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1

Performance evaluation of salivary amylase activity monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to quantify psychological stress and to distinguish eustress and distress, we have been investigating the establishment of a method that can quantify salivary amylase activity (SMA). Salivary glands not only act as amplifiers of a low level of norepinephrine, but also respond more quickly and sensitively to psychological stress than cortisol levels. Moreover, the time-course changes of the

Masaki Yamaguchi; Takahiro Kanemori; Masashi Kanemaru; Noriyasu Takai; Yasufumi Mizuno; Hiroshi Yoshida

2004-01-01

2

Salivary amylase activity monitor used for stress evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have been focusing on the activity of alpha-amylase in saliva (salivary amylase) with the aim of developing a simple quantitative measurement technique to monitor human stress. However, measurement of enzymatic activity required a sufficiently enough volume of substrate and the realization of quantification also required some mechanism to control the reaction time. Based on this concept, a salivary

M. Yamaguchi; M. Kanemaru; T. Kanemori; Y. Mizuno; H. Yoshida

2003-01-01

3

Flow-injection-type biosensor system for salivary amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors aim to establish a method that can quantitatively evaluate vital reactions to stress. We have been examining the correlation between stress and salivary amylase activity in order to verify its validity as a stress index. In order to quantify human stress, which changes over time, the relationship between stress and salivary amylase activity must be verified by fast

Masaki Yamaguchi; Masashi Kanemaru; Takahiro Kanemori; Yasufumi Mizuno

2003-01-01

4

Impact of Calcium on Salivary ?-Amylase Activity, Starch Paste Apparent Viscosity, and Thickness Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thickness perception of starch-thickened products during eating has been linked to starch viscosity and salivary amylase activity.\\u000a Calcium is an essential cofactor for ?-amylase and there is anecdotal evidence that adding extra calcium affects amylase activity\\u000a in processes like mashing of beer. The aims of this paper were to (1) investigate the role of salivary calcium on ?-amylase\\u000a activity and

Cecile Morris; Susanne L. Fichtel; Andrew J. Taylor

5

Determinants of the diurnal course of salivary alpha-amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Objective: Previous data from our group and others have shown that salivary alpha- amylase activity increases in response to stress. It has been suggested that salivary alpha- amylase may be a marker for adrenergic activity. Less is known about other determinants of salivary alpha-amylase activation. The objective of the current study was to describe the diurnal pattern of salivary

Urs M. Natera; Nicolas Rohleder; Wolff Schlotze; Ulrike Ehlert; Clemens Kirschbaum

6

Enhancing Maritime Education and Training: Measuring a Ship Navigator's Stress Based on Salivary Amylase Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the measurement of salivary amylase activity is an effective index to evaluate the stress of a ship navigator for safe navigation training and education. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation comes from the simulator and actual on-board experiments. The subjects are real captains who have…

Murai, Koji; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Miyado, Takashi; Fukushi, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yuji; Stone, Laurie C.

2009-01-01

7

Enhancing maritime education and training: Measuring a ship navigator's stress based on salivary amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose that the measurement of salivary amylase activity is an effective index to evaluate the stress of a ship navigator for safe navigation training and education. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Evaluation comes from the simulator and actual on-board experiments. The subjects are real captains who have unlimited licenses and cadets who are senior

Koji Murai; Shin-Ichi Wakida; Takashi Miyado; Keiichi Fukushi; Yuji Hayashi; Laurie C. Stone

2009-01-01

8

Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity and Salivary Flow Rate in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

The secretion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is more associated with psychoneuroendocrinological response to stress than with the flow rate and age. The aim of this cross sectional study is to build an explanatory model based on patterns of relationship between age 20-39 in resting and stimulated saliva under no stressful condition in healthy volunteers. Both resting and stimulated saliva were collected from 40 subjects. The sAA values were log-transformed, the normality assumption was verified with the Shapiro-Wilk test and the reliability of the measurements was estimated by the Pearsons’ r correlation coefficient. The estimated model was based on the theory of the Linear Mixed Models. Significant mean changes were observed in flow rate and sAA activity between resting and stimulated saliva. The final model consists of two components, the first revealed a positive correlation between age and sAA while the second one revealed a negative correlation between the interaction of age × flow rate in its condition (resting or stimulated saliva), with sAA. Both flow rate and age influence sAA activity.

Arhakis, Aristidis; Karagiannis, Vasilis; Kalfas, Sotirios

2013-01-01

9

Salivary alpha-amylase activity and salivary flow rate in young adults.  

PubMed

The secretion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is more associated with psychoneuroendocrinological response to stress than with the flow rate and age. The aim of this cross sectional study is to build an explanatory model based on patterns of relationship between age 20-39 in resting and stimulated saliva under no stressful condition in healthy volunteers. Both resting and stimulated saliva were collected from 40 subjects. The sAA values were log-transformed, the normality assumption was verified with the Shapiro-Wilk test and the reliability of the measurements was estimated by the Pearsons' r correlation coefficient. The estimated model was based on the theory of the Linear Mixed Models. Significant mean changes were observed in flow rate and sAA activity between resting and stimulated saliva. The final model consists of two components, the first revealed a positive correlation between age and sAA while the second one revealed a negative correlation between the interaction of age × flow rate in its condition (resting or stimulated saliva), with sAA. Both flow rate and age influence sAA activity. PMID:23524385

Arhakis, Aristidis; Karagiannis, Vasilis; Kalfas, Sotirios

2013-02-22

10

Psychological stress-induced changes in salivary alpha-amylase and adrenergic activity.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among salivary alpha-amylase, plasma catecholamines, blood pressure, and heart rate during psychological stress. This study used a pretest-post-test experimental design with a control group, using repeated measures. A total of 33 participants was divided into the experimental group (n = 16) that underwent a college academic final test as the psychological stress and the control group (n = 17) that did not undergo the test. The levels of salivary alpha-amylase and plasma catecholamines, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured seven times and stress and anxiety were measured once and twice, respectively, as subjective stress markers. Significant changes in the level of salivary alpha-amylase were found in response to psychological stress. However, the correlations of salivary alpha-amylase with the plasma catecholamines, blood pressure, and heart rate were only partially found to be statistically significant. In conclusion, it was shown that salivary alpha-amylase was sensitive to stress throughout this study. Thus, salivary alpha-amylase may be used to measure stress uninvasively in both clinical settings and nursing research where the effects of stress might be scrutinized. Furthermore, the mechanisms of illnesses that are induced by stress could be explored. PMID:21210927

Kang, Younhee

2010-12-02

11

High endogenous salivary amylase activity is associated with improved glycemic homeostasis following starch ingestion in adults.  

PubMed

In the current study, we determined whether increased digestion of starch by high salivary amylase concentrations predicted postprandial blood glucose following starch ingestion. Healthy, nonobese individuals were prescreened for salivary amylase activity and classified as high (HA) or low amylase (LA) if their activity levels per minute fell 1 SD higher or lower than the group mean, respectively. Fasting HA (n = 7) and LA (n = 7) individuals participated in 2 sessions during which they ingested either a starch (experimental) or glucose solution (control) on separate days. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the participants drank each solution. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as diploid AMY1 gene copy number. HA individuals had significantly more AMY1 gene copies within their genomes than did the LA individuals. We found that following starch ingestion, HA individuals had significantly lower postprandial blood glucose concentrations at 45, 60, and 75 min, as well as significantly lower AUC and peak blood glucose concentrations than the LA individuals. Plasma insulin concentrations in the HA group were significantly higher than baseline early in the testing session, whereas insulin concentrations in the LA group did not increase at this time. Following ingestion of the glucose solution, however, blood glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ between the groups. These observations are interpreted to suggest that HA individuals may be better adapted to ingest starches, whereas LA individuals may be at greater risk for insulin resistance and diabetes if chronically ingesting starch-rich diets. PMID:22492122

Mandel, Abigail L; Breslin, Paul A S

2012-04-04

12

Effects of some mineral compounds on the salivary ?-amylase activity of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Put.) (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ohsen YAZDANIAN ??? Summary In this study, the effects of two concentrations (1 and 3 mM) of ammonium nitrate (AN), ammonium phosphate (AP), ammonium sulfate (AS), copper chloride (CC), magnesium chloride (MC), magnesium nitrate (MN), magnesium sulfate (MS), potassium nitrate (PN), sodium nitrate (SN) and sodium phosphate (SP) on salivary ?-amylase activity of adults of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps

Mohammad Sa; Reza Farshbaf; Mostafa VALIZADEH

13

Salivary alpha amylase as marker for adrenergic activity during stress: effect of betablockade.  

PubMed

Free salivary cortisol is an established non-invasive marker of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In contrast, such a well-characterized salivary marker for activity of the sympatho-adrenal medullar (SAM) system is still missing. As one potential candidate salivary alpha amylase (sAA) has been suggested. In humans increases in sAA levels have been observed in response to physiological and psychological stress. The present study aimed at exploring the effects of a pharmacological manipulation (betablockade) on sAA in the context of a stressful fMRI experiment on emotional information processing. Thirty young healthy subjects participated in a double blind group comparison study and received 80 mg of the betablocker (BB) propranolol or a placebo (PL). Salivary samples were obtained before and 90 min (pre-scan) and 135 min (post-scan) after drug application. In addition heart rate and blood pressure were assessed. During rest a significant drug by time interaction was observed, lowering sAA levels as well as heart rate and systolic blood pressure in the betablocker treatment group. During the scanning procedure, in which participants were confronted with highly negative emotional pictures, the significant increase in sAA levels in the PL group compared to the BB group persisted. No additional change was noticed in heart rate or blood pressure during scanning in the PL or BB group. The current pharmacological study in the human provides direct evidence for the sensitivity of sAA to changes in adrenergic activation, specifically in reaction to psychological stress. PMID:16046076

van Stegeren, Anda; Rohleder, Nicolas; Everaerd, Walter; Wolf, Oliver T

2005-07-19

14

Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity: A Possible Indicator of Pain-Induced Stress in Orthodontic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPain, a common experience reported by orthodontic patients, has its intensity assessed with the help of subjective scales, which have a limited and disputable value. Such unpleasant experience, which may raise stress levels, is reflected by an increase in the salivary concentration of alpha-amylase.

Marcio José da Silva Campos; Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo; Ana Paula Ferreira; Robert Willer Farinazzo Vitral

2011-01-01

15

Hand-held monitor of sympathetic nervous system using salivary amylase activity and its validation by driver fatigue assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize a hand-held monitor of the sympathetic nervous system, we fabricated a completely automated analytical system for salivary amylase activity using a dry-chemistry system. This was made possible by the fabrication of a disposable test-strip equipped with built-in collecting and reagent papers and an automatic saliva transfer device. In order to cancel out the effects of variations

Masaki Yamaguchi; Mitsuo Deguchi; Junichi Wakasugi; Shin Ono; Noriyasu Takai; Tomoyuki Higashi; Yasufumi Mizuno

2006-01-01

16

Oral Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum binds to human salivary ?-amylase.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium nucleatum acts as an intermediate between early and late colonizers in the oral cavity. In this study, we showed that F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum can bind to a salivary component with a molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa and identified the protein and another major factor of 55 kDa, as salivary ?-amylase by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and immuno-reactions. Salivary ?-amylase is present in both monomeric and dimeric forms and we found that formation of the dimer depends on copper ions. The F. nucleatum adhered to both monomeric and dimeric salivary ?-amylases, but the numbers of bacteria bound to the dimeric form were more than those bound to the monomeric form. The degree of adherence of F. nucleatum to four ?-amylases from different sources was almost the same, however its binding to ?-amylase was considerably decreased. Among four ?-amylase inhibitors tested, acarbose and type 1 and 3 inhibitors derived from wheat flour showed significant activity against the adhesion of F.nucleatum to monomeric and dimeric amylases, however voglibose had little effect. Moreover F. nucleatum cells inhibited the enzymatic activity of salivary ?-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that F. nucleatum plays more important and positive role as an early colonizer for maturation of oral microbial colonization. PMID:23906425

Zulfiqar, M; Yamaguchi, T; Sato, S; Oho, T

2013-07-30

17

Study on Salivary Glands α-amylase In Wheat Bug Eurygaster maura (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-amylase activity in the salivary glands of Eurygaster maura was determined by biochemical experiments. Some of adult insect was c ollected and their salivary glands isolated and characterized. Enzyme samples from salivary glands of adults were prepared by the method of Cohen with slight modifications. ?-Amylase activity was assayed based on Bernfeld method by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) procedure. The

Mohammad Mehrabadi; Ali R. Bandani

2009-01-01

18

Individual Differences in AMY1 Gene Copy Number, Salivary ?-Amylase Levels, and the Perception of Oral Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe digestion of dietary starch in humans is initiated by salivary ?-amylase, an endo-enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into maltose, maltotriose and larger oligosaccharides. Salivary amylase accounts for 40 to 50% of protein in human saliva and rapidly alters the physical properties of starch. Importantly, the quantity and enzymatic activity of salivary amylase show significant individual variation. However, linking variation in

Abigail L. Mandel; Catherine Peyrot des Gachons; Kimberly L. Plank; Suzanne Alarcon; Paul A. S. Breslin

2010-01-01

19

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch. Images

Scannapieco, F A; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M S; Levine, M J

1989-01-01

20

Salivary amylase activity is useful for assessing perioperative stress in response to pain in patients undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric tumors under deep sedation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for patients with gastric tumors under the conditions of unconsciousness is\\u000a considered to be minimally invasive, no objective assessment of the perioperative stress of ESD has yet been conducted. Today,\\u000a stress levels can be easily and objectively assessed by monitoring salivary amylase activity (sAMY). We evaluated the perioperative\\u000a changes in the sAMY in patients undergoing

Masaya Uesato; Yoshihiro Nabeya; Takashi Akai; Masahito Inoue; Yoshiyuki Watanabe; Hiroshi Kawahira; Toshitaka Mamiya; Yoshihito Ohta; Ryuji Motojima; Akiko Kagaya; Yorihiko Muto; Hideki Hayashi; Hisahiro Matsubara

2010-01-01

21

Structural studies of a Phe256Trp mutant of human salivary ?-amylase: implications for the role of a conserved water molecule in enzyme activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mechanism of hydrolysis of starch by ?-amylases, a conserved water molecule bridging two catalytic residues has been implicated. In human salivary ?-amylase (HSAmy), this water (W641), observed in many ?-amylase structures, is part of a chain of water molecules. To test the hypothesis that W641 may be involved in the mechanism, Phe256 in the close vicinity was mutated

Narayanan Ramasubbu; Krishnan Sundar; Chandran Ragunath; Mohamed M. Rafi

2004-01-01

22

Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase  

PubMed Central

Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent™), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate®), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Results: Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations.

Sapra, Gaurav; Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Aggarwal, Ashish; Chandrashekar, K T; Sharma, Kanika

2013-01-01

23

Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and the dental anxiety scale.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559

Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

2013-01-01

24

Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in major depressive disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary ?-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels

Yoshihiro Tanaka; Yoshinobu Ishitobi; Yoshihiro Maruyama; Aimi Kawano; Tomoko Ando; Shizuko Okamoto; Masayuki Kanehisa; Haruka Higuma; Taiga Ninomiya; Jusen Tsuru; Hiroaki Hanada; Kensuke Kodama; Koichi Isogawa; Jotaro Akiyoshi

25

Salivary amylase and stress during stressful environment: three Mars analog mission crews study.  

PubMed

After the establishment of the space age physicians, human factors engineers, neurologist and psychologists and their special attention to work on people's capability to meet up the physical, psychological, neuroscience and interpersonal strains of working in space, it has been regarded as an issue that seeks urgent consideration. Not study was conducted on effect of simulated Mars analog environment on stress and salivary amylase. So, this study aimed to confirm whether salivary amylase is act as stress biomarker in crew members who took part in Mars analog mission in an isolated and stressful environment. The 18 crew members were selected who took part in Mars Analog Research Station, Utah. Salivary amylase was measured using a biosensor of salivary amylase monitor and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score at pre-extravehicular activity, post-extravehicular activity and on before mission. The state and trait anxiety scores at pre-extravehicular activity for each commander were elevated as compared to after extravehicular activity. There were significant differences in the state and trait anxiety scores between before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity of Commander and other members, also there were significant differences in values of before-extravehicular activity between commanders and other members. There were significant differences in values of salivary amylase at before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity between commander group and other members. There was significant correlation between salivary amylase and state and trait anxiety scores in all groups. Measuring salivary amylase level could be useful for stress assessment of crew members and population working in a stressful and isolated environment. PMID:22554904

Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

2012-04-21

26

Relation between salivary amylase and cortisol respnses to different stress tasks: impact of sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuro-endocrine markers such as salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol (CORT) play an important role in establishing human responses to stressful events. Whereas sAA levels reflect sympathetic system activity, salivary cortisol appears to be a valid measure for HPA axis activity. Although many studies looked at either sAA or CORT responses in reaction to stress, work still has to be

Stegeren van A. H; O. T. Wolf; M. Kindt

2008-01-01

27

Salivary alpha amylase and cortisol responses to different stress tasks: Impact of sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuro-endocrine markers such as salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol (CORT) play an important role in establishing human responses to stressful events. Whereas sAA levels reflect sympathetic system activity, salivary cortisol appears to be a valid measure for HPA axis activity. Although many studies looked at either sAA or CORT responses in reaction to stress, work still has to be

Anda H. van Stegeren; Oliver T. Wolf; Merel Kindt

2008-01-01

28

Aging diurnal rhythms and chronic stress: Distinct alteration of diurnal rhythmicity of salivary ?-amylase and cortisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed diurnal profiles of salivary ?-amylase (sAA), proposed as a marker of autonomic activity, and salivary cortisol in competitive ballroom dancers as well as age- and sex-matched controls to investigate age-related changes of basal activity and potential chronic psychosocial stress-related alterations. According to the Allostatic Load (AL) hypothesis of a cumulative wear and tear of the body

Jana Strahler; Christiane Berndt; Clemens Kirschbaum; Nicolas Rohleder

2010-01-01

29

Determinants of salivary alpha-amylase in humans and methodological considerations.  

PubMed

Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a marker for activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Recent studies in support of this hypothesis have led to an increased number of researchers integrating amylase measurements into their study designs. Salivary alpha-amylase is produced locally in the salivary glands, controlled by the autonomic nervous system. This entails some methodological consequences and potential pitfalls that might lead to increased error variance and thus prevent successful testing of hypotheses. The goal of this review is to summarize basic and recent findings on methodological issues and potential factors influencing sAA measurement, and to derive a set of recommendations enabling researchers to successfully using sAA in psychoneuroendocrinological experiments. PMID:19155141

Rohleder, Nicolas; Nater, Urs M

2009-01-19

30

The Effect of a Brief Salivary ?-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles  

PubMed Central

There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary) ?-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary ?-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T0 (time zero) of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods.

Woolnough, James W.; Bird, Anthony R.; Monro, John A.; Brennan, Charles S.

2010-01-01

31

Salivary alpha-amylase stress reactivity across different age groups.  

PubMed

tract Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) increases rapidly in response to psychosocial stress in young adults, but no direct comparisons between different age groups across the life span have been made. Secretion of sAA and cortisol was assessed in children, young adults, and older adults after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test. Additionally, cardiovascular activity was measured in both adult groups. Older adults showed attenuated sAA, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) responses. Furthermore, we found higher sAA but lower cortisol at baseline as well as lower sAA and cortisol responses in children. Age x sex interactions were observed only for cortisol with higher responses in older male participants. No associations between the parameters were found. These results implicate sAA as an alternative or additional sympathetic stress marker throughout the life span, with marked and rapid stress responsiveness in three relevant age groups. PMID:20070573

Strahler, Jana; Mueller, Anett; Rosenloecher, Franziska; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Rohleder, Nicolas

2010-01-11

32

Salivary Alpha Amylase-Cortisol Asymmetry in Maltreated Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Maltreatment represents a major stressor in the lives of many youth. Given the known effects of stress exposure on subsequent biological stress response systems, researchers have been interested in the effects of maltreatment on the functioning of these systems. Experimental studies reveal that previous exposure to stress affects the symmetry between components of the physiological stress response to subsequent stress. The present study examined asymmetry between salivary alpha amylase (sAA), a sympathetic indicator, and cortisol reactivity to a social stressor among maltreated and comparison youth age 9 to 14 years. Consistent with earlier studies suggesting that stress leads to asymmetry between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system activity, we expected that maltreated youth would exhibit greater sAA-cortisol asymmetry than would comparison youth. Methods Forty-seven maltreated and 37 comparison youth visited the lab and engaged in a social stress protocol. We collected 2 saliva samples before the stressor and 4 after, at 0 minutes post stress and every 10 minutes for 30 minutes. Results Maltreatment status moderated the relation between sAA and cortisol activity in response to the stressor. Comparison youth showed significant links between the sAA and cortisol responses; maltreated youth had no significant associations between responses in the two biomarkers. Conclusion The data were consistent with sAA-cortisol asymmetry among maltreated youth. Further research should seek to replicate this finding and investigate its implication for developmental trajectories.

Gordis, Elana B.; Granger, Douglas A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Trickett, Penelope K.

2008-01-01

33

Interparental Aggression and Parent-Adolescent Salivary Alpha Amylase Symmetry  

PubMed Central

The present study examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a putative marker of adrenergic activity, in family members engaging in family conflict discussions. We examined symmetry among family members' sAA levels at baseline and in response to a conflict discussion. The relation between a history of interparental aggression on parent-adolescent sAA symmetry also was examined. Participants were 62 families with a mother, father, and biological child age 13-18 (n = 29 girls). After engaging in a relaxation procedure, families participated in a 15-minute triadic family conflict discussion. Participants provided saliva samples at post-relaxation/pre-discussion, immediately post-discussion, and at 10 and 20 min post-discussion. Participants also reported on interparental physical aggression during the previous year. Across the sample we found evidence of symmetry between mothers' and adolescents' sAA levels at baseline and around the discussion. Interparental aggression was associated with lower sAA levels among fathers. Interparental aggression also affected patterns of parent-child sAA response symmetry such that families reporting interparental aggression exhibited greater father-adolescent sAA symmetry than did those with no reports of interparental aggression. Among families with no interparental aggression history, we found consistent mother-adolescent symmetry. These differences suggest different patterns of parent-adolescent physiological attunement among families with interparental aggression.

Gordis, Elana B.; Margolin, Gayla; Spies, Lauren; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Granger, Douglas A.

2010-01-01

34

Interparental aggression and parent-adolescent salivary alpha amylase symmetry.  

PubMed

The present study examined salivary alpha amylase (sAA), a putative marker of adrenergic activity, in family members engaging in family conflict discussions. We examined symmetry among family members' sAA levels at baseline and in response to a conflict discussion. The relation between a history of interparental aggression on parent-adolescent sAA symmetry also was examined. Participants were 62 families with a mother, father, and biological child age 13-18 (n=29 girls). After engaging in a relaxation procedure, families participated in a 15-minute triadic family conflict discussion. Participants provided saliva samples at post-relaxation/pre-discussion, immediately post-discussion, and at 10 and 20 min post-discussion. Participants also reported on interparental physical aggression during the previous year. Across the sample we found evidence of symmetry between mothers' and adolescents' sAA levels at baseline and around the discussion. Interparental aggression was associated with lower sAA levels among fathers. Interparental aggression also affected patterns of parent-child sAA response symmetry such that families reporting interparental aggression exhibited greater father-adolescent sAA symmetry than did those with no reports of interparental aggression. Among families with no interparental aggression history, we found consistent mother-adolescent symmetry. These differences suggest different patterns of parent-adolescent physiological attunement among families with interparental aggression. PMID:20096715

Gordis, Elana B; Margolin, Gayla; Spies, Lauren A; Susman, Elizabeth J; Granger, Douglas A

2010-01-22

35

Flow Injection Spectrophotometry Determination of Salivary alpha-Amylase for Stress Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary ?-amylase is a hot research area of stress; many studies have confirmed that the substance can be used as the marker of stress-related autonomic nervous system. This paper presents a fast and simple method for determination of salivary ?-amylase by flow injection spectrophotometry. The cycle of a sample using this method is only 58s; this method can be automated

Li-Qin Chen; Xue-Jun Kang; Xiao-Ling Zhou; Zhong-Ze Gu; Zu-Hong Lu

2011-01-01

36

Chronic stress, salivary cortisol, and ?-amylase in children with asthma and healthy children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether chronic stress is related to daily life levels of salivary ?-amylase (sAA), a marker for sympathetic activity, and cortisol in healthy children versus children with asthma.Children's sAA and cortisol levels were measured repeatedly over 2 days. Chronic stress measures included interviews with children about chronic home life stress and interviews with parents about one marker

Jutta M. Wolf; Erin Nicholls; Edith Chen

2008-01-01

37

Enzymatic properties of ?-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of mulberry moth, Glyphodes  pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyralid moth, Glyphode pyloalis Walker, is an important pest of the mulberry. Amylases are the hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the ?-D-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared fifth stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut (MG) and the salivary glands (SG) were removed by dissection under a dissecting microscope and ?-amylase activity was assayed using

Elham Yezdani; Jalal Jalali Sendi; Arash Zibaee; Mohammad Ghadamyari

2010-01-01

38

Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Among Pentecostals on a Worship and Nonworship Day  

PubMed Central

Objectives This investigation used a biomarker of sympathetic nervous system activity novel to biocultural research to test the hypothesis that engaging in religious worship activities would reduce baseline stress levels on a non-worship day among Pentecostals. Methods As detailed in Lynn et al. (submitted for publication), stress was measured via salivary cortisol and ?-amylase among 52 Apostolic Pentecostals in New York’s mid-Hudson Valley. Saliva samples were collected at four predetermined times on consecutive Sundays and Mondays to establish diurnal profiles and compare days of worship and non-worship. These data were reanalyzed using separate analyses of covariance on ?-amylase and cortisol to control for individual variation in Pentecostal behavior, effects of Sunday biomarkers on Monday, and other covariates. Results There was a significant decrease in cortisol and an increase in ?-amylase on a non-worship day compared with a service day. Models including engagement in Pentecostal worship behavior explained 62% of the change in non-service day cortisol and 73% of the change in non-service day ?-amylase. Conclusions Engagement in Pentecostal worship may be associated with reductions in circulatory cortisol and enhancements in ?-amylase activity. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22:819–822, 2010.

LYNN, CHRISTOPHER DANA; PARIS, JASON; FRYE, CHERYL ANNE; SCHELL, LAWRENCE M.

2013-01-01

39

Renal clearance of pancreatic and salivary amylase relative to creatinine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic and salivary amylase\\/creatinine clearance ratios in patients with various degrees of renal impairment were compared with those obtained for control subjects. In chronic renal insufficiency (mean GFR 30 ml\\/min +\\/- 15 SD; n = 13) the clearance ratios for pancreatic (mean 3.5 +\\/- 1.85 SD) and salivary (mean 2.3 +\\/- 1.3 SD) amylase were significantly higher (P less than

J B Keogh; K F McGeeney; M I Drury; T B Counihan; M D ODonnell

1978-01-01

40

Salivary alpha-amylase, cortisol and chromogranin A responses to a lecture: impact of sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to (1) examine the presence of stress on professors when they teach in front of 200 students and\\u000a analyse objectively such stress using biomarkers such as salivary cortisol, chromogranin A (CgA) and alpha-amylase (AA) (2)\\u000a investigate whether sex affects the reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations and the interaction\\u000a of both hormonal

Edith Filaire; B. Dreux; A. Massart; B. Nourrit; L. M. Rama; A. Teixeira

2009-01-01

41

Effect of heat treatment and germination on alpha amylase inhibitor activity in chick peas ( Cicer arietinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chick pea seeds of twenty eight varieties were analysed for alpha amylase inhibitor activity (AIA) using salivary amylase. The effects of heat treatment and germination on the activity of the antinutritional factor was investigated. Heat treatment and germination decreased the activity of amylase inhibitor. Chick pea meal was also subjected to UV irradiation and pressure cooking. These treatments decreased alpha

V. H. Mulimani; G. Rudrappa

1994-01-01

42

Individual differences in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase in mothers and their infants: relation to tobacco smoke exposure.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoke exposure affects the activity of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Statistics reveal 41 million children in the U.S. are regularly exposed to tobacco smoke, but we know little about the effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on HPA and SNS activity in early childhood. This study assayed cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine), cortisol, and alpha-amylase (sAA) in the saliva of mother-infant dyads from 197 low income and ethnically diverse families. The dyads were identified as tobacco smoke exposed (N = 82) or nonexposed (N = 115) based on maternal self-reports of smoking and salivary cotinine levels greater or less than 10 ng/ml. As expected, higher rates of maternal smoking behavior were associated with higher levels of cotinine in mothers' and their infants' saliva. On average, smoking mothers' salivary cotinine levels were 281 times higher compared to their nonsmoking counterparts, and 23 times higher compared to their own infant's salivary cotinine levels. Infants of smoking mothers had salivary cotinine levels that were four times higher than infants with nonsmoking mothers. Mothers who smoked had higher salivary cortisol levels and lower sAA activity compared to nonsmoking mothers. There were no associations between maternal smoking behavior, infant's salivary cotinine levels, or tobacco exposure group, and cortisol or sAA measured in infant's saliva. The findings are discussed in relation to the influence of smoking tobacco on the validity of salivary biomarkers of stress. PMID:17943979

Granger, Douglas A; Blair, Clancy; Willoughby, Michael; Kivlighan, Katie T; Hibel, Leah C; Fortunato, Christine K; Wiegand, Lauren E

2007-11-01

43

The psychosocial stress-induced increase in salivary alpha-amylase is independent of saliva flow rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress response of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been suggested as an index for sympathetic nervous system activation. However, concurrent inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system is discussed as a confounder due to suppression of saliva flow rate. Here we set out to test the influence of stress-induced changes in flow rate on sAA secretion. Twenty-six subjects underwent the Trier

Nicolas Rohleder; Jutta M. Wolf; Enrique F. Maldonado; Clemens Kirschbaum

2006-01-01

44

Oral intercourse or secondary transfer? A Bayesian approach of salivary amylase and foreign DNA findings.  

PubMed

The Bayesian Approach allows forensic scientists to evaluate the significance of scientific evidence in light of two conflicting hypothesis. This aids the investigator to calculate a numerical value of the probability that the scientific findings support one hypothesis over conflicting opinions. In the case where oral intercourse is alleged, ?-amylase, an indicator of saliva, is detected on penile swabs. The value of this finding is unknown as it may indicate the presence of saliva resulting from oral intercourse however it may also represent the presence of saliva due to innocent means such as background levels of salivary-?-amylase in the male population due to secondary transfer. Therefore, it is difficult to attach significance to this finding without background information and knowledge. A population study of the background levels of salivary-?-amylase was performed by analysing items of underwear worn under normal circumstances by 69 male volunteers. The Phadebas press test was used to screen the garments for amylase-containing stains and the positive areas were subjected to further confirmation of saliva by the RSID-Saliva kit. 44% of underwear screened had stains containing amylase. This study determined the background level of salivary-?-amylase and DNA on the inside front of male underwear which has potential implications on the interpretation of evidence in alleged oral intercourse. PMID:23683908

Breathnach, Michelle; Moore, Elizabeth

2013-04-18

45

Salivary alpha-amylase changes promoted by sustained exposure to affective pictures.  

