age 0+ summer. Differences again emerged in age 0+ autumn, with the degree of bimodality in length-frequency distributions differing among stocks; the Connecticut had the highest proportion of upper-mode fish and, ultimately, age-1+ smolts. Although genetic effects could not be entirely separated from maternal effects for egg size variation, it is likely that differences in hatch timing and smolt age had a genetic basis. Early emphasis on age-1+ hatchery-reared smolts in the Connecticut may have led to divergence in smolt age between the Penobscot and Connecticut populations in less than eight generations. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  13. Effects of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomeiu) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) habitat use and diel movements in an artificial stream.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Trial, Joan G.; Wathen, Gus

    2012-01-01

    Invasive smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have been introduced to some of the last remaining watersheds that contain wild anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, yet little is known about the interactions between these species. We used an artificial stream equipped with passive integrated transponder tag antenna arrays to monitor habitat use and movements of age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in sympatry and allopatry. We used additive and substitutive designs to test for changes in habitat use, diel movements, and diel activity patterns of prior-resident Atlantic salmon or smallmouth bass resulting from the addition of conspecifics or heterospecifics. Atlantic salmon prior residents did not change their habitat use in the presence of conspecific or heterospecific invaders. However, Atlantic salmon invaders did lessen riffle habitat use by smallmouth bass prior residents during daytime. Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass displayed different diel activity patterns of movement (Atlantic salmon were more nocturnal; smallmouth bass were more diurnal), which were affected by heterospecific introductions. Because the two species tended to favor different habitat types and displayed different diel activity patterns, we suggest that under the conditions tested, the level of interspecific competition for habitat was low. Age-0 Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass may be able to avoid intense interspecific competition through spatial and temporal habitat partitioning. These data do not, however, predict the potential for competition under different seasonal or ontogenetic circumstances.

  14. Cloning of T-cell antigen receptor beta chain cDNAs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Hordvik, I; Jacob, A L; Charlemagne, J; Endresen, C

    1996-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cDNAs encoding the T-cell antigen receptor beta chain (TCRB) were isolated from leukocyte RNA by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twenty-five distinct cDNA fragments covering the variable (V) - diversity (D) - joining (J) junction and part of the constant (C) region were characterized; the sequences of which indicate interchangeable V/D/J usage and expression in the context of one TCRBC gene. Full-length TCRBC sequence information was derived from a leukocyte cDNA library. Key residues of the salmon TCRBC region are in good agreement with those of other species. One distinct exception is the absence of the hinge region cysteine residue which is involved in covalent bonding between the alpha and beta chain in mammalian TCRs. As in amphibian and avian species, the salmon TCRBC membrane proximal region is considerably shorter than the mammalian. An octamer sequence (GGACAGGG) very similar to amphibian, avian, and mammalian D sequences could be recognized in the VDJ junctions from salmon. The pattern of VDJ variability also indicates that mechanisms like trimming and addition occur in fish as in higher vertebrates. Compared with mammals, a relatively high frequency (32%) of the VDJ junctions in salmon were out of frame. PMID:8881032

  15. Sequential protein extraction as an efficient method for improved proteome coverage in larvae of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Carter, Chris G; Nichols, Peter D; Wilson, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Understanding diet- and environmentally induced physiological changes in fish larvae is a major goal for the aquaculture industry. Proteomic analysis of whole fish larvae comprising multiple tissues offers considerable potential but is challenging due to the very large dynamic range of protein abundance. To extend the coverage of the larval phase of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) proteome, we applied a two-step sequential extraction (SE) method, based on differential protein solubility, using a nondenaturing buffer containing 150 mM NaCl followed by a denaturing buffer containing 7 M urea and 2 M thiourea. Extracts prepared using SE and one-step direct extraction were characterized via label-free shotgun proteomics using nanoLC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap). SE partitioned the proteins into two fractions of approximately equal amounts, but with very distinct protein composition, leading to identification of ∼40% more proteins than direct extraction. This fractionation strategy enabled the most detailed characterization of the salmon larval proteome to date and provides a platform for greater understanding of physiological changes in whole fish larvae. The MS data are available via the ProteomeXchange Consortium PRIDE partner repository, dataset PXD003366. PMID:27272914

  16. Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. are broadly susceptible to isolates representing the North American genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Dale, Ole Bendik; Purcell, Maureen K.; Falk, Knut; Busch, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 1992, three epidemic waves of infectious hematopoietic necrosis, often with high mortality, occurred in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the west coast of North America. We compared the virulence of eleven strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), representing the U, M and L genogroups, in experimental challenges of juvenile Atlantic salmon in freshwater. All strains caused mortality and there was wide variation within genogroups: cumulative mortality for five U-group strains ranged from 20 to 100%, four M-group strains ranged 30-63% and two L-group strains varied from 41 to 81%. Thus, unlike Pacific salmonids, there was no apparent correlation of virulence in a particular host species with virus genogroup. The mortality patterns indicated two different phenotypes in terms of kinetics of disease progression and final per cent mortality, with nine strains having moderate virulence and two strains (from the U and L genogroups) having high virulence. These phenotypes were investigated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to describe the variation in the course of IHNV disease in Atlantic salmon. The results from this study demonstrate that IHNV may become a major threat to farmed Atlantic salmon in other regions of the world where the virus has been, or may be, introduced.

  17. Iron assimilation and siderophore production by Vibrio ordalii strains isolated from diseased Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pamela; Balado, Miguel; Toranzo, Alicia E; Poblete-Morales, Matías; Lemos, Manuel L; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-03-30

    Vibrio ordalii is the causative agent of vibriosis in several cultured salmonid species worldwide. Despite its impact on aquaculture, relatively little information is available about its virulence factors. The present study demonstrates for the first time that V. ordalii possesses different systems of iron acquisition, one involving siderophore synthesis and another one that uses direct binding of heme to use iron. Using 6 strains of V. ordalii from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and the V. ordalii type strain, we could demonstrate that all strains could grow in presence of the chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl and produced siderophores in solid and liquid media. Cross-feeding assays among V. ordalii strains evidenced variability in the siderophores produced. Bioassays and PCR data suggest that V. ordalii could produce a siderophore with a structure similar to piscibactin, although the production of a second siderophore in certain strains cannot be discarded. Furthermore, all strains were able to use hemin and hemoglobin as the only iron sources, although the cell yield was higher when using hemoglobin. A hemin-binding assay indicated the presence of constitutive heme-binding molecules at the cell surface of V. ordalii. Virulence tests using rainbow trout as a model of infection revealed a clear relationship between iron-uptake ability and pathogenicity in V. ordalii. PMID:27025309

  18. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  19. Differences in PAR-2 activating potential by king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), salmon (Salmo salar), and bovine (Bos taurus) trypsin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmon trypsin is shown to increase secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 from human airway epithelial cells through activation of PAR-2. Secretion of IL-8 induced by king crab trypsin is observed in a different concentration range compared to salmon trypsin, and seems to be only partially related to PAR-2 activation. This report aim to identify differences in the molecular structure of king crab trypsin (Paralithodes camtschaticus) compared to salmon (Salmo salar) and bovine trypsin (Bos taurus) that might influence the ability to activate protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). Results During purification king crab trypsin displayed stronger binding capacity to the anionic column used in fast protein liquid chromatography compared to fish trypsins, and was identified as a slightly bigger molecule. Measurements of enzymatic activity yielded no obvious differences between the trypsins tested. Molecular modelling showed that king crab trypsin has a large area with strong negative electrostatic potential compared to the smaller negative areas in bovine and salmon trypsins. Bovine and salmon trypsins also displayed areas with strong positive electrostatic potential, a feature lacking in the king crab trypsin. Furthermore we have identified 3 divergent positions (Asp196, Arg244, and Tyr247) located near the substrate binding pocket of king crab trypsin that might affect the binding and cleavage of PAR-2. Conclusion These preliminary results indicate that electrostatic interactions could be of importance in binding, cleavage and subsequent activation of PAR-2. PMID:23870109

  20. Digestion of the 1-O-alkyl diacylglycerol ethers of Atlantic dogfish liver oils by Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Kang, S J; Lall, S P; Ackman, R G

    1997-01-01

    Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) liver poses a waste disposal problem in Canada because it is not utilized for any commercial purpose. The liver of Atlantic dogfish, which is often up to 20% of the weight of the fish, contains 40-70% oil. The oil contains about 30-40% 1-O-alkyl diacylglycerol ethers (DAGE) which render it unacceptable for human use, and it has also not been considered satisfactory for animal feed use. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) are present in dogfish liver oils at levels comparable to those in herring oil. Dogfish liver oil could be a source of essential fatty acids for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), but their ability to hydrolyze DAGE from dogfish oil has not been examined. Experiments were designed to measure the digestibility of fatty acids of DAGE in salmon. The fatty acid moieties were liberated by the digestive enzymes of the fish and made readily available as a source of energy. The 1-O-alkylglycerol ether moiety was absorbed to a small extent but should not constitute a health problem in either the fish or the human fish consumer. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were particularly well absorbed, with an apparent digestibility in salmon of 87-95% when feeding on dogfish liver oil. The total fatty acids and other lipids were in fact both absorbed to the extent of approximately 85%. PMID:9075189

  1. Associations between piscine reovirus infection and life history traits in wild-caught Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in Norway.

    PubMed

    Garseth, Ase Helen; Biering, Eirik; Aunsmo, Arnfinn

    2013-10-01

    Piscine Reovirus (PRV), the putative causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Norway. While HSMI is a common and commercially important disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, the presence of PRV has so far not been associated with HSMI related lesions in wild salmon. Factors associated with PRV-infection were investigated in returning Atlantic salmon captured in Norwegian rivers. A multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model confirmed clustering within rivers and demonstrated that PRV-infection is associated with life-history, sex, catch-year and body length as a proxy for sea-age. Escaped farmed salmon (odds ratio/OR: 7.32, p<0.001) and hatchery-reared salmon (OR: 1.69 p=0.073) have higher odds of being PRV-infected than wild Atlantic salmon. Male salmon have double odds of being PRV infected compared to female salmon (OR: 2.11, p<0.001). Odds of being PRV-infected increased with body-length measured as decimetres (OR: 1.20, p=0.004). Since body length and sea-age are correlated (r=0.85 p<0.001), body length serves as a proxy for sea-age, meaning that spending more years in sea increases the odds of being PRV-infected. PMID:23906390

  2. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success. PMID:23163395

  3. A non-lethal method to estimate CYP1A expression in laboratory and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, C.B.; McCormick, S.D.; Li, W.

    2005-01-01

    Expression of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) has been used as a biomarker for possible exposure to contaminants such as PCBs and dioxins in teleost fish. Using a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) and a non-lethal gill biopsy, we estimated levels of CYP1A mRNA expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Groups of ten Atlantic salmon juveniles (48-76 g) received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 ??g g- 1 ??-naphthoflavone (BNF) or vehicle. Their gill tissues were repeatedly sampled by non-lethal biopsies on day 0, 1, 2 and 7. Control fish expressed basal levels of CYP1A over the duration of sampling. BNF-treated salmon demonstrated similar levels of CYP1A to control fish at day 0 and higher levels over the course of each additional sampling point. Gill biopsies from wild salmon sampled from Millers River (South Royalston, Worcester County, MA, USA), known to contain PCBs, showed significantly higher CYP1A levels over an uncontaminated reference stream, Fourmile Brook (Northfield, Franklin County, MA, USA). We conclude that gill biopsies coupled with Q-RT-PCR analysis is a valuable tool in environmental assessment of wild Atlantic salmon populations and has the potential to be applied to other populations of fish as well. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between flesh quality and numbers of Kudoa thyrsites plasmodia and spores in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Coates, J A; Chase, J C; Funk, V; Booy, M H; Haines, L R; Falkenberg, C L; Whitaker, D J; Olafson, R W; Pearson, T W

    2003-08-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., were exposed to Kudoa thyrsites (Myxozoa, Myxosporea)-containing sea water for 15 months, and then harvested and assessed for parasite burden and fillet quality. At harvest, parasites were enumerated in muscle samples from a variety of somatic and opercular sites, and mean counts were determined for each fish. After 6 days storage at 4 degrees C, fillet quality was determined by visual assessment and by analysis of muscle firmness using a texture analyzer. Fillet quality could best be predicted by determining mean parasite numbers and spore counts in all eight tissue samples (somatic and opercular) or in four fillet samples, as the counts from opercular samples alone showed greater variability and thus decreased reliability. The variability in both plasmodia and spore numbers between tissue samples taken from an individual fish indicated that the parasites were not uniformly distributed in the somatic musculature. Therefore, to best predict the probable level of fillet degradation caused by K. thyrsites infections, multiple samples must be taken from each fish. If this is performed, a mean plasmodia count of 0.3 mm(-2) or a mean spore count of 4.0 x 10(5) g(-1) of tissue are the levels where the probability of severe myoliquefaction becomes a significant risk. PMID:14513969

  5. Proactive responses to human impacts that balance development and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) conservation: An integrative model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilzbach, M.A.; Mather, M. E.; Folt, C.L.; Moore, A.; Naiman, R.J.; Youngson, A.F.; McMenemy, J.

    1998-01-01

    Incorporating human impacts into conservation plans is critical to protect natural resources. Using a model that examines how anthropogenic changes might be proactively influenced to promote conservation, we argue that a denser human population does not spell inevitable doom for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Humans affect the Atlantic salmon ecosystem deleteriously through landscape alteration, exploitation, external inputs, and resource competition. An intact ecosystem provides positive feedback to society by providing food, ecosystem services, and improving the quality of life. As Atlantic salmon and associated ecosystem benefits are increasingly valued by society, policies, laws, and regulations that protect salmon populations and habitats are codified into a 'control system' or institutional infrastructure. Via research that helps maintain wild salmon populations and in informing the public about the benefits of a healthy Atlantic salmon ecosystem, scientists can influence public attitudes and facilitate the implementation of environmental policies that moderate harmful anthropogenic changes. Because exchange among scientists is of paramount importance in increasing our understanding of important interrelationships between humans and fish, we recommend the establishment of an international salmon organizational for research.

  6. ¹H NMR-based metabolomics studies on the effect of sesamin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Liane; Trattner, Sofia; Pickova, Jana; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Moazzami, Ali A

    2014-03-15

    A (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to explore the impact of dietary sesamin on the liver and white muscle metabolic profile of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish were fed diets containing different n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios (V0.5 or V1) and sesamin contents [without (S0), low (SL) 1.16 g/kg feed, and high (SH) 5.8 g/kg feed] for 4 months. Liver and white muscle extracts of aqueous polar and chloroform lipid phases were collected. Multivariate data analyses (PCA and OPLS-DA) of liver chloroform phase showed that high levels of sesamin affected the metabolic profile impartially of the n-6/n-3 ratio. In the aqueous phase, the metabolome of liver and white muscle were affected in fish fed an n-6/n-3 ratio of 1.0 and 0.5, respectively. With high inclusion of sesamin, the levels of several metabolites (e.g. glucose, glycogen, leucine, valine, creatine, carnitine, lactate, nucleosides) were increased. These metabolites are mainly associated with energy metabolism, suggesting that high sesamin inclusion affects liver and white muscle metabolism in fish. This is consistent with lower body weights found in fish fed high sesamin content. PMID:24206691

  7. Global transcriptional analysis of short-term hepatic stress responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to depleted uranium.

    PubMed

    Song, You; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Høgåsen, Tore; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-12-01

    Potential environmental hazards of radionuclides are often studied at the individual level. Sufficient toxicogenomics data at the molecular/cellular level for understanding the effects and modes of toxic action (MoAs) of radionuclide is still lacking. The current article introduces transcriptomic data generated from a recent ecotoxicological study, with the aims to characterize the MoAs of a metallic radionuclide, deplete uranium (DU) in an ecologically and commercially important fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Salmon were exposed to three concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) of DU for 48 h. Short-term global transcriptional responses were studied using Agilent custom-designed high density 60,000-feature (60 k) salmonid oligonucleotide microarrays (oligoarray). The microarray datasets deposited at Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO ID: GSE58824) were associated with a recently published study by Song et al. (2014) in BMC Genomics. The authors describe the experimental data herein to build a platform for better understanding the toxic mechanisms and ecological hazard of radionuclides such as DU in fish. PMID:26484125

  8. Do local adaptation and the reproductive tactic of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affect offspring metabolic capacities?