PubMed

We studied the changes in salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and other psychophysiological indices (heart rate, skin conductance, and corrugator supercilii activity) elicited by sustained exposure to affective pictures. Thirty-nine subjects viewed five blocks of pictures depicting mutilations, human attack, neutral scenes, sport/adventure, and erotica. Each block comprised 12 pictures of the same content. Saliva samples were collected before and after each block of pictures. The results showed that mutilation pictures promoted the greatest increase in sAA activity and output, as well as greater corrugator supercilii activity than pleasant pictures. Skin conductance response did not differ among high arousal picture contents. Changes in sAA varied with the affective valence but not with the arousal ratings of the pictures. Our results point to sAA as an index directly related to the unpleasantness elicited by sustained exposure to affective stimuli. PMID:23078627

Sánchez-Navarro, Juan P; Maldonado, Enrique F; Martínez-Selva, José M; Enguix, Alfredo; Ortiz, Carmen

2012-10-18

46

Individual differences in preschoolers' salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity: Relations to temperament and maladjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations of 84 preschoolers' (43 boys; mean age=54 months) situational stress reactivity to their observed emotions and mothers' reports of temperament and adjustment. Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were collected prior to, and following, a frustrating task. Children's anger, sadness, and positive affect were measured, and mothers reported on preschoolers' dispositional emotionality, regulation, impulsivity, and problem behaviors.

Tracy L. Spinrad; Nancy Eisenberg; Douglas A. Granger; Natalie D. Eggum; Julie Sallquist; R. G. Haugen; Anne Kupfer; Claire Hofer

2009-01-01

47

Salivary alpha-amylase as a biomarker for the osmopressor response in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Abstract Water ingestion induces a sympathetically mediated increase in blood pressure in dysautonomic patients and the elderly, but not consistently in young healthy subjects. The aim of study was to determine the extent of the pressor response and changes of sympathetic activity biomarker salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) after water ingestion in young healthy subjects. Compared with ingestion of 50?mL of water, the blood pressure, total peripheral resistance and sAA significantly increased and the plasma osmolality decreased 25?min after drinking 500?mL of water. The results confirm the osmopressor response in young subjects and suggest that sAA may be used as a non-invasive marker of sympathetic activity in future studies. PMID:23855444

Chu, Hsin; Chu, You-Hsiang; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Ho, Shung-Tai; Tung, Che-Se; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Lu, Chih-Cherng

2013-07-15

48

Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

2012-01-01

49

The role of ?-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of salivary ?-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added ?-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with added acarbose, an amylase inhibitor. For starch-based vanilla custard desserts, amylase resulted in increased

René A. de Wijk; Jon F. Prinz; Lina Engelen; Hugo Weenen

2004-01-01

50

The role of alpha-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of salivary ?-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added ?-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with added acarbose, an amylase inhibitor. For starch-based vanilla custard desserts, amylase resulted in increased

Wijk de R. A; J. F. Prinz; L. Engelen; H. Weenen

2004-01-01

51

Discovering an Accessible Enzyme: Salivary [alpha]-Amylase--"Prima Digestio Fit in Ore"--A Didactic Approach for High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Human salivary [alpha]-amylase is used in this experimental approach to introduce biology high school students to the concept of enzyme activity in a dynamic way. Through a series of five easy, rapid, and inexpensive laboratory experiments students learn what the activity of an enzyme consists of: first in a qualitative then in a…

Marini, Isabella

2005-01-01

52

Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…

Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

2010-01-01

53

Assessment of salivary amylase as a stress biomarker in pregnant patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChronic stress during pregnancy has been associated with worsened maternal and fetal outcomes. Acute stress immediately before spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section may contribute to hypotension. Therefore objective measures of acute stress may help identify women at risk of adverse outcomes. Salivary alpha-amylase is a stress biomarker that has so far been poorly investigated during pregnancy. The reference change value

J. Guglielminotti; M. Dehoux; F. Mentré; E. Bedairia; P. Montravers; J.-M. Desmonts; D. Longrois

54

Evidence for post-transcriptional modification of human salivary amylase (Amy 1 ) isozymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human parotid salivary amylase (Amy1) isozymes may be separated into two families: (1) one of higher molecular weight and slower electrophoretic mobility, odds, and (2) the other of lower molecular weight and faster electrophoretic mobility, evens. An enzyme has been detected in whole saliva, and also partially purified from human oral bacterial flora, which converts the isoamylases from odds to

R. C. Karn; Jeff D. Shulkin; A. Donald Merritt; Ruth C. Newell

1973-01-01

55

Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

2012-01-01

56

Salivary nitric oxide and alpha-amylase as indexes of training intensity and load.  

PubMed

This study examined the variation in salivary nitric oxide (NO), alpha-amylase (sAA) and serum markers of muscle injury during 21 weeks of training in elite swimmers. Samples of saliva and blood were collected once a month during 5 months from 11 male professional athletes during their regular training season. The variation in each marker throughout the 21 weeks was compared with the dynamics of training volume, intensity and load. Unstimulated whole saliva was assessed for NO and sAA whereas venous blood was assessed for lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and ?-glutamyltransferase. Nitric oxide and sAA showed a proportional response to the intensity of training. However, whereas the concentration of NO increased across the 21 weeks, the activity of sAA decreased. Similar variations in the concentration of NO and the markers of muscle injury were also observed. The higher concentration of NO might be attributed to changes in haemodynamics and muscle regenerative processes. On the other hand, autonomic regulation towards parasympathetic predominance might have been responsible for the decrease in sAA activity. These findings provide appealing evidence for the utilization of salivary constituents in sports medicine to monitor training programmes. PMID:22960992

Diaz, M M; Bocanegra, O L; Teixeira, R R; Soares, S S; Espindola, F S

2012-09-07

57

The psychosocial stress-induced increase in salivary alpha-amylase is independent of saliva flow rate.  

PubMed

The stress response of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been suggested as an index for sympathetic nervous system activation. However, concurrent inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system is discussed as a confounder due to suppression of saliva flow rate. Here we set out to test the influence of stress-induced changes in flow rate on sAA secretion. Twenty-six subjects underwent the Trier Social Stress Test and a control condition. Saliva was sampled by passive drooling or salivettes. Saliva flow rate, sAA levels and output, salivary cortisol, and heart rate variability were measured. Flow rate increased only when sampled by passive drooling. Stress-induced increases in amylase levels were correlated with increases of amylase output but not with flow rate. Results indicate that flow rate is not a confounder of stress-induced sAA activation and suggest that valid measurements of sAA can be obtained by salivettes without the need for assessment of flow rate. PMID:17076822

Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2006-11-01

58

Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol secretion in female adolescent tennis players after 16 weeks of training.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of 16 weeks of training on diurnal pattern of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), cortisol, and the ratio of sAA over cortisol (AOC) in 12 national adolescent female tennis players. Stress and recovery were also evaluated using the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Athletes-RESTQ-Sport. Data were collected after a 2-week rest (January, W0), and 4 months after W0 (W16). Subjects collected five saliva samples throughout a day. While all participants displayed the previously shown decrease after awakening in adolescents at W0, they showed a rise in the alpha-amylase awakening response and a higher alpha-amylase activity output (p<0.01) at W16 compared to W0. For the daily rhythm of cortisol we found subjects having a low overall output of salivary cortisol (p<0.01) and a blunted response to awakening at W16. Furthermore, an increase in the ratio AOC at W16, and a negative correlation between this ratio and Sport-specific recovery score. Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that increase of training load during the study period induced asymmetry activation between the two stress systems, in relation to psychological alterations and performance decrease. These results provide encouragement to continue exploring the impact of training program using a psychobiological approach among young athletes in order to prevent fatigue and preserve the health of these athletes. PMID:23200107

Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, Jose Pedro; Oliveira, Miguel; Massart, Alain

2012-11-28

59

Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.  

PubMed

Salivary ?-amylase (sAA) serves as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. Salivary AA has not been extensively studied in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. In the current study, 45 OCD patients and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Profile of Mood State (POMS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Measures of heart rate variability (HRV), sAA, and salivary cortisol were also obtained following the application of electrical stimulation stress. The Y-BOCS and POMS Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores were significantly increased in patients with OCD compared with healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores were significantly decreased in patients with OCD relative to scores in healthy controls. There was no difference in HRV between the patients and the controls. Salivary AA levels in female and male OCD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. In contrast, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between OCD patients and controls. The elevated secretion of sAA before and after stimulation may suggest an increased responsiveness to novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with OCD. An increase in sAA might be a characteristic change of OCD. PMID:23266021

Kawano, Aimi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Ando, Tomoko; Inoue, Ayako; Okamoto, Shizuko; Imanaga, Junko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

2012-12-23

60

Measurements of salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol in hominoid primates reveal within-species consistency and between-species differences.  

PubMed

Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) is the most abundant enzyme in saliva. Studies in humans found variation in enzymatic activity of sAA across populations that could be linked to the copy number of loci for salivary amylase (AMY1), which was seen as an adaptive response to the intake of dietary starch. In addition to diet dependent variation, differences in sAA activity have been related to social stress. In a previous study, we found evidence for stress-induced variation in sAA activity in the bonobos, a hominoid primate that is closely related to humans. In this study, we explored patterns of variation in sAA activity in bonobos and three other hominoid primates, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to (a) examine if within-species differences in sAA activity found in bonobos are characteristic for hominoids and (b) assess the extent of variation in sAA activity between different species. The results revealed species-differences in sAA activity with gorillas and orangutans having higher basal sAA activity when compared to Pan. To assess the impact of stress, sAA values were related to cortisol levels measured in the same saliva samples. Gorillas and orangutans had low salivary cortisol concentrations and the highest cortisol concentration was found in samples from male bonobos, the group that also showed the highest sAA activity. Considering published information, the differences in sAA activity correspond with differences in AMY1 copy numbers and match with general features of natural diet. Studies on sAA activity have the potential to complement molecular studies and may contribute to research on feeding ecology and nutrition. PMID:23613746

Behringer, Verena; Borchers, Claudia; Deschner, Tobias; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Hohmann, Gottfried

2013-04-17

61

Salivary alpha-amylase as a non-invasive biomarker for the sympathetic nervous system: current state of research.  

PubMed

Development of new biomarkers is a constantly evolving field of research endeavor in psychoneuroendocrinology. Salivary biomarkers have received special attention since they are readily accessible and easily obtained. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive biomarker for stress-related changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and a growing body of research is accumulating to support the validity and reliability of this parameter. However, questions remain to be answered before sAA can be accepted as an index of SNS activity. This review describes sAA as an emerging biomarker for stress and provides an overview of the current literature on stress-related alterations in sAA. It critically discusses how sAA might reflect changes in the autonomic nervous system. Finally, current and future fields for the application of sAA measurement are outlined. PMID:19249160

Nater, U M; Rohleder, N

2009-02-26

62

Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to taekwondo competition in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an official taekwondo competition (three 1-min rounds with a 1-min recovery\\u000a in-between) on heart rate (HR), salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and salivary-free cortisol (sC) in children. Parental consent\\u000a was obtained for 12 young (10.4 ± 0.2 years) male taekwondo athletes. Saliva sample were collected 15 min before and 1 min\\u000a after an official taekwondo competition,

Corrado Lupo; Cristina Cortis; Salvatore Chiodo; Giuseppe Cibelli; Antonio Tessitore

63

Salivary ?-amylase: A measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary ?-amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849kJ) followed by ad libitum intake of this custard. Before and after preload intake and after ad libitum

Lucien F. Harthoorn

2008-01-01

64

Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad libitum intake of this custard. Before and after preload intake and after ad

L. F. Harthoorn

2008-01-01

65

High salivary alpha-amylase levels in patients with schizophrenia: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysregulation in patients with schizophrenia using electrophysiological methods, such as electrodermal measures and heart rate analysis. Several theories have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia and its autonomic function. Recently, the measurement of salivary alpha-amylase has been considered to be a useful tool for evaluating the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system. Psychosocial stress

Takuji Inagaki; Tsuyoshi Miyaoka; Shihoh Okazaki; Hideaki Yasuda; Tetsuya Kawamukai; Etsuko Utani; Rei Wake; Maiko Hayashida; Jun Horiguchi; Seiichi Tsuji

2010-01-01

66

State and trait variance in salivary ?-amylase: A behavioral genetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first behavior genetic study of salivary ?-amylase (sAA), focusing on genetic and environmental influences on stability and change in sAA during baseline and exposure to infant crying. The sample consisted of 184 adult twin pairs. Although there was significant variation between individuals in basal levels of sAA and in responsivity to infant crying, strong stability in sAA

Dorothée Out; Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg; Douglas A. Granger; Christa M. Cobbaert; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn

2011-01-01

67

The diurnal course of salivary alpha-amylase in nurses: An investigation of potential confounders and associations with stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In psychoneuroendocrinology research, salivary measures have become increasingly important. While several studies focus on determinants of salivary cortisol such as age, gender, and gynaecological variables, less research has focused on confounding variables of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA). In a large sample of nurses (N=215) we analyzed the impact of age, gender, intake of oral contraceptives, smoking, coffee consumption as well as

Katja Wingenfeld; Michael Schulz; Annika Damkroeger; Christine Philippsen; Matthias Rose; Martin Driessen

2010-01-01

68

Structural basis of ?-amylase activation by chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further investigate the mechanism and function of allosteric activation by chloride in some -amylases, the structure of the bacterial -amylase from the psychrophilic micro-organism Pseudoalteromonas halo- planktis in complex with nitrate has been solved at 2.1 Å, as well as the structure of the mutants Lys300Gln (2.5 Å) and Lys300Arg (2.25 Å). Nitrate binds strongly to -amylase but is

Nushin Aghajari; Georges Feller; Charles Gerday; Richard Haser

2002-01-01

69

Taking the Starch out of Oral Biofilm Formation: Molecular Basis and Functional Significance of Salivary ?-Amylase Binding to Oral Streptococci  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase-binding streptococci (ABS) are a heterogeneous group of commensal oral bacterial species that comprise a significant proportion of dental plaque microfloras. Salivary ?-amylase, one of the most abundant proteins in human saliva, binds to the surface of these bacteria via specific surface-exposed ?-amylase-binding proteins. The functional significance of ?-amylase-binding proteins in oral colonization by streptococci is important for understanding how salivary components influence oral biofilm formation by these important dental plaque species. This review summarizes the results of an extensive series of studies that have sought to define the molecular basis for ?-amylase binding to the surface of the bacterium as well as the biological significance of this phenomenon in dental plaque biofilm formation.

Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.

2013-01-01

70

Altered salivary alpha-amylase awakening response in Bosnian War refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

In posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has been suggested. No study so far has investigated diurnal secretion patterns of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in PTSD, a promising candidate for non-invasive assessment of SNS activity. We compared sAA diurnal profiles between a group of Bosnian War refugees with PTSD and a healthy control group, and further analyzed for associations with psychiatric symptoms and glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity of inflammatory regulation. PTSD patients showed a sAA awakening response profile that was opposite to those seen in healthy controls, i.e. an increase instead of a sharp decrease. Patterns of sAA secretion were further positively associated with psychiatric symptoms of PTSD. Finally, higher sAA awakening responses were associated with higher GC sensitivity of inflammatory cytokine production. These findings are in line with altered SNS function in PTSD, and lend further support for employing assessment of diurnal sAA profiles as non-invasive biomarkers in stress-related disease. PMID:22001009

Thoma, Myriam Verena; Joksimovic, Ljiljana; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta Manuela; Rohleder, Nicolas

2011-10-15

71

Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortiol and Alpha-Amylase  

PubMed Central

This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = .33) completed a measure of peer victimization, teachers rated children’s aggression, and children’s saliva was collected prior to, and following, participation in a laboratory-based peer-oriented social challenge task. Children rated their level of frustration at the end of the task. Results revealed that victimization interacted with cortisol and sAA measured in anticipation of the task to predict aggression; the victimization × cortisol contribution to aggression was partly mediated by children’s self-reported frustration level. Victimization also was associated with heightened frustration in girls with high task-related sAA reactivity. Task-related sAA reactivity was associated with heightened aggression, but only for girls. These findings suggest that associations between peer victimization and aggression are moderated by variation in the activity of the major components of the psychobiology of stress; results are discussed in relation to theoretical models of individual differences in biological sensitivity to context.

Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

72

Salivary Alpha-amylase and Cortisol in Toddlers: Differential Relations to Affective Behavior  

PubMed Central

This study applies a non-invasive and multi-system measurement approach (using salivary analytes) to examine associations between the psychobiology of the stress response and affective behavior in toddlers. Eighty-seven two-year-olds (48 females) participated in laboratory tasks designed to elicit emotions and behavior ranging from pleasure/approach to fear/withdrawal. Saliva samples were collected pre-task and immediately post-task, and assayed for markers of sympathetic nervous system (alpha-amylase or sAA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) activity. Individual differences in sAA were positively associated with approach behavior and positive affect; whereas, cortisol was positively associated with negative affect and withdrawal behavior. The findings suggest that individual differences in sAA may covary specifically with positive affect and approach behaviors or the predominant emotional state across a series of tasks. The results are discussed with respect to advancing biosocial models of the concomitants and correlates of young children’s affective behaviors.

Fortunato, Christine K.; Dribin, Amy E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Buss, Kristin A.

2008-01-01

73

Purification and high-resolution top-down mass spectrometric characterization of human salivary ?-amylase.  

PubMed

Human salivary ?-amylase (HSAMY) is a major component of salivary secretions, possessing multiple important biological functions. Here we have established three methods to purify HSAMY in human saliva for comprehensive characterization of HSAMY by high-resolution top-down mass spectrometry (MS). Among the three purification methods, the affinity method based on the enzyme-substrate specific interaction between amylase and glycogen is preferred, providing the highest purity HSAMY with high reproducibility. Subsequently, we employed Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS to analyze the purified HSAMY. The predominant form of ?-amylase purified from saliva of various races and genders is nonglycosylated with the same molecular weight of 55,881.2, which is 1885.8 lower than the calculated value based on the DNA-predicted sequence. High-resolution MS revealed the truncation of the first 15 N-terminal amino acids (-1858.96) and the subsequent formation of pyroglutamic acid at the new N-terminus Gln (-17.03). More importantly, five disulfide bonds in HSAMY were identified (-10.08) and effectively localized by tandem MS in conjunction with complete and partial reduction by tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine. Overall, this study demonstrates that top-down MS combined with affinity purification and partial reduction is a powerful method for rapid purification and complete characterization of large proteins with complex and overlapping disulfide bond patterns. PMID:22390166

Peng, Ying; Chen, Xin; Sato, Takuya; Rankin, Scott A; Tsuji, Ryohei F; Ge, Ying

2012-03-14

74

Sociodemographic risk, parenting, and effortful control: Relations to salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol in early childhood.  

PubMed

Early sociodemographic risk, parenting, and temperament were examined as predictors of the activity of children's (N?=?148; 81 boys, 67 girls) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Demographic risk was assessed at 18 months (T1), intrusive/overcontrolling parenting and effortful control were assessed at 30 months (T2), and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were collected at 72 (T3) months of age. Demographic risk at T1 predicted lower levels of children's effortful control and higher levels of mothers' intrusive/overcontrolling parenting at T2. Intrusive/overcontrolling parenting at T2 predicted higher levels of children's cortisol and alpha-amylase at T3, but effortful control did not uniquely predict children's cortisol or alpha-amylase levels. Findings support the open nature of stress responsive physiological systems to influence by features of the early caregiving environment and underscore the utility of including measures of these systems in prevention trials designed to influence child outcomes by modifying parenting behavior. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 55: 869-880, 2013. PMID:22949301

Taylor, Zoe E; Spinrad, Tracy L; Vanschyndel, Sarah K; Eisenberg, Nancy; Huynh, Jacqueline; Sulik, Michael J; Granger, Douglas A

2012-09-04

75

Salivary alpha amylase and cortisol levels in children with global developmental delay and their relation with the expectation of dental care and behavior during the intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after dental treatment and were compared to

Márcio José Possari dos Santos; Daniel Galera Bernabé; Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune; Silvia Helena Venturoli Perri; Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Ávila de Aguiar; Sandra Helena Penha de Oliveira

76

Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortiol and Alpha-Amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic\\u000a nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and\\u000a aggression. Children (N?=?132; M age?=?9.46 years, SD?=?0.33) completed a measure of peer victimization, teachers rated children’s aggression, and children’s saliva was collected\\u000a prior to, and following, participation in a laboratory-based

Karen D. Rudolph; Wendy Troop-Gordon; Douglas A. Granger

2010-01-01

77

Effects of simulated firefighting on the responses of salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and psychological variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simulated firefighting intervention on salivary alpha-amylase (sA-A), free cortisol (sC), anxiety (STAI), and profile of mood states (POMS) in 20 male firefighters (age 32 ± 1 years, [Vdot]O2peak: 43 ± 5 ml\\/kg per min). During the 12-min firefighting intervention (ambient temperature: 13 ± 1°C; relative humidity: 63 ± 1%), individuals spent 63 ± 28% of the time working at

F. Perroni; A. Tessitore; G. Cibelli; C. Lupo; E. DArtibale; C. Cortis; L. Cignitti; M. De Rosas; L. Capranica

2009-01-01

78

Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary

Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

2010-01-01

79

Aging diurnal rhythms and chronic stress: Distinct alteration of diurnal rhythmicity of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol.  

PubMed

The present study assessed diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), proposed as a marker of autonomic activity, and salivary cortisol in competitive ballroom dancers as well as age- and sex-matched controls to investigate age-related changes of basal activity and potential chronic psychosocial stress-related alterations. According to the Allostatic Load (AL) hypothesis of a cumulative wear and tear of the body we expected to see physiological accumulation of the effects of stress and age especially pronounced in older dancers. Dancers and controls collected five saliva samples throughout the day. Daily overall output of sAA was elevated in older adults while there was no effect of age on mean cortisol levels. Alterations of diurnal rhythms were only seen in younger male dancers showing a flattened diurnal profile of sAA and younger dancers and female older dancers showing a blunted diurnal rhythmicity of cortisol. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between summary indices of basal sAA and the amount of physical activity. In conclusion, higher overall output of sAA in older adults is in line with the phenomenon of a sympathetic "drive" with increasing age. Furthermore, a lower output of sAA in people who are more physical active is in line with the hypothesis of an exercise-induced decrease of sympathetic activity. Overall, our study does not support the AL hypothesis, but rather highlights the importance of regular physical activity and social environment in promoting health. PMID:20138206

Strahler, Jana; Berndt, Christiane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Rohleder, Nicolas

2010-02-04

80

Cognitive Performance and Morning Levels of Salivary Cortisol and ?-Amylase in Children Reporting High vs. Low Daily Stress Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of daily stress perception on cognitive performance and morning basal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels in healthy children aged 9-12. Participants were classified by whether they had low daily perceived stress (LPS, n = 27) or a high daily perceived stress (HPS, n = 26) using the Children Daily

Enrique F. Maldonado; Francisco J. Fernandez; M. Victoria Trianes; Keith Wesnes; Orlando Petrini; Andrea Zangara; Alfredo Enguix; Lara Ambrosetti

2008-01-01

81

Acute stress responses in salivary alpha-amylase predict increases of plasma norepinephrine.  

PubMed

Current biobehavioral research increasingly employs salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) as a surrogate marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. While different lines of evidence point to the validity of this assumption, the literature is inconsistent with regard to associations of sAA with well-established SNS indicators, such as plasma norepinephrine (NE) or epinephrine (E). Small samples as well as application of different stress paradigms might be responsible. This study therefore set out to examine the relation between stress-induced sAA activity with NE and E by exposing a larger and less constrained sample to an effective stress protocol. Sixty-six healthy participants (mean age 24.30±4.24 yrs), including n=40 women, n=26 men, n=18 oral contraceptive (OC) users, and n=15 habitual smokers, were recruited and subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Saliva and blood samples were taken at four time points throughout the experiment for later analysis of sAA activity and NE/E concentration, respectively. As expected, sAA, NE, and E showed significant increases in response to the acute stress induction (all p<0.001). Regression analyses (controlling for age, BMI, sex, smoking and OC) revealed that stress responses in sAA significantly predicted stress responses in NE (r=0.326; p=0.025). Interestingly, stress responses in E predicted NE to a lesser extend (?=0.265; p=0.064). E responses showed no association with sAA (?=0.265; p=0.064). Higher sAA levels were found in habitual smokers (F=4.27; p=0.043) and in individuals with lower BMI (F=2.81; p=0.099). In conclusion, current data clearly show an association between stress responses of sAA and plasma NE. This relationship is stronger than the association of norepinephrine and epinephrine responses, thus placing the predictive power of sAA well within the expected range for different SNS markers. PMID:22954623

Thoma, Myriam V; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M; Rohleder, Nicolas

2012-08-28

82

Amylase activity and growth in internodes of deepwater rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoelectrofocusing, product analysis, thermal denaturation studies and affinity chromatography on cycloheptaamylose-Sephadex were used to identify the amylolytic enzymes in internodes of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.). Amylolytic activity in internodes of deepwater rice consists of a-amylase (sometimes separated into two isoforms) and of ß-amylase. During submergence of whole plants, a-amylase activity increases in young, growing internodes, but ß-amylase activity declines.

Mary A. Smith; John V. Jacobsen; Hans Kende

1987-01-01

83

Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Reactivity: Relations to Temperament and Maladjustment  

PubMed Central

We examined the relations of 84 preschoolers' (43 boys; mean age = 54 months) situational stress reactivity to their observed emotions and mothers' reports of temperament and adjustment. Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were collected prior to, and following, a frustrating task. Children's anger, sadness, and positive affect were measured, and mothers reported on preschoolers' dispositional emotionality, regulation, impulsivity, and problem behaviors. Forty-seven percent of children had an increase in sAA and 52% had an increase in cortisol following the challenging task. On average, sAA levels showed the predicted pattern of rise following the frustrating task, followed by return to baseline. For cortisol, there was a mean increase from pre-task to 40 minutes post-test. sAA reactivity was associated with relatively low levels of dispositional anger and impulsivity and relatively high regulation, particularly for girls. sAA reactivity also was related to low externalizing problems for girls, but not boys. Although cortisol reactivity was unrelated to children's emotions and maladjustment, it was positively related to mothers' reports of regulation. The findings suggest that sAA reactivity in response to a frustrating social task may reflect girls' constrained behavior.

Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Granger, Douglas A.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Sallquist, Julie; Haugen, RG; Kupfer, Anne; Hofer, Claire

2009-01-01

84

The feasibility of ambulatory biosensor measurement of salivary alpha amylase: Relationships with self-reported and naturalistic psychological stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in biosensor technology allow point-of-use reporting of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels while approaching the precision and accuracy of conventional laboratory-based testing. We deployed a portable prototype sAA biosensor in 54 healthy, male dental students during a low stress baseline and during final exams. At baseline, participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). At baseline and the exam

Theodore F. Robles; Vivek Shetty; Corwin M. Zigler; Dorie A. Glover; David Elashoff; Debra Murphy; Masaki Yamaguchi

2011-01-01

85

Characterization of ?-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice striped stem borer, Chilo supprressalis, is a destructive pest of rice that was introduced to Iran in 1973 and has since become widely distributed. Amylases are hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the ?-d-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared 4th stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut and the salivary glands were removed by

Arash Zibaee; Ali Reza Bandani; Maryam Kafil; Samar Ramzi

2008-01-01

86

?-Amylase activity during pullulan production and ?-amylase gene analyses of Aureobasidium pullulans.  

PubMed

Aureobasidium pullulans is the source of commercially produced pullulan, a high molecular weight polysaccharide that is used in the manufacture of edible films. It has been proposed that ?-amylase decreases the molecular weight of pullulan in late cultures. Based on a recent phylogenetic analysis, five representative strains were chosen to study the relationship between ?-amylase and pullulan production. In sucrose-grown cultures, pullulan yields increased over time while the molecular weight of pullulan generally decreased. However, no ?-amylase activity was detected in these cultures. Low levels of ?-amylase were present in starch-grown culture, but pullulan analysis was complicated by residual starch. To facilitate further studies on the role of ?-amylase in the reduction of pullulan molecular weight, the ?-amylase gene from A. pullulans NRRL Y-12974 was cloned and characterized. The coding region of the complete ?-amylase gene contains 2,247 bp, including 7 introns and 8 exons. The putative mRNA was 1,878 bp long, encoding an ?-amylase of 625 amino acid residues. Southern blot analysis indicated that there was only one copy of this gene in the genome. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene was transcribed in both sucrose- and starch-grown cultures. It is possible that very low levels of ?-amylase attack the minor maltotetraose subunits of pullulan and cause the reduction of molecular weight. PMID:21113644

Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Skory, Christopher D; Leathers, Timothy D; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Eveleigh, Douglas E; Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Punnapayak, Hunsa

2010-11-27

87

Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children  

PubMed Central

We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases (baseline, 3 months later, 6 months later). There were modest increases in waking cortisol and sAA levels in AUT relative to TYP, but the increases were not statistically significant. Important differences were observed in cortisol and sAA variability between AUT and TYP. There was also a graded response among AUT by functional status—cortisol and sAA secretion levels were higher when IQ was lower.

Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

2013-01-01

88

Evening salivary alpha-amylase, major depressive disorder, and antidepressant use in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).  

PubMed

Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) may be a suitable index for sympathetic activity and dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The relationship between antidepressants and depression with sAA levels was studied, since antidepressants were previously shown to have a profound impact on heart rate variability as an ANS indicator. Data are from 1692 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) who were recruited from the community, general practice, and specialized mental health care. Differences in evening sAA levels were examined between patient groups (i.e., 752 current major depressive disorder [MDD], 611 remitted MDD, and 329 healthy controls) and between 46 tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) users, 307 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) users, 97 users of another antidepressant, and 1242 non-users. Each participant sampled twice at 22.00h and 23.00h. In multivariable analysis, there was a trend over the three groups with increasing sAA levels from controls to remitted MDD to current MDD that approached significance. Furthermore, in comparison to non-users of antidepressants, TCA rather than SSRI users showed higher sAA levels, that persisted after multivariable adjustment. The present study shows that higher evening sAA levels in depressed patients, indicative of an increased sympathetic activity, may be induced by TCAs. PMID:23587658

Veen, Gerthe; Giltay, Erik J; Licht, Carmilla M M; Vreeburg, Sophie A; Cobbaert, Christa M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

2013-04-12

89

Variation in amylase activities in radish (Raphanus sativus) cultivars.  

PubMed

The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family which shows amylolytic activity in the taproot. However, there is little information about differences in these amylolytic activities among radish cultivars. We analyzed the amylase activities and starch contents of 7 kinds of radish cultivars. The Koshin cultivar showed the highest amylase activity, with a level approximately 6 times higher than that of the Sobutori cultivar, which had the lowest. Cultivars with higher amylase activities showed higher starch contents. These results suggest that there are intraspecies variations in amylolytic activities in radishes, and positive correlations between amylase activity and starch content. PMID:19655255

Hara, Masakazu; Ito, Fumio; Asai, Tatsuo; Kuboi, Toru

2009-09-01

90

Disentangling sources of individual differences in diurnal salivary ?-amylase: reliability, stability and sensitivity to context.  

PubMed

In the present study, we employ a longitudinal design and a generalizability framework to examine the sources of variance in the diurnal rhythm of salivary ?-amylase (sAA). The sample consisted of 122 first-year law students (55% male, mean age=23.9 years), who collected five saliva samples on each of three consecutive days at each of five data collection waves. In total, over 6900 saliva samples were collected, which allowed us to examine the properties of diurnal variation in sAA in great detail. Systematic individual differences accounted for 15-29% of the variability in the awakening response and diurnal slope, and for 61-65% of the variation in overall daily levels (i.e., diurnal mean, area under the curve with respect to ground [AUCg]). Although less than 1% of the variation was due to differences between waves and between days, the generalizability analyses revealed that between 16% and 17% of the variance in the diurnal mean, slope and AUCg is due to person by wave interactions, indicating that individuals vary in their biological sensitivity to environmental influences. In sum, this study documents sufficient stability and variation in diurnal sAA to warrant future studies on the origins and consequences of alterations in the diurnal rhythm of sAA worthwhile, and proposes guidelines on obtaining reliable measures. PMID:22819683

Out, Dorothée; Granger, Douglas A; Sephton, Sandra E; Segerstrom, Suzanne C

2012-07-20

91

DEVELOPMENTAL VALIDATION OF A POINT-OF-CARE, SALIVARY ?-AMYLASE BIOSENSOR  

PubMed Central

The translation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) to the ambulatory assessment of stress hinges on the development of technologies capable of speedy and accurate reporting of sAA levels. Here, we describe the developmental validation and usability testing of a point-of-care, colorimetric, sAA biosensor. A disposable test strip allows for streamlined sample collection and a corresponding hand-held reader with integrated analytic capabilities permits rapid analysis and reporting of sAA levels. Bioanalytical validation utilizing saliva samples from 20 normal subjects indicates that, within the biosensor’s linear range (10–230 U/ml), its accuracy (R2 = 0.989), precision (CV < 9%), and measurement repeatability (range ?3.1% to + 3.1%) approach more elaborate laboratory-based, clinical analyzers. The truncated sampling-reporting cycle (< 1 minute) and the excellent performance characteristics of the biosensor has the potential to take sAA analysis out of the realm of dedicated, centralized laboratories and facilitate future sAA biomarker qualification studies.