    PubMed

    Rossignol, O; Dodson, J J; Marquilly, C; Guderley, H

    2010-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is an iteroparous, anadromous species that exhibits some of the greatest within-population variability in size and age at maturity of all vertebrates. In the conditional reproductive strategy of salmonids, the male reproductive tactic expressed is believed to depend on an individual male's status relative to others in the population and therefore depends on his capacity to attain a physiological threshold, the exact nature of which is unknown. Although the threshold is influenced by local biotic and abiotic conditions, it is likely to be under genetic control. Our study examined whether the early growth, muscle metabolic capacities, routine metabolic rate, and spontaneous swimming of salmon alevins reared in laboratory conditions varied with the population of origin, maternal investment, and the paternal reproductive tactic. Our experimental design allowed us to establish that neither the population of origin nor the paternal reproductive tactic influenced the physiological capacities of alevins. The strong influence of the mother on alevin metabolic capacities suggests that the bioenergetic differences in metabolic capacities, realized metabolic rates, and activity levels that could eventually dictate the reproductive tactic of male offspring may originate in maternal effects. PMID:20350165

  9. Central and Peripheral Visual Impairment and the Risk of Falls and Falls with Injury

    PubMed Central

    Patino, Cecilia M.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Azen, Stanley P.; Allison, Jessica Chung; Choudhury, Farzana; Varma, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate central and peripheral visual impairment as independent risk factors for falls and falls with injury among adults. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Participants A total of 3,203 LALES participants. Methods Baseline presenting binocular central distance acuity was measured and impairment was classified as mild (20/40–20/63), moderate/severe (20/80 or worse). Peripheral visual impairment was classified as mild (−6dBFalls and falls with injury in the past 12 months were assessed by self-report at 4-year follow-up visit. Results Out of 3,203 individuals, 19% reported falls and 10% falls with injury; participants with falls were more likely to: be ≥ 60 years of age, be female, report lower income, have more than two co-morbidities, report alcohol use, report wearing bifocal glasses and report obesity. Among those who reported falls, 7% had central visual impairment (visual acuity≥20/40) compared to 4% who did not report falls; and 49% had peripheral visual impairment (mean deviation<−2dB) compared to 39% of those who did not report falls (both p-values<.0001). After adjusting for confounders, moderate to severe central and peripheral visual impairment were associated with increased risk for falls (odds ratio 2.36 95% confidence interval 1.02–5.45, p-trend= .04 and odds ratio 1.42 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.91, p-trend= .01, respectively) and with falls with injury (odds ratio 2.76 95% confidence interval 1.10–7.02, p-value= .03, and odds ratio 1.40 95% confidence interval .94–2.05, p-trend= .04, respectively). Conclusion Both central and peripheral visual impairment were independently associated with increased risk for falls and falls with injury in a dose-response manner. Although vision related interventions for preventing falls have mainly focused on correcting central visual impairment, this

  10. Evaluation of fall and fall recovery in a simulated seismic environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O; Akar, Hassan A; Assaf, Elie H; Al-Qadiri, Mohamad N; Youssef, Elssy G

    2010-01-01

    Fall-related injuries, disabilities, and fatalities are known to seriously affect the healthcare and industry sectors. Nevertheless, an abled individual, as well as a trained senior citizen, is believed to be capable of withstanding and overcoming unusual environmental variations in terms of postural stability and balance. Understanding the biomechanics of fall and fall recovery through quantitative measurements could provide academic and methodical means to maintain human postural stability, of various ages, in such environments. This study assesses human performance and endurance in the most hazardous environment of a simulated violent seismic activity of a magnitude of 6.5 degrees on the Richter's scale. The objective is to evaluate fall and fall recovery in young abled adults using dynamic plantar pressure measurements. The obtained results support the hypothesis that falls in young adults could be prevented via exercise intervention programs. Further investigation is done by our research group to validate the same concept for senior citizens. PMID:21097092

  11. Falling and fall risk factors in adults with haemophilia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. PMID:25354771

  12. ROADSCAPE LOOKING WEST OF HORSETAIL FALLS BRIDGE. SAME PHOTO AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ROADSCAPE LOOKING WEST OF HORSETAIL FALLS BRIDGE. SAME PHOTO AS HAER No. OR-36-62. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Horsetail Falls Bridge, Spanning Horsetail Falls Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  13. Polypharmacy and falls in older people: Balancing evidence-based medicine against falls risk.

    PubMed

    Zia, Anam; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Tan, Maw Pin

    2015-04-01

    The term polypharmacy has negative connotations due to its association with adverse drug reactions and falls. This spectrum of adverse events widens when polypharmacy occurs among the already vulnerable geriatric population. To date, there is no consensus definition of polypharmacy, and diverse definitions have been used by various researchers, the most common being the consumption of multiple number of medications. Taking multiple medications is considered a risk factor for falls through the adverse effects of drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. Falls studies have determined that taking ≥ 4 drugs is associated with an increased incidence of falls, recurrent falls, and injurious falls. In light of existing evidence, careful and regular medication reviews are advised to reduce the effect of polypharmacy on falls. However, intervention studies on medication reviews and their effectiveness on falls reduction have been scarce. This article reviews and discusses the evidence behind polypharmacy and its association with falls among older individuals, and highlights important areas for future research. PMID:25539567

  14. Characteristics of Walking, Activity, Fear of Falling and Falls in Community Dwelling Older Adults by Residence

    PubMed Central

    Wert, David M.; Talkowski, Jaime B.; Brach, Jennifer; VanSwearingen, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research focusing on community dwelling older adults includes adults living in senior living residences (SLR) and independent community residences (ICR). Walking, physical activity, fear and falls may differ based on residence. Purpose We describe characteristics of walking, physical activity, fear of falling and fall history between community dwelling older adults by residence. Methods Participants of this secondary analysis included community dwelling older adults from independent living units within a senior life care community (SLR) and older adults recruited from the Pittsburgh community (ICR). Demographic information, physical (gait speed and physical activity), psychosocial (fear of falling and confidence in walking) and fall history measures were collected. Results Adults living in SLR compared to ICR were older, more likely to live alone and had greater disease burden. Compared to ICR, individuals in SLR reported less fear of falling (SAFFE fear .24 and .50 respectively). Fewer older adults in SLR compared to ICR reported falling in the past year. Discussion Older adults living in SLR compared to ICR had similar physical function but differed in report of fear of falling and fall history. Recognizing the possible differences in psychosocial function by place of residence is important for healthcare providers and researchers conducting interventions and studies for community-dwelling older adults. PMID:20503733

  15. Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Myers, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

  16. Exposure to a mixture of zinc and copper decreases survival and fecundity of Discocotyle sagittata (Leuckart) parasitizing juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Blanar, Christopher A; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Kieffer, Jim D; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2010-06-01

    We assessed the effects of zinc and copper on freshwater monogenean ectoparasites (Discocotyle sagittata Leuckart) infecting juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Exposure to 47 microg/L zinc and 3 microg/L copper reduced survival and fecundity of adult D. sagittata, while egg hatching success was only reduced at high exposure concentrations (2704 microg/L zinc and 164 microg/L copper). Parasitized salmon had decreased plasma chloride, but this was negated in infected fish exposed to metals. No other effects on Atlantic salmon survival and physiology (plasma osmolality, hematocrit) were noted, suggesting that D. sagittata may be more susceptible to metal toxicity than its host fish. PMID:20473654

  17. Late Mesozoic to Paleogene stratigraphy of the Salar de Atacama Basin, Antofagasta, Northern Chile: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mpodozis, Constantino; Arriagada, César; Basso, Matilde; Roperch, Pierrick; Cobbold, Peter; Reich, Martin

    2005-04-01

    The Salar de Atacama basin, the largest "pre-Andean" basin in Northern Chile, was formed in the early Late Cretaceous as a consequence of the tectonic closure and inversion of the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Tarapacá back arc basin. Inversion led to uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko (CD), a thick-skinned basement range bounded by a system of reverse faults and blind thrusts with alternating vergence along strike. The almost 6000-m-thick, upper Cretaceous to lower Paleocene sequences (Purilactis Group) infilling the Salar de Atacama basin reflects rapid local subsidence to the east of the CD. Its oldest outcropping unit (Tonel Formation) comprises more than 1000 m of continental red sandstones and evaporites, which began to accumulate as syntectonic growth strata during the initial stages of CD uplift. Tonel strata are capped by almost 3000 m of sandstones and conglomerates of western provenance, representing the sedimentary response to renewed pulses of tectonic shortening, which were deposited in alluvial fan, fluvial and eolian settings together with minor lacustrine mudstone (Purilactis Formation). These are covered by 500 m of coarse, proximal alluvial fan conglomerates (Barros Arana Formation). The top of the Purilactis Group consists of Maastrichtian-Danian alkaline lava and minor welded tuffs and red beds (Cerro Totola Formation: 70-64 Ma K/Ar) deposited during an interval of tectonic quiescence when the El Molino-Yacoraite Late Cretaceous sea covered large tracts of the nearby Altiplano-Puna domain. Limestones interbedded with the Totola volcanics indicate that this marine incursion advanced westwards to reach the eastern CD slope. CD shortening in the Late Cretaceous was accompanied by volcanism and continental sedimentation in fault bounded basins associated to strike slip along the north Chilean magmatic arc to the west of the CD domain, indicating that oblique plate convergence prevailed during the Late Cretaceous. Oblique convergence seems to have

  18. 9. RENDERING OF PROPOSED FALLS BRIDGE Photocopy of historic photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. RENDERING OF PROPOSED FALLS BRIDGE Photocopy of historic photograph (photographer unknown, December 1894) - Falls Bridge, Spanning Schuylkill River, connecting East & West River Drives, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Stick balancing, falls and Dragon-Kings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J. L.; Milton, J. G.

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which the occurrence of falls, the dominant feature of human attempts to balance a stick at their fingertip, can be predicted is examined in the context of the "Dragon-King" hypothesis. For skilled stick balancers, fluctuations in the controlled variable, namely the vertical displacement angle θ, exhibit power law behaviors. When stick balancing is made less stable by either decreasing the length of the stick or by requiring the subject to balance the stick on the surface of a table tennis racket, systematic departures from the power law behaviors are observed in the range of large θ. This observation raises the possibility that the presence of departures from the power law in the large length scale region, possibly Dragon-Kings, may identify situations in which the occurrence of a fall is more imminent. However, whether or not Dragon-Kings are observed, there is a Weibull-type survival function for stick falling. The possibility that increased risk of falling can, at least to some extent, be predicted from fluctuations in the controlled variable before the event occurs has important implications for the development of preventative strategies for the management of phenomena ranging from earthquakes to epileptic seizures to falls in the elderly.

  20. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs.

    PubMed

    Rudelli, Bruno Alves; Silva, Marcelo Valerio Alabarce da; Akkari, Miguel; Santili, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%). Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%), and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%). In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places. PMID:23903263

  1. Electronic Out-fall Inspection Application - 12007

    SciTech Connect

    Weymouth, A Kent III; Pham, Minh; Messick, Chuck

    2012-07-01

    In early 2009 an exciting opportunity was presented to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS maintenance group was directed to maintain all Out-falls on Site, increasing their workload from 75 to 183 out-falls with no additional resources. The existing out-fall inspection system consisted of inspections performed manually and documented via paper trail. The inspections were closed out upon completion of activities and placed in file cabinets with no central location for tracking/trending maintenance activities. A platform for meeting new improvements required for documentation by the Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) out-fall permits was needed to replace this current system that had been in place since the 1980's. This was accomplished by building a geographically aware electronic application that improved reliability of site out-fall maintenance and ensured consistent standards were maintained for environmental excellence and worker efficiency. Inspections are now performed via tablet and uploaded to a central point. Work orders are completed and closed either in the field using tablets (mobile application) or in their offices (via web portal) using PCs. And finally completed work orders are now stored in a central database allowing trending of maintenance activities. (authors)

  2. Falling clothes irons rarely cause burns.

    PubMed

    Allasio, David; Shanti, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Children's Hospital of Michigan's Burn Center treats approximately three pediatric contact burns annually related to clothes irons, which involve the face, torso, and extremities. These burns leave well-demarcated burn patterns, including the steam holes from the heat plate of the iron. The average age of these children is 15 months. The history given by the parent is that the child pulled the cord of an iron that was on an ironing board or high shelf. It seemed unlikely to the investigators that a falling iron would produce such demarcated burns. A free-standing shelf unit was built with shelf heights of 36, 60, and 72 inches (the height of an ironing board and shelves at home). Three irons of different weights were put in three different positions on each shelf, with the cord dangling. A doll the approximate size of a 15-month old was positioned in front of the shelf. The dangling cord was pulled, and the falling iron was videotaped. The video was edited in freeze frame at the point at which the iron hit the doll. Two hundred seventy falls were recorded. The flat heat plate of the iron never hit the doll. The linear edge of the heat plate hit the doll on only seven falls. This study demonstrates that it is very unlikely for the flat heat plate of a falling iron to contact a toddler-sized doll. Children who allegedly sustain demarcated burns in this manner need to be investigated for nonaccidental injury. PMID:24476991

  3. Elderly fall detection using SIFT hybrid features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2015-10-01

    With the tendency of aging society, countries all over the world are dealing with the demographic change. Fall had been proven to be of the highest fatality rate among the elderly. To realize the elderly fall detection, the proposed algorithm used the hybrid feature. Based on the rate of centroid change, the algorithm adopted VEI to offer the posture feature, this combined motion feature with posture feature. The algorithm also took advantage of SIFT descriptor of VEI(V-SIFT) to show more details of behaviors with occlusion. An improved motion detection method was proposed to improve the accuracy of front-view motion detection. The experimental results on CASIA database and self-built database showed that the proposed approach has high efficiency and strong robustness which effectively improved the accuracy of fall detection.

  4. Fatal falls from bicycles: a case report.

    PubMed

    Venara, A; Mauillon, D; Gaudin, A; Rouge-Maillart, C; Jousset, N

    2013-03-10

    Though rare occurrences, fatal falls from bicycles are generally linked to the absence of a protective helmet and/or a collision with another vehicle. The case presented here is exceptional due to its circumstances and the consequences of the accident: a fall with no obstacle at a low speed that brought about multiple traumas and the death of a cyclist wearing a protective helmet. Comparing this against a review of cyclist accidentology literature, this case is unique. The increased use of autopsy in terms of forensic accidentology is to be encouraged so as not to misunderstand the possibility of such lesion-based consequences following a simple fall from a bicycle. PMID:23312586

  5. Fall prevention in Australia: policies and activities.

    PubMed

    Clemson, Lindy; Finch, Caroline F; Hill, Keith D; Lewin, Gill

    2010-11-01

    Fall prevention recommendations and plans have been prolific in Australia since 1986, but Commonwealth recommendations have rarely been acted on from a national perspective and the funds for prevention at a national level have been limited. At a state level, although increasing annually, funds for fall prevention have also remained as only a low proportion of total health spending. Several Australian states have developed their own strategic plans and their activities have developed separately and uniquely, although referring to national guidelines. This article presents a perspective of Australian fall prevention policy over time, provides insights into the current focus, and draws on some specific examples of activities from the 2 most populous Australian states (New South Wales and Victoria) and from our largest geographic state, Western Australia. PMID:20934619

  6. Electrostatic demonstration of free-fall weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balukovic, Jasmina; Slisko, Josip; Corona Cruz, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    The phenomena of free-fall weightlessness have been demonstrated to students for many years in a number of different ways. The essential basis of all these demonstrations is the fact that in free-falling, gravitationally accelerated systems, the weight force and weight-related forces (for example, friction and hydrostatic forces) disappear. In this article, an original electrostatic demonstration of weightlessness is presented. A charged balloon fixed at the opening of a plastic container cannot lift a light styrofoam sphere sitting on the bottom when the container is at rest. However, while the system is in free-fall, the sphere becomes weightless and the charged balloon is able to lift it electrostatically.

  7. Applying comprehensive geriatric assessment to investigate falls.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Geraldine

    2016-04-01

    This is the second article in a short series that presents case study examples of the use of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in different clinical settings. CGA is a holistic assessment model designed to determine frail older people's medical and mental health status, as well as functional, social and environmental issues. When applied by nurses, it can enable individualised planning for health, safety and wellbeing. This article presents the case of an older man who had a three-month history of falls. After his most recent fall he was admitted to an emergency department, where examination identified no significant abnormal pathology, and subsequently to a nurse-led older person's clinic. The article describes how a CGA approach was adopted to assess the man, establish an underlying diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, and develop a personalised care plan to address immediate falls risk and long-term planning. PMID:27029990

  8. REDUCTION OF THE MOMENTUM OF FALLING BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Kendall, J.W.; Morrison, I.H.

    1954-09-21

    A means for catching free falling bodies that may be damaged upon impact is given. Several layers of floating gas-filled rubber balls are contained within a partially compartmented tank of liquid. The compartment extends from beneath the surface of the liquid to that height necessary to contain the desired number of layers of the balls. The balls and the liquid itself break the force of the fall by absorbing the kinetic energy of falling body. The body may then be retrieved from the floor of the tank by a rake that extends from outside of the tank through the free surface area and underneath the compartment wall. This arrangement is particularly useful in collecting irradiated atomic fuel rods that are discharged from a reactor at considerable height without damaging the thin aluminum jacket of the rods.

  9. Research on patient safety: falls and medications.

    PubMed

    Boddice, Sandra Dawn; Kogan, Polina

    2009-10-01

    Below you will find summaries of published research describing investigations into patient safety issues related to falls and medications. The first summary provides details on the incidence of falls associated with the use of walkers and canes. This is followed by a summary of a fall-prevention intervention study that evaluated the effectiveness of widespread dissemination of evidence-based strategies in a community in Connecticut. The third write up provides information on three classes of medications that are associated with a significant number of emergency room visits. The last summary describes a pharmacist-managed medication reconciliation intervention pilot program. For additional details about the study findings and interventions, we encourage readers to review the original articles. PMID:19820661

  10. Community College Enrollment in the Humanities, Fall Quarter 1979 - Fall Quarter 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community Coll. Education, Olympia.

    Based on Fall 1979 and Fall 1980 enrollment data at 26 Washington community colleges, this four-chapter report presents a series of tables detailing enrollment and the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) faculty for 13 Humanities program areas: anthropology, art history, English as a second language, ethnic studies, foreign languages, history,…

  11. Results of the Colorado Student Assessment Program, Fall 1988 and Fall 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    Colorado conducts an assessment program to provide a statewide profile of student achievement. Results for fall 1988 and fall 1991 are presented in a series of tables. A standardized, nationally norm-referenced achievement test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, was administered in 1988 to students in grades 4, 7, and 10, and again to the same…

  12. Sacramento City College Assessment Center Research Report: Assessment Procedures, Fall 1983 - Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, M.; Caffrey, Patrick

    Studies and analyses conducted by the Assessment Center at Sacramento City College (SCC) between fall 1983 and fall 1984 provided the data on SCC's students and services which are presented in this report. Following an overview of the significant findings of the year's research efforts, part I sets forth the purpose of the report and part II…

  13. Instrumentally documented meteorite falls: two recent cases and statistics from all falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Precise data from instrumental observations of fireballs, especially those for really bright bolides, provide information about the population and physical properties of meteoroids, i.e. fragments of asteroids and comets, colliding with the Earth's atmosphere. An overview of what is known about meteoroids and their parent bodies from analysis of bolides producing meteorite falls, especially from the instrumentally observed meteorite falls, was a topic of this invited contribution. At present, atmospheric and orbital information with different degree of reliability and precision for these meteorite falls is known for only 24 cases. This topic was described in detail in the review work of Borovička, Spurný and Brown (2015) (Borovička et al., 2015). However, this work contains all instrumentally documented falls until end of 2013. To bring this work up to date, two new instrumentally observed meteorite falls in 2014, the Annama meteorite fall in Russia on 18 April 2014 and the Žďár nad Sázavou meteorite fall in the Czech Republic on 9 December 2014, are presented and commented in this paper. Especially the second case is mentioned in more detail including still unpublished data. Statistical analyses resulting from all 24 instrumentally documented falls are also mentioned.

  14. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1983 with Trends from Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Office of Institutional Research and Analytical Studies.

    Detailed fall 1983 data, and summary data for fall 1974-1983, are presented on the utilization of residence hall facilities at campuses of the State University of New York (excluding community colleges). Trend data are displayed for each institution and institution type. Graphic displays of percent utilization of residence hall facilities are…

  15. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1981 with Trends from Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Office of Institutional Research and Analytical Studies.