Shetty, Vivek; Zigler, Corwin; Robles, Theodore F.; Elashoff, David; Yamaguchi, Masaki

2010-01-01

92

Effect of tetracycline administration on serum amylase activity in calves.  

PubMed

Tetracycline and related compounds are used extensively as broad spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections in ruminants. Tetracycline may cause acute pancreatitis which may result in increased serum amylase activity. However, it has been shown that administration of oxytetracycline in human results in decrease serum amylase activity. In this study changes in serum amylase activity were measured in 20 clinically healthy calves following intravenous injection of oxytetracycline hydrochloride at 10 mg/kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected at 30, 60, and 120 minutes after oxytetracycline injection. Serum amylase activity was measured using the amyloclastic assay. The activity of serum amylase was increased significantly (P?amylase activity in calves. PMID:23961401

Zendehbad, Bamdad; Alipour, Adeleh; Zendehbad, Hussein

2013-07-20

93

Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to taekwondo competition in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an official taekwondo competition (three 1-min rounds with a 1-min recovery in-between) on heart rate (HR), salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and salivary-free cortisol (sC) in children. Parental consent was obtained for 12 young (10.4 ± 0.2 years) male taekwondo athletes. Saliva sample were collected 15 min before and 1 min after an official taekwondo competition, and at 30, 60, and 90 min of the recovery period. To evaluate the exercise intensity during the competition, HR was measured and expressed as a percentage of individuals HR(peak). Athletes spent 78% of the time working at HR > 90% HR(max), with significant increases from round 1 to round 2 and 3. Peak sAA observed at the end of the match (169.6 ± 47.0 U/mL) was different (P = 0.0001) from the other samplings (pre-competition 55.0 ± 14.0 U/mL, 30-min recovery 80.4 ± 17.7 U/mL, 60-min recovery 50.5 ± 7.6 U/ml; 90-min recovery 53.2 ± 9.6 U/mL). Peak sC values observed at 30-min recovery (17.9 ± 3.5 nmol/L) were different (P < 0.0001) from pre-competition (5.6 ± 0.9 nmol/L), post-competition (9.0 ± 2.0 nmol/L), 60-min recovery (10.3 ± 2.6 nmol/L) and 90-min recovery (4.2 ± 0.8 nmol/L) values. These findings confirm that taekwondo competitions pose a high stress on young athletes. The different sAA and sC reactions in response to the physical stressor mirror the faster reactivity of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system relatively to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system, respectively. This experimental paradigm might represent a useful model for further research on the effects of various stressors (i.e., training and competition) in taekwondo athletes. PMID:21643917

Capranica, Laura; Lupo, Corrado; Cortis, Cristina; Chiodo, Salvatore; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Tessitore, Antonio

2011-06-04

94

The salivary alpha amylase over cortisol ratio as a marker to assess dysregulations of the stress systems.  

PubMed

Different factors have been associated with changes in the regulation of the two major stress response systems of the human body, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes in these systems have been associated with various (psycho)pathologies across adulthood, and are thus frequently assessed within the context of allostatic load. Early Life Adversity (ELA) has been identified as one such factor. Individuals with histories of ELA show evidence of elevated basal and reactive salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels (a marker of SNS activity), blunted cortisol levels (a marker of HPA axis activity), and an asymmetrical relationship between the two variables. However, variable methods used in the past to measure each variable, and the relationship between the two systems, prevent us from drawing firm conclusions. This preliminary study investigated whether the ratio of reactive sAA over reactive cortisol would be more informative to investigate the relationship between the two stress systems than the ratio of cortisol over sAA, or either marker alone, and whether there is a systematic link between this marker and subjective indexes of chronic stress and depression. We studied this in a total of 37 subjects (n=20 with signs of early life adversity and n=17 without) exposed to the Trier social stress test. Using a specific formula to determine the ratio of sAA over cortisol, we found a systematically stronger positive relationship with indexes of chronic stress and depression when compared to cortisol over sAA, or either marker alone. Our findings suggest that the ratio of sAA over cortisol might be a better marker of stress systems dysregulation than the ratio of cortisol over sAA, sAA or cortisol alone. The usefulness of this marker for other chronic stress states as found in allostatic load is discussed. PMID:22019784

Ali, Nida; Pruessner, Jens C

2011-10-12

95

Chloroplastic Regulation of Apoplastic ?-Amylase Activity in Pea Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Photobleaching of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling leaves by treatment with norflurazon (San 9789) and 7 days of continuous white light caused a 76- to 85-fold increase in the activity of the primary ?-amylase, a largely apoplastic enzyme, over normally greening seedlings. Levels of chlorophyll were near zero and levels of plastid marker enzyme activities were very low in norflurazon-treated seedlings, indicating severe photooxidative damage to plastids. As levels of norflurazon or fluence rates were lowered, decreasing photobleaching of tissues, ?-amylase activity decreased. Levels of leaf ?-amylase and starch debranching enzyme changed very little in norflurazon-treated seedlings. Infiltration extraction of leaves of norflurazon-treated and normally greening seedlings indicated that at least 57 and 62%, respectively, of ?-amylase activity was in the apoplast. ?-Amylase activity recovered from the apoplast of photobleached leaves of norflurazon-treated seedlings was 18-fold higher than that for green leaves. Inhibitors of photosynthesis (DCMU and atrazine) and an inhibitor of chlorophyll accumulation that does not cause photooxidation of plastid components (tentoxin) had little effect on levels of ?-amylase activity, indicating norflurazon-caused loss of chlorophyll and lack of photosynthesis did not cause the large induction in ?-amylase activity. An inhibitor of both abscisic acid and gibberellin synthesis (paclobutrazol [PP333]) and an analog of norflurazon which inhibits photosynthesis but not carotenoid synthesis (San 9785) caused only moderate (about five-fold) increases in ?-amylase activity. Lincomycin and chloramphenicol increased ?-amylase activity in light grown seedings to the same magnitude as norflurazon, indicating that the effect of norflurazon is probably through the destruction of plastid ribosomes. It is proposed that chloroplasts produce a negative signal for the regulation of the apoplastic ?-amylase in pea. Images Figure 6 Figure 7

Saeed, Muhammad; Duke, Stanley H.

1990-01-01

96

ENGINEERING APHA-AMYLASE FOR ENHANCED ACTIVITY BY MOLECULAR EVOLUTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alpha-Amylase is the major enzyme in starch hydrolysis for the production of sweeteners and bioethanol. We attempted to engineer barley a-amylase to achieve high activity using directed evolution. The gene coding the wild-type enzyme was cloned into Saccharomyces cervisiae, and subjected to repeat...

97

Rate of in vitro Digestion of Some Nigerian Foods by Salivary ?-Amylase: Implications for the Management of Post-Prandial Glucose Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oil on the rate of digestion of boiled ripe and unripe plantain, as well as comparative effects of three Nigerian soups on the rates of digestion of plantain and cassava flours, by salivary ?-amylase, was investigated. There was a reduced rate of digestion and sugar release from the ripe and unripe plantain in the presence of oil,

Catherine Chidinma Ikewuchi; Jude Chigozie Ikewuchi

98

Association of blood pressure and antihypertensive drugs with diurnal alpha-amylase activity.  

PubMed

Salivary ?-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a marker of autonomic activity, but its association with blood pressure and antihypertensive drugs (AD) is unknown. Basal sAA rhythm was assessed immediately after awakening, 30 min after awakening, 11 am, 3 pm, and 8 pm in 78 older adults. Profiles differed significantly between men and women, with men lacking the typical decrease of sAA in the morning and showing more pronounced alterations throughout the day. A higher total output of sAA was found in individuals not using AD or being hypertensive, and especially pronounced in hypertensive individuals not using AD. These data indicates a difference between normotensives and hypertensives and an association of AD with characteristics of diurnal amylase. Findings highlight the usefulness of sAA as an index of autonomic imbalance in disease, and indicate sAA as a promising candidate to non-invasively study therapeutic treatment effects. PMID:21515315

Strahler, Jana; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Rohleder, Nicolas

2011-04-22

99

The Relationship Between Cortisol, Salivary Alpha-Amylase, and Cognitive Bias in Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both animal and human studies suggest that cognitive bias toward negative information, such as that observed in major depression, may arise through the interaction of cortisol (CORT) and norepinephrine (NE) within the amygdala. To date, there is no published account of the relationship between endogenous NE and CORT levels and cognitive bias. The present study examined salivary CORT and salivary

Donna A. Kreher; Sally I. Powers; Douglas A. Granger

2012-01-01

100

The phylogenesis of protein ?-amylase inhibitors from wheat seed and the speciation of polyploid wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein a-amylase inhibitors extracted with water from seeds of a number of Triticum and Aegilops species were characterized according to their molecular weights and action specificities towards human salivary and Tenebrio molitor L. a-amylases. Four inhibitor peaks, with molecular weights 60000, 44000, 22000 and 11000, active towards the two amylases have been detected. Another inhibitor peak with molecular weight 11000,

L. Vittozzi; V. Silano

1976-01-01

101

Activity and storage of commercial amylases in the 2013 Louisiana grinding season  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A current problem in the application of amylases at sugarcane factories is the existence of a wide variation in the activities and activity per unit cost of commercial amylases. The efficiency of amylase action to break down starch in the factory is related to the activity of the amylase used. Until...

102

Evaluation of ?-amylase inhibitory activities of selected antidiabetic medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitors of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as ?-amylase play an important role for the control of diabetes mellitus\\u000a especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study we selected ten antidiabetic medicinal plants, because they have\\u000a been recommended to treat diabetes in traditional Iranian medicine, and screened them for ?-amylase inhibitory activities.\\u000a Among the tested samples, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae)

Bahman Nickavar; Nasibeh Yousefian

2011-01-01

103

Amylase activity of Torulopsis ingeniosa Di Menna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torulopsis ingeniosaDi Menna was found to possess an ?-amylase strongly attached to the cell wall, its pH optimum being at 5.5, optimum temperature at\\u000a 50 °C, highly sensitive to thermal inactivation. The enzyme was found to be induced by starch but the synthesis is not subject\\u000a to a glucose effect.

G. Moulin; P. Galzy

1978-01-01

104

Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice.  

PubMed

In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening for salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae) and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75%) of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose. PMID:24068095

De Gouveia, Neire M; De Albuquerque, Cibele L; Espindola, Laila S; Espindola, Foued S

2013-09-01

105

Direct and moderating links of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol stress-reactivity to youth behavioral and emotional adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have revealed evidence for interactions between autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, indexed by saliva alpha amylase (sAA), and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical activity, in predicting psychological functioning. The present study extends this work by examining individual differences in sAA and cortisol stress reactivity in relation to behavioral and emotional adjustment in youth. Participants were 56 healthy children (age 7–16). sAA, cortisol,

Maureen A. Allwood; Kathryn Handwerger; Katie T. Kivlighan; Douglas A. Granger; Laura R. Stroud

2011-01-01

106

Effect of chemicals on fungal alpha-amylase activity.  

PubMed

The effect of 8 growth regulators at concentrations of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm on the activity of fungal (Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris) alpha-amylase was studied. Indol acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) inhibited alpha-amylase activity by 2% and 7% at 1,000 ppm. The other 6 growth regulators, indol butyric acid (IBA), gibberellic acid, cumarin, cycocel (CCC), atonik-G and kylar, did not inhibit but stimulated alpha-amylase activity (0 to 9%) at 1,000 ppm. All growth regulators studied inhibited alpha-amylase activity at 5,000 and 10,000 ppm concentration except kylar. The effect of organic acids and formaldehyde at 0.01, 0.005, and 0.001 M was studied. Acetic acid stimulated alpha-amylase at all concentrations, but formic acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid and citric acid inhibited alpha-amylase activity by 91, 100, 100 and 79%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.01 M, while by 31, 100, 15 and 20%, respectively, at 0.005 M. Formaldehyde induced 7, 3 and 2% inhibition at 0.01, 0.005 and 0.001 M, respectively. At 0.01 M either sorbitol or fructose inhibited alpha-amylase by 8%, Maltose 7%, sucrose 6%, phenol, glucose and galactose each by 5%, ethanol, glycerol, arabinose and sodium benzoate each by 4%, isopropanol and mannitol 1%, but methanol and ammonium citrate dibasic did not inhibit alpha-amylase. The results indicate that CuCl2, SnCl2, AgNO3 and Fe2(SO4)3 were the strongest inhibitors, followed by Cd(C2H3O2), HgCl2, Na2-EDTA, Na2HPO4, and CaCl2 in decreasing order. NaCl, NaBr and Mn SO4 did not inhibit alpha-amylase at concentrations from 10 mM to 0.01 mM. PMID:2515680

Ali, F S; Abdel-Moneim, A A

1989-01-01

107

Effect of heat treatments on alpha-amylase inhibitor activity in sorghum ( Sorghum bicolour L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of dry heat to sorghum seeds and meal was not effective in inactivating the amylase inhibitory activity. Overnight soaking followed by heat treatment was more effective in destroying amylase inhibitory activity. Cooking the meal, raw seeds and soaked seeds drastically reduced the levels of a-amylase inhibitory activity.

V. H. Mulimani; D. Supriya

1993-01-01

108

The feasibility of ambulatory biosensor measurement of salivary alpha amylase: Relationships with self-reported and naturalistic psychological stress  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent developments in biosensor technology allow point-of-use reporting of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels while approaching the precision and accuracy of conventional laboratory-based testing. We deployed a portable prototype sAA biosensor in 54 healthy, male dental students during a low stress baseline and during final exams. At baseline, participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). At baseline and the exam week, participants provided saliva samples at 10 AM, 1 PM, and 5 PM, and rated concurrent subjective distress. Although subjective distress was higher during exams compared to baseline, sAA levels did not differ between baseline and exams. Higher sAA levels were related to higher concurrent subjective distress, and higher depressive and social isolation symptoms on the BSI were related to lower sAA during exams. Results from this study, in combination with previous validation data, suggest that the sAA biosensor is a promising tool for point-of-use measures of exposure to stress.

Robles, Theodore F.; Shetty, Vivek; Zigler, Corwin M.; Glover, Dorie A.; Elashoff, David; Murphy, Debra; Yamaguchi, Masaki

2010-01-01

109

Is salivary alpha-amylase an indicator of autonomic nervous system dysregulations in mental disorders?--a review of preliminary findings and the interactions with cortisol.  

PubMed

During recent years, a growing interest emerged in using salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) as a non-invasive, surrogate marker for sympathetic activity. Numerous studies applying stress protocols have demonstrated that sAA is highly sensitive to stress-related changes (in healthy subjects). Additionally, it was suggested that sAA might moreover serve as an index for pathological dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in patients showing psychopathology. Since then, a small but growing literature investigated sAA in patients with mental disorders. This review aims to give an overview of preliminary findings in this field of research. The results of n=15 studies are described in detail and implications for further research are discussed. Although the number of studies and the samples examined were rather small, changes in sAA, reflecting adrenergic dysregulation, could be demonstrated in psychopathology, especially in anxiety-related disorders. This field of research is still in its early stages. However, the studies included in this review revealed first evidence that the employment of sAA, as an indicator of ANS dysregulation in mental disorders, is promising. PMID:23481259

Schumacher, Sarah; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Fydrich, Thomas; Ströhle, Andreas

2013-03-05

110

a-Amylase activity from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei is able to grow in a minimal medium containing ammonium acetate as a carbon and nitrogen source. When this medium is enriched with starch, a-amylase activity is excreted to the medium in low concentration. Here we report methods to concentrate and purify the enzyme. The relative molecular mass of the enzyme, determined by gel filtration,

F. Pérez-Pomares; V. Bautista; J. Ferrer; C. Pire; F. C. Marhuenda-Egea; M. J. Bonete

2003-01-01

111

The functional significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster VI. Duration of development and amylase activity in larvae when starch is a limiting factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stocks homozygous for the amylase alleles Amy1 and Amy4, 6 were compared for amylase activity during larval development and duration of larval development on a food medium on which addition of starch promotes survival. The two stocks have the same development time when reared under optimal food conditions. Then, the higher amylase activity which characterizes the Amy4, 6 stock

A. J. W. Hoorn; W. Scharloo

1981-01-01

112

Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity.  

PubMed

A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 A degrees C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing alpha-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale alpha-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1) in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities. PMID:20552148

Farias, D F; Carvalho, A F U; Oliveira, C C; Sousa, N M; Rocha-Bezerrra, L C B; Ferreira, P M P; Lima, G P G; Hissa, D C

2010-03-19

113

Allele-dependent barley grain beta-amylase activity.  

PubMed

The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high beta-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and beta-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high beta-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the beta-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the beta-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct beta-amy1 alleles. Two of these beta-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain beta-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated beta-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of beta-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed. PMID:9625721

Erkkilä, M J; Leah, R; Ahokas, H; Cameron-Mills, V

1998-06-01

114

A review on structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting ?-amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols against ?-amylase have attracted great interest among researchers. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research reports on the structure- activity relationship of polyphenols inhibiting ?-amylase. The molecular structures influence the inhibition are the following: 1) The hydroxylation of flavonoids improved the inhibitory effect on ?-amylase; 2) Presence of

Guoyin Kai; Xiaoling Ni; Xiaoqing Chen; Jianbo Xiao

2011-01-01

115

Identification of intracellular amylase activity in Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ruminal bacterium Streptococcus bovis has been demonstrated to produce an extracellular amylase activity. We previously reported on the cloning of a gene from S. bovis encoding for what was initially believed to be the extracellular amylase. DNA sequence analyses indicated that the amylase produced by the cloned gene did not match the N-terminus amino acid sequence of the purified

Terence R. Whitehead; Michael A. Cotta

1995-01-01

116

Glucose released by hydrolytic activity of amylase influences the pigment synthesis in Penicillium sp NIOM-02.  

PubMed

Carbon catabolite repression is generally considered as a regulatory mechanism to ensure sequential synthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study we made an attempt to understand the influence of amylase activity on pigment synthesis in Penicillium sp NIOM-02. The amylase activity is inversely proportional to pigment production. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of amylase reaction revealed glucose as the major product of starch hydrolysis. The fungus grown in acarbose (inhibitor of amylase) incorporated media produced higher quantities of pigments. Apparently, glucose released due to amylase activity influenced the pigment synthesis by cAMP signaling pathway. PMID:22581402

Puttananjaiah, Mohan-Kumari H; Dhale, Mohan A

2012-05-14

117

Salivary alpha-amylase during pregnancy: diurnal course and associations with obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood.  

PubMed

Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) in pregnant women have not previously been described. The current study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between the diurnal sAA, obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood during pregnancy. Saliva was self-collected by 83 pregnant women (89% White, age 25.3-43.0 years; mean gestational age 21.9 weeks, range 6-37 weeks; gravida 1-6) at home over three days. Results indicated that current pregnancy (gestational age and fetal sex) and maternal demographics were not related to diurnal sAA. In contrast, a history of previous miscarriage (Parameter = -.17; SE = .05; p < .05) was associated with an atypical diurnal pattern. Even after accounting for obstetric history, trait anxiety (Parameter = .16; SE = .04; p < .001) was associated with increased sAA over the day while chronic levels of fatigue (Parameter = -.06; SE = .03; p < .05) were associated with decreased sAA. In a separate model, we also tested the time varying covariation of sAA and mood. The effects of momentary mood were in contrast to those for trait mood. Both momentary depression (Parameter = .22; SE = .09; p < .01) and vigour/positive mood (Parameter = .12; SE = .04; p < .001) were associated with momentary increases in sAA while momentary anxiety and fatigue were not related to sAA. The findings suggest that basal sAA during pregnancy is sensitive to emotional arousal. Evaluating diurnal patterns of sAA holds promise for advancing understanding of how emotional arousal during pregnancy may affect fetal development. PMID:22315130

Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Granger, Douglas A; Campbell, Tavis; Kaplan, Bonnie

2012-02-07

118

Effects of sucrose on salivary flow and composition: differences between real and sham intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human saliva contains numerous salivary components that are fundamental for a healthy oral environment and the oral processing of foods. To study a possible differential influence of orosensory stimulation and metabolic activation on salivary composition, human parotid salivary flow, pH, A280, and agr-amylase activity were measured before, during and after real or sham (sip-and-spit) sucrose intakes. Variations in these salivary

Lucien F. Harthoorn; Celine Brattinga; Kekem van C; Eric Neyraud; Eric Dransfield

2009-01-01

119

Microassay for rapid screening of alpha-amylase activity.  

PubMed

A microassay was developed for measuring the activity of alpha-amylases in the nanogram enzyme concentration range, based on the use of dye-labeled cross-linked starch as the substrate, and the release of soluble colored fragments formed in enzyme hydrolysis. Reaction conditions were optimized to generate a linear correlation between the increase in absorbance and a reaction time of 0-10 min, as well as enzyme concentrations in the range of 0-50 ng. A standard curve for the conversion of absorbance to enzyme activity units was constructed. The protocol developed was applied to monitoring the production of ultralow concentrations of recombinant barley alpha-amylase in yeast cells. PMID:11052696

Wong, D W; Batt, S B; Robertson, G H

2000-10-01

120

Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

2012-01-01

121

Effect of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to on amylase activity in mice.  

PubMed

The effects of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to (SRBT), a Chinese medicinal prescription, on mouse serum amylase activity were investigated in vivo. SRBT was found to not only dose- and/or time-dependently augment amylase activity, but also to increase alpha-amylase protein content and soluble starch metabolic activity. These results provide a rational basis for the clinical use of SRBT that may accompany disease therapy. PMID:15467221

Sasaki, Kenroh; Ito, So-ichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko

2004-10-01

122

The ram1 Mutant of Arabidopsis Exhibits Severely Decreased ?-Amylase Activity1  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive biochemical analyses, the biological function(s) of plant ?-amylases remains unclear. The fact that ?-amylases degrade starch in vitro suggests that they may play a role in starch metabolism in vivo. ?-Amylases have also been suggested to prevent the accumulation of highly polymerized polysaccharides that might otherwise impede flux through phloem sieve pores. The identification and characterization of a mutant of Arabidopsis var. Columbia with greatly reduced levels of ?-amylase activity is reported here. The reduced ?-amylase 1 (ram1) mutation lies in the gene encoding the major form of ?-amylase in Arabidopsis. Although the Arabidopsis genome contains nine known or putative ?-amylase genes, the fact that the ram1 mutation results in almost complete loss of ?-amylase activity in rosette leaves and inflorescences (stems) indicates that the gene affected by the ram1 mutation is responsible for most of the ?-amylase activity present in these tissues. The leaves of ram1 plants accumulate wild-type levels of starch, soluble sugars, anthocyanin, and chlorophyll. Plants carrying the ram1 mutation also exhibit wild-type rates of phloem exudation and of overall growth. These results suggest that little to no ?-amylase activity is required to maintain normal starch levels, rates of phloem exudation, and overall plant growth.

Laby, Ron J.; Kim, Donggiun; Gibson, Susan I.

2001-01-01

123

Wheat and Barley Inhibitors Active Towards ?-Amylase and Trypsin-like Activities from Spodoptera frugiperda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The a-amylase activity was determined throughout the larval development of Spodoptera frugiperda. Maximal activities with optimal pH in the range 8.5–9.5 were found in last instars. Protein preparations enriched in heterotetrameric inhibitors from wheat flour were active towards gut amylases from last instars, while those corresponding to homodimeric and monomeric inhibitors showed low inhibition levels. These results were further supported

Julio Alfonso; Felix Ortego; Rosa Sanchez-Monge; Gloria Garcia-Casado; Merardo Pujol; Pedro Castañera; Gabriel Salcedo

1997-01-01

124

Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine\\/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the crude extracts was measured by monitoring the amount of starch hydrolyzed by the crude extract

C. O. Edeogu

2009-01-01

125

?-Amylase activity during pullulan production and ?-amylase gene analyses of Aureobasidium pullulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aureobasidium pullulans is the source of commercially produced pullulan, a high molecular weight polysaccharide that is used in the manufacture of\\u000a edible films. It has been proposed that ?-amylase decreases the molecular weight of pullulan in late cultures. Based on a\\u000a recent phylogenetic analysis, five representative strains were chosen to study the relationship between ?-amylase and pullulan\\u000a production. In sucrose-grown

Pennapa Manitchotpisit; Christopher D. Skory; Timothy D. Leathers; Pongtharin Lotrakul; Douglas E. Eveleigh; Sehanat Prasongsuk; Hunsa Punnapayak

126

Salivary proteins promote proteolytic activity in Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 and Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed

A major function of the salivary pellicle on oral surfaces is to promote colonization of the commensal microbiota by providing binding sites for adherence. Streptococcus mitis is an early colonizer of the oral cavity whereas Streptococcus mutans represents a later colonizer. To survive and grow, oral bacteria produce enzymes, proteases and glycosidases, which allow them to exploit salivary proteins as a nutrient source. In this study, adherence and proteolytic activity of S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans were investigated in a flow-cell model in the presence of different populations of surface-associated salivary proteins. Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 adhered well to surfaces coated with both a MUC5B-enriched fraction and a pool of low-density proteins containing MUC7, amylase, cystatin, gp340, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme and statherin, whereas adherence of S. mutans to these proteins was poor. In environments of MUC5B or the low-density proteins, both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans showed high levels of proteolytic activity. For S. mitis in the MUC5B environment, most of this activity may be attributable to contact with the molecules in the fluid phase although activity was also enhanced by adherence to surface-associated MUC5B. These data suggest that although they differ in their capacity to adhere to surface-associated salivary proteins, in the natural environment exploitation of saliva as a nutrient source can contribute to survival and colonization of the oral cavity by both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans. PMID:22958385

Kindblom, C; Davies, J R; Herzberg, M C; Svensäter, G; Wickström, C

2012-05-25

127

Evidence for pentagalloyl glucose binding to human salivary alpha-amylase through aromatic amino acid residues.  

PubMed

We demonstrate here that pentagalloyl glucose (PGG), a main component of gallotannins, was an effective inhibitor of HSA and it exerted similar inhibitory potency to Aleppo tannin used in this study. The inhibition of HSA by PGG was found to be non-competitive and inhibitory constants of K(EI)=2.6 microM and K(ESI)=3.9 microM were determined from Lineweaver-Burk secondary plots. PGG as a model compound for gallotannins was selected to study the inhibitory mechanism and to characterize the interaction of HSA with this type of molecules. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding experiments confirmed the direct interaction of HSA and PGG, and it also established similar binding of Aleppo tannin to HSA. Saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment by NMR clearly demonstrated the aromatic rings of PGG may be involved in the interaction suggesting a possible stacking with the aromatic side chains of HSA. The role of aromatic amino acids of HSA in PGG binding was reinforced by kinetic studies with the W58L and Y151M mutants of HSA: the replacement of the active site aromatic amino acids with aliphatic ones decreased the PGG inhibition dramatically, which justified the importance of these residues in the interaction. PMID:19038368

Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Zajácz, Agnes; Bécsi, Bálint; Ragunath, Chandran; Ramasubbu, Narayanan; Erdodi, Ferenc; Batta, Gyula; Kandra, Lili

2008-11-06

128

Changes in alpha-and beta-amylase activities during seed germination of African finger millet.  

PubMed

Changes in alpha- and beta-amylase activities in African finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L) Gaertener) were followed during germination. Germination on a small scale was performed at 15 degrees C for 1-10 days and at 20, 25 and 30 degrees C for 1-8 days. alpha- and beta-Amylase activities in malt crude extracts of germinated finger millet were evaluated spectrophotometrically using chromogenic methods. The highest alpha-amylase activity was exhibited in malt flour of finger millet germinated at 15 degrees C for 9 days and at 20 degrees C for 6 days, while the highest beta-amylase activity was displayed in the malt flour germinated for 5 days at 30 degrees C. Thermo-stability of these enzymes in malt extracts was also evaluated. Malt extracts incubated at 40 and 50 degrees C for up to 4 h retained about 84 and 64% of alpha-amylase activities, respectively. There was a substantial decrease in alpha-amylase activity to more than 90% when malt extracts were incubated at 70 and 90 degrees C for 40 and 10 min, respectively. beta-Amylase was completely inactivated when the crude extract was incubated at 70 degrees C for only 10 min. At pH 5.4, alpha-amylase displayed maximum catalytic activity at around 45 degrees C. Optimum temperature for beta-amylase activity at pH 6.0 was between 50 and 55 degrees C. Activity staining for alpha-amylase was also performed and three bands of activity were found in malt extract, each possibly representing an isozyme of alpha-amylase from finger millet. PMID:12590743

Gimbi, Dorothy Machunda; Kitabatake, Naofumi

2002-11-01

129

Alpha-amylase activity from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei.  

PubMed

The halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei is able to grow in a minimal medium containing ammonium acetate as a carbon and nitrogen source. When this medium is enriched with starch, alpha-amylase activity is excreted to the medium in low concentration. Here we report methods to concentrate and purify the enzyme. The relative molecular mass of the enzyme, determined by gel filtration, is 50 +/- 4 kDa, and on SDS-PAGE analysis a single band appeared at 58 kDa. These results indicated that the halophilic alpha-amylase is a monomeric enzyme. The enzyme showed a salt requirement for both stability and activity, being stable from 2 to 4 M NaCl, with maximal activity at 3 M NaCl. The enzyme displayed maximal activity at pHs from 7 to 8, and its optimal temperature was in a range from 50 degrees C to 60 degrees C. The results also implicated several prototropic groups in the catalytic reaction. PMID:12910390

Pérez-Pomares, F; Bautista, V; Ferrer, J; Pire, C; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Bonete, M J

2003-04-24

130

Salivary Ceruloplasmin Ferroxidase & Oxidase Activities in Celiac Patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study was to evaluate salivary ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activities in celiac patients with different histopathological severity. This study included 75 celiac patients with different mean age (18.68 ± 11.13) year, who had positive screen for celiac antibodies, and who had gastrointestinal symptoms. In order to simplify the comparison with the healthy control group, celiac patients were divided into two groups according to their histopathological severity: severe (marsh IIIa, b, c) & less severe (marsh 0, I). All these patients have been evaluating for salivary ceruloplasmin (Cp) concentration and Cp ferroxidase activities. To confirm the presence of the enzymatic activity of this protein, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out and then stained for Cp ferroxidase, as well as for Cp oxidase activity. Furthermore, the concentrations of salivary total protein, albumin, and globulin were measured in the studied groups. A significant increase (p<0.05) in salivary concentration of ceruloplasmin was found in all above mentioned patients groups in comparison to that of the control group, except for total villous atrophy (marsh IIIc) patients subgroup. Salivary Cp ferroxidase activity revealed statistically significant decrease among the patient groups as well as between them and the control group. The result of salivary total protein and globulin showed presence a significant increase (p<0.05) in comparison to that of the control group. Meanwhile albumin levels was found to increase non-significantly (p=0.186).

Hasan, Hathama R.; Ghadhban, Jasim M.; Abudal Kadhum, Zahraa I.