    Residence hall facility use for the State University of New York (SUNY) is examined in data collected in fall 1981 and compared with fall 1974 data. The study includes all state-operated/funded institutions that have residence hall facilities. Any residence hall facilities available at locally sponsored SUNY community colleges are financed in a…

  16. Mohawk Valley Community College (MVCC) Trend Data Book. Analysis Period: Fall 1993-Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Samuel L., Jr.

    This trend data book from Mohawk Valley Community College (MVCC) in New York contains six statistical reports for the following areas: Enrollment, Admissions, Academic Programs, Graduate/Placement, Administrative/Financial, and Personnel. The analysis period covered is fall 1993 through fall 1997. The Enrollment section provides student headcounts…

  17. Enrollment Trends at Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities, Fall 1990 to Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report provides enrollment trend information for public four-year colleges and universities for the period fall 1990 through fall 1997. Several trends are highlighted: during this period, total enrollment fell 0.5 percent to 5.77 million students; enrollment of racial/ethnic minorities rose 24.5 percent; white enrollment fell 10.8 percent.…

  18. Enrollment Trends at Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities, Fall 1990 to Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This document provides enrollment trend information for public four-year colleges and universities for the period fall 1990 through fall 1996. Several trends are highlighted: (1) during the 1990s, American Indian, Asian, and Hispanic enrollment increased by more than 30 percent and African American enrollment by 17 percent; white non-Hispanic…

  19. Seniors Falls Investigative Methodology (SFIM): A Systems Approach to the Study of Falls in Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zecevic, Aleksandra A.; Salmoni, Alan W.; Lewko, John H.; Vandervoort, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of human factors and human error is lacking in current research on seniors' falls. Additional knowledge is needed to understand why seniors are falling. The purpose of this article is to describe the adapting of the Integrated Safety Investigation Methodology (ISIM) (used for investigating transportation and industrial…

  20. Falls and ejections from pickup trucks.

    PubMed

    Bucklew, P A; Osler, T M; Eidson, J J; Clevenger, F W; Olson, S E; Demarest, G B

    1992-04-01

    The medical records of 50 patients who sustained injuries during falls or ejections from pickup truck beds and were admitted to the University of New Mexico Level I Trauma Center between January 1985 and December 1989 were retrospectively examined. Falls and ejections commonly involve young adults, and usually occur in the summer months during the afternoon or evening. Twenty-three individuals were thrown from the pickup truck bed during a motor vehicle collision and 27 simply fell out, and this distinction was not related to age or ethanol use. Although those thrown from the pickup truck bed during a crash were less severely injured (average ISS 15.4) than those who simply fell from the bed (average ISS 17.4), this difference was not statistically significant. Mortality was equal in these two groups, with three deaths occurring in each group. Overall, injuries incurred during falls and ejections were more serious than those incurred in MVCs (average ISS 16.5 vs. 14.5, p = 0.06). The head was the most frequently injured body region following falls or ejections (68%), followed by the extremities (46%), the face (28%), the thorax (22%), and the abdomen (10%). Every death in this series was attributed to a head injury. The overall mortality for the series was 12%. Sixteen additional fatalities from falls and ejections during the study period were discovered in a review of the records of the State Medical Examiner. The average age of this cohort was 24 years. Fifteen of these deaths were the result of falls rather than ejections (94%), and 13 were attributed to head injuries (81%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1569621

  1. [Falls during hospitalization--prevalence and consequences].

    PubMed

    Dzieża-Grudnik, Anna; Czekaj, Dominika; Wójcik-Bugajska, Małgorzata; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    A systematic growth in the number of the elderly among hospitalized patients, including the number of patients in the oldest age group, is being observed over the last few years. A stay in hospital conditions is connected with deterioration of their fitness, reduction of their independence. It also entails the risk of hallucination, falls and hospital-acquired infections. The present analysis concerns 60 patients who fell during their hospitalization in the Internal Diseases and Geriatrics Unit of University Hospital in Krakow in 2012 and 2013 (in the total of 6,061 patients admitted to the Unit in this period), which was recorded in the registry of adverse events. An attempt at characterization of this group was made on the basis of medical record, assessment of fall circumstances and its consequences. This was followed by an attempt at tracing the later outcomes of these patients both during their stay in the unit as well as after the discharge from hospital (telephone contact with patient or with person indicated as contact). Analysis of the data (probably underevaluated due to the lack of unambiguous definition of a fall as well as a retrospective character of study) reveals a relation between falls in hospital and various degrees of body injuries, extended hospitalization time, increasing disability and, in some cases, even death. In the face of the observed growth in the number of hospitalized patients in advanced age, a clear definition and careful monitoring of falls as well as an attempt at an early identification of people at risk of falls may prove to be an effective means of their prevention. PMID:25826977

  2. Reduced photoperiod (18 h light vs 24 h light) during first-year rearing associated with increased early male maturation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cultured in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early male sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is undesirable for a number of reasons related to production efficiency, and it appears that precocious maturation is a particular problem when raising this species to market size in water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). We investi...

  3. Seniors Falls Investigative Methodology (SFIM): a systems approach to the study of falls in seniors.

    PubMed

    Zecevic, Aleksandra A; Salmoni, Alan W; Lewko, John H; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of human factors and human error is lacking in current research on seniors' falls. Additional knowledge is needed to understand why seniors are falling. The purpose of this article is to describe the adapting of the Integrated Safety Investigation Methodology (ISIM) (used for investigating transportation and industrial accidents) to studying seniors' falls. An adapted version-the Seniors Falls Investigative Methodology (SFIM)-uses a systems approach to take an investigation beyond the immediate cause of an incident and reveal unsafe acts and deeply imbedded unsafe conditions that contribute to adverse outcomes. An example case study is used to describe six phases of the investigative process in detail. The SFIM has the potential to identify safety deficiencies; utilize existing knowledge about falls; establish a standardized reporting system; shift focus from the faller to the system; and guide targeted prevention. PMID:18238732

  4. Development of intestinal ion-transporting mechanisms during smoltification and seawater acclimation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundh, Henrik; Nilsen, Tom O.; Lindström, Jenny; Hasselberg-Frank, Linda; Stefansson, Sigurd O.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Sundell, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the expression of ion transporters involved in intestinal fluid absorption and presents evidence for developmental changes in abundance and tissue distribution of these transporters during smoltification and seawater (SW) acclimation of Atlantic salmonSalmo salar. Emphasis was placed on Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) and Na+, K+, Cl− co-transporter (NKCC) isoforms, at both transcriptional and protein levels, together with transcription of chloride channel genes. The nka α1c was the dominant isoform at the transcript level in both proximal and distal intestines; also, it was the most abundant isoform expressed in the basolateral membrane of enterocytes in the proximal intestine. This isoform was also abundantly expressed in the distal intestine in the lower part of the mucosal folds. The protein expression of intestinal Nkaα1c increased during smoltification. Immunostaining was localized to the basal membrane of the enterocytes in freshwater (FW) fish, and re-distributed to a lateral position after SW entry. Two other Nka isoforms, α1a and α1b, were expressed in the intestine but were not regulated to the same extent during smoltification and subsequent SW transfer. Their localization in the intestinal wall indicates a house-keeping function in excitatory tissues. The absorptive form of the NKCC-like isoform (sub-apically located NKCC2 and/or Na+, Cl−co-transporter) increased during smoltification and further after SW transfer. The cellular distribution changed from a diffuse expression in the sub-apical regions during smoltification to clustering of the transporters closer to the apical membrane after entry to SW. Furthermore, transcript abundance indicates that the mechanisms necessary for exit of chloride ions across the basolateral membrane and into the lateral intercellular space are present in the form of one or more of three different chloride channels: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I and II and chloride channel

  5. Hepatic transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to gamma radiation and depleted uranium singly and in combination.

    PubMed

    Song, You; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Evensen, Øystein; Lind, Ole Christian; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-08-15

    Radionuclides are a special group of substances posing both radiological and chemical hazards to organisms. As a preliminary approach to understand the combined effects of radionuclides, exposure studies were designed using gamma radiation (Gamma) and depleted uranium (DU) as stressors, representing a combination of radiological (radiation) and chemical (metal) exposure. Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to 70mGy external Gamma dose delivered over the first 5h of a 48h period (14mGy/h), 0.25mg/L DU were exposed continuously for 48h and the combination of the two stressors (Combi). Water and tissue concentrations of U were determined to assess the exposure quality and DU bioaccumulation. Hepatic gene expression changes were determined using microarrays in combination with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effects at the higher physiological levels were determined as plasma glucose (general stress) and hepatic histological changes. The results show that bioaccumulation of DU was observed after both single DU and the combined exposure. Global transcriptional analysis showed that 3122, 2303 and 3460 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly regulated by exposure to gamma, DU and Combi, respectively. Among these, 349 genes were commonly regulated by all treatments, while the majority was found to be treatment-specific. Functional analysis of DEGs revealed that the stressors displayed similar mode of action (MoA) across treatments such as induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and disturbance of oxidative phosphorylation, but also stressor-specific mechanisms such as cellular stress and injury, metabolic disorder, programmed cell death, immune response. No changes in plasma glucose level as an indicator of general stress and hepatic histological changes were observed. Although no direct linkage was successfully established between molecular responses and adverse effects at the organism level

  6. Population dynamics of Vibrio and Pseudomonas species isolated from farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): a seasonal study.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Eva; Neuman, Christina; Stevenson, Hollie; Bowman, John P; Katouli, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio and Pseudomonas species have been shown to be part of the normal microbiota of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), with some strains causing disease in fish. The factors affecting their prevalence and persistence in the salmon gut, however, have not been well studied. In this study, we collected 340 Vibrio and 150 Pseudomonas isolates from the hindgut of farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon, fed with two commercially available diets. Samples were collected every 6-8 weeks between July 2011 and May 2012. Isolates from selective agar were initially identified using biochemical tests and confirmed using genus-specific primers and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequencing. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR was used to type both Pseudomonas and Vibrio; the latter was further typed using a biochemical fingerprinting method (PhP-RV plates). We observed low species diversity with strains comprising Vibrio ichthyoenteri/Vibrio scophthalmi, Vibrio crassostreae/Vibrio splendidus, Aliivibrio finisterrensis, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Pseudomonas fragi. Out of 340 Vibrio isolates, 238 (70 %) belonged to 21 clonal types and were found predominantly during summer when water temperatures reached 15 to 21 °C. Of these, the four major clonal types were found in multiple samples (70 %). P. fragi, on the other hand, was only found during the colder water temperatures and belonged to 18 clonal types. The presence of both groups of bacteria and their clonal types were independent of the fish diets used, suggesting that the water temperature was the main factor of the prevalence and persistence of these bacteria in the gut of Atlantic salmon. PMID:25027277

  7. Cost-effective genome-wide estimation of allele frequencies from pooled DNA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New sequencing technologies have tremendously increased the number of known molecular markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) in a variety of species. Concurrently, improvements to genotyping technology have now made it possible to efficiently genotype large numbers of genome-wide distributed SNPs enabling genome wide association studies (GWAS). However, genotyping significant numbers of individuals with large number of SNPs remains prohibitively expensive for many research groups. A possible solution to this problem is to determine allele frequencies from pooled DNA samples, such ‘allelotyping’ has been presented as a cost-effective alternative to individual genotyping and has become popular in human GWAS. In this article we have tested the effectiveness of DNA pooling to obtain accurate allele frequency estimates for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations using an Illumina SNP-chip. Results In total, 56 Atlantic salmon DNA pools from 14 populations were analyzed on an Atlantic salmon SNP-chip containing probes for 5568 SNP markers, 3928 of which were bi-allelic. We developed an efficient quality control filter which enables exclusion of loci showing high error rate and minor allele frequency (MAF) close to zero. After applying multiple quality control filters we obtained allele frequency estimates for 3631 bi-allelic loci. We observed high concordance (r > 0.99) between allele frequency estimates derived from individual genotyping and DNA pools. Our results also indicate that even relatively small DNA pools (35 individuals) can provide accurate allele frequency estimates for a given sample. Conclusions Despite of higher level of variation associated with array replicates compared to pool construction, we suggest that both sources of variation should be taken into account. This study demonstrates that DNA pooling allows fast and high-throughput determination of allele frequencies in Atlantic salmon enabling cost

  8. Comparative analysis of innate immune responses to Streptococcus phocae strains in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Salazar, Soraya; Oliver, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes mortality only in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile, even when this species is co-cultured with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This susceptibility could be determined by innate immune response components and their responses to bacterial infection. This fish pathogen shares subspecies status with Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae isolated from seals. The present study compared innate immune system mechanisms in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout when challenged with different S. phocae, including two isolates from Atlantic salmon (LM-08-Sp and LM-13-Sp) and two from seal (ATCC 51973(T) and P23). Streptococcus phocae growth was evaluated in the mucus and serum of both species, with rainbow trout samples evidencing inhibitory effects. Lysozyme activity supported this observation, with significantly higher (p < 0.01) expression in rainbow trout serum and mucus as compared to Atlantic salmon. No differences were found in phagocytic capacity between fish species when stimulated with ATCC 51973(T) and P23. Against all S. phocae strains, rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon showed up to two-fold increased bactericidal activity, and rainbow trout demonstrated up to three-fold greater reactive oxygen species production in macrophages. In conclusion, the non-specific humoral and cellular barriers of Atlantic salmon were immunologically insufficient against S. phocae subsp. salmonis, thereby facilitating streptococcosis. Moreover, the more robust response of rainbow trout to S. phocae could not be attributed to any specific component of the innate immune system, but was rather the consequence of a combined response by the evaluated components. PMID:26876354

  9. Influence of Development and Dietary Phospholipid Content and Composition on Intestinal Transcriptome of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Taylor, John F; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Boltana, Sebastian; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of intact phospholipids in the diet is essential during larval development and can improve culture performance of many fish species. The effects of supplementation of dietary phospholipid from marine (krill) or plant (soy lecithin) sources were investigated in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. First feeding fry were fed diets containing either krill oil or soybean lecithin supplying phospholipid at 2.6%, 3.2%, 3.6% and 4.2% of diet. Fish were sampled at ~ 2.5 g (~1,990°day post fertilization, dpf) and ~10 g (2,850°dpf). By comparison of the intestinal transcriptome in specifically chosen contrasts, it was determined that by 2,850°dpf fish possessed a profile that resembled that of mature and differentiated intestinal cell types with a number of changes specific to glycerophospholipid metabolism. It was previously shown that intact phospholipids and particularly phosphatidylcholine are essential during larval development and that this requirement is associated with the inability of enterocytes in young fry to endogenously synthesize sufficient phospholipid for the efficient export of dietary lipid. In the immature phase (~1,990°dpf), the dietary phospholipid content as well as its class composition impacted on several biochemical and morphological parameters including growth, but these differences were not associated with differences in intestinal transcriptomes. The results of this study have made an important contribution to our understanding of the mechanisms associated with lipid transport and phospholipid biosynthesis in early life stages of fish. PMID:26488165

  10. Experimental Transmission of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, to Cohabitating Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Pietrak, Michael R.; Bricknell, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) reduces the environmental impacts of commercial aquaculture systems by combining the cultivation of fed species with extractive species. Shellfish play a critical role in IMTA systems by filter-feeding particulate-bound organic nutrients. As bioaccumulating organisms, shellfish may also increase disease risk on farms by serving as reservoirs for important finfish pathogens such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The ability of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to bioaccumulate and transmit IPNV to naive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts was investigated. To determine the ability of mussels to filter and accumulate viable IPNV, mussels were held in water containing log 4.6 50% tissue culture infective dose(s) (TCID50) of the West Buxton strain of IPNV ml−1. Viable IPNV was detected in the digestive glands (DGs) of IPNV-exposed mussels as early as 2 h postexposure. The viral load in mussel DG tissue significantly increased with time and reached log 5.35 ± 0.25 TCID50 g of DG tissue−1 after 120 h of exposure. IPNV titers never reached levels that were significantly greater than that in the water. Viable IPNV was detected in mussel feces out to 7 days postdepuration, and the virus persisted in DG tissues for at least 18 days of depuration. To determine whether IPNV can be transmitted from mussels to Atlantic salmon, IPNV-exposed mussels were cohabitated with naive Atlantic salmon smolts. Transmission of IPNV did occur from mussels to smolts at a low frequency. The results demonstrate that a nonenveloped virus, such as IPNV, can accumulate in mussels and be transferred to naive fish. PMID:23872575

  11. Construction and Annotation of a High Density SNP Linkage Map of the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Genome

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin Y.; Robledo, Diego; Lowe, Natalie R.; Bekaert, Michael; Taggart, John B.; Bron, James E.; Houston, Ross D.

    2016-01-01

    High density linkage maps are useful tools for fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci, and characterization of the recombination landscape of a species’ genome. Genomic resources for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) include a well-assembled reference genome, and high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Our aim was to create a high density linkage map, and to align it with the reference genome assembly. Over 96,000 SNPs were mapped and ordered on the 29 salmon linkage groups using a pedigreed population comprising 622 fish from 60 nuclear families, all genotyped with the ‘ssalar01’ high density SNP array. The number of SNPs per group showed a high positive correlation with physical chromosome length (r = 0.95). While the order of markers on the genetic and physical maps was generally consistent, areas of discrepancy were identified. Approximately 6.5% of the previously unmapped reference genome sequence was assigned to chromosomes using the linkage map. Male recombination rate was lower than females across the vast majority of the genome, but with a notable peak in subtelomeric regions. Finally, using RNA-Seq data to annotate the reference genome, the mapped SNPs were categorized according to their predicted function, including annotation of ∼2500 putative nonsynonymous variants. The highest density SNP linkage map for any salmonid species has been created, annotated, and integrated with the Atlantic salmon reference genome assembly. This map highlights the marked heterochiasmy of salmon, and provides a useful resource for salmonid genetics and genomics research. PMID:27194803

  12. Influence of Development and Dietary Phospholipid Content and Composition on Intestinal Transcriptome of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Christian; Taylor, John F.; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Boltana, Sebastian; Tocher, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of intact phospholipids in the diet is essential during larval development and can improve culture performance of many fish species. The effects of supplementation of dietary phospholipid from marine (krill) or plant (soy lecithin) sources were investigated in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. First feeding fry were fed diets containing either krill oil or soybean lecithin supplying phospholipid at 2.6%, 3.2%, 3.6% and 4.2% of diet. Fish were sampled at ~ 2.5 g (~1,990°day post fertilization, dpf) and ~10 g (2,850°dpf). By comparison of the intestinal transcriptome in specifically chosen contrasts, it was determined that by 2,850°dpf fish possessed a profile that resembled that of mature and differentiated intestinal cell types with a number of changes specific to glycerophospholipid metabolism. It was previously shown that intact phospholipids and particularly phosphatidylcholine are essential during larval development and that this requirement is associated with the inability of enterocytes in young fry to endogenously synthesize sufficient phospholipid for the efficient export of dietary lipid. In the immature phase (~1,990°dpf), the dietary phospholipid content as well as its class composition impacted on several biochemical and morphological parameters including growth, but these differences were not associated with differences in intestinal transcriptomes. The results of this study have made an important contribution to our understanding of the mechanisms associated with lipid transport and phospholipid biosynthesis in early life stages of fish. PMID:26488165

  13. Effect of an acute necrotic bacterial gill infection and feed deprivation on the metabolic rate of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Jones, M A; Powell, M D; Becker, J A; Carter, C G

    2007-10-31

    In this study, experiments were conducted to examine the effect of an acute necrotic bacterial gill infection on the metabolic rate (M(O2)) of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Fed and unfed Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to a high concentration (5 x 10(12) CFU ml(-1)) of the bacteria Tenacibaculum maritimum, their routine and maximum metabolic rates (M(O2rout) and M(O2max), respectively) were measured, and relative metabolic scope determined. A significant decrease in metabolic scope was found for both fed and unfed infected groups. Fed infected fish had a mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM) decrease of 2.21 +/- 0.97 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1), whilst unfed fish a mean +/- SEM decrease of 3.16 +/- 1.29 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1). The decrease in metabolic scope was a result of significantly increased M(O2rout) of both fed and unfed infected salmon. Fed infected fish had a mean +/- SEM increase in M(O2rout) of 1.86 +/- 0.66 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1), whilst unfed infected fish had a mean +/- SEM increase of 2.16 +/- 0.72 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1). Interestingly, all groups maintained M(O2max) regardless of infection status. Increases in M(O2rout) corresponded to a significant increase in blood plasma osmolality. A decrease in metabolic scope has implications for how individuals allocate energy; fish with smaller metabolic scope will have less energy to allocate to functions such as growth, reproduction and immune response, which may adversely affect the efficiency of fish growth. PMID:18159670

  14. Construction and Annotation of a High Density SNP Linkage Map of the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Genome.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin Y; Robledo, Diego; Lowe, Natalie R; Bekaert, Michael; Taggart, John B; Bron, James E; Houston, Ross D

    2016-01-01

    High density linkage maps are useful tools for fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci, and characterization of the recombination landscape of a species' genome. Genomic resources for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) include a well-assembled reference genome, and high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Our aim was to create a high density linkage map, and to align it with the reference genome assembly. Over 96,000 SNPs were mapped and ordered on the 29 salmon linkage groups using a pedigreed population comprising 622 fish from 60 nuclear families, all genotyped with the 'ssalar01' high density SNP array. The number of SNPs per group showed a high positive correlation with physical chromosome length (r = 0.95). While the order of markers on the genetic and physical maps was generally consistent, areas of discrepancy were identified. Approximately 6.5% of the previously unmapped reference genome sequence was assigned to chromosomes using the linkage map. Male recombination rate was lower than females across the vast majority of the genome, but with a notable peak in subtelomeric regions. Finally, using RNA-Seq data to annotate the reference genome, the mapped SNPs were categorized according to their predicted function, including annotation of ∼2500 putative nonsynonymous variants. The highest density SNP linkage map for any salmonid species has been created, annotated, and integrated with the Atlantic salmon reference genome assembly. This map highlights the marked heterochiasmy of salmon, and provides a useful resource for salmonid genetics and genomics research. PMID:27194803

  15. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy prediction indexes, and residue depletion of ribavirin in Atlantic salmon's (Salmo salar) muscle after oral administration in feed.

    PubMed

    San Martín, B; Muñoz, R; Cornejo, J; Martínez, M A; Araya-Jordán, C; Maddaleno, A; Anadón, A

    2016-08-01

    Ribavirin is an antiviral used in human medicine, but it has not been authorized for use in veterinary medicine although it is effective against infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus, between others. In this study, we present a pharmacokinetic profile of ribavirin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), efficacy prediction indexes, and the measure of its withdrawal time. To determine the pharmacokinetic profile, fishes were orally administered with a single ribavirin dose of 1.6 mg/kg bw, and then, plasma concentrations were measured at different times. From the time-vs.-concentration curve, Cmax = 413.57 ng/mL, Tmax  = 6.96 h, AUC = 21394.01 μg·h/mL, t1/2  = 81.61 h, and K10  = 0.0421/h were obtained. Ribavirin reached adequate concentrations during the pharmacokinetic study, with prediction indexes of Cmax /IC50  = 20.7, AUC/IC50  = 1069.7, and T>IC50  = 71 h, where IC is the inhibitory concentration 50%. For ribavirin depletion study, fishes were orally administered with a dairy dose of 1.6 mg/kg bw during 10 days. Concentrations were measured on edible tissue on different days post-treatment. A linear regression of the time vs. concentration was conducted, obtaining a withdrawal time of 1966 °C days. Results obtained reveal that the dose of 1.6 mg/kg bw orally administered is effective for ISA virus, originating a reasonable withdrawal period within the productive schedules of Atlantic salmon. PMID:26960624

  16. Tectonic Evolution of the Central Andes during Mesozoic-Cenozoic times: Insights from the Salar de Atacama Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Gomez, M. A.; Bascunan, S. A.; Becerra, J.; Rubilar, J. F.; Gómez, I.; Narea, K.; Martínez, F.; Arriagada, C.; Le Roux, J.; Deckart, K.

    2015-12-01

    The classic Salar de Atacama Basin, located in the Central Andes of northern Chile, holds a remarkable yet not fully understood record of tectonic events since mid-Cretaceous times. Based on the growing amount of data collected over the last years, such as high-detail maps and U-Pb geochronology, we present an updated model for the development of this area after the Triassic. A major compressional event is recorded around the mid-Late Cretaceous (ca. 107 Ma) with the deposition of synorogenic continental successions reflecting the uplift of the Coastal Cordillera area farther to the west, and effectively initiating the foreland basin. The deformation front migrated eastwards during the Late Campanian (ca. 79 Ma), where it exhumed and deformed the Late Cretaceous magmatic arc and the crystalline basement of Cordillera de Domeyko. The K-T Event (ca. 65 Ma), recently identified in the basin, involved the same source areas, though the facies indicate a closer proximity to the source. The compressional record of the basin is continued by the Eocene Incaic Event (ca. 45 Ma), with deep exhumation of the Cordillera de Domeyko and the cannibalization of previous deposits. A change to an extensional regime during the Oligocene (ca. 28 Ma) is shown by the deposition of more than 4 km of evaporitic and clastic successions. A partial inversion of the basin occurred during the Miocene (ca.10 Ma-present), as shown by the deformation seen in the Cordillera de la Sal. As such, the basin shows that the uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko was not one isolated episode, but a prolonged and complex event, punctuated by episodes of major deformation. It also highlights the need to take into account the Mesozoic-Cenozoic deformation events for any model trying to explain the building of the modern-day Andes.

  17. Light scattering in normal and cataractous lenses of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): a slit lamp and Scheimpflug photographic study.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Laser, H; Ahrend, M H; Breck, O; Bjerkås, E; Glöckner, C; Midtlyng, P J; Breipohl, W

    2001-01-01

    To investigate normal light scattering and cataract formation, the anterior eye segments of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in fresh water and sea water were documented in vivo for the first time with a Topcon SL-45 Scheimpflug camera. A total of 40 fish from the fresh-water-rearing period, obtained from 2 groups of identical age but showing a different growth rate, and 24 fish from the sea-water-rearing period, sampled from 2 groups with identical age but being fed different food brands, were included in this study. The fish were anaesthetized before examination. Due to the naturally wide pupil, no mydriatic compound was applied. All fish were removed from the water for photography, which was performed for each eye in 0 degrees = vertical slit position. Images were recorded on Kodak Tmax 400 black-and-white film. Microdensitometric image analysis of all negatives was performed using a Joyce-Loebl online microdensitometer. In spite of the virtual absence of an anterior chamber gap between cornea and lens and very little light scattering in the normal fish lens, a small number of distinct layers could be reproducibly identified in the lens. While there was little abnormal light scattering which could point to cataract development in young fish from the fresh water period, the evaluation of the lenses from the 2 sea water groups showed the presence of specific forms of cataract especially in the cortical and supranuclear layers. There were significant differences between the groups fed different food brands at the sea water site. In conclusion, Scheimpflug photography proved to be applicable to eye research in fish in vivo. It is suggested that this method should be employed for reproducible documentation as an extension to slit lamp monitoring in experimental research to reveal causative factors for cataracts in farmed fish. PMID:11586059

  18. Individual Monitoring of Immune Response in Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar following Experimental Infection with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV)

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Bertrand; Urquhart, Katy; Monte, Milena; Collins, Catherine; Garcia Perez, Sandro; Secombes, Chris J.; Hall, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the immune response in fish over the progression of a disease is traditionally carried out by experimental infection whereby animals are killed at regular intervals and samples taken. We describe here a novel approach to infectiology for salmonid fish where blood samples are collected repeatedly in a small group of PIT-tagged animals. This approach contributes to the reduction of animals used in research and to improved data quality. Two groups of 12 PIT-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were i.p infected with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV) or culture medium and placed in 1 m3 tanks. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 25 days post infection. The viral load, immune and stress response were determined in individual fish by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) on the blood cells, as well as the haematocrit used as an indicator of haemolysis, a clinical consequence of ISAV infection. “In-tank” anaesthesia was used in order to reduce the stress related to chase and netting prior to sampling. The data were analysed using a statistical approach which is novel with respect to its use in fish immunology. The repeated blood collection procedure did not induce stress response as measured by HSP70 and HSP90 gene expression in the un-infected animals. A strong increase in viraemia as well as a significant induction of Mx and γIP gene expression were observed in the infected group. Interleukin 10 was found induced at the later stage of the infection whereas no induction of CD8 or γ IFN could be detected. These results and the advantages of this approach are discussed. PMID:26397117

  19. Individual Monitoring of Immune Response in Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar following Experimental Infection with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV).

    PubMed

    Collet, Bertrand; Urquhart, Katy; Monte, Milena; Collins, Catherine; Garcia Perez, Sandro; Secombes, Chris J; Hall, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the immune response in fish over the progression of a disease is traditionally carried out by experimental infection whereby animals are killed at regular intervals and samples taken. We describe here a novel approach to infectiology for salmonid fish where blood samples are collected repeatedly in a small group of PIT-tagged animals. This approach contributes to the reduction of animals used in research and to improved data quality. Two groups of 12 PIT-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were i.p infected with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV) or culture medium and placed in 1 m3 tanks. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 25 days post infection. The viral load, immune and stress response were determined in individual fish by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) on the blood cells, as well as the haematocrit used as an indicator of haemolysis, a clinical consequence of ISAV infection. "In-tank" anaesthesia was used in order to reduce the stress related to chase and netting prior to sampling. The data were analysed using a statistical approach which is novel with respect to its use in fish immunology. The repeated blood collection procedure did not induce stress response as measured by HSP70 and HSP90 gene expression in the un-infected animals. A strong increase in viraemia as well as a significant induction of Mx and γIP gene expression were observed in the infected group. Interleukin 10 was found induced at the later stage of the infection whereas no induction of CD8 or γ IFN could be detected. These results and the advantages of this approach are discussed. PMID:26397117

  20. Novelty and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the bacterial diversity of hypersaline Lake Tebenquiche (Salar de Atacama).

    PubMed

    Demergasso, Cecilia; Escudero, Lorena; Casamayor, Emilio O; Chong, Guillermo; Balagué, Vanessa; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Lake Tebenquiche is one of the largest saline water bodies in the Salar de Atacama at 2,500 m above sea level in northeastern Chile. Bacteria inhabiting there have to deal with extreme changes in salinity, temperature and UV dose (i.e., high environmental dissimilarity in the physical landscape). We analyzed the bacterioplankton structure of this lake by 16S rRNA gene analyses along a spatio-temporal survey. The bacterial assemblage within the lake was quite heterogeneous both in space and time. Salinity changed both in space and time ranging between 1 and 30% (w/v), and total abundances of planktonic prokaryotes in the different sampling points within the lake ranged between two and nine times 10(6) cells mL(-1). Community composition changed accordingly to the particular salinity of each point as depicted by genetic fingerprinting analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), showing a high level of variation in species composition from place to place (beta-diversity). Three selected sites were analyzed in more detail by clone libraries. We observed a predominance of Bacteroidetes (about one third of the clones) and Gammaproteobacteria (another third) with respect to all the other bacterial groups. The diversity of Bacteroidetes sequences was large and showed a remarkable degree of novelty. Bacteroidetes formed at least four clusters with no cultured relatives in databases and rather distantly related to any known 16S rRNA sequence. Within this phylum, a rich and diverse presence of Salinibacter relatives was found in the saltiest part of the lake. Lake Tebenquiche included several novel microorganisms of environmental importance and appeared as a large unexplored reservoir of unknown bacteria. PMID:18347752

  1. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) facing low abundance infestation of Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000), an object in the tank, and handling.

    PubMed

    González Gómez, M P; Marín Arribas, S L; Vargas-Chacoff, L

    2016-07-01

    This study looks at how low infestation loads of adult Caligus rogercresseyi and other stressors affect the physiology of Salmo salar. Experimental fish groups were with (infested) or without (control) exposure to the parasite. The parasite cohort was followed for 78 days post-infestation (dpi), and only adult lice were observed. Additional stressors were applied at 60 and 75 dpi. The analysis included measurements of fish physiology and weight. Low-level infestations by adult C. rogercresseyi for more than 50 dpi induced moderate stress in S. salar as well as a high energy demand and increased small skin mucous cells. Threshold lice loads were identified, and above those loads, a high stress response was observed. Additional stressors altered fish physiology, inducing downregulation of the cortisol response after the first stressor and upregulation after the second stressor, but infested fish responded more strongly. Parasitism by C. rogercresseyi is energetically demanding, affecting the primary and secondary responses (e.g. cortisol and glucose levels), as well as the tertiary response (fish weight). PMID:26644318

  2. Molecular preservation in halite- and perchlorate-rich hypersaline subsurface deposits in the Salar Grande basin (Atacama Desert, Chile): Implications for the search for molecular biomarkers on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FernáNdez-Remolar, D. C.; Chong-DíAz, G.; RuíZ-Bermejo, M.; Harir, M.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Tziotis, D.; Gómez-OrtíZ, D.; GarcíA-Villadangos, M.; MartíN-Redondo, M. P.; Gómez, F.; RodríGuez-Manfredi, J. A.; Moreno-Paz, M.; de Diego-Castilla, G.; EcheverríA, A.; Urtuvia, V. N.; Blanco, Y.; Rivas, L.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Banerjee, N. R.; Demergasso, C.; Parro, V.

    2013-06-01

    Similarities between the Atacama Desert (Chile) and Mars include extreme aridity, highly oxidizing chemistry, and intense ultraviolet radiation that promoted the photochemical production of perchlorates and nitrates. Concentration of these ions under hyperarid conditions led to the formation of nitrate- and perchlorate-bearing deposits in ephemeral lakes, followed by later deposition of chlorides and sulfates. At some locations, such as the Salar Grande, hypersaline deposits have remained unaltered for millions of years. We conducted a drilling campaign in deposits of the Salar to characterize the preservation state of biological molecules. A 5 m deep discontinuous core was recovered and subjected to multitechnique analysis including the antibody microarray-based biosensor LDChip300 and the SOLID (Signs Of Life Detector) instrument, complemented by geophysical, mineralogical, geochemical, and molecular analysis. We identified two units based on the mineralogy: the upper one, from the surface to ~320 cm depth characterized by a predominance of halite and anhydrite, and the lower one, from 320 to 520 cm, with a drop in halite and anhydrite and an enrichment in nitrate and perchlorate. Organic compounds including biomolecules were detected in association with the different depositional and mineralogical units, demonstrating the high capacity for molecular preservation. Hypersaline environments preserve biomolecules over geologically significant timescales; therefore, salt-bearing materials should be high-priority targets for the search for evidence of life on Mars.

  3. Community-Technical Colleges of Connecticut Fall 1993 Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Trustees of Community-Technical Colleges, Hartford.

    Consisting primarily of tables and graphs, this document provides fall 1993 enrollment data for the 12 colleges in the Community-Technical Colleges (CTC) of Connecticut. Following a brief narrative, the following data is presented: combined fund full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment, fall 1992 and fall 1993; combined fund enrollment, fall 1989…

  4. Photocopy of drawing, "Sluiceway at Combined Locks, Glens Falls Feeder" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing, "Sluiceway at Combined Locks, Glens Falls Feeder" (from Champlain canal structure book) 6-45, New York State Archives and Manuscripts, Albany, New York), c. 1858 - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  5. 160. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    160. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #361 #86, page 1). SCALE DRAWING, CANAL HEADGATES AND CANAL SURVEY, 'A' LINE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. Grade Distributions for the Fall of 1990 and 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    A study was undertaken at Georgia's Gainesville College to compare the distribution of grades awarded in academic courses in fall 1990 with those in fall 1996. Study findings included the following: (1) the overall college-wide pass rate in academic courses rose from 65.1% in fall 1990 to 68.6% in fall 1996; (2) excluding students who withdrew by…

  7. 111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF SIPHON, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. 159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Low Line Book #1, pp. 76,77). RECORD OF BORROW AT LOW LINE SIPHON. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company, Low Line Book #1, pp.2,3). LOW LINE CONTRACTORS AND BORROW RECORD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. Early Childhood: Fall Harvest and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Provides instructional strategies for using fall fruits/vegetables in science lessons, including activities related to melons, pumpkins, grapes, pears, squash, and yams. Suggests extending the activities over a month or more to allow children time to explore and investigate. (JN)

  12. Ethnic Student Survey--Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In fall 1995, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a survey of a random sample of 1,447 current students to gather information on their attitudes and goals and to compare responses for Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White students. Completed surveys were received from 433 students, including 53 Asians, 73 Blacks, 127 Hispanics,…

  13. Cohort Analysis, Fall 1993 New Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In October 1996, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a longitudinal study of the characteristics of and outcomes experienced by students who entered the college for the first time in fall 1993, gathering data on retention rates, average attempted and earned cumulative hours, and graduation rates over 3 years. Of the 3,146…

  14. TAP into Learning, Fall-Winter 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary; Dimock, Vicki; Martinez, Danny

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the final three issues of "TAP into Learning" (Technology Assistance Program). The double fall issue focuses on knowledge construction and on using multimedia applications in the classroom. Contents include: "Knowledge Under Construction"; "Hegel and the Dialectic"; "Implications for Teaching and Learning"; "How Can…

  15. How to catch a falling fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  16. English Consequential Validity Study, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Community Coll. District, CA. Research and Planning.