2012-01-01

131

Chloroplastic regulation of apoplastic alpha-amylase activity in pea seedlings.  

PubMed

Photobleaching of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling leaves by treatment with norflurazon (San 9789) and 7 days of continuous white light caused a 76- to 85-fold increase in the activity of the primary alpha-amylase, a largely apoplastic enzyme, over normally greening seedlings. Levels of chlorophyll were near zero and levels of plastid marker enzyme activities were very low in norflurazon-treated seedlings, indicating severe photooxidative damage to plastids. As levels of norflurazon or fluence rates were lowered, decreasing photobleaching of tissues, alpha-amylase activity decreased. Levels of leaf beta-amylase and starch debranching enzyme changed very little in norflurazon-treated seedlings. Infiltration extraction of leaves of norflurazon-treated and normally greening seedlings indicated that at least 57 and 62%, respectively, of alpha-amylase activity was in the apoplast. alpha-Amylase activity recovered from the apoplast of photobleached leaves of norflurazon-treated seedlings was 18-fold higher than that for green leaves. Inhibitors of photosynthesis (DCMU and atrazine) and an inhibitor of chlorophyll accumulation that does not cause photooxidation of plastid components (tentoxin) had little effect on levels of alpha-amylase activity, indicating norflurazon-caused loss of chlorophyll and lack of photosynthesis did not cause the large induction in alpha-amylase activity. An inhibitor of both abscisic acid and gibberellin synthesis (paclobutrazol [PP333]) and an analog of norflurazon which inhibits photosynthesis but not carotenoid synthesis (San 9785) caused only moderate (about five-fold) increases in alpha-amylase activity. Lincomycin and chloramphenicol increased alpha-amylase activity in light grown seedings to the same magnitude as norflurazon, indicating that the effect of norflurazon is probably through the destruction of plastid ribosomes. It is proposed that chloroplasts produce a negative signal for the regulation of the apoplastic alpha-amylase in pea. PMID:16667425

Saeed, M; Duke, S H

1990-05-01

132

a-Amylase activity during pullulan production and a-Amylase gene analyses of Aureobasidium pullulans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans is the source of commercially produced pullulan, a high molecular weight polysaccharide that is used in the manufacture of edible films. It has been proposed that alpha-amylase negatively affects the molecular weight of pullulan in late cultures. Based on a recen...

133

Improved thermostable ?-amylase activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by low-energy ion implantation.  

PubMed

Thermostable ?-amylase is of great importance in the starch fermentation industry; it is extensively used in the manufacture of beverages, baby foods, medicines, and pharmaceuticals. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens produces thermostable ?-amylase; however, production of thermostable ?-amylase is limited. Ion-beam implantation is an effective method for mutation breeding in microbes. We conducted ion-beam implantation experiments using two different ions, Ar(+) and N(+), to determine the survival rate of and dose effect on a high ?-amylase activity strain of B. amyloliquefaciens that had been isolated from soil samples. N(+) implantation resulted in a higher survival rate than Ar(+) implantation. The optimum implantation dose was 2.08 × 10(15) ions/cm(2). Under this implantation condition, we obtained a thermally and genetically stable mutant ?-amylase strain (RL-1) with high enzyme activity for degrading ?-amylase. Compared to the parental strain (RL), the RL-1 strain had a 57.1% increase in ?-amylase activity. We conclude that ion implantation in B. amyloliquefaciens can produce strains with increased production of thermostable ?-amylase. PMID:21968725

Li, X Y; Zhang, J L; Zhu, S W

2011-09-23

134

Effects of exercise intensity on salivary antimicrobial proteins and markers of stress in active men.  

PubMed

In the present study, we assessed the effects of exercise intensity on salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and salivary lysozyme (s-Lys) and examined how these responses were associated with salivary markers of adrenal activation. Using a randomized design, 10 healthy active men participated in three experimental cycling trials: 50% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), 75%VO2max, and an incremental test to exhaustion. The durations of the trials were the same as for a preliminary incremental test to exhaustion (22.3 min, sx = 0.8). Timed, unstimulated saliva samples were collected before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1 h after exercise. In the incremental exhaustion trial, the secretion rates of both s-IgA and s-Lys were increased. An increase in s-Lys secretion rate was also observed at 75%VO2max. No significant changes in saliva flow rate were observed in any trial. Cycling at 75%VOmax and to exhaustion increased the secretion of alpha-amylase and chromogranin A immediately after exercise; higher cortisol values at 75%VO2max and in the incremental exhaustion trial compared with 50%VO2max were observed 1 h immediately after exercise only. These findings suggest that short-duration, high-intensity exercise increases the secretion rate of s-IgA and s-Lys despite no change in the saliva flow rate. These effects appear to be associated with changes in sympathetic activity and not the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. PMID:18344136

Allgrove, Judith E; Gomes, Elisa; Hough, John; Gleeson, Michael

2008-04-01

135

Isolation and characteristics of highly active ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis -150  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially purified enzyme preparation with specific activities of 153.7 U\\/mg for ?-amylase and 0.15 U\\/mg for protease was\\u000a produced by selective adsorption on starch. Enzymes were purified until homogeneous electrophoretically by gel-filtration\\u000a over HW-55 TSK-gel with specific activities of 245 U\\/mg for ?-amylase and 1.44 U\\/mg for protease. The optimum temperature\\u000a and pH for purified ?-amylase activity are 40–50?C and

K. T. Normurodova; Sh. Kh. Nurmatov; B. Kh. Alimova; O. M. Pulatova; Z. R. Akhmedova; A. A. Makhsumkhanov

2007-01-01

136

In vitro study on ?-amylase inhibitory activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Phyllanthus amarus  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the ?-amylase inhibitory activity of different extracts of Phyllanthus amarus against porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Materials and Methods: The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with ethanol, chloroform, and hexane. Each extract was evaporated using rotary evaporator, under reduced pressure. Different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ?g/mL) of each extract were made by using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subjected to ?-amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate. The absorbance was read at 595 nm using spectrophotometer. Using this method, the percentage of ?-amylase inhibitory activity and IC50values of each extract was calculated. Results: The chloroform extract failed to inhibit ?-amylase activity. However, the ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibited appreciable ?-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 36.05 ± 4.01 ?g/mL and 48.92 ± 3.43 ?g/mL, respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50value 83.33 ± 0.34 ?g/mL). Conclusion: This study supports the ayurvedic concept that ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibit considerable ?-amylase inhibitory activities. Further, this study supports its usage in ethnomedicines for management of diabetes.

Tamil, Iniyan G.; Dineshkumar, B.; Nandhakumar, M.; Senthilkumar, M.; Mitra, A.

2010-01-01

137

Regulation and cloning of the gene encoding amylase activity of the ruminal bacterium Streptococcus bovis.  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus bovis is an important starch-degrading ruminal bacterium that has been implicated as being important in the etiology of a number of ruminal pathologies associated with diets high in grains. Previous studies with S. bovis have shown that amylase production was influenced by the growth substrate, but the nature of this regulation was not determined. The current study was conducted to better describe the regulatory phenomena and gain a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of this activity. Nutritional experiments demonstrated that the presence of starch or the starch-derived disaccharide maltose was required for maximum amylase production. Subsequent time-course experiments showed that amylase synthesis was induced by maltose and repressed by glucose, cellobiose, and fructose, while inulin and lactose had little effect on enzyme accumulation. The effects of the added antibiotics rifampin and tetracycline were consistent with transcriptional control of amylase synthesis. Analysis of S. bovis cells grown on glucose or maltose showed that they contained similar low levels of cyclic AMP, indicating that it was unlikely that regulation of amylase synthesis was mediated through a mechanism involving this nucleotide. The amylase gene from S. bovis JB1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The amylase produced in E. coli was of lower molecular weight than that synthesized by S. bovis and had catalytic characteristics different from those of S. bovis amylase. When the gene was introduced back into S. bovis JB1, only one form of amylase activity was detected, indicating that the entire gene was present on this insert. The use of the amylase gene as a genetic probe for identification of S. bovis strains is discussed. Images

Cotta, M A; Whitehead, T R

1993-01-01

138

An analytical method for measuring ?-amylase activity in starch-containing foods.  

PubMed

The quality of starch-containing foods may be significantly impaired by contamination with very small amounts of ?-amylase, which can enzymatically hydrolyze the starch and cause viscosity loss. Thus, for quality control, it is necessary to have an analytical method that can measure low amylase activity. We developed a sensitive analytical method for measuring the activity of ?-amylase (from Bacillus subtilis) in starch-containing foods. The method consists of six steps: (1) crude extraction of ?-amylase by centrifugation and filtration; (2) ?-amylase purification by desalting and anion-exchange chromatography; (3) reaction of the purified amylase with boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-labeled substrate, which releases a fluorescent fragment upon digestion of the substrate, thus avoiding interference from starch derivatives in the sample; (4) stopping the reaction with acetonitrile; (5) reversed-phase solid-phase extraction of the fluorescent substrate to remove contaminating dye and impurities; and (6) separation and measurement of BODIPY fluorescence by HPLC. The proposed method could quantify ?-amylase activities as low as 10 mU/mL, which is enough to reduce the viscosity of starch-containing foods. PMID:23074083

Koyama, Kazuo; Hirao, Takashi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2012-10-17

139

Improved Chromogenic Substrate for Determination of Amylase Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses an improved chromogenic substrate for alpha-amylase assays. The substrate synthesized by reacting amylose with Cibachron Blue F3GA, sodium sulfate and trisodium phosphate and incubating the resultant dyed amylose substrate...

T. M. Dougherty

1976-01-01

140

Characterization of the ?-amylase Receptor of Streptococcus gordonii NCTC 7868  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the work described here was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the binding of salivary ?-amylase to Streptococcus gordonii NCTC 7868 (Challis). Of six types of a-amylase studied, only mammalian forms of the enzyme were found to bind to S. gordonii cells. Salivary a-amylase binding was inhibited by treatment of cells with trypsin and pronase, but not

C. W. I. Douglas

1990-01-01

141

An ESR assay for alpha-amylase activity toward succinylated starch, amylose and amylopectin.  

PubMed

The esterification of the three polysaccharides, starch, amylose and amylopectin was carried out in pyridine-DMSO by succinic anhydride. The carboxylic groups in the succinylated polysaccharides were measured by FT-IR spectroscopy. The succinic derivatives were tested as alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucano hydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1) substrates. A colorimetric assay of the alpha-amylase activity indicated that this enzyme is active on succinic esters of starch and amylose and that the activity shows a linear decrease with the number of succinic units introduced into the polysaccharide. Since the colorimetric test was not suitable for the detection of the alpha-amylase activity when succinylated amylopectin was the substrate, we set-up an assay based on the labeling by a paramagnetic probe of the free carboxylic groups of succinylated polysaccharides. The kinetics of the alpha-amylase reaction were monitored by ESR spectroscopy through the increase of the mobility of the paramagnetic probe. The spin label used was the commercially available 4-amino-tempo. By this method we demonstrated that alpha-amylase is active on succinylated amylopectin. The utility of the assay for monitoring alpha-amylase activity when other methods (i.e. colorimetric tests) fail, is discussed. PMID:10100950

Marcazzan, M; Vianello, F; Scarpa, M; Rigo, A

1999-02-01

142

Determining the relationship of acute stress, anxiety, and salivary alpha-amylase level with performance of student nurse anesthetists during human-based anesthesia simulator training.  

PubMed

Managing stress for student nurse anesthetists represents a multifaceted educational concern for anesthesia educators. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between physiologic measures of stress and performance of student nurse anesthetists during anesthesia simulator training. Following institutional review board approval, 78 students were enrolled from a nurse anesthesia program. A prospective descriptive design was used to compare baseline, acute, and recovery measurements of stress with performance scores of students during an induction and intubation sequence in a patient simulator. Performance scores were stratified into low-, moderate-, and high-performing groups based on scores received from trained observers. A statistically significant difference in physiologic measures of stress was detected between baseline and acute levels of salivary a-amylase (P = .017), heart rate (P = .003), and anxiety levels (P = .001). No significant differences were found when measures of stress were compared with performance of low, moderate, or high performers. This investigation revealed remarkable findings regarding the relationship between stress and student performance. Analysis of the descriptive statistics and means of each group suggests that low performers have increased stress and perform poorly, whereas high performers have increased stress and perform superbly, and moderate performers have modest stress and perform moderately. PMID:20879631

McKay, Kelly A Chiffer; Buen, John E; Bohan, Kevin J; Maye, John P

2010-08-01

143

Relationship between molecular states (conformation and orientation) and activities of ?-amylase adsorbed on ultrafine silica particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis ?-amylase, which contains a relatively large amount of ?-helix, was adsorbed on two types of ultrafine silica particles (silica-1\\u000a and-2, average diameter 15 nm) under various conditions. The changes in circular dichroism (CD) spectra of ?-amylase upon\\u000a adsorption were measured, and the extent of conformational changes was estimated from the reduction in ?-helix content. In\\u000a additions the activities

A. Kondo; T. Urabe

1995-01-01

144

Relationships between molecular states (conformation and orientation) and activities of ?-amylase adsorbed on ultrafine silica particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis?-amylase, which contains a relatively large amount of ?-helix, was adsorbed on two types of ultrafine silica particles (silica-1\\u000a and -2, average diameter 15?nm) under various conditions. The changes in circular dichroism (CD) spectra of ?-amylase upon\\u000a adsorption were measured, and the extent of conformational changes was estimated from the reduction in ?-helix content. In\\u000a addition, the activities of

A. Kondo; T. Urabe

1995-01-01

145

Mechanisms Leading to Excess Alpha Amylase Activity in Wheat ( Triticum aestivum, L) Grain in the U.K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and mechanisms of four modes of alpha -amylase enzyme accumulation in U.K. wheat, retained pericarp alpha -amylase activity (RPAA), pre-maturity alpha -amylase activity (PMAA), pre-maturity sprouting (PrMS) and post-maturity sprouting (PoMS), were investigated in field and laboratory experiments. Of 56 cultivar site year combinations (four model cultivars grown at up to four sites from 1994–1997), enzyme activity was

B Lunn; B. J. Major; P. S. Kettlewell; R. K. Scott

2001-01-01

146

Hypoglycaemic and amylase inhibitory activities of leaves of Spondias mombin Linn.  

PubMed

Suppressing the production of glucose by inhibiting a-amylase / a-glucosidase activity is one of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycaemia and a strategy for evaluating antidiabetic activity. We investigated leaves of Spondias mombin because our previous ethnobotanical survey showed that it is used by traditional healers to manage diabetes in South West Nigeria. We report a bioactivity-guided study of S. mombin using glucose loading (1 g/kg) alloxan-induced diabetic rats and inhibition of a-amylase as basis for isolation of active constituents. Hyperglycaemia was induced in albino rats and blood glucose levels monitored for 180 mins using a glucometer. Powdered leaves were macerated with 80% Methanol. The active extract was fractionated on column chromatography packed with silica gel G6OA eluting with gradient mixtures of pet. ether and ethylacetate. The most active a-amylase inhibiting fraction was purified on thin layer chromatography (TLC) and pure compound identified by spectroscopy. Peak decrease in blood glucose of 41.4% (p < 0.05) was recorded after 60 mins. This activity-guided study produced an active TLC band (69.8% amylase inhibition, p < 0.05) from which a-sitosterol was characterized as the main inhibitor. This is first report of hypoglycaemic and amylase inhibitory activities of S. mombin. The role of phytosterols in control of diabetes mellitus is discussed. This study justifies the ethnopharmacological use of this species in recipes for management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:20499628

Fred-Jaiyesimi, A A; Wilkins, M R; Abo, K A

2009-12-01

147

Regulation of amylase activity in Drosophila melanogaster : Effects of dietary carbohydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of amylase activity in larvae and adults of Drosophia melanogaster is dependent on the dietary carbohydrate source; flies or larvae from a food medium containing starch show higher levels of activity than individuals from a food containing simple sugars. This is shown to be due to repression of activity by sugars rather than enhancement of activity by starch.

D. A. Hickey; Bernhard Benkel

1982-01-01

148

?-AMYLASE4, a Noncatalytic Protein Required for Starch Breakdown, Acts Upstream of Three Active ?-Amylases in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts[W][OA  

PubMed Central

This work investigated the roles of ?-amylases in the breakdown of leaf starch. Of the nine ?-amylase (BAM)–like proteins encoded in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, at least four (BAM1, -2, -3, and -4) are chloroplastic. When expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, BAM1, BAM2, and BAM3 had measurable ?-amylase activity but BAM4 did not. BAM4 has multiple amino acid substitutions relative to characterized ?-amylases, including one of the two catalytic residues. Modeling predicts major differences between the glucan binding site of BAM4 and those of active ?-amylases. Thus, BAM4 probably lost its catalytic capacity during evolution. Total ?-amylase activity was reduced in leaves of bam1 and bam3 mutants but not in bam2 and bam4 mutants. The bam3 mutant had elevated starch levels and lower nighttime maltose levels than the wild type, whereas bam1 did not. However, the bam1 bam3 double mutant had a more severe phenotype than bam3, suggesting functional overlap between the two proteins. Surprisingly, bam4 mutants had elevated starch levels. Introduction of the bam4 mutation into the bam3 and bam1 bam3 backgrounds further elevated the starch levels in both cases. These data suggest that BAM4 facilitates or regulates starch breakdown and operates independently of BAM1 and BAM3. Together, our findings are consistent with the proposal that ?-amylase is a major enzyme of starch breakdown in leaves, but they reveal unexpected complexity in terms of the specialization of protein function.

Fulton, Daniel C.; Stettler, Michaela; Mettler, Tabea; Vaughan, Cara K.; Li, Jing; Francisco, Perigio; Gil, Manuel; Reinhold, Heike; Eicke, Simona; Messerli, Gaelle; Dorken, Gary; Halliday, Karen; Smith, Alison M.; Smith, Steven M.; Zeeman, Samuel C.

2008-01-01

149

Diel variation and the effect of starvation on amylase activity of Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Gurney), (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity in a calanoid copepod, Heliodiaptomus cinctus, exhibited a rhythmic pattern of diel variation with a peak in the early morning and a minimum level in the evening. In a normal food state and in a metal ion stress state, the enzyme activity decreases through time but in a food scarce state amylase activity exhibited a short-term increase followed

Tapan Kr. Dutta; Priti R. Pahari; Tanmay Bhattacharya

2009-01-01

150

Anti-diabetic activity peptides from albumin against ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify novel peptides from albumin, and to evaluate and validate the anti-diabetic activity of peptides against ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase. In the research, albumin hydrolysate was purified and identified, tandem MS was adapted to characterise the amino acid sequences of peptides from the hydrolysate. In addition, anti-diabetic effects of the peptides with ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activity have been performed. The present work found eight novel peptides from albumin. Results also suggested that peptide KLPGF had ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC(50) of 59.5±5.7?moll(-1) and ?-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC(50) of 120.0±4.0?moll(-1). In conclusion, the results revealed that the peptide KLPGF was a potential anti-diabetic inhibitor. PMID:22953959

Yu, Zhipeng; Yin, Yongguang; Zhao, Wenzhu; Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Feng

2012-07-01

151

Structural and mechanistic studies of chloride induced activation of human pancreatic ?-amylase  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of allosteric activation of ?-amylase by chloride has been studied through structural and kinetic experiments focusing on the chloride-dependent N298S variant of human pancreatic ?-amylase (HPA) and a chloride-independent TAKA-amylase. Kinetic analysis of the HPA variant clearly demonstrates the pronounced activating effect of chloride ion binding on reaction rates and its effect on the pH-dependence of catalysis. Structural alterations observed in the N298S variant upon chloride ion binding suggest that the chloride ion plays a variety of roles that serve to promote catalysis. One of these is having a strong influence on the positioning of the acid/base catalyst residue E233. Absence of chloride ion results in multiple conformations for this residue and unexpected enzymatic products. Chloride ion and N298 also appear to stabilize a helical region of polypeptide chain from which projects the flexible substrate binding loop unique to chloride-dependent ?-amylases. This structural feature also serves to properly orient the catalytically essential residue D300. Comparative analyses show that the chloride-independent ?-amylases compensate for the absence of bound chloride by substituting a hydrophobic core, altering the manner in which substrate interactions are made and shifting the placement of N298. These evolutionary differences presumably arise in response to alternative operating environments or the advantage gained in a particular product profile. Attempts to engineer chloride-dependence into the chloride-independent TAKA-amylase point out the complexity of this system, and the fact that a multitude of factors play a role in binding chloride ion in the chloride-dependent ?-amylases.

Maurus, Robert; Begum, Anjuman; Kuo, Hsin-Hen; Racaza, Andrew; Numao, Shin; Andersen, Carsten; Tams, Jeppe W.; Vind, Jesper; Overall, Christopher M.; Withers, Stephen G.; Brayer, Gary D.

2005-01-01

152

Structural and mechanistic studies of chloride induced activation of human pancreatic alpha-amylase.  

PubMed

The mechanism of allosteric activation of alpha-amylase by chloride has been studied through structural and kinetic experiments focusing on the chloride-dependent N298S variant of human pancreatic alpha-amylase (HPA) and a chloride-independent TAKA-amylase. Kinetic analysis of the HPA variant clearly demonstrates the pronounced activating effect of chloride ion binding on reaction rates and its effect on the pH-dependence of catalysis. Structural alterations observed in the N298S variant upon chloride ion binding suggest that the chloride ion plays a variety of roles that serve to promote catalysis. One of these is having a strong influence on the positioning of the acid/base catalyst residue E233. Absence of chloride ion results in multiple conformations for this residue and unexpected enzymatic products. Chloride ion and N298 also appear to stabilize a helical region of polypeptide chain from which projects the flexible substrate binding loop unique to chloride-dependent alpha-amylases. This structural feature also serves to properly orient the catalytically essential residue D300. Comparative analyses show that the chloride-independent alpha-amylases compensate for the absence of bound chloride by substituting a hydrophobic core, altering the manner in which substrate interactions are made and shifting the placement of N298. These evolutionary differences presumably arise in response to alternative operating environments or the advantage gained in a particular product profile. Attempts to engineer chloride-dependence into the chloride-independent TAKA-amylase point out the complexity of this system, and the fact that a multitude of factors play a role in binding chloride ion in the chloride-dependent alpha-amylases. PMID:15722449

Maurus, Robert; Begum, Anjuman; Kuo, Hsin-Hen; Racaza, Andrew; Numao, Shin; Andersen, Carsten; Tams, Jeppe W; Vind, Jesper; Overall, Christopher M; Withers, Stephen G; Brayer, Gary D

2005-03-01

153

Determination of ?-amylase inhibitor activity of phaseolamin from kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris) in dietary supplements by HPAEC-PAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some dietary supplements, so-called ‘starch-blockers’, used to control overweight, are based on the protein concentrate of the kidney bean, known to contain high levels of the ?-amylase inhibitor phaseolamin, which may hinder the digestion of complex carbohydrates, thereby promoting or supporting weight loss.Currently, methods to determine the levels of ?-amylase inhibitor are based on the measurement of ?-amylase activity using

Maurizio Mosca; Concetta Boniglia; Brunella Carratù; Stefania Giammarioli; Valentina Nera; Elisabetta Sanzini

2008-01-01

154

Inhibitory effect of Gymnema Montanum leaves on ?-glucosidase activity and ?-amylase activity and their relationship with polyphenolic content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was attempted to investigate the effect of G. montanum leaf extract on inhibition of ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activity. The ethanol extract of G. montanum (GLEt) at various concentrations (1–10 ?g\\/ml) was tested for its inhibition pattern against ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activity\\u000a in vitro and compared with the commercially available ?-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. The GLEt showed competitive inhibition\\u000a against

Kunga Mohan Ramkumar; Balsamy Thayumanavan; Thayumanavan Palvannan; Palanisamy Rajaguru

2010-01-01

155

General Subject 1. Report to ICUMSA on the determination of commercial alpha-amylase activity by a spectrophotometric method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A report is given on a new industrial method for the determination of the activity or strength of commercial alpha-amylase at a sugarcane factory or refinery, as well as a recommendation. At the present time, the activities or strengths of commercial alpha-amylases cannot be directly compared becau...

156

A new protein of alpha-amylase activity from Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed

An extracellular alpha-amylase from Lactococcus lactis IBB500 was purified and characterized. The optimum conditions for the enzyme activity were pH 4.5, temperature of 35 degrees C, enzyme molecular mass of 121 kDa. The genome analysis and a plasmid curing experiment indicated that amy+ genes were located in a plasmid of 30 kb. An analysis of phylogenetic relationships strongly supported a hypothesis of horizontal gene transfer. A strong homology was found for the peptides with the sequence of alpha-amylases from Ralstonia pikettii and Ralstonia solanacearum. The protein of alpha-amylase activity purified in this study is the first one described for the Lactococcus lactis species, and this paper is the first report on Lactococcus lactis strain as a microorganism belonging to amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB). PMID:20890096

Wasko, Adam; Polak-Berecka, Magdalena; Targonski, Zdzislaw

2010-09-01

157

Effects of exercise intensity on salivary antimicrobial proteins and markers of stress in active men  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we assessed the effects of exercise intensity on salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and salivary lysozyme (s-Lys) and examined how these responses were associated with salivary markers of adrenal activation. Using a randomized design, 10 healthy active men participated in three experimental cycling trials: 50% maximal oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O2max), 75%[Vdot]O2max, and an incremental test to exhaustion. The

Judith E. Allgrove; Elisa Gomes; John Hough; Michael Gleeson

2008-01-01

158

Temperature Adaptation of Proteins: Engineering Mesophilic-like Activity and Stability in a Cold-adapted ?-Amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two multiple mutants of a psychrophilic ?-amylase were produced, bearing five mutations (each introducing additional weak interactions found in pig pancreatic ?-amylase) with or without an extra disulfide bond specific to warm-blooded animals. Both multiple mutants display large modifications of stability and activity arising from synergic effects in comparison with single mutations. Newly introduced weak interactions and the disulfide bond

Salvino D'Amico; Charles Gerday; Georges Feller

2003-01-01

159

[Effect of yeast mannan on the activity and kinetic patterns of alpha amylase from rat blood serum].  

PubMed

The mannan from Rhodotorula rubra activated alpha-amylase of blood serum in vivo. After intravenous administration of the polysaccharide into rats kinetic patterns of the enzyme were altered. The effect of mannan on various molecular forms of alpha-amylase was also studied. PMID:1216753

Komov, V P; Yelinov, N P; Kirillova, N B

160

Beta-Amylase activity and thermostability in wild and cultivated barleys with different Bmy1 intron III alleles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The third intron of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) beta-amylase 1 (Bmy1) is extremely polymorphic. Specific insertion/deletions (indels) in the third intron have been correlated with beta-amylase activity and thermostability and may have potential as a selective marker for cultivar development. The B...

161

The need for and development of a method to measure carry-over amylase activity in raw and refined sugars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years, there has been increased world-wide concern over carry-over activity of mostly high temperature (HT) and very high temperature (VHT) stable amylases in refined sugars to various food and end-user industries. HT and VHT stable amylases were developed for much larger markets than the...

162

A Chitinase-Like Protein with ?-Amylase Inhibitory Activity from Kluai Hom Thong Banana Fruit: Musa (AAA group)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is a syndrome of disordered metabolism resulting in abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). The one possibility of lowering postprandial glucose levels is by the inhibition of ?-amylase activity. In this study, aqueous extracts from local Thai fruits were tested for their inhibitory effect on ?-amylase. The results showed that the fruits of Kluai Hom Thong; Musa (AAA group)

Aphichart Karnchanatat; Polkit Sangvanich

2012-01-01

163

Influence of variety and growth environment on ?-amylase activity of flour from sweet potato ( Ipomea batatas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to select a suitable Ghanaian variety of sweet potato as enzyme source for the production of glucose syrups, four varieties of sweet potatoes – Sauti, Santom pona, Faara and Okumkom – cultivated in two different agro-ecological zones of Ghana were evaluated for ?-amylase activity. Faara and Okumkom varieties harvested at 5 months maturity from the forest zone showed

N. T. Dziedzoave; A. J. Graffham; A. Westby; J. Otoo; G. Komlaga

2010-01-01

164

Changes in rheological properties and amylase activities of trifoliate yam, Dioscorea dumetorum, starch after harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in rheological properties and amylase activities occurring in trifoliate yam, Dioscorea dumetorum, starch after harvest were investigated. Trifoliate yam tubers were harvested and stored under tropical ambient (28 °C) and cold room conditions (4 °C) for 12, 24 and 36 h. The D. dumetorum starches were extracted from the tubers under study and samples were evaluated for changes in their rheological

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Samuel Sefa-Dedeh

2002-01-01

165

Salivary mental stress proteins.  

PubMed

Of the major diagnostic specimen types, saliva is one of the most easily collected. Many studies have focused on the evaluation of salivary proteins secreted by healthy people and patients with various diseases during responses to acute mental stress. In particular, such studies have focused on cortisol, ?-amylase, chromogranin A (CgA), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as salivary stress markers. Each of these salivary stress markers has its own strengths and weaknesses as well as data gaps related to many factors including collection technique. In this review, we summarize the critical knowledge of the positive and negative attributes and data gaps pertaining to each salivary stress marker. PMID:23939251

Obayashi, Konen

2013-08-09

166

A review on structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting ?-amylase.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols against ?-amylase have attracted great interest among researchers. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research reports on the structure-activity relationship of polyphenols inhibiting ?-amylase. The molecular structures that influence the inhibition are the following: (1) The hydroxylation of flavonoids improved the inhibitory effect on ?-amylase; (2) Presence of an unsaturated 2,3-bond in conjugation with a 4-carbonyl group has been associated with stronger inhibition; (3) The glycosylation of flavonoids decreased the inhibitory effect on ?-amylase depending on the conjugation site and the class of sugar moiety; (4) The methylation and methoxylation of flavonoids obviously weakened the inhibitory effect; (5) The galloylated catechins have higher inhibition than nongalloylated catechins; the catechol-type catechins were stronger than the pyrogallol-type catechins; the inhibition activities of the catechins with 2,3-trans structure were higher than those of the catechins with 2,3-cis structure; (6) Cyanidin-3-glucoside showed higher inhibition against than cyanidin and cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside had no inhibitory activity; (7) Ellagitannins with ?-galloyl groups at glucose C-1 positions have higher inhibitory effect than the ?-galloyl and nongalloyl compounds and the molecular weight of ellagitannins is not an important element. PMID:23391016

Xiao, Jianbo; Ni, Xiaoling; Kai, Guoyin; Chen, Xiaoqing

2013-01-01

167

Biochemical characterization of the alpha-amylase inhibitor in mungbeans and its application in inhibiting the growth of Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The insect Callosobruchus maculatus causes considerable damage to harvested mungbean seeds every year, which leads to commercial losses. However, recent studies have revealed that mungbean seeds contain alpha-amylase inhibitors that can inhibit the protein C. maculatus, preventing growth and development of the insect larvae in the seed, thus preventing further damage. For this reason, the use of alpha-amylase inhibitors to interfere with the pest's digestion process has become an interesting alternative biocontrolling agent. In this study, we have isolated and purified the alpha-amylase inhibitor from mungbean seeds (KPS1) using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. We found that the alpha-amylase inhibitor, isolated as a monomer, had a molecular weight of 27 kDa. The alpha-amylase inhibitor was purified 750-fold with a final yield of 0.4 mg of protein per 30 g of mungbean seeds. Its specific activity was determined at 14.5 U (mg of protein)(-1). Interestingly, we found that the isolated alpha-amylase inhibitor inhibits C. maculatus alpha-amylase but not human salivary alpha-amylase. After preincubation of the enzyme with the inhibitor, the mungbean alpha-amylase inhibitor inhibited C. maculatus alpha-amylase activity by decreasing V(max) while increasing the K(m) constant, indicating that the mungbean alpha-amylase is a mix noncompetitive inhibitor. The in vivo effect of alpha-amylase inhibitor on the mortality of C. maculatus shows that the alpha-amylase inhibitor acts on C. maculatus during the development stage, by reducing carbohydrate digestion necessary for growth and development, rather than during the end laying/hatching stage. Our results suggest that mungbean alpha-amylase inhibitor could be a useful future biocontrolling agent. PMID:20099823

Wisessing, Anussorn; Engkagul, Arunee; Wongpiyasatid, Arunee; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee

2010-02-24

168

Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20°C, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20°C. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures.