    This study, conducted by the San Diego Community College District in fall 2002, aims to answer the following research questions regarding student preparedness for courses in writing, reading, study skills, and composition: (1) Is there a relationship between instructor perception of preparedness and student performance? (2) Is there a relationship…

  17. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature, but must repeat a series of northward migratory flights each spring if it is to re-infest ...

  18. Kentucky College and University Enrollments. Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Center for Education Statistics, Frankfort.

    Fall 1977 enrollment data from the Kentucky state-supported and independent colleges and universities, seminaries, proprietary business colleges and Eagle University are presented. Total enrollment in the state and independent colleges and universities was 126,162. Of this total, 108,546 students were enrolled in the state universities and…

  19. Fall Colors, Temperature, and Day Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Stephen; Miller, Heather; Roossinck, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    Along with the bright hues of orange, red, and yellow, the season of fall represents significant changes, such as day length and temperature. These changes provide excellent opportunities for students to use science process skills to examine how abiotic factors such as weather and temperature impact organisms. In this article, the authors describe…

  20. Indiana Science Proficiency Guide. Fall 1986 Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    The Indiana State Curriculum Proficiency Guides were developed to provide educators and state decision makers with a framework for evaluating local curriculum and instructional efforts and also to serve as an interactive, self-renewing instrument that would provide the best current thought on student learning needs. This Fall, 1986, Draft of the…

  1. Plan-Ahead Guide to Fall 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Doris; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A plan-ahead guide offers teaching suggestions for fall 1992. There are three sections: the Columbus quincentenary (products and activities reflecting various historical and cultural perspectives); the 1992 election (teaching and resource suggestions); and international space year (resources and materials on space exploration). (SM)

  2. Academic Crossover Study: Community Colleges, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    In fall 1981, a study was conducted in Hawaii's community colleges to determine the course-taking patterns of different groups of student majors (e.g., the proportion of the liberal arts major's academic load that is taken in the humanities, natural sciences, etc.), and the client-serving patterns of different subject disciplines (e.g., the…

  3. OATYC Journal, Fall 1990-Spring 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, Jim, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, the "OATYC Journal" is designed to provide a medium for sharing concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the classroom, and an open forum for the discussion and review of problems. This 16th volume of the journal, consisting of the fall 1990 and spring 1991 issues, contains the following…

  4. NOVA[R] Fall 2001 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This teacher guide includes activity information for the program NOVA, Fall 2001. Background for each activity is provided along with its correlation to the national science standards. Activities include: (1) "Search for a Safe Cigarette"; (2) "18 Ways To Make a Baby"; (3) "Secrets of Mind"; (4) "Neanderthals on Trial"; (5) "Life's Greatest…

  5. Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid A. Dorf; Yevgeny F. Raitses; Artem N. Smirnov; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2004-06-29

    As was reported in our previous work, accurate, nondisturbing near-anode measurements of the plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential performed with biased and emissive probes allowed the first experimental identification of both electron-repelling (negative anode fall) and electron-attracting (positive anode fall) anode sheaths in Hall thrusters. An interesting new phenomenon revealed by the probe measurements is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which appears on the anode surface during the course of Hall thruster operation. As reported in the present work, energy dispersion spectroscopy analysis of the chemical composition of the anode dielectric coating indicates that the coating layer consists essentially of an oxide of the anode material (stainless steel). However, it is still unclear how oxygen gets into the thruster channel. Most importantly, possible mechanisms of anode fall formation in a Hall thruster with a clean and a coated anodes are analyzed in this work; practical implication of understanding the general structure of the electron-attracting anode sheath in the case of a coated anode is also discussed.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (2) Perimeter safety cables. On multi-story structures, perimeter safety cables shall be installed at... more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m) above a lower level, whichever is less; (2) Have completed... in a CDZ shall be protected from fall hazards of more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m),...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (2) Perimeter safety cables. On multi-story structures, perimeter safety cables shall be installed at... more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m) above a lower level, whichever is less; (2) Have completed... in a CDZ shall be protected from fall hazards of more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m),...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (2) Perimeter safety cables. On multi-story structures, perimeter safety cables shall be installed at... more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m) above a lower level, whichever is less; (2) Have completed... in a CDZ shall be protected from fall hazards of more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m),...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (2) Perimeter safety cables. On multi-story structures, perimeter safety cables shall be installed at... more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m) above a lower level, whichever is less; (2) Have completed... in a CDZ shall be protected from fall hazards of more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m),...

  10. Harvesting strawberries in fall and early spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New management strategies are needed to produce strawberry planting materials that will fruit in the off-season in the mid-Atlantic coast region. Also, a better understanding of mechanisms that control flowering in strawberries is needed to improve fall flowering in short-day type cultivars. When ...

  11. Community Needs Assessment Survey Report, Fall 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainesville Coll., GA. Office of Planning and Institutional Research.

    As part of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools self-study process for reaffirmation of accreditation, Gainesville College (GC) conducted its second decennial needs assessment survey in fall 1990 to obtain data to assist in college planning and program improvement. Separate survey instruments were developed to gather data from…

  12. Riemann pendulum in free fall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The possible detection in space and in different free fall system of the tidal effects via a Riemann pendulum rate, is considered. The possibility to perform such an experiment for educational purpouse by a Moire' or Holographic double exposure detection is described. The International Space Station may obtain high quality test of 3D Riemann pendulum effects.

  13. Report on Staffing and Salaries, Fall 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    Thirteenth in a series of annual reports, this document presents fall 1993 demographic, staffing, salary, and workload information on California community college employees, based on data collected from all 71 California community college districts. Section I presents data on primary occupational activity, full-time equivalency, and type of…

  14. Report on Staffing and Salaries, Fall 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    Fourteenth in a series of annual reports, this document presents fall 1994 demographic, staffing, salary, and workload information on California community college employees, based on data collected from all 71 California community college districts. Section I presents district- and college-level data on the number of employees by primary…

  15. Report on Staffing and Salaries, Fall 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymoniak, Leonard; And Others

    Tenth in a series of annual reports, this report presents fall 1990 demographic, staffing, salary, and workload information on California community college employees, based on data collected from all 71 California community college districts. Section I presents data on primary occupational activity, full-time equivalency, and type of assignment…

  16. Report on Staffing and Salaries, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    Fifteenth in a series of annual reports, this document presents fall 1995 demographic, staffing, salary, and workload information on California community college employees, based on data collected from all 71 college districts. Section I presents district- and college-level data on the number of employees by primary occupational activity,…

  17. West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Anna; Hailey, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference held at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee on October 14, 2006. The conference theme, Turning the Pages: A Focus on Children's Literature, was emphasized throughout the day. During the conference, the early childhood classroom teachers, preservice teachers, and administrators…

  18. Enrollment Trends and Student Characteristics, Fall 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    Comprised principally of tables and bar graphs, this report provides data on enrollment trends and student characteristics at College of the Canyons (CC) in Valencia, California, for each fall term year from 1985 through 1989. Information is included on student enrollment totals in credit courses; high schools last attended by new freshmen;…

  19. Artists Paint ... Fall: Grades K-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Artists often paint the different seasonal activities people engage in and the way the world looks as changes take place. The weather for each of the four seasons is different. Farmers plant crops and gardens in the spring and harvest their crops in the fall, just like "The Harvesters" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. To begin, children will observe…

  20. Community College Humanities Review, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Susan, Ed.; Wilson, Ned M., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The "Community College Humanities Review" is a forum for scholarly work focusing on research, curriculum change, and developments within the humanities disciplines. The fall 1998 issue offers the following articles: (1) "Feminist Currents and Confluence in Southern and Latin America, Women's Narrative: Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda y Arteaga and…

  1. Integrating the Curriculum: Faux Fall Repousse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    When introducing a new unit, art teachers know that sometimes a little "bling" can really grab students' attention. The author received "ooohs" and "aaahs" from her fourth-graders when they learned they would be creating "Faux Fall Repousse." The dazzling shine of the aluminum foil and the beautiful array of autumnal colors were impossible for…

  2. Wireless Falling Detection System Based on Community.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Wu, Yanqi; Zhang, Bobo; Li, Zhiyang; He, Nongyue; Li, Song

    2015-06-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer the aches or pains from the accidental falls, and both the physiology and psychology of patients would subject to a long-term disturbance, especially when the emergency treatment was not given timely and properly. Although many methods and devices have been developed creatively and shown their efficiency in experiments, few of them are suitable for commercial applications routinely. Here, we design a wearable falling detector as a mobile terminal, and utilize the wireless technology to transfer and monitor the activity data of the host in a relatively small community. With the help of the accelerometer sensor and the Google Mapping service, information of the location and the activity data will be send to the remote server for the downstream processing. The experimental result has shown that SA (Sum-vector of all axes) value of 2.5 g is the threshold value to distinguish the falling from other activities. A three-stage detection algorithm was adopted to increase the accuracy of the real alarm, and the accuracy rate of our system was more than 95%. With the further improvement, the falling detecting device which is low-cost, accurate and user-friendly would become more and more common in everyday life. PMID:26369050

  3. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... a steel erection activity who is on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more... remain in the area where steel erection activity has been completed, to be used by other trades, only...

  4. Numerical Simulations of Falling Sphere Viscometry Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O Dwyer, L.; Kellogg, L. H.; Lesher, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The falling sphere technique based on Stokes' law is widely used to determine the viscosities of geologically relevant melts at high pressures. Stokes' law is valid when a rigid sphere falls slowly and steadily through a stationary and infinite Newtonian medium of uniform properties. High-pressure falling sphere experiments however, usually involve dropping a dense, refractory sphere through a liquid contained by a cylindrical capsule of finite size. The sphere velocity is influenced by the walls (Faxen correction) and ends of the capsule, and possible convective motion of the fluid. Efforts are made to minimize thermal gradients in laboratory experiments, but small temperature differences within the capsule can lead to convection complicating interpretation. We utilize GALE (Moresi et al., 2003;), a finite element particle-in-cell code, to examine these factors in numerical models of conditions similar to those of high-pressure experiments. Our modeling considers a three- dimensional box or cylinder containing a cluster of particles that represent the dense sphere in laboratory experiments surrounded by low viscosity particles representing the melt. GALE includes buoyancy forces, heat flow, and viscosity variations so our model can be used to assess the effects of the capsule's walls and ends, and the consequences of thermal gradients on the sphere's velocity and trajectory. Comparisons between our numerical simulations and real-time falling sphere experiments involving lower viscosity molten komatiite are made to assess the validity of Stokes' law with the standard Faxen correction included, and formulations considering end effects. The modeling also permits an evaluation of the uncertainties in recovering accurate liquid viscosities from Stokes' law when a dense sphere falls through a convecting low viscosity melt. It also allows us to assess acceleration to a terminal velocity that can provide constraints on melt viscosity in experiments in which the terminal

  5. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1986, with Trends from Fall 1977. Report No. 9-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    Data on the utilization of residence hall facilities at campuses of the State University of New York are presented for fall 1986, with summary data for fall 1977 through fall 1986. In addition to trend data for each college and college type, graphic displays of percent utilization of residence hall facilities are provided. Tables for fall 1986…

  6. A wavelet-based approach to fall detection.

    PubMed

    Palmerini, Luca; Bagalà, Fabio; Zanetti, Andrea; Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Falls among older people are a widely documented public health problem. Automatic fall detection has recently gained huge importance because it could allow for the immediate communication of falls to medical assistance. The aim of this work is to present a novel wavelet-based approach to fall detection, focusing on the impact phase and using a dataset of real-world falls. Since recorded falls result in a non-stationary signal, a wavelet transform was chosen to examine fall patterns. The idea is to consider the average fall pattern as the "prototype fall".In order to detect falls, every acceleration signal can be compared to this prototype through wavelet analysis. The similarity of the recorded signal with the prototype fall is a feature that can be used in order to determine the difference between falls and daily activities. The discriminative ability of this feature is evaluated on real-world data. It outperforms other features that are commonly used in fall detection studies, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.918. This result suggests that the proposed wavelet-based feature is promising and future studies could use this feature (in combination with others considering different fall phases) in order to improve the performance of fall detection algorithms. PMID:26007719

  7. City College of San Francisco Enrollment Trends, Fall 1991-Fall 1994. Report 956-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Annette M.

    A study was undertaken at the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), in California, to examine the decline in credit and noncredit enrollments from 1991-94 and determine possible reasons for the decline. Over the period, credit enrollment declined 32,406 in fall 1991 to 25,709 in fall 1994, while noncredit enrollment declined from 34,589 to 27,200.…

  8. Exercise in preventing falls and fall related injuries in older people: a review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M.; Robertson, M; Campbell, A

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To assess the effectiveness of exercise programmes in preventing falls (and/or lowering the risk of falls and fall related injuries) in older people. Design—A review of controlled clinical trials designed with the aim of lowering the risk of falling and/or fall injuries through an exercise only intervention or an intervention that included an exercise component Main outcome measures—Falls, fall related injuries, time between falls, costs, cost effectiveness. Subjects—A total of 4933 men and women aged 60 years and older. Results—Eleven trials meeting the criteria for inclusion were reviewed. Eight of these trials had separate exercise interventions, and three used interventions with an exercise programme component. Five trials showed a significant reduction in the rate of falls or the risk of falling in the intervention group. Conclusions—Exercise is effective in lowering falls risk in selected groups and should form part of falls prevention programmes. Lowering fall related injuries will reduce health care costs but there is little available information on the costs associated with programme replication or the cost effectiveness of exercise programmes aimed at preventing falls in older people. Key Words: exercise; elderly; falls; cost effectiveness PMID:10690444

  9. Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Delahoz, Yueng Santiago; Labrador, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people's lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people's lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters. PMID:25340452

  10. Quantum ballistic experiment on antihydrogen fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. Yu; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Dufour, G.; Reynaud, S.

    2016-03-01

    We propose an approach to measuring gravitational mass of antihydrogen (\\bar{{{H}}}) based on interferometry of time distribution of free-fall events of antiatoms. Our method consists of preparing a coherent superposition of quantum states of \\bar{{{H}}} localized near a material surface in the gravitational field of the Earth, and then observing the time distribution of annihilation events after the free-fall of the initially prepared superposition from a given height to a detector plate. We show that the time distribution of interest is mapped to a precisely predictable velocity distribution of the initial wave packet. This approach is combined with production of a coherent superposition of gravitational states by inducing a resonant transition using an oscillating gradient magnetic field. We show that the relative accuracy of measuring the \\bar{{{H}}} atom gravitational mass can be achieved with this approach is 10-4, with 103 antiatoms settled in lowest gravitational states.

  11. On falling in love and creativity.

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the ego functioning and self psychological aspects of falling in love and passionate love. These universal and extraordinary phenomena are conceptualized as representing the activity of the creative imagination in solving problems related to coping with intense narcissistic and libidinal pressures. The work of other authors is reviewed and recast into a metapsychological framework involving ego and superego contributions to the experience, and focused on self cohesion. An illustrative clinical psychotherapy case is presented in an effort to understand what has traditionally appeared to be a mysterious and disjunctive life experience, and to explore the creative surge that can be generated by falling in love both in and out of the transference. PMID:1429115

  12. Fall in Earth's magnetic field is erratic.

    PubMed

    Gubbins, David; Jones, Adrian L; Finlay, Christopher C

    2006-05-12

    Earth's magnetic field has decayed by about 5% per century since measurements began in 1840. Directional measurements predate those of intensity by more than 250 years, and we combined the global model of directions with paleomagnetic intensity measurements to estimate the fall in strength for this earlier period (1590 to 1840 A.D.). We found that magnetic field strength was nearly constant throughout this time, in contrast to the later period. Extrapolating to the core surface showed that the fall in strength originated in patches of reverse magnetic flux in the Southern Hemisphere. These patches were detectable by directional data alone; the pre-1840 model showed little or no evidence of them, supporting the conclusion of a steady dipole up to 1840. PMID:16690863

  13. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  14. Gold Veins near Great Falls, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, John Calvin, Jr.; Reed, John C.

    1969-01-01

    Small deposits of native gold are present along an anastomosing system of quartz veins and shear zones just east of Great Falls, Montgomery County, Md. The deposits were discovered in 1861 and were worked sporadically until 1951, yielding more than 5,000 ounces of gold. The vein system and the principal veins within it strike a few degrees west of north, at an appreciable angle to foliation and fold axial planes in enclosing rocks of the Wissahickon Formation of late Precambrian (?) age. The veins cut granitic rocks of Devonian or pre-Devonian age and may be as young as Triassic. Further development of the deposits is unlikely under present economic conditions because of their generally low gold content and because much of the vein system lies on park property, but study of the Great Falls vein system may be useful in the search for similar deposits elsewhere in the Appalachian Piedmont.

  15. Exciplex fluorescence thermometry of falling hexadecane droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, T.R.; Melton, L.A. )

    1992-05-01

    Exciplex fluorescence thermometry has been used to measure the temperature of 283 micron hexadecane droplets falling through a quiescent, oxygen-free, approximately 500 C ambient. After a period of negligible change, the derived droplet temperatures exhibit a sharp rise of about 100 C followed by a gentle increase to approximately 200 C. The derived temperatures, although averaged over most of the volume of the droplet, still provide some evidence of internal processes in the droplet due to the partially selective optical sampling of the droplet volume, in which fluorescence from the region between 0.50 and 0.75 of the droplet is presumed to be approximately homogeneous, and the exciplex fluorescence thermometry measurements provide accurate, interpretable temperatures for the freely falling droplets.