Cotarlet, Mihaela; Negoita, Teodor Gh.; Bahrim, Gabriela E.; Stougaard, Peter

2011-01-01

169

Effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid on growth and amylase activity in the radish taproot  

Microsoft Academic Search

5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) promotes the growth of plants by enhancing their photosynthetic activities, but there is little\\u000a information on how ALA influences the metabolism of sugars produced by photosynthesis. Here, we report the effects of ALA\\u000a on tissue growth, sugar content, and amylase activity in the radish taproot. 5-Aminolevulinic acid was applied with a foliar\\u000a spray (5.3–13,500 ?M), and application at

Masakazu Hara; Ikuo Takahashi; Michiyo Yamori; Toru Tanaka; Shigeyuki Funada; Keitaro Watanabe

2011-01-01

170

Identification and Characterization of Useful Fungi with ?-Amylase Activity from the Korean Traditional Nuruk  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to find useful fungi with ?-amylase activity from the Korean traditional nuruk for the quality of traditional Korean alcoholic beverage. In this study, 165 samples of traditional nuruk were collected from 170 regions throughout Korea and the fungi were isolated to a total of 384 strains. In order to investigate the effect of microflora on nuruk, ?-amylase activity, saccharogenic power (SP), starch hydrolysis activity and acid producing activity were evaluated. Ten strains were selected by ?-amylase activity, which ranged from 458.47 to 1,202.75 U/g. The size of the discolored zone for the starch hydrolysis activity of each fungus ranged from 0.3 to 2 cm. The SP of the 10 strains ranged from 228.8 to 433.4 SP. Of the 10 stains, three were identified as Aspergillus oryzae, two as Aspergillus flavus, two as Lichtheimia sp., one as Rhizopus oryzae and two as other strains. The total aflatoxins present in the nuruks were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The 10 nuruks had less than 1.11 ppb of aflatoxins.

Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Bai, Dong-Hoon

2011-01-01

171

Tracking amylolytic enzyme activities during congress mashing with North American barley cultivars: Comparisons of patterns of activity and ß-amylases with differing Bmy1 ...correlations of amylolytic enzyme activities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test three hypotheses: 1) that a-amylase will have less consistent patterns of activity during mashing than ß-amylase and limit dextrinase 2) that differing ß-amylase 1 intron III alleles (Bmy1.a and Bmy1.b) would not be useful in predicting high or low activities or th...

172

Comparison of Salivary Peroxidase System Components in Caries-Free and Caries-Active Naval Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of flow rate, pH, hypothiocyanite, thiocyanate and salivary peroxidase activity were made for unstimulated (drooled) whole saliva samples from 29 caries-free and 29 caries-active naval recruits. No significant differences were found between t...

B. L. Lamberts K. M. Pruitt E. D. Pederson M. P. Golding

1984-01-01

173

Light effects on ?-amylase activity and carbohydrate content in relation to lipid mobilization during the seedling growth of sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in ?-amylase activity and in starch and free sugar content were investigated in correlation with lipid mobilization\\u000a inHelianthus annuus during the first 15 days of seedling growth in discontinuous light and in darkness. Throughout the seedling development ?-amylase\\u000a activity increased more significantly in light than in darkness. It was always lower in cotyledons than in other tissues of

Nicole Darbelley; Njara Razafindramboa; Jean-Pierre Chambost; Andr'e Pavia

1997-01-01

174

Salivary biomarker analysis complementing regular clinical examination.  

PubMed

Aim: Tools for the diagnosis and evaluation of the severity and prognosis of periodontitis are currently insufficient. The aim of the current study was to find an array of salivary biomarkers that would be both sensitive and specific enough to be used as a complement to regular clinical examination. Furthermore, we investigated salivary markers of successful periodontal treatment to elucidate the underlying mechanism of disease. Patients & methods: Saliva was collected from periodontitis patients during illness and following successful disease termination. Parameters measured included sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, total protein, Alb, LDH, amylase, IL-1?, uric acid and carbonyls. Results: Seven of the parameters analyzed were significantly altered when the disease is active and may be considered biomarkers. Conclusion: Salivary composition reflects disease severity and response to therapy, suggesting the efficacy of saliva monitoring for periodontal disease status and care. PMID:24044562

Front, Eran; Laster, Zvi; Unis, Rim; Gavish, Moshe; Nagler, Rafael M

2013-10-01

175

Employing in vitro directed molecular evolution for the selection of ?-amylase variant inhibitors with activity toward cotton boll weevil enzyme.  

PubMed

Numerous species of insect pests attack cotton plants, out of which the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main insect in Brazil and must be controlled to avert large economic losses. Like other insect pests, A. grandis secretes a high level of ?-amylases in the midgut lumen, which are required for digestion of carbohydrates. Thus, ?-amylase inhibitors (?-AIs) represent a powerful tool to apply in the control of insect pests. Here, we applied DNA shuffling and phage display techniques and obtained a combinatorial library containing 10(8)?-AI variant forms. From this library, variants were selected exhibiting in vitro affinity for cotton boll weevil ?-amylases. Twenty-six variant sequences were cloned into plant expression vectors and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transformed plant extracts were assayed in vitro to select specific and potent ?-amylase inhibitors against boll weevil amylases. While the wild type inhibitors, used to create the shuffled library, did not inhibit the A. grandis ?-amylases, three ?-AI mutants, named ?-AIC3, ?-AIA11 and ?-AIG4 revealed high inhibitory activities against A. grandis ?-amylases in an in vitro assay. In summary, data reported here shown the potential biotechnology of new ?-AI variant genes for cotton boll weevil control. PMID:23892157

Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar da; Del Sarto, Rafael Perseghini; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Rigden, Daniel John; Teixeira, Fabíola Rodrigues; Bezerra, Caroline de Andrade; Albuquerque, Erika Valéria Saliba; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

2013-07-24

176

Using a Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging system to predict alpha amylase activity in individual Canadian western wheat kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprout damage (pre-harvest germination) in wheat results in highly deleterious effects on end-product quality. Alpha-amylase,\\u000a the pre-dominant enzyme in the early stage of sprouting has the most damaging effect. This paper introduces a new method using\\u000a a SWIR hyperspectral imaging system (1000–2500 nm) to predict the ?-amylase activity of individual wheat kernels. Two classes\\u000a of Canadian wheat, Canada Western Red Spring

Juan Xing; Pham Van Hung; Stephen Symons; Muhammad Shahin; David Hatcher

2009-01-01

177

Salivary Gland Secretion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)|

Dorman, H. L.; And Others

1981-01-01

178

Salivary Gland Secretion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

Dorman, H. L.; And Others

1981-01-01

179

Thiol-oxidation reduces the release of amylase induced by ?-adrenergic receptor activation in rat parotid acinar cells.  

PubMed

In parotid acinar cells, the activation of ?-adrenergic receptors induces the accumulation of intracellular cAMP, and consequently provokes the exocytotic release of amylase, a digestive enzyme. The cellular redox status plays a pivotal role in regulating various cellular functions. Cellular redox imbalance caused by the oxidation of cellular antioxidants, as a result of oxidative stress, induces significant biological damage. In this study, we examined the effects of diamide, a thiol-oxidizing reagent, on amylase release by rat parotid acinar cells. In cells treated with diamide, the formation of cAMP and the release of amylase induced by the ?-agonist isoproterenol (IPR) were partially reduced. The inhibitory effect of diamide on the IPR-induced release of amylase could be abrogated by reduced glutathione or dithiothreitol. Diamide had no effect on the amylase release induced by forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, or by mastoparan, a heterotrimeric GTPbinding protein activator. In cells treated with diamide, the binding affinity for [(3)H]DHA, but not the number of binding sites, was reduced. These results suggest that ?-adrenergic receptor function is reduced by thiol-oxidation, which inhibits amylase secretion by parotid acinar cells. PMID:21079359

Guo, Ming-Yu; Satoh, Keitaro; Qi, Bing; Narita, Takanori; Katsumata-Kato, Osamu; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Sugiya, Hiroshi

2010-10-01

180

Induction of amylase in mustard seedlings by phytochrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cotyledons of mustard seedlings (Sinapis alba L.) amylase activity can be induced by phytochrome. In the dark amylase activity remains low. Gibberellic acid (GA3) does not stimulate an increase of amylase activity in this system. Inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis strongly inhibit the increase of amylase activity mediated by phytochrome. In gel electrophoresis amylase from mustard seedlings

H. Drumm; I. Elchinger; J. Möller; K. Peter; H. Mohr

1971-01-01

181

Purification and characterization of a halophilic ?-amylase with increased activity in the presence of organic solvents from the moderately halophilic Nesterenkonia sp. strain F.  

PubMed

An extracellular halophilic ?-amylase was purified from Nesterenkonia sp. strain F using 80 % ethanol precipitation and Q-Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The enzyme showed a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 110 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The amylase exhibited maximal activity at pH 7-7.5, being relatively stable at pH 6.5-7.5. Optimal temperature for the amylase activity and stability was 45 °C. The purified enzyme was highly active in the broad range of NaCl concentrations (0-4 M) with optimal activity at 0.25 M NaCl. The amylase was highly stable in the presence of 3-4 M NaCl. Amylase activity was not influenced by Ca²?, Rb?, Li?, Cs?, Mg²? and Hg²?, whereas Fe³?, Cu²?, Zn²? and Al³?) strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. The ?-amylase was inhibited by EDTA, but was not inhibited by PMSF and ?-mercaptoethanol. K(m) value of the amylase for soluble starch was 6.6 mg/ml. Amylolytic activity of the enzyme was enhanced not only by 20 % of water-immiscible organic solvents but also by acetone, ethanol and chloroform. Higher concentration (50 %) of the water-miscible organic solvents had no significant effect on the amylase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on increased activity of a microbial ?-amylase in the presence of organic solvents. PMID:22592324

Shafiei, Mohammad; Ziaee, Abed-Ali; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali

2012-05-17

182

Proteolytic activity in salivary gland products of sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis) larvae.  

PubMed

This study identified and characterized hydrolytic enzymes in salivary gland products of Oestrus ovis larvae. Third instars were collected from the heads of slaughtered goats. Salivary glands were extracted, their products obtained by centrifugation and the enzymatic profile determined. Optimum pH, temperature of maximum proteolytic activity, thermal stability, and resistance of salivary gland products were determined on collagen and subclasses of proteases were identified using protease inhibitors. Zymograms were used to determine the molecular weight of proteases. Antigenic protein bands were revealed by immunoblotting using sera obtained from experimentally infested goats. Seven positive enzymatic activities were detected in salivary gland products: acid phosphatase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C8), leucine arylamidase, alpha-glucosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. Optimum pH for proteolytic activity was 8.0; proteolytic activity increased with temperature (10-50 degrees C) then drastically decreased at 60 degrees C. Proteases in O. ovis salivary gland products belong to the serine subclass. In Zymograms, bands of proteolytic activity were detected in the 20-63 kDa range; the immunoblot showed three antigenic bands, one of them related to a protease band (63 kDa). Serine proteases in O. ovis salivary gland products are most likely involved in larval nutrition and host immuno-modulation. PMID:17697751

Angulo-Valadez, C E; Cepeda-Palacios, R; Ascencio, F; Jacquiet, P; Dorchies, P; Romero, M J; Khelifa, R M

2007-08-13

183

Evaluation of Ten Wild Nigerian Mushrooms for Amylase and Cellulase Activities  

PubMed Central

Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25?, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ? 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ? 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively.

Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

2011-01-01

184

Role of Streptococcus gordonii Amylase-Binding Protein A in Adhesion to Hydroxyapatite, Starch Metabolism, and Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between bacteria and salivary components are thought to be important in the establishment and ecology of the oral microflora. -Amylase, the predominant salivary enzyme in humans, binds to Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer of the tooth. Previous studies have implicated this interaction in adhesion of the bacteria to salivary pellicles, catabolism of dietary starches, and biofilm formation. Amylase binding

JEFFREY D. ROGERS; ROBERT J. PALMER; PAUL E. KOLENBRANDER; FRANK A. SCANNAPIECO

2001-01-01

185

Toward evaluation of a ship navigator's stress based on salivary amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of ship handling training has usually depended on professionals who have a lot of experience on board. We are attempting to evaluate a ship navigator's mental workload (stress) based on a physiological index. The physiological indices, heart rate variability and nasal temperature, are good indices of the stress found in ship handling; however, it is best if we get

Yui Matsuo; K. Murai; K. Fukushi; Y. Hayashi; L. C. Stone; Shin-ichi Wakida; Takashi Miyado

2009-01-01

186

Evaluation of on-board ship handling training using salivary amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, an evaluation of on-board ship handling training depends on professionals who have a lot of experience on board. This style is common for human skill practices worldwide. However, it is difficult for a cadet to understand his progress, because real ship training includes every distraction; the same case never happens in his student life. On the other hand,

Kousaku Hama; Yui Matsuo; Koji Murai; Laurie C. Stone; Shin-ichi Wakida; Takashi Miyado; K. Fukushi; Y. Hayashi

2009-01-01

187

Potentized Mercuric chloride and Mercuric iodide enhance alpha-amylase activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Mercuric chloride 30c and Mercuric iodide 30c were prepared by successive dilution in 30 steps of 1:100 followed by sonication at 20KHz for 30s at each step. Both were prepared in two media: 90% ethanol and distilled water. Three preparations of Mercuric chloride 30 in water were used: 12-month old, 1-month old and 4-day old. The controls for the water and ethanol-water preparations were pure water 30c and 90% ethanol 30c, respectively. For the three water preparations there were three matched controls of water 30c of the same ages. Each potentized substance or its control was mixed with distilled water 1:100 before testing. Hydrolysis of starch by alpha-amylase was measured by the standard procedure after incubation for 15 min at 27 degrees C. Mercuric chloride 30c and Mercuric iodide 30c in both water and aqueous ethanol media, enhanced enzyme activity significantly, compared to their respective controls. Mercuric chloride 30c, prepared in water 12 months previously, produced no significant change in the enzyme activity compared to its control. We hypothesize that the structure of the active molecule imprinted on water polymers during the process of dynamization. The specifically structured water interacts with the active sites of alpha-amylase, modifying its activity. Ethanol molecules have large non-polar part stabilizing the water structure and thus retaining activity for a longer time. PMID:12422924

Sukul, N C; De, A; Sukul, A; Sinhababu, S P

2002-10-01

188

Oral digestion of a complex-carbohydrate cereal: effects of stress and relaxation on physiological and salivary measures12  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study was undertaken with 12 dental hygiene students to ascertain whether the time ofchewing or the degree ofrelaxation is more important in the oral digestion of complex carbohydrates. In addition, we studied whether the effects of stress and relaxation on salivary a-amylase activity was corroborated by physiologic measures. The den- tal hygiene students chewed an oat cereal for

Donald R Morse; George R Schacterle; Lawrence Furst; Mark Zaydenberg; Robert L Pollack

189

Concurrent attenuated reactivity of alpha-amylase and cortisol is related to disruptive behavior in male adolescents.  

PubMed

Attenuated reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase has been proposed as a specific sympathetic marker of disruptive behavior in juveniles and may have additional value to studying other autonomic parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Investigating the interrelationships between neurobiological parameters in relation to juvenile disruptive behavior may enhance insight into the complex mechanisms at play. We investigated salivary alpha-amylase, cortisol, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in response to a standardized public speaking task, and examined interactions between these parameters in relation to disruptive behavior. Participants were 48 delinquent male adolescents (mean age 18.4 years, SD 0.9), with and without a disruptive behavior disorder (resp. DP+, DP-) and 16 matched normal controls (NC). A structured psychiatric interview as well as the Youth Self Report and Child Behavior Checklist were administered to assess disruptive behavior. Alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity, but not HR or HRV, showed significant inverse associations with dimensional measures of disruptive behavior. Moreover, both cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity were significantly lower in the DP+ group as compared to the NC group. The mentioned relationships remained present when nicotine use was entered as a covariate. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol in one model explained a larger part of the variance of disruptive behavior than either single parameter. There were no interactions between alpha-amylase and cortisol or HRV in relation to disruptive behavior. Attenuated alpha-amylase responsivity to stress is a correlate of disruptive behavior in late-adolescent males. Although nicotine use explains a considerable part of the variance of disruptive behavior, both alpha-amylase and cortisol are related to disruptive behavior, over and above the effect of nicotine use. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol improved insight into neurobiological mechanisms involved with disruptive behavior; concurrent low reactivity of both parameters was related to higher levels of disruptive behavior. PMID:22587939

de Vries-Bouw, Marjan; Jansen, Lucres; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo; van de Ven, Peter; Popma, Arne

2012-05-12

190

[Effect of pectin substances on activity of human pancreatic alpha-amylase in vitro].  

PubMed

Pectin substances were extracted from food plants: sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L., carrot sowing Daucus sativus L., bulb onion Allium cepa L., white cabbage Brassica oleracea L. by two methods with acid solutions similar to gastric environment. The pectins that were extracted were characterized by Monosaccharide composition and quantitative contents of uronic acids, neutral monosaccharides, methoxy groups, protein. The inhibitory effect of all extracted pectin-protein complexes on activity of pharmaceutical drugs of human pancreatic alpha-amylase was detected. It was found that the inhibitory effect of isolated pectin substances was dependent upon the species of plant source, the manner of pectin substance extraction, the chemical composition and acting concentrations. The ability of pectin substances to suppress enzyme activity was found in a range of pectin concentrations from 0.5 up to 1.5 %. It was revealed that extracted pectin substances from bulb onion and white cabbage by acid solution with pepsin had a 2.4-3.4 times greater inhibiting effect on the human pancreatic alpha-amylase activity in comparison with pectin substances extracted by solution without pepsin from the same plant sources in high concentrations. PMID:23013011

Chelpanova, T I; Vitiazev, F V; Mikhaleva, N Ia; Efimtseva, É A

2012-06-01

191

Partially purified white bean amylase inhibitor reduces starch digestion in vitro and inactivates intraduodenal amylase in humans.  

PubMed

Whether commercial, bean-derived alpha-amylase inhibitor preparations failed to decrease starch digestion in humans because of insufficient antiamylase activity, destruction by gastrointestinal secretions, or decreased activity in the presence of starch is unknown. We used a simple partial purification procedure to markedly concentrate the inhibitor (sixfold to eightfold by total protein content, and 30-40-fold by dry weight). Compared with a commercial preparation and crude bean extract, this partially purified inhibitor inactivated intraduodenal, intraileal, and salivary amylase in vitro faster and more completely (p less than 0.001); its specific activity was not affected by exposure to gastric juice and was only minimally reduced by duodenal juice. Whereas the rate of amylase inhibition by inhibitor was markedly slowed in the presence of nondietary liquid starch, dietary solid starch had only a minimal effect. Consequently, the partially purified inhibitor had no effect on liquid starch digestion, but decreased in vitro digestion of dietary starch in a dose-dependent manner (p less than 0.001). Perfusion of the partially purified inhibitor (2.0, 3.5, or 5.0 mg/ml at 5 ml/min) into the duodenum of humans rapidly inhibited greater than 94%, greater than 99%, or greater than 99.9% of intraluminal amylase activity. We conclude that commercial amylase inhibitors failed to decrease starch digestion in vivo mainly because they have insufficient antiamylase activity. However, a partially purified inhibitor with increased specific activity is stable in human gastrointestinal secretions, slows dietary starch digestion in vitro, rapidly inactivates amylase in the human intestinal lumen, and, at acceptable oral doses, may decrease intraluminal digestion of starch in humans. Such an inhibitor therefore deserves study. PMID:2581844

Layer, P; Carlson, G L; DiMagno, E P

1985-06-01

192

Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

2012-05-01

193

Survey of the influence of Chinese medicinal prescriptions on amylase activity in mouse plasma and gastrointestinal tube.  

PubMed

Chinese medicinal prescriptions were screened for their effects on alpha-amylase activity in mouse plasma. Daio-kanzo-to, Hange-koboku-to, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Saiko-keishi-kankyo-to and Mao-to changed the activity in isolated mouse plasma greatly and concentration dependently. However, no prescription influenced the elevation of postprandial blood glucose. PMID:12186420

Kobayashi, Kyoko; Funayama, Nami; Suzuki, Reiko; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko

2002-08-01

194

Enhanced antifungal and insect ?-amylase inhibitory activities of Alpha-TvD1, a peptide variant of Tephrosia villosa defensin (TvD1) generated through in vitro mutagenesis.  

PubMed

TvD1 is a small, cationic, and highly stable defensin from the weedy legume, Tephrosia villosa with demonstrated in vitro antifungal activity. We show here peptide modifications in TvD1 that lead to enhanced antifungal activities. Three peptide variants, S32R, D37R, and Alpha-TvD1 (-G-M-T-R-T-) with variations in and around the ?2-?3 loop region that imposes the two ?-strands, ?2 and ?3 were generated through in vitro mutagenesis. Alpha-TvD1 exhibited enhanced antifungal activity against the fungal pathogens, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium oxysporum with respective IC(50) values of 2.5 ?M and 3.0 ?M, when compared to S32R (<5.0 ?M and >5.0 ?M), D37R (5.5 ?M and 4.5 ?M), and the wild type TvD1 (6.5 ?M). Because of the enhanced antifungal activity, this variant peptide was characterized further. Growth of F. culmorum in the presence of Alpha-TvD1 showed deformities in hyphal walls and nuclear damage. With respect to the plant pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000, both Alpha-TvD1 and the wild type TvD1 showed comparable antibacterial activity. Both wild type TvD1 and Alpha-TvD1 displayed inhibitory activity against the ?-amylase of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TMA) with the latter showing enhanced activity. The human salivary as well as barley ?-amylase activities were not inhibited even at concentrations of up to 50 ?M, which has been predicted to be due to differences in the pocket size and the size of the interacting loops. Present study shows that the variant Alpha-TvD1 exhibits enhanced antifungal as well as insect ?-amylase inhibitory activity. PMID:22244814

Vijayan, S; Imani, J; Tanneeru, K; Guruprasad, L; Kogel, K H; Kirti, P B

2012-01-08

195

Antibiofilm activity of ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis S8-18 against biofilm forming human bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

The extracellular ?-amylase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis S8-18 of marine origin was proved as an antibiofilm agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a clinical strain isolated from pharyngitis patient, Vibrio cholerae also a clinical isolate from cholera patient and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145. The spectrophotometric and microscopic investigations revealed the potential of ?-amylase to inhibit biofilm formation in these pathogens. At its BIC level, the crude enzyme caused 51.81-73.07% of biofilm inhibition. Beyond the inhibition, the enzyme was also effective in degradation of preformed mature biofilm by disrupting the exopolysaccharide (EPS), an essential component in biofilm architecture. Furthermore, the enzyme purified to its homogeneity by chromatographic techniques was also effective in biofilm inhibition (43.83-61.68%) as well as in degradation of EPS. A commercial ?-amylase enzyme from B. subtilis was also used for comparative purpose. Besides, the effect of various enzymes and temperature on the antibiofilm activity of amylase enzymes was also investigated. This study, for the first time, proved that ?-amylase enzyme alone can be used to inhibit/disrupt the biofilms of V. cholerae and MRSA strains and beholds much promise in clinical applications. PMID:22350933

Kalpana, Balu Jancy; Aarthy, Subramonian; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2012-02-21

196

Glucan, water dikinase activity stimulates breakdown of starch granules by plastidial beta-amylases.  

PubMed

Glucan phosphorylating enzymes are required for normal mobilization of starch in leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), but mechanisms underlying this dependency are unknown. Using two different activity assays, we aimed to identify starch degrading enzymes from Arabidopsis, whose activity is affected by glucan phosphorylation. Breakdown of granular starch by a protein fraction purified from leaf extracts increased approximately 2-fold if the granules were simultaneously phosphorylated by recombinant potato glucan, water dikinase (GWD). Using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry several putative starch-related enzymes were identified in this fraction, among them beta-AMYLASE1 (BAM1; At3g23920) and ISOAMYLASE3 (ISA3; At4g09020). Experiments using purified recombinant enzymes showed that BAM1 activity with granules similarly increased under conditions of simultaneous starch phosphorylation. Purified recombinant potato ISA3 (StISA3) did not attack the granular starch significantly with or without glucan phosphorylation. However, starch breakdown by a mixture of BAM1 and StISA3 was 2 times higher than that by BAM1 alone and was further enhanced in the presence of GWD and ATP. Similar to BAM1, maltose release from granular starch by purified recombinant BAM3 (At4g17090), another plastid-localized beta-amylase isoform, increased 2- to 3-fold if the granules were simultaneously phosphorylated by GWD. BAM activity in turn strongly stimulated the GWD-catalyzed phosphorylation. The interdependence between the activities of GWD and BAMs offers an explanation for the severe starch excess phenotype of GWD-deficient mutants. PMID:17631522

Edner, Christoph; Li, Jing; Albrecht, Tanja; Mahlow, Sebastian; Hejazi, Mahdi; Hussain, Hasnain; Kaplan, Fatma; Guy, Charles; Smith, Steven M; Steup, Martin; Ritte, Gerhard

2007-07-13

197

Identification of endo- and exo-polygalacturonase activity in Lygus hesperus (Knight) salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase (PG) activity found in the salivary gland apparatus of the western tarnished plant bug (WTPB, Lygus hesperus Knight) has been thought to be the main chemical cause of the damage inflicted by this mirid when feeding on its plant hosts. Early viscosity and thermal stability studies of the PG activity in L. hesperus protein extracts were difficult to interpret.

L. Carl Greve; Larry R. Teuber; John M. Labavitch

2009-01-01

198

Effects of Metals on ?-Amylase Activity in the Digestive Gland of the Green Mussel, Perna viridis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of digestive enzymes in the green mussel, Perna viridis L., have been reported, and α-amylase is believed to have a higher activity than the others. Small plankton, on which the green mussel feeds, may supply plenty of starch and glycogen. They may be an important source of nutrients for the green mussel and the ability of the latter

T. Yan; L. H. Teo; Y. M. Sin

1996-01-01

199

Effects of different food commodities on larval development and ?-amylase activity of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was undertaken to study the influence of four commodities (wheat flour, dates, sorghum and barley) on Plodia interpunctella post-embryonic development. Larval weight, larval mortality, pupation and adult emergence were recorded. The study also aimed to find out the effect of these commodities on protein and glycogen production as well as on ?-amylase activity. Results indicated that the

Noureddin Bouayad; Kacem Rharrabe; Naima Ghailani; Fouad Sayah

2008-01-01

200

Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice ( Oryza sativa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd) tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination

Jun-yu HE; Yan-fang REN; Cheng ZHU; De-an JIANG

2008-01-01

201

Evaluation of activity of a commercial amylase under ultrasound-assisted irradiation.  

PubMed

The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound irradiation on the activity of a commercial amylase. A central composite design was carried out to assess the effects of temperature and pH on the enzyme activity in the presence and absence of ultrasound irradiation. The activation energy, the influence of treatment time as well as the substrate concentration on enzyme activity were also determined in the presence and absence of ultrasound irradiation. The results demonstrated that the effect of temperature was less pronounced in the presence of ultrasound, resulting in a decreasing of about 80% in the activation energy in comparison with the value obtained in the absence. The enzyme showed activities about 3 times higher for temperatures up to 40 °C in the presence of ultrasound. The pH negatively affected the activity in the presence of ultrasound, whereas in the absence a positive effect was verified. The ultrasound irradiation is a promising technology to be used in enzymatic reaction due to its positive effects on enzyme activity. PMID:22721909

Souza, Matheus; Mezadri, Ethiane T; Zimmerman, Eduardo; Leaes, Eloisa X; Bassaco, Mariana M; Dal Prá, Valéria; Foletto, Edson; Cancellier, Adriano; Terra, Lisiane M; Jahn, Sérgio L; Mazutti, Marcio A

2012-06-01

202

The activity of platelet activating factor-acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) in the salivary glands of Rhodnius prolixus.  

PubMed

In this work, we investigated the activity of the platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) in the salivary gland homogenates and saliva of Rhodnius prolixus. PAF-AH activity in the salivary gland homogenates was lower than in the saliva. Preliminary characterization of the enzyme demonstrated that it hydrolyzed the substrate 2-thio-PAF, was detectable just in 1 pair of salivary gland homogenates in 0.5 ml buffer, and was stable under different conditions. PMSF, TPCK, TLCK, pepstatin A and p-BPB all inhibited the PAF-AH activity. Enzyme specific activity in salivary gland homogenates diminished immediately after feeding of 5th-instar larvae, and increased before feeding by adult insects. 2-Thio-PAF induced platelet-aggregation that was inhibited by previous incubation of the substrate with salivary gland homogenates or saliva. The relevance of PAF-AH for providing Rhodnius with a feeding mechanism for facilitating the sucking of a high volume of blood meal in a short period is discussed. PMID:21439293

Côrte-Real, Rozana; Gomes, Raquel N; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Azambuja, Patricia; Garcia, Eloi S

2011-03-23

203

Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone: presentation of a small molecule activator of mammalian alpha-amylase as an allosteric effector.  

PubMed

Flavonoids and their precursor trans-chalcone have been reported as inhibitors of mammalian alpha-amylase. With regard to this background, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) effect was investigated toward porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), and found to be an activator of the enzyme. The maximal activation (up to threefold) was found to occur at 4.8mM of NHDC, which could be considered to have a high activation profile, with regard to the alpha and beta parameters (alpha<1activator of the enzyme and based on the results obtained from modeling tools, it is suggested to interact with PPA at a hydrophilic site located at the N-terminal, far from the active site of the enzyme. PMID:23376024

Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

2013-02-01

204

Evidence for D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation by a Paracrine Signal of Dopamine in Tick Salivary Glands  

PubMed Central

Ticks that feed on vertebrate hosts use their salivary secretion, which contains various bioactive components, to manipulate the host's responses. The mechanisms controlling the tick salivary gland in this dynamic process are not well understood. We identified the tick D1 receptor activated by dopamine, a potent inducer of the salivary secretion of ticks. Temporal and spatial expression patterns examined by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction suggest that the dopamine produced in the basal cells of salivary gland acini is secreted into the lumen and activates the D1 receptors on the luminal surface of the cells lining the acini. Therefore, we propose a paracrine function of dopamine that is mediated by the D1 receptor in the salivary gland at an early phase of feeding. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the D1 receptor in this study provides the foundation for understanding the functions of dopamine in the blood-feeding of ticks.

Simo, Ladislav; Koci, Juraj; Zitnan, Dusan; Park, Yoonseong

2011-01-01

205

Interaction of dihydromyricetin and alpha-amylase.  