  16. Milestones in gait, balance, and falling.

    PubMed

    Nutt, John G; Horak, Fay B; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2011-05-01

    Gait, balance, and falls have become increasingly common topics of published articles in the Movement Disorders journal since its launch in 1986. This growth represents an increasing awareness of the importance of mobility to patients' quality of life. New methods have become available that allow for accurate measurement of many aspects for gait and balance. This has led to new concepts of understanding gait and balance disorders. Neuroimaging has begun to reveal the neural circuitry underlying gait and balance. The physiology and pathophysiology of balance and gait are beginning to tease out the many processes involved in mobility and how they may be disrupted by disease processes. With these advances, the old therapeutic nihilism that characterized the clinician's approach to falls and gait disorders is disappearing, as innovative physiotherapy, exercise, drugs, and deep brain stimulation are being employed for gait and balance disorders. PMID:21626560

  17. Conditioning of sandhill cranes during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Body mass of adult female and male sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) increased an average of 17 and 20%, respectively, from early September to late October on staging areas in central North Dakota and varied by year. Increases in body mass averaged 550 and 681 g among female and male G. c. canadensis, respectively, and 616 and 836 g among female and male G. c. rowani. Adult and juvenile G. c. rowani were lean at arrival, averaging 177 and 83 g of fat, respectively, and fat reserves increased to 677 and 482 g by mid-October. Fat-free dry mass increased by 12% among juveniles, reflecting substantial growth, but remained constant among adults. The importance of fall staging areas as conditioning sites for sandhill cranes, annual variation in body mass, and vulnerability of cranes to habitat loss underscore the need to monitor status of fall staging habitat in the northern plains region and to take steps to maintain suitable habitat where necessary.

  18. A Wavelet-Based Approach to Fall Detection

    PubMed Central

    Palmerini, Luca; Bagalà, Fabio; Zanetti, Andrea; Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Falls among older people are a widely documented public health problem. Automatic fall detection has recently gained huge importance because it could allow for the immediate communication of falls to medical assistance. The aim of this work is to present a novel wavelet-based approach to fall detection, focusing on the impact phase and using a dataset of real-world falls. Since recorded falls result in a non-stationary signal, a wavelet transform was chosen to examine fall patterns. The idea is to consider the average fall pattern as the “prototype fall”.In order to detect falls, every acceleration signal can be compared to this prototype through wavelet analysis. The similarity of the recorded signal with the prototype fall is a feature that can be used in order to determine the difference between falls and daily activities. The discriminative ability of this feature is evaluated on real-world data. It outperforms other features that are commonly used in fall detection studies, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.918. This result suggests that the proposed wavelet-based feature is promising and future studies could use this feature (in combination with others considering different fall phases) in order to improve the performance of fall detection algorithms. PMID:26007719

  19. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  20. Free fall - A partial unique motion environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions leading to the elicitation of motion sickness have been divided into two main categories: partial motion environments, in which head movements are required to elicit motion sickness, and complete motion environments, in which independent movements of the head are not required for the production of symptoms. It is postulated that, according to this categorization, free fall constitutes a partial motion environment. In support of this hypothesis evidence is reviewed from Skylab missions, experiments in parabolic flight, and ground-based studies.

  1. Falls - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Preventing Falls in the Hospital (Arabic) الوقاية ...

  2. Precisely locating the Klamath Falls, Oregon, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qamar, A.; Meagher, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this article we present preliminary results of a close-in, instrumental study of the Klamath Falls earthquake sequence, carried as a cooperative effort by scientists from the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) and universities in Washington, Orgeon, and California. In addition to obtaining much mroe accurate earthquake locations, this study has improved our understanding of the relationship between seismicity and mapped faults in the region. 

  3. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Nagoshi, R N; Meagher, R L; Fleischer, S J; Jairam, S

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥ 10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars. PMID:26045330

  4. Inpatient Falls: Improving assessment, documentation, and management.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Eleanor; Reynolds, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A frequently occurring job during on-call and out-of-hours shifts is reviewing a patient following a fall with this often being the responsibility of the most junior and inexperienced doctors. Following a pilot audit we identified inconsistencies in medical assessment and documentation, with 50% of expected data points not recorded. Failure to complete a thorough assessment can lead to missed injuries, prolonged length of stay, and litigation. Using the plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycle model this project sought to address this through providing teaching to junior doctors and the development of a pro-forma. Three style cycles of data collection were performed; a formal baseline dataset, after delivering a teaching session to new junior doctors and following the trial of the new fall pro-forma. We selected 15 to 17 patient notes to review at random during a one month period for each data collection cycle and compared the medical assessment to the standards outlined by the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) guidelines.[1] There were two key areas of improvement identified following the teaching session and introduction of the proforma. Documentation of a fall history was improved by nearly 30% being recorded in 100% of cases after the interventions. Documentation of a thorough musculoskeletal examination was improved from being recorded in just 54% of cases to 77% of cases; it was recorded in 100% of the cases where the proforma was used. The project demonstrated the need to improve documentation and assessment of a patient who has fallen. Initial data collection has shown that assessment and documentation were improved providing teaching to junior doctors and by use of the document. The pro-forma has since been incorporated into hospital policy and now forms the compulsory documentation expected of the doctors and nurses managing patients following a fall. Ensuring easy access to the proforma and re-auditing after editing the document will be the next steps. PMID

  5. A dynamic evidential network for fall detection.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Paulo Armando Cavalcante; Boudy, Jerome; Istrate, Dan; Dorizzi, Bernadette; Mota, Joao Cesar Moura

    2014-07-01

    This study is part of the development of a remote home healthcare monitoring application designed to detect distress situations through several types of sensors. The multisensor fusion can provide more accurate and reliable information compared to information provided by each sensor separately. Furthermore, data from multiple heterogeneous sensors present in the remote home healthcare monitoring systems have different degrees of imperfection and trust. Among the multisensor fusion methods, Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) is currently considered the most appropriate for representing and processing the imperfect information. Based on a graphical representation of the DST called evidential networks, a structure of heterogeneous data fusion from multiple sensors for fall detection has been proposed. The evidential networks, implemented on our remote medical monitoring platform, are also proposed in this paper to maximize the performance of automatic fall detection and thus make the system more reliable. However, the presence of noise, the variability of recorded signals by the sensors, and the failing or unreliable sensors may thwart the evidential networks performance. In addition, the sensors signals nonstationary nature may degrade the experimental conditions. To compensate the nonstationary effect, the time evolution is considered by introducing the dynamic evidential network which was evaluated by the simulated fall scenarios corresponding to various use cases. PMID:24235255

  6. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation : Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Terra-Berns, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group continued to actively engage in implementing wildlife mitigation actions in 2002. Regular Work Group meetings were held to discuss budget concerns affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, to present potential acquisition projects, and to discuss and evaluate other issues affecting the Work Group and Project. Work Group members protected 1,386.29 acres of wildlife habitat in 2002. To date, the Albeni Falls project has protected approximately 5,914.31 acres of wildlife habitat. About 21% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Administrative activities have increased as more properties are purchased and continue to center on restoration, operation and maintenance, and monitoring. In 2001, Work Group members focused on development of a monitoring and evaluation program as well as completion of site-specific management plans. This year the Work Group began implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program performing population and plant surveys, data evaluation and storage, and map development as well as developing management plans. Assuming that the current BPA budget restrictions will be lifted in the near future, the Work Group expects to increase mitigation properties this coming year with several potential projects.

  7. Fall Down Detection Under Smart Home System.

    PubMed

    Juang, Li-Hong; Wu, Ming-Ni

    2015-10-01

    Medical technology makes an inevitable trend for the elderly population, therefore the intelligent home care is an important direction for science and technology development, in particular, elderly in-home safety management issues become more and more important. In this research, a low of operation algorithm and using the triangular pattern rule are proposed, then can quickly detect fall-down movements of humanoid by the installation of a robot with camera vision at home that will be able to judge the fall-down movements of in-home elderly people in real time. In this paper, it will present a preliminary design and experimental results of fall-down movements from body posture that utilizes image pre-processing and three triangular-mass-central points to extract the characteristics. The result shows that the proposed method would adopt some characteristic value and the accuracy can reach up to 90 % for a single character posture. Furthermore the accuracy can be up to 100 % when a continuous-time sampling criterion and support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used. PMID:26276014

  8. Horton Falls named for Pioneer Hydrologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Vincent

    A beautiful 80-foot waterfall in the Catskill Mountains was recently named after Robert E. Horton (1875-1945), a pioneer hydrologist and active AGU member for many years. Officially named Horton Falls, the waterfall, located a few miles east of Voorheesville, N.Y., in Albany County, was an important part of Horton's hydrological laboratory. The U.S. Board on Geographic Names approved the name at its November 8, 1990 meeting.Horton lived close to the falls and operated his hydrological laboratory at its crest in the old La Grange Grist Mill, which used hydropower generated by the falling waters of the La Grange Mill Pond, originally impounded by a wooden log dam 100 feet upstream of the mill. As far as can be determined, the pioneer La Granges, who built and operated the mill, never used the 85-foot head made available to them by the waterfalls. Horton, however, did, and ran a vertical and a horizontal iron water wheel to spin a DC electricity-generating turbine, which he used for heat, light, and power in his home and laboratory.

  9. Sedimentary links and the spatial organization of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) spawning habitat in a Canadian Shield river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Chad; Lapointe, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The segmenting of gravel-bed rivers flowing through mountain valleys into a number of discrete 'sedimentary links', each characterized by downstream fining of alluvium, is a relatively recent concept which offers promise to model the large-scale spatial organisation of many types of aquatic habitat (reproductive, feeding, refuge, etc), strongly dependent on dominant bed sediment calibre. Although, so far, the ecological application of the concept has mainly focused on benthic invertebrates, here we illustrate its application to fish (Atlantic salmon; Salmo salar). Moreover, the link concept has also been primarily applied to alpine river environments where link formation is triggered by point sources (mainly tributaries) supplying coarser sediment. However, somewhat lower relief, mountain valley landscapes of North Eastern Canada are often structured into sedimentary links triggered by non-point, 'supply zones' of coarse sediments, originating in bedrock canyon reaches or valley bottom deposits of glacial drift. Here, we propose an adaptation and extension of the original, sedimentary link concept to such landscapes and test its utility along one such system, the Ste Marguerite River (SMR), a salmon river draining the Canadian Shield in the Saguenay region of Québec. We first discuss a simple field and office based method of link delineation. Then we discuss potential sources of minor, sublink scale grain size variability and their effects on how sedimentary links are defined. Lastly, we demonstrate the usefulness of the link structure to model the distribution of Atlantic salmon spawning habitat (a habitat that depends critically on bed texture). Our results indicate that a revised sedimentary link typology is needed to describe longitudinal grain size patterns where non-point, valley-segment scale sources of coarse sediment are important and that consideration of the research purpose and scale is important in defining meaningful link units. We also show that

  10. A Systematic Approach towards Optimizing a Cohabitation Challenge Model for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Santi, Nina; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause >90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p<0.000) for use as challenge virus. The challenge dose was estimated at 1x10(7) TCID50/mL per fish while the proportion of virus shedders was estimated at 12.5% of the total number of fish per tank. The model was designed based on a three parallel tank system in which the Cox hazard proportional regression model was used to estimate the minimum number of fish required to show significant differences between the vaccinated and control fish in each tank. All input variables were optimized to generate mortality >75% in the unvaccinated fish in order to attain a high discriminatory capacity (DC) between the vaccinated and control fish as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The model shows the importance of using highly susceptible fish to IPNV in the optimization of challenge models by showing that highly susceptible fish had a better DC of differentiating vaccine protected fish from the unvaccinated control fish than the less susceptible fish. Once all input variables were optimized, the model was tested for its reproducibility by generating similar results from three independent cohabitation challenge trials using the same input variables. Overall, data presented here show that the cohabitation challenge model developed in this study is reproducible and that it can reliably be used to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines developed against IPNV in Atlantic salmon. We envision that the approach used here will open new avenues for developing optimal challenge models for

  11. Extensional Basins in a Convergent Margin: Oligocene-Early Miocene Salar de Atacama and Calama basins, Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. E.; Mpodozis, C.; Blanco, N.; Pananont, P.; Dávila, F.

    2004-12-01

    The Salar de Atacama Basin (SdAB) is the largest and most persistent sedimentary basin of northern Chile, accumulating nonmarine sediment from Cretaceous to modern times. Its northwestern neighbor, the Calama, was a Cenozoic basin. Although SdAB was in the backarc zone early in the Andean orogeny, both are now forearc basins. Others demonstrated that the basins overlie anomalously cold, strong, and dense crust and lithosphere. We focus on an extensional Oligocene basin stage. Interpretation of the basin-controlling faults is based on seismic reflection studies supported by field relations. The SdAB is limited to the west by the NNE-trending, steeply east-dipping, Paciencia Fault (PF). The PF experienced 5-7 km of down-to-the-east offset during the Oligocene-early Miocene. Syntectonic strata, an arid succession of siliciclastics and evaporites, are asymmetric, with thicknesses of 5000 m and abundant halite adjacent to the PF, and of 1000 m with fine detrital clastic strata 25 km farther east. Relations in conglomeratic growth strata that overlap the PF also demonstrate normal displacement during sediment accumulation. Seismic data reveal that a buried normal fault with 1-1.5 km down-to-the-east displacement limits the western margin of the Oligocene-Miocene Calama siliciclastic basin fill. Regionally, Oligocene-early Miocene margin-parallel strike-slip deformation dominated northwest of the basins, contributing sinistral offset (West Fissure Fault) to the northern segment of the long-lived Domeyko Fault System. The new SdAB and Calama data reveal that a 20,000 km2 domain of extensional basins existed within the dominantly strike-slip region. Even if PF and the fault in the Calama Basin were transtensional, the proportion of extension to strike-slip displacement is much greater in these basins than elsewhere in northern Chile. Further study is required to understand what combination of factors caused this kinematic distinction as well as delayed the onset of CVZ

  12. A Systematic Approach towards Optimizing a Cohabitation Challenge Model for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba; Santi, Nina; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause >90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p<0.000) for use as challenge virus. The challenge dose was estimated at 1x107 TCID50/mL per fish while the proportion of virus shedders was estimated at 12.5% of the total number of fish per tank. The model was designed based on a three parallel tank system in which the Cox hazard proportional regression model was used to estimate the minimum number of fish required to show significant differences between the vaccinated and control fish in each tank. All input variables were optimized to generate mortality >75% in the unvaccinated fish in order to attain a high discriminatory capacity (DC) between the vaccinated and control fish as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The model shows the importance of using highly susceptible fish to IPNV in the optimization of challenge models by showing that highly susceptible fish had a better DC of differentiating vaccine protected fish from the unvaccinated control fish than the less susceptible fish. Once all input variables were optimized, the model was tested for its reproducibility by generating similar results from three independent cohabitation challenge trials using the same input variables. Overall, data presented here show that the cohabitation challenge model developed in this study is reproducible and that it can reliably be used to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines developed against IPNV in Atlantic salmon. We envision that the approach used here will open new avenues for developing optimal challenge models for use

  13. [Muscle and bone health as a risk factor of fall among the elderly. Fear of falling and the post-fall syndrome].

    PubMed

    Niino, Naoakira; Nishita, Yukiko

    2008-06-01

    Fear of falling and the post-fall syndrome (fear-related activity restriction) are serious psychological symptoms associated with falls. This paper reported the definition and prevalence of fear of falling. Prevalence has yielded highly varying estimates due to the various definitions and instruments used to measure fear. Correlates of fear of falling by a longitudinal study were also described. As most of the research on fear of falling has been cross-sectional, more longitudinal studies are needed. As to the post-fall syndrome, definition and prevalence among community-dwelling elderly was discussed. It is difficult to measure general prevalence due to the lack of solid criteria of this syndrome. PMID:18515948

  14. Active shortening and intermontane basin formation in the central Puna Plateau: Salar de Pocitos, NW Argentina (24°37'S, 67°03'W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, Manfred; Bookhagen, Bodo; Freymark, Jessica; Pingel, Heiko; Alonso, Ricardo N.

    2015-04-01

    Similar to other Cenozoic orogenic plateaus, extensional tectonics associated with mafic volcanism typifies the Altiplano-Puna of the southern Central Andes, while the flanks of the plateau and adjacent foreland areas experience shortening. Extensional tectonism in the plateau region since the late Miocene has been explained with delamination of lithospheric mantle. However, new evidence for protracted basin-wide shortening in the Salar de Pocitos region in the south-central Puna documents that the kinematic changeover from shortening to extension is highly diachronous. In this study we assess the deformation and geomorphic history of the Salar de Pocitos region using DGPS surveys, CRN dating of deformed pediment surfaces, and U/Pb dating of volcanic ash horizons in deformed strata. With average elevations of about 3.7 km the Altiplano-Puna is a first-order morphotectonic province of the southern central Andes and constitutes the world's second largest orogenic plateau. With few exceptions the Andean plateau consists of internally drained, partly coalesced sedimentary basins that are mainly bordered by reverse-fault bounded ranges, 5 to 6 km high. While there are many unifying plateau characteristics in the Altiplano (north) and Puna (south), including internal drainage, semi-arid to arid climate and associated deposition of evaporites, there are notable differences between both plateau sectors. In contrast to the vast Altiplano basin of Bolivia, the Argentine Puna comprises numerous, smaller and partly coalesced basins that reflect continued comparmentalization by the combined effects of tectonism and volcanic activity. The N-S oriented Salar de Pocitos basin is the vestige of a formerly contiguous sedimentary basin within the Puna interior. Unlike many other basins in this region it is bordered by the limb of an anticline developed in Tertiary sedimentary rocks on the west, while the eastern border is a reverse-faulted range front. To the north and south the

  15. Topography of the Flattest Surface on Earth: using ICESAT, GPS, and MISR to Measure Salt Surface Topography on Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Robert L.; Bills, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    Salt flats are aptly named: they are composed largely of salt, and are maintained as nearly equipotential surfaces via frequent flooding. The salar de Uyuni, on the Altiplano in southwestern Bolivia, is the largest salt flat on Earth, with an area of 9,800 sq km. Except for a few bedrock islands, it has less than 40 cm of relief. The upper-most salt unit averages 5 m thick and contains 50 cu km of nearly pure halite. It includes most of the salt that was in solution in paleolake Minchin, which attained a maximum area of 60,000 sq km and a maximum depth of 150 m, roughly 15 kyr ago. Despite approx. 10 m of differential isostatic rebound since deposition, the salar surface has been actively maintained as an extraordinarily flat and smooth surface by annual flooding during the rainy season. We have used the strong optical absorption properties of water in the visible band to map spatial variations in water depth during a time when the salar was flooded. As water depth increases, the initially pure white surface appears both darker and bluer. We utilized MISR images taken during the interval from April to November 2001. The red and infra-red bands (672 and 867 nm wavelength) were most useful since the water depth is small and the absorption at those wavelengths is quite strong. Nadir pointed MISR images have 275 m spatial resolution. To aid in our evaluation of water depth variations over the saiar surface, we utilized two sources of direct topographic measurements: several ICESAT altimetry tracks cross the area, and a 40x50 km GPS grid was surveyed to calibrate ICESAT. A difficulty in using these data types is that both give salt surface elevations relative to the ellipsoid, whereas the water surface will, in the absence of wind or tidal disturbances, follow an equipotential surface. Geoid height is not known to the required accuracy of a few cm in the central Andes. As a result, before comparing optical absorption from MISR to salt surface topography from GPS or

  16. Falls in the Elderly Secondary to Urinary Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Yousef; Meyer, Richard; Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fractures have a significant impact on our patients, their families, and caregivers, and cost the health care system billions of dollars. Each year, millions of adults aged 65 and older fall. Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries, such as hip fractures and head traumas, and can increase the risk of early death. Fortunately, falls are a public health problem that is largely preventable. Because many patients with falls and subsequent fractures have urologic conditions, urologists are positioned to help with the prevention of these significant and costly injuries. This article discusses the epidemiology of falls and fractures, and the urologic comorbidities that increase their risk. PMID:27162509

  17. Fear of falling in older adults: comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dukyoo

    2008-12-01

    Fear of falling has been reported in a high percentage of community-dwelling elderly who both do and don't have a history of falling. The aims of this review are to: (a) elucidate the definition of fear of falling; (b) clarify measurements of fear of falling based on its definition; and (c) describe the risk factors for fear of falling. Despite the importance of the percentage and the consequences of fear of falling, its definition is still vague and warrants clarification. Based on a literature review, major fear of falling measurements involve the evaluation of fear of falling and use of a fall efficacy scale. Using a correct definition of fear of falling, nurses working close with older adults need to identify the different definitions of fear of falling and fall efficacy scale. In addition, nurses who work closely with older adults should encourage them to increase or maintain modifiable factors by maximizing their basic health status and enhancing their physical activity to decrease fear of falling. PMID:25029959

  18. Medications Are Associated with Falls in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Karstens, Lisa; Hoang, Phu; Bourdette, Dennis; Lord, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medication use is associated with falls in many populations, but the relationship between medications and falls in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well understood. Methods: The number and types of medications used by 248 ambulatory adults with MS in the United States (n = 53) and Australia (n = 195) were assessed. Participants completed fall diaries for 6 months. Associations between number and type of medications reported and falls, adjusting for age, disease severity, comorbidities, sex, and country, were evaluated using multiple logistic regression. Results: Participants reported taking a median of three medications and two supplements. A total of 143 participants (58%) fell at least once in the 6 months, and 110 (44%) experienced one or more injurious falls. The adjusted relative odds of a fall or an injurious fall increased by 13% (P = .048) and 11% (P = .049), respectively, for each medication and by 43% (P = .015) and 55% (P = .001) for each neurologically active medication. Reported use of MS disease-modifying therapy was associated with 48% decreased odds of falling (P = .035) but not significantly decreased odds of injurious falls. Conclusions: Reporting use of more medications and more neurologically active medications is associated with falls and injurious falls in people with MS. Close evaluation of the need for each medication, with associated minimization of neurologically active medications in patients with MS, may help prevent falls. Use of MS disease-modifying therapies may be associated with fewer falls. This relationship needs further evaluation. PMID:26472941

  19. Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  20. Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates & Gate-Lifting Mechanisms, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  1. Science Policy and Education Events at 2013 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-08-01

    Programming for the 2013 Fall Meeting is under way, and the schedule promises to be even more exciting than last year. Science policy-related events planned for the 2013 Fall Meeting include the following:

  2. Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... But many cannot and need long-term care. Fear of Falling Fear of falling becomes more common with age, even ... and restore your walking confidence. Getting over your fear can help you to stay active, maintain your ...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  6. Skin-contact sensor for automatic fall detection.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an adhesive sensor system worn on the skin that automatically detects human falls. The sensor, which consists of a tri-axial accelerometer, a microcon-troller and a Bluetooth Low Energy transceiver, can be worn anywhere on a subject's torso and in any orientation. In order to distinguish easily between falls and activities of daily living (ADL), a possible fall is detected only if an impact is detected and if the subject is horizontal shortly afterwards. As an additional criterion to reduce false positives, a fall is confirmed if the user activity level several seconds after a possible fall is below a threshold. Intentional falls onto a gymnastics mat were performed by 10 volunteers (total of 297 falls); ADL were performed by 15 elderly volunteers (total of 315 ADL). The fall detection algorithm provided a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 100%. PMID:23366814

  7. WAHKEENA FALLS FOOTBRIDGE, VIEW OF WALKWAY AND WALLS LOOKING 182 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAHKEENA FALLS FOOTBRIDGE, VIEW OF WALKWAY AND WALLS LOOKING 182 DEGREES SOUTH. SAME PHOTO AS HAER No. OR-36-37 - Historic Columbia River Highway, Wahkeena Falls Footbridge, Spanning Wahkeena Creek near Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 21. VIEW OF COTTAGE 101 AND THE SWAN FALLS POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF COTTAGE 101 AND THE SWAN FALLS POWER PLANT AND DAM TAKEN AROUND 1920, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BUILDING AT LOWER LEFT IS COTTAGE THAT LATER BURNED. - Swan Falls Village, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  9. 5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM AND POWER HOUSE, LOOKING UPSTREAM TO SOUTH FROM THE A MOUND OF DEBRIS ABOUT THIRTY TO FORTY FEET ABOVE THE RIVER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  10. Primary Care Fall Risk Assessment for Elderly West Virginians.

    PubMed

    Minkemeyer, Vivian M; Meriweather, Matt; Shuler, Franklin D; Mehta, Saurabh P; Qazi, Zain N

    2015-01-01

    West Virginia is ranked second nationally for the percent of its population 65 years of age. The elderly are especially susceptible to falls with fall risk increasing as age increases. Because falls are the number one cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the West Virginia elderly, evaluation of fall risk is a critical component of the patient evaluation in the primary care setting. We therefore highlight fall risk assessments that require no specialized equipment or training and can easily be completed at an established office visit. High quality clinical practice guidelines supported by the American Geriatric Society recommend yearly fall risk evaluation in the elderly. Those seniors at greatest risk of falls will benefit from the standardized therapy protocols outlined and referral to a balance treatment center. Patients with low-to-moderate fall risk attributed to muscle weakness or fatigue should be prescribed lower extremity strengthening exercises, such as kitchen counter exercises, to improve strength and balance. PMID:26665892

  11. 4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP OF MAIN WATERFALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  12. Reduction in antipredator response detected between first and second generations of endangered juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in a captive breeding and rearing programme.

    PubMed

    de Mestral, L G; Herbinger, C M

    2013-11-01

    Behaviour trials determining antipredator response were conducted on first and second generation juveniles from a captive breeding and rearing programme for endangered Inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Second generation captive fry displayed significantly higher levels of risk-taking behaviour before and after exposure to a simulated avian predator. Because the first and second generation fry were reared under the same environmental conditions and differed only in the number of generations spent in captivity, these results suggest that rapid genetic changes, possibly due to domestication selection, may have occurred. Antipredator response was also assessed in fully wild and highly domesticated experimental groups: wild fry displayed the greatest antipredator response and domesticated fry displayed the highest levels of risk-taking behaviour. These results add to the growing evidence documenting rapid genetic change in response to rearing in a captive environment. PMID:24580666

  13. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  14. Development, application and validation of a Taqman real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Snow, M; McKay, P; McBeath, A J A; Black, J; Doig, F; Kerr, R; Cunningham, C O; Nylund, A; Devold, M

    2006-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a disease of cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which was successfully eradicated from Scotland following its emergence in 1998. The rapid deployment of sensitive diagnostic methods for the detection of ISA virus (ISAV) was fundamental to the swift eradication of ISA disease in Scotland and continues to be of crucial importance to surveillance of the aquaculture industry. This study reports the development, validation, application and interpretation of two independent, highly sensitive and specific semi-quantitative Taqman real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) methods for the detection of ISAV. Such technology offers considerable advantages over conventional RT-PCR methods in current routine use for ISAV surveillance. These include an increased sensitivity, enhanced specificity, semi-quantification using endogenous controls, a lack of subjectivity in results interpretation, speed of processing and improved contamination control. PMID:17058489

  15. Fear of Falling in Women with Fibromyalgia and Its Relation with Number of Falls and Balance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Mateo, D.; Gallego-Diaz, J. M.; Adsuar, J. C.; Domínguez-Muñoz, F. J.; Olivares, P. R.; Gusi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate fear of falling, number of falls, and balance performance in women with FM and to examine the relationship between these variables and others, such as balance performance, quality of life, age, pain, and impact of fibromyalgia. Methods. A total of 240 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Of these, 125 had fibromyalgia. Several variables were assessed: age, fear of falling from 0 to 100, number of falls, body composition, balance performance, lower limb strength, health-related quality of life, and impact of fibromyalgia. Results. Women with fibromyalgia reported more falls and more fear of falling. Fear of falling was associated with number of falls in the last year, stiffness, perceived balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL whereas the number of falls was related to fear of falling, balance performance with eyes closed, pain, tenderness to touch level, anxiety, self-reported balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL. Conclusion. FM has an impact on fear of falling, balance performance, and number of falls. Perceived balance problems seem to be more closely associated with fear of falling than objective balance performance. PMID:26618173

  16. Falls in the community: state of the science.

    PubMed

    Hester, Amy L; Wei, Feifei

    2013-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries among older community-dwelling adults continue to be a major health concern in the US. Falls are the leading cause of disability and trauma-related death in persons over 65 years of age. This article discusses current approaches in community fall management and challenges with these approaches, and offers some insight for community providers regarding this issue. PMID:23776331

  17. Challenges in Defining and Categorizing Falls on Diverse Unit Types

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jan; Dunton, Nancy; Crosser, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators launched a project to expand its falls indicator for use on pediatric, neonatal, and psychiatric units. We discuss challenges encountered, argue that schemes for categorizing falls by cause or supposed preventability are not suitable for large-scale efforts to track and prevent falls, express concern about the growing burden of collecting increasingly granular quality data, and discuss limitations of total and injurious fall rates as quality measures. PMID:25188525

  18. Systems and Methods for Imaging of Falling Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Tim (Inventor); Fallgatter, Cale (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of falling objects is described. Multiple images of a falling object can be captured substantially simultaneously using multiple cameras located at multiple angles around the falling object. An epipolar geometry of the captured images can be determined. The images can be rectified to parallelize epipolar lines of the epipolar geometry. Correspondence points between the images can be identified. At least a portion of the falling object can be digitally reconstructed using the identified correspondence points to create a digital reconstruction.

  19. Final slate for AGU elections this fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-07-01

    Your vote is important! This fall, AGU members will elect leaders for the next term (1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014). This issue of Eos provides details about the upcoming election and information on candidates for open AGU Board and Council positions as well as section and focus group secretary positions. All regular and student members who joined or renewed their membership by 1 July 2012 are eligible to vote in this year's election of AGU leaders. The election will be held electronically, and all members must have a valid e-mail address on file at AGU to receive login credentials from the company conducting the election.

  20. Persistent groin pain after a bicycle fall.

    PubMed

    Luu, Say-Chong; Jacques, Nicole; Jost, Daniel; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Motor scooter handlebar syndrome (MSH) is uncommon. MSH includes groin pain associated with intimal injury to the common femoral artery caused by a direct blow from objects such as a motor scooter handlebar. We describe a case of a 23-year-old man with MSH occurring after a bicycle fall. The diagnosis was performed 5 years after the onset of pain. The patient underwent endovascular surgery and made a rapid recovery. Postoperatively, he was free of symptoms. This case highlights the difficulty of recognising this syndrome. PMID:26678689

  1. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE, WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE, WITH THE MODERN SUBSTATION AND OLD SWITCHING BUILDING IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND AND THE POWER PLANT IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  2. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. POWER PLANT AND INTAKE GATES ARE IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND, AND THE ATTACHED 'OLD SWITCHING BUILDING' (NOW ABANDONED) IS IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  3. Nonpersisting Student Analysis for Fall 1977-Spring 1978. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    This research note reviews an analysis of Moraine Valley Community College nonpersisting students for fall 1977 and spring 1978. Information is provided on trends in transfer and occupational student retention by semester from spring 1970 through fall/spring 1977-78, and on fall 1977 and spring 1978 persister and nonpersister characteristics. Of…

  4. Polypharmacy and falls in the middle age and elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Ziere, G; Dieleman, J P; Hofman, A; Pols, H A P; van der Cammen, T J M; Stricker, B H CH

    2006-01-01

    Aim Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. We studied the association between multiple drug use (polypharmacy) and falls in the elderly. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study. The participants were 6928 individuals aged ≥55 years. The prevalence of falls in the previous year was assessed. Medication use was determined with an interviewer-administered questionnaire with verification of use. Polypharmacy was defined as the use of four or more drugs per day. Results The prevalence of falls strongly increased with age. Falls were more common in women than in men. Fall risk increased with increasing disability, presence of joint complaints, use of a walking aid and fracture history. The risk of falling increased significantly with the number of drugs used per day (P for trend <0.0001). After adjustment for a large number of comorbid conditions and disability, polypharmacy remained a significant risk factor for falling. Stratification for polypharmacy with or without at least one drug which is known to increase fall risk (notably CNS drugs and diuretics) disclosed that only polypharmacy with at least one risk drug was associated with an increased risk of falling. Conclusions Fall risk is associated with the use of polypharmacy, but only when at least one established fall risk-increasing drug was part of the daily regimen. PMID:16433876

  5. 2. CLOSEUP OF SOUTH FACADE OF UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CLOSEUP OF SOUTH FACADE OF UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, SHOWING TRASH RACKS, REMOVABLE STEEL DOORS, TRASH RAKE STRUCTURE, AND DERRICK, WINCH AND CABLE GATE LIFTING DEVICE, LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHWEST. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  6. 29 CFR 1926.759 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Falling object protection. 1926.759 Section 1926.759 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.759 Falling object... aloft, shall be secured against accidental displacement. (b) Protection from falling objects other...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14106 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Falling object protection. 56.14106 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14106 Falling object protection. (a) Fork-lift trucks, front-end loaders, and bulldozers shall be provided with falling object protective structures...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14106 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Falling object protection. 57.14106 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14106 Falling object protection. (a) Fork-lift trucks, front-end loaders, and bulldozers shall be provided with falling object protective structures...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  13. Fall Enrollment Report, 1993. Mississippi Public Community & Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.

    This statistical report offers statewide and college-by-college data on headcount enrollment at Mississippi's public community and junior colleges, focusing primarily on fall 1993. The nine tables in the report cover: (1) 5-year (fall 1989-fall 1993) headcount enrollment trends by curriculum for full- and part-time students; (2) total full- and…

  14. 3. EAST FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, FOREBAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, FOREBAY IN LEFT FOREGROUND, SPOKANE CITY HALL IN LEFT BACKGROUND, LOOKING WEST. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  15. 4. REAR (NORTH) FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR (NORTH) FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  16. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, FOREBAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, FOREBAY IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  17. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  18. The Pendulum: From Constrained Fall to the Concept of Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevilacqua, Fabio; Falomo, Lidia; Fregonese, Lucio; Giannetto, Enrico; Giudice, Franco; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Kuhn underlined the relevance of Galileo's gestalt switch in the interpretation of a swinging body from constrained fall to time metre. But the new interpretation did not eliminate the older one. The constrained fall, both in the motion of pendulums and along inclined planes, led Galileo to the law of free fall. Experimenting with physical…

  19. 1. Wideangle view of the Glens Falls Dam with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Wide-angle view of the Glens Falls Dam with the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation intakes structure on the left and the Finch, Pruyn & Company intake structure and power canal on the right. Facing south to southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  20. 5. General view of the Glens Falls Dam from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of the Glens Falls Dam from the vicinity of its southeast end. The log chute is in the background. Facing west-southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  1. Central Falls High School: First Year Transformation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Amy; Whitney, Joye; Shah, Hardeek; Foley, Ellen; Dure, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    In January 2010, the Rhode Island Department of Education (RIDE) identified Central Falls High School (CFHS) as one of the state's persistently lowest-achieving schools. The Central Falls School District (CFSD) and the Central Falls Teachers Union (CFTU) considered the transformation model but could not come to an agreement initially around…

  2. The role of primary care providers in managing falls.

    PubMed

    Demons, Jamehl L; Duncan, Pamela W

    2014-01-01

    Falls threaten the ability of older adults to live independently in the community. Fortunately, national and state organizations have created tools that allow primary care providers to easily assess fall risk, and small changes in practice patterns can provide patients with the resources necessary to prevent falls, thus helping to reverse a costly, deadly epidemic. PMID:25237872

  3. 6. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE SPILLWAY OF THE POST FALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE SPILLWAY OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE, WITH A PARTIAL VIEW OF THE MODERN TRANSFORMER IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE OLD SWITCHING BUILDING IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  4. The Falling Chain of Hopkins, Tait, Steele and Cayley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chun Wa; Youn, Seo Ho; Yasui, Kosuke

    2007-01-01

    A uniform, flexible and frictionless chain falling link by link from a heap by the edge of a table falls with an acceleration g/3 if the motion is nonconservative, but g/2 if the motion is conservative, g being the acceleration due to gravity. Unable to construct such a falling chain, we use instead higher-dimensional versions of it. A home…

  5. 30 CFR 56.14106 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 56.14106 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14106 Falling object protection. (a) Fork-lift trucks, front-end loaders, and bulldozers shall be provided with falling object protective structures...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14106 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 57.14106 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14106 Falling object protection. (a) Fork-lift trucks, front-end loaders, and bulldozers shall be provided with falling object protective structures...