PubMed

The interaction of dihydromyricetin (DMY) and alpha-amylase was investigated. The complex formed between DMY and alpha-amylase resulted in decreased antioxidant activity of DMY and the catalytic activity of the enzyme, as well as efficient quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of alpha-amylase. An alpha-amylase molecule provides one binding site for a DMY molecule. These results will be useful for exploiting this compound to combat diseases efficiently. PMID:23678807

Chen, Lei; Wang, Chao; Wei, Qingyi; Ning, Zhengxiang; Yuan, Erdong

2013-03-01

206

INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF METHYL JASMONATE ON SEED GERMINATION IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS): EFFECT ON ?-AMYLASE ACTIVITY AND ETHYLENE PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) inhibited germination and root elongation of maize seeds. There was a reciprocal relationship between MeJA concentrations applied and seed germination and radicle growth. Determination of ?-amylase activity in crude extracts and zymogram analysis showed that both activity and content of the enzyme decreased in the presence of MeJA. In addition, a reduction in ethylene production which

A. Norastehnia; R. H. Sajedi; M. Nojavan-Asghari

207

AmyA, an ?-Amylase with ?-Cyclodextrin-Forming Activity, and AmyB from the Thermoalkaliphilic Organism Anaerobranca gottschalkii: Two ?-Amylases Adapted to Their Different Cellular Localizations†  

PubMed Central

Two ?-amylase genes from the thermophilic alkaliphile Anaerobranca gottschalkii were cloned, and the corresponding enzymes, AmyA and AmyB, were investigated after purification of the recombinant proteins. Based on their amino acid sequences, AmyA is proposed to be a lipoprotein with extracellular localization and thus is exposed to the alkaline milieu, while AmyB apparently represents a cytoplasmic enzyme. The amino acid sequences of both enzymes bear high similarity to those of GHF13 proteins. The different cellular localizations of AmyA and AmyB are reflected in their physicochemical properties. The alkaline pH optimum (pH 8), as well as the broad pH range, of AmyA activity (more than 50% activity between pH 6 and pH 9.5) mirrors the conditions that are encountered by an extracellular enzyme exposed to the medium of A. gottschalkii, which grows between pH 6 and pH 10.5. AmyB, on the other hand, has a narrow pH range with a slightly acidic pH optimum at 6 to 6.5, which is presumably close to the pH in the cytoplasm. Also, the intracellular AmyB is less tolerant of high temperatures than the extracellular AmyA. While AmyA has a half-life of 48 h at 70°C, AmyB has a half-life of only about 10 min at that temperature, perhaps due to the lack of stabilizing constituents of the cytoplasm. AmyA and AmyB were very similar with respect to their substrate specificity profiles, clearly preferring amylose over amylopectin, pullulan, and glycogen. Both enzymes also hydrolyzed ?-, ?-, and ?-cyclodextrin. Very interestingly, AmyA, but not AmyB, displayed high transglycosylation activity on maltooligosaccharides and also had significant ?-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) activity. CGTase activity has not been reported for typical ?-amylases before. The mechanism of cyclodextrin formation by AmyA is unknown.

Ballschmiter, Meike; Armbrecht, Martin; Ivanova, Krasimira; Antranikian, Garabed; Liebl, Wolfgang

2005-01-01

208

Glucoamylase, ?-amylase and ?-amylase immobilisation on acrylic carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper immobilisation effectivity of ?-amylase, ?-amylase and glucoamylase on copolymers of butyl acrylate and pentaerhitrite triacrylate or ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was evaluated. Special attention was focused on copolymers having three kinds of anchor groups: ?OH, ?COOH, and ?NH2. The anchor groups were generated on polymer matrices by aminolysis with ethylenediamine. Particular carrier with the same structure was activated

Jolanta Bryjak

2003-01-01

209

Production of Thermostable ? Amylase and Cellulase from Cellulomonas sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterium, isolated from rabbit's waste and identified as Cellulomonas sp., had cellulase and thermostable ? -amylase activity when grown on wheat bran. Maximum activity of thermostable ? -amylase was obtained by adding 3% soluble starch. However, soybean oil (1 ml l - 1 ) could increase the production of ? -amylase and cellulase in wheat bran. The ? -amylase

G. EMTIAZI; I. NAHVI

2004-01-01

210

Activation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) [alpha]-amylase inhibitor requires proteolytic processing of the proprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain a plant defense protein that inhibits the [alpha]-amylases of mammals and insects. This [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]Al) is synthesized as a proprotein on the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed after arrival in the protein storage vacuoles to polypeptides of relative molecular weight (M[sub r]) 15,000 to 18,000. The authors report two types

J. J. Pueyo; D. C. Hunt; M. J. Chrispeels

1993-01-01

211

Salivary levels of HNP 1-3 are related to oral ulcer activity in Behçet's disease.  

PubMed

Background? Saliva contains antimicrobial peptides derived from oral epithelium as well as neutrophils in the innate immune response. The aim of this study was to examine the association between salivary human neutrophil peptide (HNP) 1-3 levels originating from neutrophils and oral ulcers in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Methods? Ninety-five patients with BD (F/M: 39/56; mean age: 38.7?±?11.9?years) and 53 healthy controls (HC; F/M: 23/30; mean age: 35.2?±?10.1?years) were included in the study. The disease control group (F/M: 20/33; mean age: 33.7?±?10.7?years) was comprised of patients with oral infection regarding endodontic infection (n?=?32) and pericoronitis (n?=?21). Salivary HNP 1-3 levels of groups were measured in unstimulated samples by ELISA (Hycult, the Netherlands). Results? A statistically significant increase was found in salivary HNP 1-3 levels of patients with BD (2268.28?±?1216.38??g/ml) compared with HC (1836.49?±?857.76??g/ml), patients with endodontic infection (849.9?±?376.1??g/ml), and patients with pericoronitis (824.3?±?284.02??g/ml; P?=?0.024, 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). The ratio of active oral ulcer (100%, n?=?14) was higher in low HNP 1-3 levels (?1000??g/ml) than the others (66.7%, n?=?54) in active patients with BD (P?=?0.008). Moreover, salivary HNP 1-3 levels were significantly lower in patients with endodontic infection and patients with pericoronitis compared with those in the HC group and patients with BD (P?=?0.000). Conclusion? A decrease in salivary HNP 1-3 levels might be a biological factor for predisposition to oral ulcers in patients with BD and oral infection in healthy patients. PMID:22861387

Mumcu, Gonca; Cimilli, Hale; Karacayli, Umit; Inanc, Nevsun; Türe-Özdemir, Filiz; Eksioglu-Demiralp, Emel; Ergun, Tülin; Direskeneli, Haner

2012-08-02

212

Activation of PKC is sufficient to induce an apoptotic program in salivary gland acinar cells.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that specific isoforms of PKC may function to promote apoptosis. We show here that activation of the conventional and novel isoforms of PKC with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13- ester (TPA) induces apoptosis in salivary acinar cells as indicated by DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase-3. TPA-induced DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and morphologic indicators of apoptosis, can be enhanced by pretreatment of cells with the calpain inhibitor, calpeptin, prior to the addition of TPA. Analysis of PKC isoform expression by immunoblot shows that TPA-induced downregulation of PKC alpha and PKC delta is delayed in cells pre-treated with calpeptin, and that this correlates with an increase of these isoforms in the membrane fraction of cells. TPA-induced apoptosis is accompanied by biphasic activation of the c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and inactivation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Expression of constitutively activated PKC alpha or PKC delta, but not kinase negative mutants of these isoforms, or constitutively activated PKC epsilon, induces apoptosis in salivary acinar cells, suggesting a role for these isoforms in TPA-induced apoptosis. These studies demonstrate that activation of PKC is sufficient for initiation of an apoptotic program in salivary acinar cells. Cell Death and Differentiation (2000) 7, 1200 - 1209. PMID:11175257

Reyland, M E; Barzen, K A; Anderson, S M; Quissell, D O; Matassa, A A

2000-12-01

213

Relationship among salivary androstenedione, body composition and physical activity in young girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

High androgenic activity in young girls may be associated with adiposity and the development of metabolic disturbances. This study examined the relationship between salivary androstenedione, body composition and physical activity (PA) levels in young girls. Twenty-three prepubescent girls (8.4±0.9 years), 9 normal and 14 overweight, according to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index (BMI) percentile ranking, wore

A J McKune; K D DuBose

2010-01-01

214

Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: MUC7 12-mer (RKSYKCLHKRCR), a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the human low-molecular-weight salivary mucin MUC7, possesses potent antimicrobial activity in vitro. In order to evaluate the potential therapeutic application of the MUC7 12-mer, we examined the effects of mono- and divalent cations, EDTA, pH, and temperature on its antimicrobial activity. METHODS: Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were determined using a

Guo-Xian Wei; Alexander N Campagna; Libuse A Bobek

2007-01-01

215

Activity, distribution and regulation of phosphofructokinase in salivary gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  

PubMed

Although the influence of diabetes on salivary glands is well studied, it still presents conflicting results. In this work, the regulation of the phosphofructokinase-1 enzyme (PFK-1) was studied utilizing the salivary glands of rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/Kg of body weight) in rats (180-200 g). The animals were killed 30 days after the induction of diabetes and the submandibular and parotid salivary glands were used. Hyperglycemia was evaluated by blood sugar determination. The distribution of PFK-1 between the soluble and cytoskeleton fractions, the phosphate content of PFK-1, the content of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and the activity of the PFK-2 enzyme were determined. The calculated relative glandular weight showed a higher value for the parotid gland in comparison with the control, but not for the submandibular gland. The activity of PFK-1 expressed per gland showed no variation between diabetic and control animals. However, considering the specific activity, the soluble enzyme presented a value 50% higher than that of the control and the cytoskeleton bound form increased by 84% compared to the control. For the parotid gland, no difference in the specific activity between diabetic and control animals was observed. On the other hand, the activity per gland of the soluble enzyme increased in the diabetic animals. The phosphate content of PFK-1 increased in the submandibular and parotid glands of diabetic rats. Both the content of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and the active form of PFK-2 were reduced in the diabetic glands. In conclusion, the increase in the activity of PFK-1 observed in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes does not seem to be due to its modulator fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. PMID:16878202

Nicolau, José; Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

216

The effects of Fusilade (Fluazifop- p -butyl) on germination, mitotic frequency and ?-amylase activity of lentil ( Lens culinaris Medik.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, seed germination percentages, effects on phases of mitosis and ?-amylase enzyme activity of lentil seeds treated\\u000a with four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of Fusilade (Fluazifop-p-butyl) were determined. Median EC (effective concentration) values were calculated according to seed germination percentages\\u000a after treatment for 72 h. Germination percentages of primary lentil roots decreased with increasing Fusilade concentrations.

Feruzan Dane; Filiz Ekinci Sanal; Tulin Aktac

2007-01-01

217

PROLINE LEVEL AND AMYLASE AND ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN THE GERMINATION OF Plantago ovata FORSK (PLANTAGINACEAE) SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species Plantago ovata has great importance for the pharmaceutical industry due to the high mucilage level in its seeds. Thus, the present study aimed to verify proline level and amylase and ascorbate peroxidase activity in the germination of seeds subjected to stress, which was induced by using PEG, NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. Fifty seeds were placed into filter paper

Lúcia F. Braga; Marcilio P. Sous; Leonardo C. Ferreira; Maria Elena Ap; Ana C. Cataneo; João F. Braga

218

Characterization and solvent engineering of wheat ?-amylase for enhancing its activity and stability.  

PubMed

The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of wheat ?-amylase (WBA) were characterized and various additives were evaluated for enhancing its activity and thermostability. WBA activity was examined by neocuproine method using soluble starch as substrate. The Michaelis constant (K(m)) and molecular activity (k(cat)) were determined to be 1.0±0.1% (w/v) and 94±3s(-1), respectively, at pH 5.4 and at 25°C. The optimum reaction temperature (T(opt)) for WBA activity was 55°C and the temperature (T(50)) at which it loses half of the activity after 30-min incubation was 50±1°C. Modifications of the solvent with 182mM glycine and 0.18% (w/v) gelatin have increased the T(50) by 5°C. Glycerol, ethylene glycol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide have also slightly enhanced the thermostability plausibly through weakening the water structure and decreasing the water shell around the WBA protein. Ethanol and DMF activated WBA by up to 24% at 25°C probably by inducing favorable conformation for the active site or changing the substrate structure by weakening the hydrogen bonding. Its half-life in the inactivation at 55°C was improved from 23 to 48min by 182mM glycine. The thermodynamic parameters indicate that WBA is thermo-labile and sufficient stabilization was achieved through solvent modification with additives and that the heat inactivation of WBA is entropic-driven. It is suggested that WBA could be applied more widely in starch-saccharification industries with employing suitable additives. PMID:22975120

Daba, Tadessa; Kojima, Kenji; Inouye, Kuniyo

2012-07-20

219

Characterization of a recombinant amylolytic enzyme of hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermofilum pendens with extremely thermostable maltogenic amylase activity.  

PubMed

A gene (Tpen_1458) encoding a putative alpha amylase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermofilum pendens (TfMA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant amylolytic enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and its catalytic properties were examined. Purified TfMA was extremely thermostable with a half-life of 60 min at an optimal temperature of 95 degrees C. TfMA activity increased to 136% in the presence of 5 mM CaCl(2). Maximal activity was measured toward gamma-cyclodextrin with a specific activity of 56 U/mg using copper bicinchoninate method. TfMA catalyzed the ring-opening reaction by cleaving one alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkage of cyclodextrin to produce corresponding single maltooligosaccharide at the initial time. The final products from cyclodextrins, linear maltooligosaccharides, and starch were glucose and maltose, and TfMA could also degrade pullulan and amylase inhibitor acarbose to panose and acarviosine-glucose, respectively. These results revealed that TfMA is a novel maltogenic amylase. PMID:19707756

Li, Xiaolei; Li, Dan; Yin, Yongguang; Park, Kwan-Hwa

2009-08-26

220

Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of wheat, barley, or rye triggers small intestinal inflammation in patients with celiac disease. Specifically, the storage proteins of these cereals (gluten) elicit an adaptive Th1-mediated immune response in individuals carrying HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 as major genetic predisposition. This well-defined role of adaptive immunity contrasts with an ill-defined component of innate immunity in celiac disease. We identify the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) CM3 and 0.19, pest resistance molecules in wheat, as strong activators of innate immune responses in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ATIs engage the TLR4–MD2–CD14 complex and lead to up-regulation of maturation markers and elicit release of proinflammatory cytokines in cells from celiac and nonceliac patients and in celiac patients’ biopsies. Mice deficient in TLR4 or TLR4 signaling are protected from intestinal and systemic immune responses upon oral challenge with ATIs. These findings define cereal ATIs as novel contributors to celiac disease. Moreover, ATIs may fuel inflammation and immune reactions in other intestinal and nonintestinal immune disorders.

Junker, Yvonne; Zeissig, Sebastian; Kim, Seong-Jun; Barisani, Donatella; Wieser, Herbert; Leffler, Daniel A.; Zevallos, Victor; Libermann, Towia A.; Dillon, Simon; Freitag, Tobias L.; Kelly, Ciaran P.

2012-01-01

221

A doubled haploid rye linkage map with a QTL affecting ?-amylase activity.  

PubMed

A rye doubled haploid (DH) mapping population (Amilo × Voima) segregating for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) was generated through anther culture of F(1) plants. A linkage map was constructed using DHs, to our knowledge, for the first time in rye. The map was composed of 289 loci: amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP), inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers, and extended altogether 732 cM (one locus in every 2.5 cM). All of the seven rye chromosomes and four unplaced groups were formed. Distorted segregation of markers (P???0.05) was detected on all chromosomes. One major quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting ?-amylase activity was found, which explained 16.1% of phenotypic variation. The QTL was localized on the long arm of chromosome 5R. Microsatellites SCM74, RMS1115, and SCM77, nearest to the QTL, can be used for marker-assisted selection as a part of a rye breeding program to decrease sprouting damage. PMID:21286900

Tenhola-Roininen, Teija; Kalendar, Ruslan; Schulman, Alan H; Tanhuanpää, Pirjo

2011-02-01

222

Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4.  

PubMed

Ingestion of wheat, barley, or rye triggers small intestinal inflammation in patients with celiac disease. Specifically, the storage proteins of these cereals (gluten) elicit an adaptive Th1-mediated immune response in individuals carrying HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 as major genetic predisposition. This well-defined role of adaptive immunity contrasts with an ill-defined component of innate immunity in celiac disease. We identify the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) CM3 and 0.19, pest resistance molecules in wheat, as strong activators of innate immune responses in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ATIs engage the TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex and lead to up-regulation of maturation markers and elicit release of proinflammatory cytokines in cells from celiac and nonceliac patients and in celiac patients' biopsies. Mice deficient in TLR4 or TLR4 signaling are protected from intestinal and systemic immune responses upon oral challenge with ATIs. These findings define cereal ATIs as novel contributors to celiac disease. Moreover, ATIs may fuel inflammation and immune reactions in other intestinal and nonintestinal immune disorders. PMID:23209313

Junker, Yvonne; Zeissig, Sebastian; Kim, Seong-Jun; Barisani, Donatella; Wieser, Herbert; Leffler, Daniel A; Zevallos, Victor; Libermann, Towia A; Dillon, Simon; Freitag, Tobias L; Kelly, Ciaran P; Schuppan, Detlef

2012-12-03

223

In vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity and ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Cichorium glandulosum seeds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-glucosidase and anti-amylase activities of total flavonoids (TFs) from Cichorium glandulosum seeds, and to analyse its chemical composition by HPLC-ESI/MS. In vitro study, radical scavenging IC50 values of TFs were 7.33±0.093, 9.24±0.100, 154.33±11.38 and 256.7±4.86 ?g/ml for DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide anion, respectively. In the 8-64 mg/ml range, ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase were inhibited by TFs to a certain extent. In vivo, the treatment groups with TFs (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in the malondialdehyde level, the superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels were restored to almost normal levels, and the catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels significantly increased compared to the CCl4-intoxicated group in rats. The present study suggests that C. glandulosum seeds should be given special attention because of their antioxidant and anti-glucosidase, anti-amylase activity. PMID:23561078

Yao, Xincheng; Zhu, Ling; Chen, Yuxin; Tian, Jun; Wang, Youwei

2013-01-16

224

New convenient approach for the synthesis of benzyl 2H-chromenones and their ?-amylase Inhibitory, ABTS.+ scavenging activities.  

PubMed

Series of new benzyl 2H-chromenones 6a-n was synthesized by Pechmann condensation of substituted benzyl resorcinols 2a-c and 3a with various ?-ketoesters such as ethyl 3-oxobutanoate, ethyl 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate, ethyl 4- chloro-3-oxobutanoate, ethyl 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-oxobutanoate and ethyl 2-chloro-3-oxobutanoate 5a-e in very good yields. Synthesized compounds 6a-n were screened for their ?-amylase inhibitory, and ABTS.+ scavenging activities. In the present series of compounds, compound 8-benzyl-7-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one 6c and 8-benzyl-7-hydroxy-4- methyl-2H-chromen-2-one 6a were most potent ABTS.+ radical scavenging and ?-amylase inhibitor. Although compound 6,8-dibenzyl-7-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one 6h displayed potent ABTS.+ free radical scavenging potential, it was found poor in inhibiting pancreatic ?-amylase. PMID:23190002

Kumar, Jaladi Ashok; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Saidachary, Gannerla; Kumar, Domati Anand; Ali, Zehra; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Raju, Bhimapaka China

2013-09-01

225

Context-dependent olfactory learning monitored by activities of salivary neurons in cockroaches.  

PubMed

Context-dependent discrimination learning, a sophisticated form of nonelemental associative learning, has been found in many animals, including insects. The major purpose of this research is to establish a method for monitoring this form of nonelemental learning in rigidly restrained insects for investigation of underlying neural mechanisms. We report context-dependent olfactory learning (occasion-setting problem solving) of salivation, which can be monitored as activity changes of salivary neurons in immobilized cockroaches, Periplaneta americana. A group of cockroaches was trained to associate peppermint odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution reward (unconditioned stimulus, US) while vanilla odor was presented alone without pairing with the US under a flickering light condition (1.0 Hz) and also trained to associate vanilla odor with sucrose reward while peppermint odor was presented alone under a steady light condition. After training, the responses of salivary neurons to the rewarded peppermint odor were significantly greater than those to the unrewarded vanilla odor under steady illumination and those to the rewarded vanilla odor was significantly greater than those to the unrewarded peppermint odor in the presence of flickering light. Similar context-dependent responses were observed in another group of cockroaches trained with the opposite stimulus arrangement. This study demonstrates context-dependent olfactory learning of salivation for the first time in any vertebrate and invertebrate species, which can be monitored by activity changes of salivary neurons in restrained cockroaches. PMID:21930226

Matsumoto, Chihiro Sato; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

2011-09-10

226

Glycogen content and activities of enzymes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism of the salivary glands of rats during postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate metabolism was examined in the developing rat salivary glands by analysing enzymatic activity and glycogen content in the postnatal parotid and submandibular glands. The following enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism, hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the content of glycogen were determined in the salivary glands of rats

José Nicolau; Emily Ganzerla; Douglas Nesadal de Souza

2003-01-01

227

The effectiveness of the Uchida-Kraepelin test for psychological stress: an analysis of plasma and salivary stress substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system are the major stress-response pathways. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) represents HPA axis activity, while plasma catecholamines are used as markers of the SAM system. Salivary alpha amylase (AA), chromogranin A (CgA), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are candidate markers of stress activation, although their role has not been established. The Uchida-Kraepelin

Koreaki Sugimoto; Aya Kanai; Noriaki Shoji

2009-01-01

228

Factitiously Low Amylase Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a commercial substrate was used in the determination of serum amylase activities of patients with acute pancreatitis, results much higher than those re- ported by the manufacturerwith similarpatients were found. A failure to quantitate all of the reducing groups liberated during incubation may account for the lower results. A modifiedsaccharogenicmethod hasbeen developed,which, by increasing the ratios of starch to

Sylvan M. Sax; George E. Trirnble

229

Salivary biomarkers in psychobiological medicine  

PubMed Central

The value of salivary biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessments has become increasingly well established in medicine, pharmacology, and dentistry. Certain salivary components mirror the neuro-endocrine status of the organism. Other saliva products are protein in nature, and can serve to reflect immune surveillance processes. The autonomic nervous system regulates the process of salivation, and the concentration of yet other salivary components, such as ?-amylase, which provide a reliable outcome measure of the sympathetic response. Here, we discuss molecular technologies that have permitted giant steps in the utilization of salivary samples and micro-fluidics for the benefit of diagnostic medicine and dentistry, and their putative role in springing forward research in psychobiology.

Chiappelli, Francesco; Iribarren, Francisco Javier; Prolo, Paolo

2006-01-01

230

Impaired Histatin-5 Levels and Salivary Antimicrobial Activity against C. albicans in HIV Infected Individuals  

PubMed Central

HIV-infected individuals constitute a population highly susceptible to opportunistic infections, particularly oral candidiasis caused by the most pathogenic human fungal species Candida albicans. Host-produced salivary antimicrobial peptides are considered to be an important part of the host innate immune system involved in protection of the oral cavity against colonization and infection by microbial species. Histatin-5 (Hst-5) specifically has exhibited potent anti-candidal properties in vitro. However, its importance in protecting the oral mucosa against candidal colonization and importantly, its contribution to the observed enhanced susceptibility of HIV-infected individuals to candidiasis has not been previously investigated. To that end, a novel immunoassay was used to demonstrate significant decrease in salivary Hst-5 levels in HIV+ individuals concomitant with enhanced candidal prevalence. Further, saliva’s anti-candidal potency was found to be proportional to Hst-5 concentration and significantly compromised in HIV+ subjects compared to controls. The key role for Hst-5 was further confirmed upon exposure to the Hst-5-specific antibody where saliva’s initial killing activity was substantially compromised. Combined, these findings identify Hst-5 as a key anti-candidal salivary component and demonstrate its decreased levels in HIV infection providing new insights into oral Innate immune defense mechanisms and the enhanced susceptibility of HIV+ individuals to oral candidiasis.

Khan, Shariq A; Fidel, Paul L; Thunayyan, Awdah Al; Varlotta, Sharon; Meiller, Timothy F; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

231

Impaired Histatin-5 Levels and Salivary Antimicrobial Activity against C. albicans in HIV Infected Individuals.  

PubMed

HIV-infected individuals constitute a population highly susceptible to opportunistic infections, particularly oral candidiasis caused by the most pathogenic human fungal species Candida albicans. Host-produced salivary antimicrobial peptides are considered to be an important part of the host innate immune system involved in protection of the oral cavity against colonization and infection by microbial species. Histatin-5 (Hst-5) specifically has exhibited potent anti-candidal properties in vitro. However, its importance in protecting the oral mucosa against candidal colonization and importantly, its contribution to the observed enhanced susceptibility of HIV-infected individuals to candidiasis has not been previously investigated. To that end, a novel immunoassay was used to demonstrate significant decrease in salivary Hst-5 levels in HIV+ individuals concomitant with enhanced candidal prevalence. Further, saliva's anti-candidal potency was found to be proportional to Hst-5 concentration and significantly compromised in HIV+ subjects compared to controls. The key role for Hst-5 was further confirmed upon exposure to the Hst-5-specific antibody where saliva's initial killing activity was substantially compromised. Combined, these findings identify Hst-5 as a key anti-candidal salivary component and demonstrate its decreased levels in HIV infection providing new insights into oral Innate immune defense mechanisms and the enhanced susceptibility of HIV+ individuals to oral candidiasis. PMID:23730535

Khan, Shariq A; Fidel, Paul L; Thunayyan, Awdah Al; Varlotta, Sharon; Meiller, Timothy F; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

2013-03-01

232

Differential RNA Expression of Two Barley ß-Amylase Genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in Developing Grains and Their Association with ß-Amylase Activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA expression from the barley ß-amylase1 (Bmy1) gene was determined during seed development in four genotypes (Legacy, Harrington, Ashqelon, and PI 296897). The Bmy1 transcript amount in Legacy and Harrington was not significantly different at 17, 19, or 21 days after anthesis (DAA). Ashqelon Bmy...

233

Purification of a defensin isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds, its functional expression in Escherichia coli, and assessment of its insect alpha-amylase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Plant defensins make up a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides with a characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern stabilized by four disulfide bridges. The aim of this work was the purification and functional expression of a defensin from cowpea seeds and the assessment of its alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. The cDNA encoding the cowpea defensin was cloned into the pET-32 EK/LIC vector, and the resulting construct was used to transform Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant peptide was purified via affinity chromatography on a Ni Sepharose column and by reverse-phase chromatography on a C2/C18 column using HPLC. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that the recombinant peptide had a similar sequence to that of the defensin isolated from seeds. The natural and recombinant defensins were submitted to the alpha-amylase inhibition assay. The cowpea seed defensin was found to inhibit alpha-amylases from the weevils Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus. alpha-Amylase inhibition assays also showed that the recombinant defensin inhibited alpha-amylase from the weevil C. maculatus. The cowpea seed defensin and its recombinant form were unable to inhibit mammalian alpha-amylases. The three-dimensional structure of the recombinant defensin was modeled, and the resulting structure was found to be similar to those of other plant defensins. PMID:19948221

Dos Santos, Izabela S; Carvalho, André de O; de Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A; do Nascimento, Viviane V; Machado, Olga L T; Gomes, Valdirene M

2009-12-03

234

Association of Novel Domain in Active Site of Archaic Hyperthermophilic Maltogenic Amylase from Staphylothermus marinus*  

PubMed Central

Staphylothermus marinus maltogenic amylase (SMMA) is a novel extreme thermophile maltogenic amylase with an optimal temperature of 100 °C, which hydrolyzes ?-(1–4)-glycosyl linkages in cyclodextrins and in linear malto-oligosaccharides. This enzyme has a long N-terminal extension that is conserved among archaic hyperthermophilic amylases but is not found in other hydrolyzing enzymes from the glycoside hydrolase 13 family. The SMMA crystal structure revealed that the N-terminal extension forms an N? domain that is similar to carbohydrate-binding module 48, with the strand-loop-strand region forming a part of the substrate binding pocket with several aromatic residues, including Phe-95, Phe-96, and Tyr-99. A structural comparison with conventional cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing enzymes revealed a striking resemblance between the SMMA N? domain position and the dimeric N domain position in bacterial enzymes. This result suggests that extremophilic archaea that live at high temperatures may have adopted a novel domain arrangement that combines all of the substrate binding components within a monomeric subunit. The SMMA structure provides a molecular basis for the functional properties that are unique to hyperthermophile maltogenic amylases from archaea and that distinguish SMMA from moderate thermophilic or mesophilic bacterial enzymes.

Jung, Tae-Yang; Li, Dan; Park, Jong-Tae; Yoon, Se-Mi; Tran, Phuong Lan; Oh, Byung-Ha; Janecek, Stefan; Park, Sung Goo; Woo, Eui-Jeon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

2012-01-01

235

Chemical modification of lysine residues in Bacillus ?-amylases: effect on activity and stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical modification of lysine residues in two bacterial ?-amylases, a mesophilic enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BAA) and a thermophilic enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis (BLA) was carried out using citraconic anhydride. 13 ± 1 residues in BAA and 10 ± 1 residues in BLA were found modified under defined experimental conditions. Modification brought about dramatic enhancement of thermal stability of BAA

Khosro Khajeh; Hossein Naderi-Manesh; Bijan Ranjbar; Ali akbar Moosavi-Movahedi; Mohsen Nemat-Gorgani

2001-01-01

236

Expression of ?-Amylase from Alfalfa Taproots1  

PubMed Central

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots contain large quantities of ?-amylase, but little is known about its role in vivo. We studied this by isolating a ?-amylase cDNA and by examining signals that affect its expression. The ?-amylase cDNA encoded a 55.95-kD polypeptide with a deduced amino acid sequence showing high similarity to other plant ?-amylases. Starch concentrations, ?-amylase activities, and ?-amylase mRNA levels were measured in roots of alfalfa after defoliation, in suspension-cultured cells incubated in sucrose-rich or -deprived media, and in roots of cold-acclimated germ plasms. Starch levels, ?-amylase activities, and ?-amylase transcripts were reduced significantly in roots of defoliated plants and in sucrose-deprived cell cultures. ?-Amylase transcript was high in roots of intact plants but could not be detected 2 to 8 d after defoliation. ?-Amylase transcript levels increased in roots between September and October and then declined 10-fold in November and December after shoots were killed by frost. Alfalfa roots contain greater ?-amylase transcript levels compared with roots of sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Southern analysis indicated that ?-amylase is present as a multigene family in alfalfa. Our results show no clear association between ?-amylase activity or transcript abundance and starch hydrolysis in alfalfa roots. The great abundance of ?-amylase and its unexpected patterns of gene expression and protein accumulation support our current belief that this protein serves a storage function in roots of this perennial species.

Gana, Joyce A.; Kalengamaliro, Newton E.; Cunningham, Suzanne M.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.

1998-01-01

237

Dental erosive wear and salivary flow rate in physically active young adults  

PubMed Central

Background Little attention has been directed towards identifying the relationship between physical exercise, dental erosive wear and salivary secretion. The study aimed i) to describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosive wear among a group of physically active young adults, ii) to describe the patterns of dietary consumption and lifestyle among these individuals and iii) to study possible effect of exercise on salivary flow rate. Methods Young members (age range 18-32 years) of a fitness-centre were invited to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy young adults training hard at least twice a week. A non-exercising comparison group was selected from an ongoing study among 18-year-olds. Two hundred and twenty participants accepted an intraoral examination and completed a questionnaire. Seventy of the exercising participants provided saliva samples. The examination was performed at the fitness-centre or at a dental clinic (comparison group), using tested erosive wear system (VEDE). Saliva sampling (unstimulated and stimulated) was performed before and after exercise. Occlusal surfaces of the first molars in both jaws and the labial and palatal surfaces of the upper incisors and canines were selected as index teeth. Results Dental erosive wear was registered in 64% of the exercising participants, more often in the older age group, and in 20% of the comparison group. Enamel lesions were most observed in the upper central incisors (33%); dentine lesions in lower first molar (27%). One fourth of the participants had erosive wear into dentine, significantly more in males than in females (p = 0.047). More participants with erosive wear had decreased salivary flow during exercise compared with the non-erosion group (p < 0.01). The stimulated salivary flow rate was in the lower rage (? 1 ml/min) among more than one third of the participants, and more erosive lesions were registered than in subjects with higher flow rates (p < 0.01). Conclusion The study showed that a high proportion of physically active young adults have erosive lesions and indicate that hard exercise and decreased stimulated salivary flow rate may be associated with such wear.