  7. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Stock, Gregory M.; Reichenbach, P.; Snyder, J.B.; Borchers, J.W.; Godt, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m 3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  8. Precise timing when hitting falling balls

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball. PMID:24904380

  9. Precise timing when hitting falling balls.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball. PMID:24904380

  10. Fall velocity of multi-shaped clasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate settling velocity predictions of differently shaped micro- or macroclasts are required in many branches of science and engineering. Here, a single, dimensionally correct equation is presented that yields a significant improvement on previous settling formulas for a wide range of clast shapes. For smooth or irregular clasts with known axial dimensions, a partially polynomial equation based on the logarithmic values of dimensionless sizes and settling velocities is presented, in which the values of only one coefficient and one exponent need to be adapted for different shapes, irrespective of the Reynolds number. For irregular, natural clasts with unknown axial dimensions, a polynomial equation of the same form is applied, but with different coefficients. Comparison of the predicted and measured settling velocities of 8 different shape classes as well as natural grains with unknown axial dimensions in liquids, representing a total of 390 experimental data points, shows a mean percentage error of - 0.83% and a combined R2 value of 0.998. The settling data of 169 differently shaped particles of pumice, glass and feldspar falling in air were also analyzed, which demonstrates that the proposed equation is also valid for these conditions. Two additional shape classes were identified in the latter data set, although the resultant equations are less accurate than for liquids. An Excel spreadsheet is provided to facilitate the calculation of fall velocities for grains settling individually and in groups, or alternatively to determine the equivalent sieve size from the settling velocity, which can be used to calibrate settling tubes.

  11. Patient falls in hospitals: an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    Weil, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Despite six decades of worldwide efforts that include publishing virtually hundreds of related epidemiological-type studies, there has been an increase (estimated to be 46% per 1000 patient days from 1954-6 to 2006-10) in the number of patient falls in hospitals and other health care facilities. These still occur most frequently near the bedside or in the bathroom, among mentally confused or physically impaired patients, and often involve those with greater comorbidity. The reasons that hospitals during the past half century have demonstrated a significant increase in patient falls per discharge or per patient days are numerous, are not completely surprising, and are certainly interrelated: improved accident reporting systems; on the average older, more impaired, more acutely ill, and more heavily sedated patients; and, less time spent by nursing personnel at the bedside. Most safety committees are not as effective as they should be, since they have difficulty in implementing a long-term, aggressive, facility-wide prevention program. Within that context, it may be worthwhile to discuss the advantages of nursing leadership rather than a representative of the facility's management staff to chair these safety committees. PMID:26304626

  12. Comparison of the Validity of Four Fall-Related Psychological Measures in a Community-Based Falls Risk Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M.; McCarter, Kevin S.; Wood, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the measurement properties of fall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey of Activities and Fear of…

  13. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1991. With Trends from Fall 1982. Report No. 9-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    This report presents data on the utilization of residence hall facilities at campuses of the State University of New York (excluding community colleges) for fall 1991, with summary data from fall 1982 through fall 1991. Part 1 offers seven tables on utilization of original design capacity of residence hall facilities; utilization by institution…

  14. Genetic stock identification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations in the southern part of the European range

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anadromous migratory fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have significant economic, cultural and ecological importance, but present a complex case for management and conservation due to the range of their migration. Atlantic salmon exist in rivers across the North Atlantic, returning to their river of birth with a high degree of accuracy; however, despite continuing efforts and improvements in in-river conservation, they are in steep decline across their range. Salmon from rivers across Europe migrate along similar routes, where they have, historically, been subject to commercial netting. This mixed stock exploitation has the potential to devastate weak and declining populations where they are exploited indiscriminately. Despite various tagging and marking studies, the effect of marine exploitation and the marine element of the salmon lifecycle in general, remain the "black-box" of salmon management. In a number of Pacific salmonid species and in several regions within the range of the Atlantic salmon, genetic stock identification and mixed stock analysis have been used successfully to quantify exploitation rates and identify the natal origins of fish outside their home waters - to date this has not been attempted for Atlantic salmon in the south of their European range. Results To facilitate mixed stock analysis (MSA) of Atlantic salmon, we have produced a baseline of genetic data for salmon populations originating from the largest rivers from Spain to northern Scotland, a region in which declines have been particularly marked. Using 12 microsatellites, 3,730 individual fish from 57 river catchments have been genotyped. Detailed patterns of population genetic diversity of Atlantic salmon at a sub-continent-wide level have been evaluated, demonstrating the existence of regional genetic signatures. Critically, these appear to be independent of more commonly recognised terrestrial biogeographical and political boundaries, allowing reporting

  15. Freshwater environment affects growth rate and muscle fibre recruitment in seawater stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Ian A; Manthri, Sujatha; Alderson, Richard; Smart, Alistair; Campbell, Patrick; Nickell, David; Robertson, Billy; Paxton, Charles G M; Burt, M Louise

    2003-04-01

    The influence of freshwater environment on muscle growth in seawater was investigated in an inbred population of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The offspring from a minimum of 64 families per group were incubated at either ambient temperature (ambient treatment) or in heated water (heated treatment). Growth was investigated using a mixed-effect statistical model with repeated measures, which included terms for treatment effect and random fish effects for individual growth rate (alpha) and the instantaneous growth rate per unit change in temperature (gamma). Prior to seawater transfer, fish were heavier in the heated (61.6+/-1.0 g; N=298) than in the ambient (34.1+/-0.4 g; N=206) treatments, reflecting their greater growth opportunity: 4872 degree-days and 4281 degree-days, respectively. However, the subsequent growth rate of the heated group was lower, such that treatments had a similar body mass (3.7-3.9 kg) after approximately 450 days in seawater. The total cross-sectional area of fast muscle and the number (FN) and size distribution of the fibres was determined in a subset of the fish. We tested the hypothesis that freshwater temperature regime affected the rate of recruitment and hypertrophy of muscle fibres. There were differences in FN between treatments and a significant age x treatment interaction but no significant cage effect (ANOVA). Cessation of fibre recruitment was identified by the absence of fibres of <10 micro m diameter. The maximum fibre number was 22.4% more in the ambient (9.3 x 10(5)+/-2.0 x 10(4) than in the heated (7.6 x 10(5)+/-1.5 x 10(4)) treatments (N=44 and 40 fish, respectively; P<0.001). For fish that had completed fibre recruitment, there was a significant correlation between FN and individual growth rate, explaining 35% of the total variation. The density of myogenic progenitor cells was quantified using an antibody to c-met and was approximately 2-fold higher in the ambient than in the heated group, equivalent to 2-3% of

  16. Influence of Fishmeal-Free Diets on Microbial Communities in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Recirculation Aquaculture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Victor; Davidson, John; Summerfelt, Steven

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reliance on fishmeal as a primary protein source is among the chief economic and environmental concerns in aquaculture today. Fishmeal-based feeds often require harvest from wild fish stocks, placing pressure on natural ecosystems and causing price instability. Alternative diet formulations without the use of fishmeal provide a potential solution to this challenge. Although the impact of alternative diets on fish performance, intestinal inflammation, palatability, and gut microbiota has been a topic of recent interest, less is known about how alternative feeds impact the aquaculture environment as a whole. The recent focus on recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and the closed-containment approach to raising food fish highlights the need to maintain stable environmental and microbiological conditions within a farm environment. Microbial stability in RAS biofilters is particularly important, given its role in nutrient processing and water quality in these closed systems. If and how the impacts of alternative feeds on microbial communities in fish translate into changes to the biofilters are not known. We tested the influence of a fishmeal-free diet on the microbial communities in RAS water, biofilters, and salmon microbiomes using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene V6 hypervariable region amplicon sequencing. We grew Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to market size in six replicate RAS tanks, three with traditional fishmeal diets and three with alternative-protein, fishmeal-free diets. We sampled intestines and gills from market-ready adult fish, water, and biofilter medium in each corresponding RAS unit. Our results provide data on how fish diet influences the RAS environment and corroborate previous findings that diet has a clear influence on the microbiome structure of the salmon intestine, particularly within the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria). We conclude that the strong stability of taxa likely involved in water quality processing regardless

  17. Falls risk assessment in older patients in hospital.

    PubMed

    Matarese, Maria; Ivziku, Dhurata

    2016-07-27

    Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals, usually affecting older patients. All hospitals in NHS organisations develop risk prevention policies that include falls risk assessment. Falls risk assessment involves the use of risk screening tools, aimed at identifying patients at increased risk of falls, and risk assessment tools, which identify a patient's risk factors for falls. Various risk screening tools have been used in clinical practice, but no single tool is able to identify all patients at risk of falls or to accurately exclude all those who are not at risk of falls. Guidelines recommend that patients aged 65 years and over who are admitted to hospital should be considered at high risk of falls and that a multifactorial falls risk assessment should be performed. Therefore, falls risk assessment tools should be used to identify the risk factors for each inpatient aged 65 years or over, in order to determine the most appropriate care plan for falls prevention and to maximise patient mobility and independence. PMID:27461329

  18. Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, John G.; Neider, Mark B.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in older adults, and recent research suggests that older adults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds) to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds). Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk older adults also outperformed high falls risk older adults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk older adults extend to simulated driving performance. PMID:23509627

  19. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Yeun; Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-02-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487

  20. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487

  1. Person-Environment Interactions Contributing to Nursing Home Resident Falls

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Elizabeth E.; Nguyen, Tam H.; Shaha, Maya; Wenzel, Jennifer A.; DeForge, Bruce R.; Spellbring, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Although approximately 50% of nursing home residents fall annually, the surrounding circumstances remain inadequately understood. This study explored nursing staff perspectives of person, environment, and interactive circumstances surrounding nursing home falls. Focus groups were conducted at two nursing homes in the mid-Atlantic region with the highest and lowest fall rates among corporate facilities. Two focus groups were conducted per facility: one with licensed nurses and one with geriatric nursing assistants. Thematic and content analysis revealed three themes and 11 categories. Three categories under the Person theme were Change in Residents’ Health Status, Decline in Residents’ Abilities, and Residents’ Behaviors and Personality Characteristics. There were five Nursing Home Environment categories: Design Safety, Limited Space, Obstacles, Equipment Misuse and Malfunction, and Staff and Organization of Care. Three Interactions Leading to Falls categories were identified: Reasons for Falls, Time of Falls, and High-Risk Activities. Findings highlight interactions between person and environment factors as significant contributors to resident falls. PMID:20077985

  2. A Comprehensive Initiative to Prevent Falls Among Newborns.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Rose Mary; Summerlin-Long, Shelley; Mog, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Our hospital experienced seven instances of newborns falling over a 7-month period. Until that time, there had been no reported newborn falls. We formed a committee to study the situation and make recommendations for change. Common factors observed were early morning hours and an exhausted parent, usually the mother, falling asleep while feeding the newborn. The committee developed a policy and procedure addressing falls among newborns, created staff education and tools, and posted signage in mothers' rooms. We also updated crib cards to include information about falls and safe sleep, and we revised newborn admission education for parents with additional information about falls. The incidence of newborns falling has decreased since we implemented these changes. PMID:27287351

  3. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie

    2015-03-01

    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector. PMID:25376033

  4. Fall Profile: 1984-85 Closing Fall Enrollment Analysis. Research Report No. 85-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Cathy

    This report provides a profile of Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) enrollment for the end of fall term 1984. The first section summarizes general enrollment trends over time by campus and by selected demographic variables. The next sections provide a summary of the ethnic composition of the students at MDCC, a description of MDCC students by…

  5. Going nuts: Measuring free-fall acceleration by analyzing the sound of falling metal pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Theilmann, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Galilei presented the kinematics of a one-dimensional accelerated motion with ease and in terms of elegant geometry. Moreover, he believed, "Philosophy [i.e. physics] is written in this grand book—I mean the universe—which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it." In classroom practice, however, it can be difficult to reveal this mathematical heart of nature; free fall and other accelerated motions often get obscured by friction or other sources of errors. In this paper, we introduce a method of analyzing free-fall motion indirectly by evaluating the noise of freely falling metal pieces. The method connects a deeper understanding of the mathematical structure of accelerated motion with the possibility to derive a numerical value for the free-fall acceleration g.

  6. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1992, with Trends from Fall 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    This report presents utilization summary data in the form of 12 tables from all New York State-operated institutions of higher education having residence hall facilities. The tables provide information on such areas as occupancy rates, bed rental information, revenue-producing "other" utilization, and trends in facility utilization from fall 1983…

  7. Perceived Fall Risk and Functional Decline: Gender Differences in Patient's Willingness to Discuss Fall Risk, Fall History, or to Have a Home Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C.; Nguyen, Michael C.; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D.; Porter, Bernadette G.; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W.; Kane, Bryan G.

    2016-01-01

    The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p < .001). No difference in correlation was observed between males and females, p = .26. Participants (77 percent) reported they would be comfortable discussing their fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects’ perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting. PMID:27354852

  8. Perceived Fall Risk and Functional Decline: Gender Differences in Patient's Willingness to Discuss Fall Risk, Fall History, or to Have a Home Safety Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C; Nguyen, Michael C; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D; Porter, Bernadette G; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W; Kane, Bryan G

    2016-06-01

    The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p < .001). No difference in correlation was observed between males and females, p = .26. Participants (77 percent) reported they would be comfortable discussing their fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects' perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting. PMID:27354852

  9. Steady growth in Fall Meeting's scope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Joanna

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fall Meeting exceeded attendance projections, with 12% growth over last year in abstract submissions (20,087) and 9% growth in attendees (20,890). Participants at the meeting represented 96 countries—14 more than last year. With 1620 oral and poster sessions throughout the week—up 11% from last year—attendees had a lot of presentations to choose from! Student participation also increased markedly, by 17%, and the number of companies with booths in the exhibit hall increased by 5%. In addition, a total of 66 sessions and lectures were videotaped (compared to 21 last year) and are now archived to view. Be sure to catch these sessions at http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/scientific-program/sessions-on-demand/.

  10. Symmetric Rock Fall on Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sreten Mastilovic

    2001-08-09

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the Naval SNF (spent nuclear fuel) Waste Package (WP) and the emplacement pallet (EP) subjected to the rock fall DBE (design basis event) dynamic loads. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities and residual stresses in the WP, and stress intensities and maximum permanent downward displacements of the EP-lifting surface. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP and EP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for those designs only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and is performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with Reference 24. AP-3.124, ''Calculations'', is used to perform the calculation and develop the document.

  11. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  12. Low back pain following a fall.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    The patient was a 29-year-old man who presented to an emergency department with a chief complaint of low back pain. Symptom onset occurred 3 weeks earlier, following a fall off a roof. The physician ordered radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spines, which were interpreted as normal. After receiving the results of the radiographs, the physician referred the patient to a physical therapist working in the emergency department. Because of the strong suspicion for a fracture and because radiographs are not considered to be sensitive to some of the bony changes associated with fractures,1 computed tomography imaging of the thoracic and lumbar spines was ordered. The computed tomography imaging revealed multilevel, small end-plate compression defects, most marked at T12-L1, with mild anterior wedging and retropulsion of a small bone fragment at L1. PMID:23902792

  13. Mohawk Valley Community College (MVCC) Trend Data Book. Analysis Period: Fall 1988-Fall 1993, with Some Data Trends into the Fall of 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Samuel L., Jr., Ed.

    This trend data book addresses integral areas of New York's Mohawk Valley Community College (MVCC), including Enrollment, Admissions, Academic Programs, Graduate/Placement, Administrative/Financial Statistics and Personnel Data. Analyzing statistics gathered from fall 1988 through fall 1993, the book contains six diverse statistical reports. The…

  14. Rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    We used two methods of estimating rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California based on (1) physical evidence of previous rock-fall travel, in which the potential extends to the base of the talus, and (2) theoretical potential energy considerations, in which the potential can extend beyond the base of the talus, herein referred to as the rock-fall shadow. Rock falls in the valley commonly range in size from individual boulders of less than 1 m3 to moderate-sized falls with volumes of about 100,000 m3. Larger rock falls exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are considered to be much less likely to occur based on the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits in the Yosemite Valley. Because the valley has steep walls and is relatively narrow, there are no areas that are absolutely safe from large rock avalanches. The map shows areas of rock-fall potential, but does not predict when or how frequently a rock fall will occur. Consequently, neither the hazard in terms of probability of a rock fall at any specific location, nor the risk to people or facilities to such events can be assessed from this map.

  15. Comparison and Characterization of Android-Based Fall Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems. PMID:25299953

  16. Comparison and characterization of Android-based fall detection systems.

    PubMed

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems. PMID:25299953

  17. Fall prevention and bathroom safety in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, Scott D; Riordan, Katherine C; Berry, Jennnifer; Corbett, Bryn M; Gerke, Joyce K; Hoerth, Matthew T; Crepeau, Amy Z; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Noe, Katherine H

    2015-07-01

    Falls are one of the most common adverse events occurring in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) and can result in significant injury. Protocols and procedures to reduce falls vary significantly between institutions as it is not yet known what interventions are effective in the EMU setting. This study retrospectively examined the frequency of falls and the impact of serial changes in fall prevention strategies utilized in the EMU between 2001 and 2014 at a single institution. Overall fall rate was 2.81 per 1000 patient days and varied annually from 0 to 9.02 per 1000 patient days. Both seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic events occurring in the bathroom were more likely to result in falls compared with events occurring elsewhere in the room. With initiation of increased patient education, hourly nurse rounding, nocturnal bed alarms, having two persons assisting for high fall risk patients when out of bed, and immediate postfall team review between 2001 and 2013, there was a trend of decreasing fall frequency; however, no specific intervention could be identified as having a particular high impact. In late 2013, a ceiling lift system extending into the bathroom was put in place for use in all EMU patients when out of bed. In the subsequent 15 months, there have been zero falls. The results reinforce both the need for diligent safety standards to prevent falls in the EMU as well as the challenges in identifying the most effective practices to achieve this goal. PMID:26074343

  18. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  20. Emerging concept: 'central benefit model' of exercise in falls prevention.

    PubMed

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Hsu, Chun Liang; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2013-01-01

    Falls are a common geriatric syndrome and are the third leading cause of chonic disability worldwide. Falls are not random events and occur, at least in part, due to impaired physiological function, such as impaired balance, and cognitive impairment. The clinical syndrome of falls is important for Sports and Exercise Medicine Clinicians as there is Level 1 evidence that targeted exercise prescription is an effective intervention strategy. The widely accepted dogma is that improved physical function, balance and muscle strength, underlies the effectiveness of the exercise in reducing falls. However, findings from randomised controlled trials suggest that exercise reduce falls via mechanisms other than improved physiological function. The authors propose that improved cognitive function - specifically, executive functions - and associated functional plasticity may be an important yet underappreciated mechanism by which the exercise reduces falls in older adults. PMID:22522589