2012-01-01

238

Vampire Bat Salivary Plasminogen Activator (Desmoteplase) Inhibits Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator-Induced Potentiation of Excitotoxic Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—In contrast to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) salivary plasminogen activator (desmoteplase (DSPA)) does not promote excitotoxic injury when injected directly into the brain. We have compared the excitotoxic effects of intravenously delivered tPA and DSPA and determined whether DSPA can antagonize the neurotoxic and calcium enhancing effects of tPA. Methods—The brain striatal region of

Courtney Reddrop; Randal X. Moldrich; Philip M. Beart; Mark Farso; Gabriel T. Liberatore; David W. Howells; Karl-Uwe Petersen; Wolf-Dieter Schleuning; Robert L. Medcalf

2010-01-01

239

Salivary cholinesterase activity in children with organic and convential diets  

EPA Science Inventory

Objective: Previous efforts to determine the health effects of pesticides have focused on quantifying acetylcholinesterase activity in blood. However, since blood draws can be difficult in young children, saliva biomonitoring has recently been explored as a feasible alternative....

240

Effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L.  

PubMed

Present study deals the effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L. seeds. Results revealed that untreated PMDE was highly toxic in nature carrying high BOD, COD values along with high metals content. But, after bacterial treatment, these values were reduced by 64.58 and 74.20%, respectively. It was observed that 40% untreated PMDE has no inhibitory effect on seed germination but 60, 80 and 100% PMDE has inhibited 20, 40 and 60% germination, respectively while 100% germination was recorded up to 60% treated PMDE. Moreover, 40 and 60% PMDE has shown deleterious effects on seedling growth parameter and seeds treated with 80 and 100% PMDE showed no root development. However, 20% bacteria treated PMDE was found most suitable for plant growth possibly due to presence of optimum level of nutrients. Further, Phaseolus seeds treated with 60 and 80% untreated PMDE showed reduced amylase activity and no amylase activity was observed in seeds treated with 100% untreated PMDE. But, seeds treated with bacterial degraded PMDE showed amylase activity and molecular weight of alpha-amylase enzyme determined by SDS-PAGE was approximately 47.5, 46 and 44.5 kDa, respectively. PMID:20483537

Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Chandra, Ram

2010-05-18

241

The diagnostic potential of salivary protease activities in periodontal health and disease.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease is characterised by proteolytic processes involving enzymes that are released by host immune cells and periodontal bacteria. These enzymes, when detectable in whole saliva, may serve as valuable diagnostic markers for disease states and progression. Because the substrate specificities of salivary proteases in periodontal health and disease are poorly characterised, we probed these activities using several relevant substrates: (i) gelatin and collagen type IV; (ii) the Arg/Lys-rich human salivary substrate histatin-5; and (iii) a histatin-derived synthetic analog benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Gly-Tyr-Arg-methyl cumaryl amide (Z-RGYR-MCA). Substrate degradation was assessed in gel (zymography) and in solution. Whole saliva supernatant enzyme activities directed at gelatin, quantified from the 42 kDa, 92 kDa and 130 kDa bands in the zymograms, were 1.3, 1.4 and 2.0-fold higher, respectively, in the periodontal patient group (P < 0.01), consistent with enhanced activities observed towards collagen type IV. On the other hand, histatin 5 degraded equally fast in healthy and periodontal patients' whole saliva supernatant samples (P > 0.10). Likewise, the hydrolysis rates of the Z-RGYR-MCA substrate were the same in the healthy and periodontal patient groups (P > 0.10). In conclusion, gelatinolytic/collagenolytic activities but not trypsin-like activities in human saliva differentiate health from periodontal disease and may thus provide an adjuvant to diagnosis for monitoring disease activity. PMID:23379269

Thomadaki, K; Bosch, Ja; Oppenheim, Fg; Helmerhorst, Ej

2013-02-04

242

Enhancement of the alcoholytic activity of alpha-amylase AmyA from Thermotoga maritima MSB8 (DSM 3109) by site-directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed

AmyA, an alpha-amylase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima, is able to hydrolyze internal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds in various alpha-glucans at 85 degrees C as the optimal temperature. Like other glycoside hydrolases, AmyA also catalyzes transglycosylation reactions, particularly when oligosaccharides are used as substrates. It was found that when methanol or butanol was used as the nucleophile instead of water, AmyA was able to catalyze alcoholysis reactions. This capability has been evaluated in the past for some alpha-amylases, with the finding that only the saccharifying fungal amylases from Aspergillus niger and from Aspergillus oryzae present measurable alcoholysis activity (R. I. Santamaria, G. Del Rio, G. Saab, M. E. Rodriguez, X. Soberon, and A. Lopez, FEBS Lett. 452:346-350, 1999). In the present work, we found that AmyA generates larger quantities of alkyl glycosides than any amylase reported so far. In order to increase the alcoholytic activity observed in AmyA, several residues were identified and mutated based on previous analogous positions in amylases, defining the polarity and geometry of the active site. Replacement of residue His222 by glutamine generated an increase in the alkyl glucoside yield as a consequence of a higher alcoholysis/hydrolysis ratio. The same change in specificity was observed for the mutants H222E and H222D, but instability of these mutants toward alcohols decreased the yield of alkyl glucoside. PMID:18552192

Damián-Almazo, Juanita Yazmin; Moreno, Alina; López-Munguía, Agustin; Soberón, Xavier; González-Muñoz, Fernando; Saab-Rincón, Gloria

2008-06-13

243

Enhancement of the Alcoholytic Activity of ?-Amylase AmyA from Thermotoga maritima MSB8 (DSM 3109) by Site-Directed Mutagenesis?  

PubMed Central

AmyA, an ?-amylase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima, is able to hydrolyze internal ?-1,4-glycosidic bonds in various ?-glucans at 85°C as the optimal temperature. Like other glycoside hydrolases, AmyA also catalyzes transglycosylation reactions, particularly when oligosaccharides are used as substrates. It was found that when methanol or butanol was used as the nucleophile instead of water, AmyA was able to catalyze alcoholysis reactions. This capability has been evaluated in the past for some ?-amylases, with the finding that only the saccharifying fungal amylases from Aspergillus niger and from Aspergillus oryzae present measurable alcoholysis activity (R. I. Santamaria, G. Del Rio, G. Saab, M. E. Rodriguez, X. Soberon, and A. Lopez, FEBS Lett. 452:346-350, 1999). In the present work, we found that AmyA generates larger quantities of alkyl glycosides than any amylase reported so far. In order to increase the alcoholytic activity observed in AmyA, several residues were identified and mutated based on previous analogous positions in amylases, defining the polarity and geometry of the active site. Replacement of residue His222 by glutamine generated an increase in the alkyl glucoside yield as a consequence of a higher alcoholysis/hydrolysis ratio. The same change in specificity was observed for the mutants H222E and H222D, but instability of these mutants toward alcohols decreased the yield of alkyl glucoside.

Damian-Almazo, Juanita Yazmin; Moreno, Alina; Lopez-Munguia, Agustin; Soberon, Xavier; Gonzalez-Munoz, Fernando; Saab-Rincon, Gloria

2008-01-01

244

Salivary Glucosyltransferase B as a Possible Marker for Caries Activity  

PubMed Central

Bacteria-derived glucosyltransferases (Gtf) (EC 2.4.1.5), through synthesizing glucan polymers from sucrose and starch hydrolysates, play an essential role in the etiology and pathogenesis of caries. We attempted to correlate the levels of Gtf in whole saliva with the prevalence of carious lesions in young children. We examined saliva from children who were either free of overt carious lesions, or had severe early childhood caries (mean dmfs = 18.72 ± 9.0 SD), for Gtf by direct enzyme assay. The levels of GtfB, GtfC and GtfD from Streptococcus mutans in the saliva using monoclonal/specific antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were determined. Multiple logistic regression analyses with model selection showed that GtfB levels correlated with dmfs values of the subjects (p = 0.006). There was no correlation between total Gtf activity as measured by direct enzyme assay and dmfs values. There was a strong correlation between mutans streptococci populations in saliva and caries activity. Collectively, these data show that GtfB levels in saliva correlate strongly with presence of clinical caries and with number of carious lesions in young children. It is also possible to measure different Gtfs, separately, in whole saliva. These observations may have important clinical implications, may lead to development of a chair side caries activity test and support the importance of GtfB in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

Vacca Smith, A.M.; Scott-Anne, K.M.; Whelehan, M.T.; Berkowitz, R.J.; Feng, C.; Bowen, W.H.

2007-01-01

245

Ascorbic acid-based inhibitors of alpha-amylases.  

PubMed

A series of ascorbic acid and isoascorbic acid derivatives has been evaluated as inhibitors of malt, bacterial, fungal, pancreatic and salivary alpha-amylases using a simple and quick assay procedure. The results demonstrate that the enediol moiety of ascorbic acid is essential for alpha-amylase inhibition. Acylation of the primary and secondary alcohols, and the absolute configuration of the secondary alcohol, do not affect the potency of inhibition. PMID:9873419

Abell, A D; Ratcliffe, M J; Gerrard, J

1998-07-01

246

AmyA, an  Amylase with  -Cyclodextrin-Forming Activity, and AmyB from the Thermoalkaliphilic Organism Anaerobranca gottschalkii: Two  Amylases Adapted to Their Different Cellular Localizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two -amylase genes from the thermophilic alkaliphile Anaerobranca gottschalkii were cloned, and the corresponding enzymes, AmyA and AmyB, were investigated after purification of the recombinant proteins. Based on their amino acid sequences, AmyA is proposed to be a lipoprotein with extracellular localization and thus is exposed to the alkaline milieu, while AmyB apparently represents a cytoplasmic enzyme. The amino acid

Meike Ballschmiter; Martin Armbrecht; Krasimira Ivanova; Garabed Antranikian; Wolfgang Liebl

2005-01-01

247

Alkaline active maltohexaose-forming ?-amylase from Bacillus halodurans LBK 34  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding Amy 34, a maltohexaose-forming ?-amylase from Bacillus halodurans LBK 34 isolated from Lake Bogoria, Kenya, was cloned and sequenced. The mature peptide consists of 958 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 107.2kDa and pI 4.41, respectively. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant enzyme purified to homogeneity by a combination of metal

Suhaila O. Hashim; Osvaldo D. Delgado; M. Alejandra Martínez; Rajni-Hatti Kaul; Francis J. Mulaa; Bo Mattiasson

2005-01-01

248

Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on ?-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins on starch digestion in tannin-containing sorghum extracts and wholegrain flours from 12 sorghum varieties. Extracts reduced amylase activity in a tannin concentration-dependent manner when the extract was mixed with the enzyme before substrate (amylopectin) addition, with higher molecular weight tannins showing greater reduction. Conversely, when the extract and substrate were combined before enzyme addition an enhancement in amylase activity was experienced. In uncooked, cooked, and cooked and stored wholegrain sorghum flours, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches were not correlated with tannin content or molecular weight distribution. Resistant starch increased from 6.5% to 22-26% when tannins were added to starch up to 50% (starch weight). Tannin extracts both reduced and enhanced amylase activity depending on conditions, and, while these trends were clear in extracts, the effects on starch digestion in wholegrain flours was more complex. PMID:23581620

Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Kaufman, Rhett C; Bean, Scott R; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S; Rose, Devin J

2013-04-29

249

Optimizing of the formation of active BMW-amylase after in vitro refolding.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the optimal folding condition of ?-amylase from Bacillus megaterium WHO using response surface methodology (RSM). A first-order model showed that three factors namely glycerol, Ca(2+) and protein concentration had the most significant effect on refolding. Analysis of the results showed that glycerol was better than the other polyols due to its effect on protein stability. Since ?-amylases are known to contain calcium ions in their structure, the presence of calcium in the refolding buffer was compulsory. The concentration of protein had the most significant quadratic effect on the response studied. A second-order polynomial model was developed to quantify the relationships between variables. It was shown that the combination of 20%(v/v) glycerol, 25 mM Ca(2+) and 0.3 (mg/ml) protein was the most efficient condition for in vitro refolding of ?-amylase. Under the optimal condition the yield of refolding was enhanced up to 7-fold. In order to analysis the size distribution in optimized and basic medium, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was fulfilled. The information gathered in this study showed that the use of solvent engineering and optimization procedure can be a general method for protein refolding. PMID:22750395

Nasrollahi, Parisa; Khajeh, Khosro; Akbari, Neda

2012-06-28

250

Effect of tin oxide nanoparticle binding on the structure and activity of ?-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.  

PubMed

Proteins adsorbed on nanoparticles (NPs) are being used in biotechnology, biosensors and drug delivery. However, understanding the effect of NPs on the structure of proteins is still in a nascent state. In the present paper tin oxide (SnO2) NPs were synthesized by the reaction of SnCl4·5H2O in methanol via the sol-gel method and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The binding of these SnO2-NPs with ?-amylase was investigated by using UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. A strong quenching of tryptophan fluorescence intensity in ?-amylase was observed due to formation of a ground state complex with SnO2-NPs. Far-UV CD spectra showed that the secondary structure of ?-amylase was changed in the presence of NPs. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)), was found to be 26.96 and 28.45 mg ml(-1), while V(max) was 4.173 and 3.116 mg ml(-1) min(-1) for free and NP-bound enzyme, respectively. PMID:22020314

Khan, Mohammad Jahir; Qayyum, Shariq; Alam, Fahad; Husain, Qayyum

2011-10-21

251

Periodontal status, salivary immunoglobulin, and microbial counts after short exposure to an isolated environment.  

PubMed

Salivary flow rate, immunoglobulin, and periodontal status were affected during a simulated Skylab mission. The effect is more prominent after long-duration space flights and can persist for several weeks after landing. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a simulated Mars environment on periodontal status and levels of salivary microorganisms and immunoglobulins in the human oral cavity. Twelve healthy male volunteers were studied before, at 1 and 2 weeks, and after completion of a mission in an isolated, confined simulated Mars environment at the Mars Desert Research Station, USA. We conducted a current stress test, measured salivary immunoglobulin, cortisol, ?-amylase, salivary flow rate, and levels of plaque and salivary microbes, and assessed clinical periodontal parameters (probing depth, bleeding on probing, and clinical loss of attachment). Salivary IgG levels and Streptococcus mutans activity were significantly higher at 1 week. Values for clinical periodontal parameters (probing depth, bleeding on probing, and clinical loss of attachment) significantly differed at 1 week. Stress might be caused by the difficulty of the mission rather than the isolated environment, as mission duration was quite short. Periodontal condition might worsen due to poor oral hygiene during the mission. The present findings show that all periodontal conditions and levels of oral bacteria and stress after completion of the simulated Mars mission differed from those at baseline. To verify the relationship between stress status and periodontal health in simulated Mars missions, future studies using larger patient samples and longer follow-up will be required. PMID:23748453

Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep

2013-01-01

252

Developmental Expression of Amylases During Barley Malting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity and qualitative changes in amylase isoenzymes as a function of barley seedling age were investigated in 10 Brazilian barley cultivars. All cultivars showed few isoenzymes in early germination. An increase in general activity ensued in the following days when new isoenzymes were detected and those already observed since early germination had their activity increased. All cultivars disclosed increase

J. E. Georg-Kraemer; E. C. Mundstock; S. Cavalli-Molina

2001-01-01

253

Intracellular a-Amylase of Streptococcus mutans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene for a CcpA gene homolog, regM, revealed an open read- ing frame, named amy, with homology to genes encoding a-amylases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong similarity (60% amino acid identity) to the intracellular a-amylase of Streptococcus bovis and, in com- mon with this enzyme, lacked a signal sequence. Amylase activity

CHRISTINE L. SIMPSON; ROY R. B. RUSSELL

1998-01-01

254

A Comparative Study of Human Parotid and Submaxillary Saliva Amylase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amylase of human parotid and submaxillary gland secretions was isolated by chromatography on columns of Sephadex G-100. Acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the chromatographic fractions possessing amylase activity revealed matching isoenzyme stain patte...

B. L. Lamberts T. S. Meyer R. M. Osborne

1969-01-01

255

Comparisons of amylolytic enzyme activities and ß-amylases with differing Bmy1 intron III alleles to osmolyte concentration and malt extract during congress mashing with North American barley cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine the relationships between patterns of activity of malt amylolytic enzymes (a-amylase, ß-amylase, and limit dextrinase) and the patterns of osmolyte concentration (OC) and malt extract (ME) production in two- and six-row North American barley cultivars over the c...

256

Neutrophil-Activating Protein Mediates Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Sulfated Carbohydrates on High-Molecular-Weight Salivary Mucin  

PubMed Central

The in vitro binding of surface-exposed material and outer membrane proteins of Helicobacter pylori to high-molecular-weight salivary mucin was studied. We identified a 16-kDa surface protein which adhered to high-molecular-weight salivary mucin. This protein binds specifically to sulfated oligosaccharide structures such as sulfo-Lewis a, sulfogalactose and sulfo-N-acetyl-glucosamine on mucin. Sequence analysis of the protein proved that it was identical to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of neutrophil-activating protein. Moreover, this adhesin was able to bind to Lewis x blood group antigen.

Namavar, Ferry; Sparrius, Marion; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Appelmelk, Ben J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.

1998-01-01

257

Electrophoretic behaviour of human urinary amylase  

PubMed Central

A saccharogenic method is described for estimating amylase activity in human urine. Results accord with those reported elsewhere except that in this study the peak in the beta zone is a new finding. Comparison between normal and pathological urines suggests that the amylase activity of the beta peak is not of pancreatic origin.

Franzini, C.

1965-01-01

258

Phytohormone-regulated ?-amylase gene expression in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of ß-amylase genes in rice (Oryza sativa) and its regulation by phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were examined. Upon germination ß-amylase is synthesizedde novo in aleurone cells and (GA) is not required. Exogenous addition of GA does not enhance the ß-amylase activity, while ABA inhibits the ß-amylase activity, mRNA accumulation, and the germination of rice

Shue-Mei Wang; Wei-Ling Lue; Klaus Eimert I; Jychian Chen

1996-01-01

259

Potent ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of standardized 50% ethanolic extracts and sinensetin from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth as anti-diabetic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, we tested a 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus plants and its isolated bioactive compound with respect to their ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities. Methods Bioactive flavonoid sinensetin was isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus. The structure of this pure compound was determined on the NMR data and the ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of isolated sinensetin and 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus were evaluated. Results In vitro studies of a 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus and the isolated sinensetin compound showed inhibitory activity on ?-glucosidase (IC50: 4.63 and 0.66 mg/ml, respectively) and ?-amylase (IC50: 36.70 mg/ml and 1.13 mg/ml, respectively). Inhibition of these enzymes provides a strong biochemical basis for the management of type 2 diabetes via the control of glucose absorption. Conclusion Alpha-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibition could the mechanisms through which the 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus and sinensetin exert their antidiabetic activity, indicating that it could have potential use in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

2012-01-01

260

Effect of sodium bicarbonate, ascorbic acid and salt on the ?-amylase, gelatinization and yeast activity in the production of flat bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making of flat bread necessitates special characteristics in flour and dough. Sodium bicarbonate, vitamin C and salt frequently are used as additives in the production. The study aimed to investigate the influence of these additions on the ?-amylase, yeast activity and gelatinization. Four levels of sodium bicarbonate, vitamin C and salt were studied to compare with the no addition treatments.

Hanee M. Al-Dmoor; Herzallah Saqer; Meshref Al-Lruwaili

2009-01-01

261

Enhanced esterase activity in salivary gland and midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquito infected with dengue-2 virus.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes were infected by intrathoracic inoculation. About 95% head squashes were positive for dengue virus antigen on the 15th post infection day (PID). Esterase activity was determined in the homogenates prepared from the salivary glands and midguts on different PIDs of dengue virus inoculated and control mosquitoes showed that it was consistently higher in the virus-infected batches. PMID:15267144

Mourya, D T; Rohankhedkar, M S; Yadav, P; Dighe, V; Deobagkar, D N

2003-01-01

262

Baroreceptor-mediated activation of sympathetic nerve activity to salivary glands.  

PubMed

Salivary gland function is regulated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Previously we showed that the basal sympathetic outflow to the salivary glands (SNA(SG)) was higher in hypertensive compared to normotensive rats and that diabetes reduced SNA(SG) discharge at both strains. In the present study we sought to investigate how SNA(SG) might be modulated by acute changes in the arterial pressure and whether baroreceptors play a functional role upon this modulation. To this end, we measured blood pressure and SNA(SG) discharge in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY-intact) and in WKY submitted to sinoaortic denervation (WKY-SAD). We made the following three major observations: (i) in WKY-intact rats, baroreceptor loading in response to intravenous infusion of the phenylephrine evoked an increase in SNA(SG) spike frequency (81%, p<0.01) accompanying the increase mean arterial pressure (?MAP: +77 ± 14 mmHg); (ii) baroreceptor unloading with sodium nitroprusside infusion elicited a decrease in SNA(SG) spike frequency (17%, p<0.01) in parallel with the fall in arterial blood pressure (?MAP: -30 ± 3 mmHg) in WKY-intact rats; iii) in the WKY-SAD rats, phenylephrine-evoked rises in the arterial pressure (?MAP: +56 ± 6 mmHg) failed to produce significant changes in the SNA(SG) spike frequency. Taken together, these data show that SNA(SG) increases in parallel with pharmacological-induced pressor response in a baroreceptor dependent way in anaesthetised rats. Considering the key role of SNA(SG) in salivary secretion, this mechanism, which differs from the classic cardiac baroreflex feedback loop, strongly suggests that baroreceptor signalling plays a decisive role in the regulation of salivary gland function. PMID:23022472

Sabino-Silva, Robinson; Ceroni, Alexandre; Koganezawa, Tadachika; Michelini, Lisete C; Machado, Ubiratan F; Antunes, Vagner R

2012-09-28

263

Thermally Stable Amylases from Antarctic Psychrophilic Bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydrolysis of starch in cold environments by psychrophilic species of bacteria is believed to be accomplished through the production of special cold-adapted amylases. These amylases are reportedly thermally labile with low (<40 deg C) temperature optima and high specific activities at 0 to 25 deg C....

264

?-Amylase inactivation during corn starch hydrolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating conditions on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn starch were investigated. A commercial ?-amylase produced by Bacillus sp. was used for the hydrolysis experiments. The degree of starch hydrolysis (%) and residual ?-amylase activity (%) was investigated versus process variables, including pH, temperature, viscosity, impeller speed, processing time and some materials added such as hydrolysate, maltose, glucose,

Dilek K?l?ç Apar; Belma Özbek

2004-01-01

265

?-Amylase inactivation during rice starch hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating conditions on the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice starch were investigated using a commercial ?-amylase produced by Bacillus spp. in a stirred batch reactor. The degree of starch hydrolysis (%) and residual ?-amylase activity (%) were investigated versus process variables including pH, temperature, viscosity, impeller speed, processing time and some materials added such as hydrolysate, maltose, glucose,

Dilek K?l?ç Apar; Belma Özbek

2005-01-01

266

?-Amylase inactivation during wheat starch hydrolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work reported here investigates the effects of operating conditions on enzymic hydrolysis of wheat starch. A commercial ?-amylase enzyme (Gemsize 4A, produced by Bacillus subtilis) was used for the hydrolysis experiments. The degree of hydrolysis (%) and ?-amylase activity (%) were investigated versus the process variables, pH, temperature, viscosity, amount of enzyme preparation added, impeller speed, amount of hydrolysate

Belma Özbek; Semra Yüceer

2001-01-01

267

Alpha-amylase gene transcription in tissues of normal dog.  

PubMed Central

We studied the distribution of alpha-amylase mRNA in normal dog tissues by northern blotting (NB) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with human pancreatic (AMY2) and salivary (AMY1) alpha-amylase cDNA-specific primers. Analysis of poly(A+) RNA from various normal tissues by NB indicated the presence of detectable levels of alpha-amylase mRNA transcripts only in pancreas. Dot-blot analysis of DNA amplified with primers common to both (human) isoamylase mRNAs showed presence of alpha-amylase gene transcripts not only in pancreas but also in liver, small intestine, large intestine and fallopian tube. Traces of amylase gene transcripts were also observed in ovary, uterus and lung. Interestingly, amylase transcripts were not detectable in the parotid gland by NB or RT-PCR. We have also localized alpha-amylase mRNA transcripts to dog pancreas by in situ transcription and in situ hybridization. Our results suggest that there is high degree of homology between the alpha-amylase mRNA sequences in dog and human at least in the exon 3-4 regions of the human gene. Images

Mocharla, H; Mocharla, R; Hodes, M E

1990-01-01

268

Salt-dependent thermo-reversible ?-amylase: cloning and characterization of halophilic ?-amylase from moderately halophilic bacterium, Kocuria varians  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moderately halophilic bacterium, Kocuria varians, was found to produce active ?-amylase (K. varians ?-amylase (KVA)). We have observed at least six different forms of ?-amylase secreted by this bacterium into the culture\\u000a medium. Characterization of these KVA forms and cloning of the corresponding gene revealed that KVA comprises pre-pro-precursor\\u000a form of ?-amylase catalytic domain followed by the tandem repeats,

Rui Yamaguchi; Hiroko Tokunaga; Matsujiro Ishibashi; Tsutomu Arakawa; Masao Tokunaga

2011-01-01

269

The functional significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster I. Properties of two amylase variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of amylase of two strains homozygous for two different amylase variants of Drosophila rnelanogaster were determined. Amylase of larvae and adults of both strains showed a pH optimum around pit 7.0. The Amy I enz)alae showed a higher temperature stability. They differed in maximal activity (for Amy 1 Vma x = 26.2 mU\\/9, for Amy4, 6 Vma x =

A. J. W. Hoorn; W. Scharloo

1978-01-01

270

[Lysozyme activity of the salivary gland secretion of the medicinal leech H. verbana, H. medicinalis and H. orientalis].  

PubMed

Salivary gland secretions of three species of the medicinal leech differ in the level of lysozyme peptidoglycan-lysing activity. Using the synthetic fluorogenic substrate, 4-methyl-umbelliferyl tetra N-acetyl-beta-chitotetraosid, the glycosidase activity (as one of peptidoglycan-lysing activities) of salivary gland secretion of three species of the medicinal leech was quantitatively evaluated in comparison with egg lysozyme. It is supposed, that lysozyme activity of the leech secretions is determined not only by 5 isoforms of destabilase-lysozyme, but by some other enzymes which can utilize this substrate. These may be lysozymes other than i- (invertebrate) lysozymes (such as destabilase-lysozyme, or related enzymes). PMID:22629601

Baskova, I P; Kharitonova, O V; Zavalova, L L

271

Effects of infrared radiation, solar cooking and microwave cooking on alpha-amylase inhibitor in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).  

PubMed

Three domestic cooking methods were studied in alpha-amylase inhibitory activity in sorghum grains. In all the treatments, overnight soaked seeds lost amylase inhibitory activity much faster. All the three treatments reduced the inhibitory activity. Use of solar cooker for reducing amylase inhibitory activity works out very economically and efficiently. Microwave cooking eliminates amylase inhibitory activity within 5 minutes. PMID:7855094

Mulimani, V H; Supriya, D

1994-10-01

272

Purification and characterisation of a malto-oligosaccharide-forming amylase active at high pH from Bacillus clausii BT21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus clausii BT-21 produced an extracellular malto-oligosaccharide-forming amylase active at high pH when grown on starch substrates. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the enzyme estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoresis was 101 kDa. The enzyme showed an optimum of activity at pH 9.5 and 55°C. Maltohexaose was detected as

Lene Duedahl-Olesen; Karsten Matthias Kragh; Wolfgang Zimmermann

2000-01-01

273

Role of the phenylalanine 260 residue in defining product profile and alcoholytic activity of the ? -amylase AmyA from Thermotoga maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ?-amylases besides catalyzing the hydrolysis of ?-1,4 glycosidic bonds in starch are also capable of carrying out some transglycosylation activity. The importance of aromatic\\u000a residues near the catalytic site in determining the ratio of these two competing activities has been remarked in the past.\\u000a In the present work we investigated the role of residue 260 in the product profile

Juanita Y. Damián-Almazo; Agustin López-Munguía; Xavier Soberón-Mainero; Gloria Saab-Rincón

2008-01-01

274

Effect of unfavorable trophic scenarios on amylase and protease activity of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) larvae during their first vertical migration: a laboratory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Portuguese waters, Nephrops norvegicus larvae hatch at 400–800 m depth and need to perform a vertical migration to food-rich shallower waters to find suitable prey.\\u000a The effect of suboptimal feeding on digestive enzymes activity of N. norvegicus larvae during this early period of their larval life remains unknown. Protease and amylase activities were investigated ex situ using flurometry in laboratory-hatched

Patricia N. Pochelon; Henrique Queiroga; Guiomar Rotllant; Antonina dos Santos; Ricardo Calado

275

Activation of dihydropyridine-sensitive parotid salivary gland calcium channels by epidermal growth factor.  

PubMed

The calcium channel complex of the parotid was isolated from solubilized acinar-cell membranes by affinity chromatography on wheatgerm agglutinin. The channel, after labelling the calcium antagonist-receptor site with [3H]-PN200-100, was reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles that exhibited active 45Ca2+ uptake. This uptake was independent of sodium and potassium gradients, indicating its electroneutrality. The channels responded in a dose-dependent manner to the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, PN200-110, which at 0.4 microM exerted a maximal inhibitory effect of 75% on 45Ca2+ uptake; a 46% enhancement in 45Ca2+ uptake occurred with a specific calcium-channel activator, BAY K8644. On epidermal growth-factor (EGF) binding in the presence of ATP, there was an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of 55 and 170 kDa calcium-channel proteins. Such phosphorylated channels, after reconstitution into vesicles, displayed a 61% greater 45Ca2+ uptake, indicating the involvement of tyrosine kinase in EGF-dependent activation of the calcium channel. The results point towards the importance of EGF in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in salivary gland. PMID:1334647

Slomiany, B L; Fekete, Z; Liu, J; Murty, V L; Slomiany, A

1992-11-01

276

Inhibitory Activity of Cinnamon Bark Species and their Combination Effect with Acarbose against Intestinal ?-glucosidase and Pancreatic ?-amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches for delaying carbohydrate digestion,\\u000a resulting in reduced postprandial glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical analysis and the inhibitory\\u000a effect of various cinnamon bark species against intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase. The results showed that\\u000a the content of total phenolic, flavonoid, and condensed tannin

Sirichai Adisakwattana; Orathai Lerdsuwankij; Ubonwan Poputtachai; Aukkrapon Minipun; Chaturong Suparpprom

277

Molecular identification of four different alpha-amylase inhibitors from baru (Dipteryx alata) seeds with activity toward insect enzymes.  

PubMed

The endophytic bruchid pest Callosobruchus maculatus causes severe damage to storage cowpea seeds, leading to economical losses. For this reason the use of alpha-amylase inhibitors to interfere with the pest digestion process has been an interesting alternative to control bruchids. With this aim, alpha-amylase inhibitors from baru seeds (Dipteryx alata) were isolated by affinity chromatographic procedures, causing enhanced inhibition of C. maculatus and Anthonomus grandis alpha-amylases. To attempt further purification, this fraction was applied onto a reversed-phase HPLC column, generating four peaks with remarkable inhibition toward C. maculatus alpha-amylases. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-ToF analysis identified major proteins of approximately 5.0, 11.0, 20.0 and 55 kDa that showed alpha-amylase inhibition. Results of in vivo bioassays using artificial seeds containing 1.0% (w/w) of baru crude extract revealed 40% cowpea weevil larvae mortality. These results provide evidence that several alpha-amylase inhibitors classes, with biotechnological potential, can be isolated from a single plant species. PMID:17669264

Bonavides, Krishna B; Pelegrini, Patrícia B; Laumann, Raúl A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Jorge A T; Quirino, Betania F; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octávio L

2007-07-31

278

CO 2 evolution and enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, protease and amylase) of fly ash amended soil in the presence and absence of earthworms ( Drawida willsi Michaelsen) under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CO2 evolution and dehydrogenase, protease and amylase activities of fly ash amended soil (Orissa, India) in the presence and absence of earthworms were investigated under laboratory conditions for 2 months at 50% water-holding capacity (WHC) and 25±2 °C temperature. A toxicity test of different age groups (juvenile, immature and adult) of Drawida willsi earthworms, dominant (>80% both in number

Sharada S. Pati; Sanjat K. Sahu

2004-01-01

279

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with ?-amylase and limit dextrinase activities and ?-glucan and protein fraction contents in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

High malting quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) relies on many traits, such as ?-amylase and limit dextrinase activities and ?-glucan and protein fraction contents.\\u000a In this study, interval mapping was utilized to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting these malting quality parameters\\u000a using a doubled haploid (DH) population from a cross of CM72 (six-rowed) by Gairdner (two-rowed) barley cultivars.

Kang Wei; Da-wei Xue; You-zong Huang; Xiao-li Jin; Fei-bo Wu; Guo-ping Zhang

2009-01-01

280

The effect of H 2O 2 and abscisic acid (ABA) interaction on ?-amylase activity under osmotic stress during grain development in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) treatments on grain H2O2, ABA and ?-amylase activity were studied during grain development in the spike culture experiments with variety Triumph and its ABA-insensitive mutant TL43 as the plant materials. The results showed that during grain development the two genotypes were similar in the pattern of ABA concentration

Kang Wei; Xiaoli Jin; Xin Chen; Feibo Wu; Weihui Zhou; Boyin Qiu; Long Qiu; Xudong Wang; Chengdao Li; Guoping Zhang

2009-01-01

281

Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: comparison to salivary cortisol.  

PubMed

Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair cortisol provides a simple way to monitor total cortisol release over an extended period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined from each trimester (15, 26 and 36 weeks gestation) and 3 months postpartum. Hair cortisol levels were compared to diurnal salivary cortisol collected over 3 days (3 times/day) at 14, 18, 23, 29, and 34 weeks gestational age and 6 weeks postpartum from 21 pregnant women. Both salivary and hair cortisol levels rose during pregnancy as expected. Hair cortisol and diurnal salivary cortisol area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were also correlated throughout pregnancy. Levels of cortisol in hair are a valid and useful tool to measure long-term cortisol activity. Hair cortisol avoids methodological problems associated with collection other cortisol measures such as plasma, urine, or saliva and is a reliable metric of HPA activity throughout pregnancy reflecting total cortisol release over an extended period. PMID:21397617

D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Ross, Randal G; Natvig, Crystal L; Laudenslager, Mark L

2011-03-21

282

Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar cells were identified in cultured cells from dispersed tissue. Biomarker studies with the salivary enzyme, alpha-amylase, and tight junction proteins, such as zonula occludens-1 and E-cadherin, confirmed the phenotype of these cells. Strong staining for laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 were noted in basement membranes and perlecan also was secreted and organized by cultured acinar populations, which formed lobular structures that mimicked intact glands when cultured on Matrigel(TM) or a bioactive peptide derived from domain IV of perlecan (PlnDIV). On either matrix, large acini-like lobular structures grew and formed connections between the lobes. alpha-Amylase secretion was confirmed by staining and activity assay. Biomarkers including tight junction protein E-cadherin and water channel protein, aquaporin 5 (AQP5) found in tissue, were expressed in cultured acinar cells. Cells cultured on Matrigel(TM) or PlnDIV peptide organized stress fibers and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK). HA, a natural polysaccharide and a major component of the ECM, can be used to generate soft and pliable hydrogels. A culture system consisting of HA hydrogel and PlnDIV peptide was used to generate a 2.5D culture system. Acinar cells cultured on these hydrogels self-assembled into lobular structures and expressed tight junction components such as ZO-1. Acini-like structures were stained for the presence of alpha-amylase. Live/dead staining revealed the presence of apoptotic cells in the center of the acini-like structures, indicative of lumen formation. The functionality of these acini-like structures was studied by stimulating them with neurotransmitters to enhance their fluid and protein production. Acini-like structures treated with norepinephrine and isoproterenol showed increased granule formation as observed by phase contrast microscopy and alpha-amylase staining in the structures. Lobular structures on hydrogels were treated with acetylcholine to increase fluid production. The increase in intracellular calcium due to the activation of the M3 muscarinic receptor via binding to ac

Pradhan, Swati

283

A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to ellestad stress test protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the

Y. K. Lee; A. Za'aba; N. K. Madzhi; A. Ahmad

2009-01-01

284

A heterotetrameric alpha-amylase inhibitor from emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) seeds.  

PubMed

Plants have developed a constitutive defense system against pest attacks, which involves the expression of a set of inhibitors acting on heterologous amylases of different origins. Investigating the soluble protein complement of the hulled wheat emmer we have isolated and characterized a heterotetrameric ?-amylase inhibitor (ETI). Based on mass spectrometry data, it is an assembly of proteins highly similar to the CM2/CM3/CM16 found in durum wheat. Our data indicate that these proteins can also inhibit exogenous ?-amylases in binary assemblies. The calculated dissociation constants (K(i)) for the pancreatic porcine amylase- and human salivary amylase-ETI complexes are similar to those found in durum and soft wheat. Homology modeling of the CM subunits indicate structural similarities with other proteins belonging to the cereal family of trypsin/?-amylase inhibitors; a possible homology modeled structure for a tetrameric assembly of the subunits is proposed. PMID:23320956

Capocchi, A; Muccilli, V; Cunsolo, V; Saletti, R; Foti, S; Fontanini, D

2013-01-12

285

Tsetse Salivary Gland Proteins 1 and 2 Are High Affinity Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins with Residual Nuclease Activity  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans) saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2) display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with KD values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents.

Caljon, Guy; Ridder, Karin De; Stijlemans, Benoit; Coosemans, Marc; Magez, Stefan; De Baetselier, Patrick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

2012-01-01

286

Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on salivary flow in patients with human-immuno deficiency virus disease in Southern India  

PubMed Central

Aims: To ascertain and compare between highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and non-HAART patients, the stimulated salivary flow rates and unstimulated salivary flow rates (USFR and SSFR) and to correlate the salivary flow rates with immune suppression. Materials and Methods: One hundred human-immuno deficiency virus seropositive patients attending RAGAS-YRG CARE were examined and divided into two groups, a HAART group (patients on combination antiretroviral therapy) comprising 50 patients and a non-HAART group comprising 50 patients. The HAART group was followed every 3 months after the baseline visit (0) for a period of 9 months, during which a clinical oral examination and collection of unstimulated and stimulated saliva was done. Their salivary gland function was assessed using a xerostomia inventory during each visit. The study on non-HAART group was cross-sectional. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis were performed with the aid of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 10.05) software. Results: There was no significant difference in mean SSFR and USFR between the two groups at baseline. In the HAART group, the mean stimulated salivary flow rate increased from baseline to 3 months (P = 0.02), with the increase being maintained at 6 months and 9 months. When salivary flow rates were correlated with Cluster of Differentiation, CD4 counts, patients in the HAART group with a CD4 ? 200 at 6 months visit had a higher mean stimulated salivary flow rate when compared with patients with CD4 ? 200 (P = 0.02). The xerostomia inventory did not reveal any significant difference between the two groups and HAART was not significantly associated with xerostomia. Conclusion: In our study HAART was neither associated with xerostomia nor a reduction in salivary flow rate and immune suppression was not a significant factor for decreasing the salivary flow rate.

Pavithra, S; Ranganathan, K; Rao, UmaDevi K; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rooban, T; Kumarasamy, N

2013-01-01

287

The Active Site Is the Least Stable Structure in the Unfolding Pathway of a Multidomain Cold-Adapted ?-Amylase  

PubMed Central

The cold-active ?-amylase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (AHA) is the largest known multidomain enzyme that displays reversible thermal unfolding (around 30°C) according to a two-state mechanism. Transverse urea gradient gel electrophoresis (TUG-GE) from 0 to 6.64 M was performed under various conditions of temperature (3°C to 70°C) and pH (7.5 to 10.4) in the absence or presence of Ca2+ and/or Tris (competitive inhibitor) to identify possible low-stability domains. Contrary to previous observations by strict thermal unfolding, two transitions were found at low temperature (12°C). Within the duration of the TUG-GE, the structures undergoing the first transition showed slow interconversions between different conformations. By comparing the properties of the native enzyme and the N12R mutant, the active site was shown to be part of the least stable structure in the enzyme. The stability data supported a model of cooperative unfolding of structures forming the active site and independent unfolding of the other more stable protein domains. In light of these findings for AHA, it will be valuable to determine if active-site instability is a general feature of heat-labile enzymes from psychrophiles. Interestingly, the enzyme was also found to refold and rapidly regain activity after being heated at 70°C for 1 h in 6.5 M urea. The study has identified fundamental new properties of AHA and extended our understanding of structure/stability relationships of cold-adapted enzymes.

Siddiqui, Khawar S.; Feller, Georges; D'Amico, Salvino; Gerday, Charles; Giaquinto, Laura; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2005-01-01

288

Sugar compositions, ?-glucosidase inhibitory and amylase inhibitory activities of polysaccharides from leaves and flowers of Camellia sinensis obtained by different extraction methods.  

PubMed

The sugar compositions, ?-glucosidase inhibitory and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of polysaccharides from leaves and flowers of green tea (Camellia sinensis) obtained by hot water extraction (HWE), boiled water extraction (BWE) and enzymatic extraction (EE) were investigated. The yields, sugar contents and monosaccharide compositions of tea leaves polysaccharides (TLPS) and tea flower polysaccharides (TFPS) were all significantly affected by extraction methods. The contents of acidic polysaccharides (APS) extracted by BWE and EE were both much more than those by HWE. The yields of TLPS and TFPS were determined as EE>BWE>HWE. Enzyme and higher temperature could improve the contents of APS and yields of TLPS and TFPS. TLPS and TFPS were all mainly composed of Rha, Ara, Gal, Glu and GalA, very little molar contents of GluA, Xyl and Man. It seemed that enzyme extraction could be more conducive to increase the content of Ara, Gal and GaLA. The molecular weights of TFPS were larger than those of TLPS. The molecular weights of polysaccharides obtained by EE decreased. Proteins in tea leaves and tea flowers might be decomposed by EE by observing UV peaks and IR absorption. peaks. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory and amylase inhibitory activities of TLPS and TFPS obtained by EE were lower than those by water extracted method. The inhibitory percentages of TLPS and TFPS against ?-amylase were all lower than ?-glucosidase for different extractions. PMID:20678520

Wang, Yuanfeng; Yang, Zhiwei; Wei, Xinlin

2010-08-03

289

Cortisol and Children's Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined relations among cortisol, markers of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity (including salivary alpha-amylase and skin conductance level), and children's adjustment. We also tested the Bauer et al. ("Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics," 23(2), 102-113, 2002) hypothesis that interactions between the SNS and cortisol…

El-Sheikh, Mona; Erath, Stephen A.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Mize, Jacquelyn

2008-01-01

290

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the bottom of each page. About the salivary glands The body’s salivary glands are tissues that produce ... often called the minor salivary glands. About salivary gland cancer Cancer begins when normal cells change and ...

291

Feasibility of testing three salivary stress biomarkers in relation to naturalistic traffic noise exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivesStress dependent alterations of the salivary biomarkers alpha-amylase (sAA), salivary chromogranin A (sCgA) and salivary cortisol (sC) have been reported in numerous studies recently. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of testing sAA, sCgA and sC in relation to naturalistic traffic noise exposure in order to monitor a direct stress response in a

Jasmin Wagner; Michael Cik; Egon Marth; Brigitte I. Santner; Eugen Gallasch; Andreas Lackner; Reinhard B. Raggam

2010-01-01

292

Daily timing of salivary cortisol responses and aerobic performance in lean and obese active females.  

PubMed

The main aim of the present study was to study the effects of morning and afternoon physical activities on cortisol responses in obese and lean women. Twenty women volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were divided into an obese group (BMI =29.1 kg/m2) and a lean group (BMI =19 kg/m2). All subjects participated in an exercise program consisting of treadmill running at 65+/-2 % VO2max until exhaustion. In order to study effects of circadian rhythm, exercise was performed at a similar intensity and in similar environmental conditions at both 8:00 AM and 4:00 PM. Saliva specimens were collected at rest 20 minutes before activity and then immediately after the exercise in both morning and afternoon sessions. Morning and afternoon exercise resulted in a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations compared to basal levels in both lean and obese women (p<0.05), though the change in cortisol concentrations were higher in lean. The aerobic function of lean and obese women in the morning and afternoon showed a significant increase of 13.8 % and 5.9 %; respectively, with lean being consistently higher than obese. In conclusion, the stress response to exercise is related to circadian rhythm and individual's body weight. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that overweight women perform exercises in the afternoon to minimize the stress response for the exercise volume performed (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 39). Full Text in free PDF www.bmj.sk. PMID:21585131

Azarbayjani, M A; Vaezepor, F; Rasaee, M J; Tojaril, F; Pournemati, P; Jourkesh, M; Ostojic, S M; Stannard, S R

2011-01-01

293

Serum Amylases in Chronic and End-Stage Renal Failure: Effects of Mode of Therapy, Race, Diabetes and Peritonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum total amylase, pancreatic amylase and lipase activities were studied prospectively in 43 hemodialysis, 22 peritoneal dialysis and 22 chronic renal failure patients. None of the patients had symptoms of pancreatic disease at the time of study. Mean total amylase activities were similar and above the upper limit of normal in the 3 treatment groups. Total amylase was abnormal in

Bahar Bastani; Theodore E. Mifflin; Mark A. Lovell; Frederic B. Westervelt; David E. Bruns

1987-01-01

294

P amylase is always greater than S in spot urine of normal subjects. Diagnostic implications.  

PubMed

Single random samples of urine were collected from 50 control subjects; 27 patients with chronic pancreatitis; 19 with acute pancreatitis; 6 with acute on chronic pancreatitis; five in the recovery phase of acute attack; four patients with pseudocysts. Salivary (S) and pancreatic (P) amylase values were measured by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The P amylase values always exceeded those of S amylase in the control specimens. In acute pancreatitis, both the lower and upper levels of total and P amylase were considerably higher than in the controls, and these high values tended to return to normal during the recovery phase of acute pancreatitis. The S amylase values were often very low or undetectable during the acute phase. Values for P amylase exceeded control values in patients with pseudocysts even in the presence of chronic pancreatitis. In chronic calcific pancreatitis, S amylase was higher than P amylase. We conclude that P amylase is always greater than S amylase in normal urine specimens, and a change in this pattern may be helpful in diagnosing various forms of pancreatitis. PMID:1381408

Bank, S; Abrol, R P; Greenberg, R; Blumstein, M; Kranz, V

1992-06-01

295

Salivary Surrogates of Plasma Nitrite and Catecholamines during a 21-Week Training Season in Swimmers  

PubMed Central

The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA), chromogranin A (sCgA), and the concentration of total protein (sTP) as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2) in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2), respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes.

Diaz Gomez, Miguel Mauricio; Bocanegra Jaramillo, Olga Lucia; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Espindola, Foued Salmen

2013-01-01

296

AmyA, an alpha-amylase with beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, and AmyB from the thermoalkaliphilic organism Anaerobranca gottschalkii: two alpha-amylases adapted to their different cellular localizations.  

PubMed

Two alpha-amylase genes from the thermophilic alkaliphile Anaerobranca gottschalkii were cloned, and the corresponding enzymes, AmyA and AmyB, were investigated after purification of the recombinant proteins. Based on their amino acid sequences, AmyA is proposed to be a lipoprotein with extracellular localization and thus is exposed to the alkaline milieu, while AmyB apparently represents a cytoplasmic enzyme. The amino acid sequences of both enzymes bear high similarity to those of GHF13 proteins. The different cellular localizations of AmyA and AmyB are reflected in their physicochemical properties. The alkaline pH optimum (pH 8), as well as the broad pH range, of AmyA activity (more than 50% activity between pH 6 and pH 9.5) mirrors the conditions that are encountered by an extracellular enzyme exposed to the medium of A. gottschalkii, which grows between pH 6 and pH 10.5. AmyB, on the other hand, has a narrow pH range with a slightly acidic pH optimum at 6 to 6.5, which is presumably close to the pH in the cytoplasm. Also, the intracellular AmyB is less tolerant of high temperatures than the extracellular AmyA. While AmyA has a half-life of 48 h at 70 degrees C, AmyB has a half-life of only about 10 min at that temperature, perhaps due to the lack of stabilizing constituents of the cytoplasm. AmyA and AmyB were very similar with respect to their substrate specificity profiles, clearly preferring amylose over amylopectin, pullulan, and glycogen. Both enzymes also hydrolyzed alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin. Very interestingly, AmyA, but not AmyB, displayed high transglycosylation activity on maltooligosaccharides and also had significant beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) activity. CGTase activity has not been reported for typical alpha-amylases before. The mechanism of cyclodextrin formation by AmyA is unknown. PMID:16000780

Ballschmiter, Meike; Armbrecht, Martin; Ivanova, Krasimira; Antranikian, Garabed; Liebl, Wolfgang

2005-07-01

297

THE SALIVARY CATECHOL OXIDASE\\/PEROXIDASE ACTIVITIES OF THE MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ALBIMANUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Salivary gland homogenates from adult female Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes relaxed aortic rings preconstricted with noradrenaline (NA). This relaxation is slow and is due to destruction of NA. Incubation of NA with the homogenate yielded a product with a spectrum consistent with the corresponding adrenochrome. Oxidation of NA was enhanced by a superoxide generation system and inhibited by the combined

JOSÉ M. C. RIBEIRO; ROBERTO H. NUSSENZVEIG

1993-01-01

298

Salivary gland and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Recent evidences suggest that the apoptotic pathway plays a central role in tolerazing T cells to tissue-specific self antigen, and may drive the autoimmune phenomenon in the salivary glands. We found that retinoblastoma-associated protein RbAp48 overexpression induces p53-mediated apoptosis in the salivary glands caused by estrogen deficiency. We demonstrated that transgenic (Tg) expression of RbAp48 resulted in the development of autoimmune exocrinopathy resembling Sjögren's syndrome (SS). CD4(+)T cell-mediated autoimmune lesions in the salivary glands were aggravated with age, in association with autoantibody productions. We obtained evidences that salivary epithelial cells can produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) besides interleukin (IL)-18, which activates interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), and class II transactivator (CIITA). Indeed, the autoimmune lesions into Rag2(-/-) mice were induced by the adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from RbAp48-Tg mice. These results indicate a novel immunocompetent role of epithelial cells that can produce IFN-gamma, resulting in loss of local tolerance prior to developing gender-based autoimmunity. The studies reviewed the molecular mechanisms on the development of salivary gland autoimmunity, and gender-related differences in SS. PMID:20224179

Hayashi, Yoshio; Arakaki, Rieko; Ishimaru, Naozumi

2009-01-01

299

TRK-A, HER-2/neu, and KIT Expression/Activation Profiles in Salivary Gland Carcinoma1,2  

PubMed Central

Salivary duct carcinomas (SDCs) and adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are the most aggressive and the most frequent carcinomas of the salivary glands, respectively. Little is known about them in terms of molecular/biochemical characterization and conventional treatments are ineffective. On cryopreserved material, we analyzed the expression/activation status of TRK-A, HER-2/neu, and KIT receptors by means of immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis experiments, and the presence of their cognate ligands by means of Western blot analysis and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 9 SDCs, 12 ACCs, and 8 normal glands. The amplification status of HER-2/neu was also investigated by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis on fixed material. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-deregulated profile of the SDCs was characterized by the overexpression of activated TRK-A in the presence of its ligand, and the overexpression of HER-2/neu sustained by gene amplification. The RTK signature of the ACCs was represented by the overexpression of activated KIT and TRK-A and their cognate ligands, and the overexpression of activated HER-2/neu, in the absence of gene amplification, possibly sustained by epidermal growth factor receptor heterodimerization. In conclusion, SDCs and ACCs, although sharing TRK-A autocrine loop activation, have different pathologically activated RTK-deregulated profiles that may be potential targets for pharmacological RTK inhibitors.

Dagrada, Gian Paolo; Greco, Angela; Staurengo, Samantha; Guzzo, Marco; Locati, Laura D; Carbone, Antonino; Pierotti, Marco A

2008-01-01

300

The inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from sorghum, foxtail millet and proso millet on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal crops have recently experienced increased interest due to their potential health benefits. It has been suggested that the intake of whole grain foods is beneficial to the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of 70% EtOH extracts from different cultivars of sorghum, foxtail millet and proso millet on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase.

Ju-Sung Kim; Tae Kyung Hyun; Myong-Jo Kim

2011-01-01

301

Purification of Wheat Germ Amylase by Precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amylase from various sources was found to bind alginate in free solution. The alginate–enzyme complex could be precipitated with Ca2+. The enzyme activity could be recovered by dissolving the precipitate in 1 M maltose and precipitating alginate alone by addition of Ca2+. Based upon these observations, ?-amylase from wheat germ was purified with 68-fold purification and 72% recovery. The molecular

Aparna Sharma; Shweta Sharma; M. N. Gupta

2000-01-01

302

Production of alpha-amylase by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme alpha-amylase confers to an organism the enzymatic activity for the degradation of polyglucosides with alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds such as starch and glycogen which are among the major storage compounds in plants and animals. Most alpha-amylases are single polypeptides of molecular weights around 50,000 dalton. They are generally found in the digestive tract of animals and in germinating seeds.

Thomse

1987-01-01

303

Inhibition of Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, ?-Amylases by ?-Amylase Inhibitors (T-?AI) from Triticale  

PubMed Central

The effect of triticale ?-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps ?-amylases. The effects of the triticale ?-amylase inhibitor (T-?AI) on ?-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the Km remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (Vmax) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T50) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps ?-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-?AI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut ?-amylase.

Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R.; Saadati, Fatemeh

2010-01-01

304

Simultaneous measurement of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities in sake rice koji by capillary electrophoresis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes and activity measurement of glucoamylase by in-capillary enzyme reaction method.  

PubMed

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes using a nongel sieving matrix (CE-SDS) has been applied to the simultaneous analysis of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activity in sake rice koji which is employed for the brewing of sake. Alpha-amylase and glucoamylase in sake rice koji extracts were successfully analyzed by CE-SDS. Alpha-amylase and glucoamylase were found to have molecular masses of 53000 and 63000 Da, respectively, as determined by the migration times of eight standard proteins. These values agree with those determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The results of CE-SDS method were compared with those achieved by the official method. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of the alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities by CE-SDS were less than 5.0% in both intra-day and inter-day experiments. An electrophoretic analysis of products of an enzyme reaction of a substrate by in-capillary reaction was also useful for the activity measurement of glucoamylase in sake rice koji. p-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-maltoside (PNP-Mal) was employed as a substrate and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNP-Glu) was the product of the enzyme reaction. The glucoamylase activity of sake rice koji samples gave the good linear relationship with the peak area observed in the in-capillary enzyme reaction method. The glucoamylase activity in sake rice koji was measured by either CE-SDS or the in-capillary enzyme reaction more easily than by the official method. Both methods can be applied to the routine quality control of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities in sake rice koji. PMID:9788317

Watanabe, T; Yamamoto, A; Nagai, S; Terabe, S

1998-10-01

305

Effects of tea polyphenols on the activities of ?-amylase, pepsin, trypsin and lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tea polyphenols (TP) possess many beneficial properties, such as reducing the risk of cancer and heart diseases, and acting as natural antioxidants for the food industry. At the same time, tea polyphenols might inhibit digestive enzymes and reduce food digestibility. To explore this possible antinutritional property, the effects of tea polyphenols on the activity of four typical digestive enzymes were

Qiang He; Yuanping Lv; Kai Yao

2007-01-01

306

The nutraceutical role of the Phaseolus vulgaris ?-amylase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review assesses the potential of the Phaseolus vulgaris a-amylase inhibitor isoform 1 (a-AI1) starch blockers as a widely used remedy against obesity and diabetes. Consumption of the a-amylase inhibitor causes marginal intraluminal a-amylase activity facilitated by the inhibitor's appropriate structural, physico-chemical and functional properties. As a result there is decreased postprandial plasma hyperglycaemia and insulin levels, increased resistance

Wokadala Cuthbert Obiro; Tao Zhang; Bo Jiang

2008-01-01

307

Production of amylase by Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus.  

PubMed

Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus ATCC 700733 grew with a doubling time of 1.5-2.3 h (22 degrees C) and produced up to 0.2 units/mL (soluble starch assay) of extracellular amylase in tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSBWD) containing 0.5% or 1.0% (w/v) soluble starch or maltose as the fermentable substrate. Time-course experiments in media containing soluble starch as substrate showed that amylolytic activity appeared in cultures at 24 h (after exponential growth had ceased), reached peak levels in 72-96 h, and declined rapidly after reaching peak levels. Peak levels were highest in TSBWD containing 1.0% soluble starch. Proteolytic activity appeared at about the same time as amylolytic activity and increased during the period of amylase production. Significant amylase production was not observed in cultures in TSBWD with 0.5% glucose or in cultures grown at 28 degrees C, but low levels of amylase were observed in TSBWD cultures grown at 19-23 degrees C which contained no added carbohydrate. A single band of activity was observed after electrophoresis of supernatant fractions in non-denaturing gels, followed by in situ staining for amylolytic activity. The amylase possessed a raw starch-binding domain and bound to uncooked corn, wheat or potato starch granules. It was active in the Phadebas assay for alpha-amylase. Activity was maximum on soluble starch at a temperature between 40 degrees C and 50 degrees C. The amylase after purification by affinity chromatography on raw starch granules exhibited two starch-binding protein bands on SDS gels of 105 kDa and 26 kDa. PMID:15931519

Smith, Michael R; Zahnley, James C

2005-06-02

308

EXCITABILITY AND SECRETORY ACTIVITY IN THE SALIVARY GLAND CELLS OF JAWED LEECHES (HIRUDINEA: GNATHOBDELLIDA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thousands of salivary cells fill the interstices throughout the anterior ends of jawed leeches. The somata are large (30-200jum in diameter). They project single processes (ductules) into the three jaws, and were found to fire overshooting action potentials of 50-85 mV amplitude and 100-200 ms duration at low spontaneous rates. The action potentials were not detected in the presence

CAMERON G. MARSHALL; CHARLES M. LENT

309

A critical assessment of a viscometric assay for measuring Saccharomycopsis fibuligera ?-amylase activity on gelatinised cassava starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A viscometric technique for measuring Saccharomycopsis fibuligera DSM-70554 ?-amylase on gelatinised cassava starch aqueous solutions was assessed. The selected conditions for working over a reliable viscosity measurement range involved a starch concentration of 5% (w\\/v) and a shear rate of 0.168 1\\/s. Viscometric assay involved the determination of the slope of the decrease in viscosity with time of the starch

C. F González; J. I Fariña; L. I. C Figueroa

2002-01-01

310

Functional significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster . III. Ontogeny of amylase and some ?-glucosidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in amylase (E.C. 3.2.1.1), maltase (E.C. 3.2.1.20), sucrase, and PNPGase activities in relation to changes in wet weight and protein content were studied during the development of larvae and adult flies from two strains of Drosophila melanogaster, homozygous for different amylase alleles. All ?-glucosidase activities increase exponentially during a large part of larval development, parallel to the increase in

A. J. W. Hoorn; W. Scharloo

1980-01-01

311

Salivary cortisol, heart rate, electrodermal activity and subjective stress responses to the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST).  

PubMed

The availability of effective laboratory paradigms for inducing psychological stress is an important requirement for experimental stress research. Reliable protocols are scarce, usually laborious and manpower-intensive. In order to develop an economical, easily applicable standardized stress protocol, we have recently tailored the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST). This test has been shown to induce relatively high stress responses without focusing on social-evaluative components. In this study we evaluated changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol in response to the MMST. The MMST simultaneously combines cognitive (mental arithmetic), emotional (affective pictures), acoustic (white noise) and motivational stressors (loss of money). This study comprised two independent experiments. For experiment 1, 80 female subjects were recruited; 30 subjects (15 females) participated in experiment 2. Significant changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol levels in response to MMST exposure were found. Subjective stress and heart rate responses were significantly increased in both experiments. These results indicate that the MMST is an economical stress paradigm which is also applicable in larger cohorts or multicenter studies for investigating stress reactions. As social-evaluative threat is not the main stress component of the MMST, this procedure represents a useful and complementary alternative to other established stress protocols. PMID:22397919

Reinhardt, Tatyana; Schmahl, Christian; Wüst, Stefan; Bohus, Martin

2012-03-06

312

Bacterial diversity and bioprospecting for cold-active lipases, amylases and proteases, from culturable bacteria of kongsfjorden and Ny-alesund, Svalbard, Arctic.  

PubMed

Culturable bacterial diversity of seven marine sediment samples of Kongsfjorden and a sediment and a soil sample from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Arctic was studied. The bacterial abundance in the marine sediments of Kongsfjorden varied marginally (0.5 x 10(3)-1.3 x 10(4) cfu/g sediment) and the bacterial number in the two samples collected from the shore of Ny-Alesund also was very similar (0.6 x 10(4) and 3.4 x 10(4), respectively). From the nine samples a total of 103 bacterial isolates were obtained and these isolates could be grouped in to 47 phylotypes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence belonging to 4 phyla namely Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Representatives of the 47 phylotypes varied in their growth temperature range (4-37 degrees C), in their tolerance to NaCl (0.3-2 M NaCl) and growth pH range (2-11). Representatives of 26 phylotypes exhibited amylase and lipase activity either at 5 or 20 degrees C or at both the temperatures. A few of the representatives exhibited amylase and/or lipase activity only at 5 degrees C. None of the phylotypes exhibited protease activity. Most of the phylotypes (38) were pigmented. Fatty acid profile studies indicated that short chain fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, branched fatty acids, the cyclic and the cis fatty acids are predominant in the psychrophilic bacteria. PMID:19680721

Srinivas, T N R; Nageswara Rao, S S S; Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, P; Pratibha, M S; Sailaja, B; Kavya, B; Hara Kishore, K; Begum, Z; Singh, S M; Shivaji, S

2009-08-13

313

Biochemical Properties of ?-Amylase from Peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. ?-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange,\\u000a and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of ?-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of\\u000a ?-amylase

Saleh Ahmed Mohamed; Ehab A. Drees; Mohamed O. El-Badry; Afaf S. Fahmy

2010-01-01

314

Salivary gland tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. Saliva ...

315

Fibrin selectivity of the isolated protease domains of tissue-type and vampire bat salivary gland plasminogen activators.  

PubMed

The activity of vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) salivary plasminogen activator (D. rotundus PA alpha1) and to a much lesser extent of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is stimulated by the presence of fibrin. This cofactor requirement has in the past intuitively been attributed to fibrin binding. We have previously shown that elements of the non-protease domain of D. rotundus PA alpha1 could contribute to fibrin stimulation irrespective of fibrin binding. We now demonstrate that the protease domain of D. rotundus PA alpha1 by itself exhibits fibrin selectivity, i.e. it is 32-fold stimulated by fibrin but only 1.5-fold by fibrinogen. To a lesser extent this fibrin selectivity is also shared by the protease domain of t-PA. Our findings indicate that protein-protein interactions apart from fibrin binding affect the stimulatory mechanism of fibrin on D. rotundus PA alpha1 and t-PA. PMID:9523718

Toschi, L; Bringmann, P; Petri, T; Donner, P; Schleuning, W D

1998-02-15

316

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... statistics about salivary gland cancer? What is salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancer is a cancer that ... can develop in these glands. About the salivary glands Salivary glands produce saliva -- the lubricating fluid found ...

317

Purification and characterisation of a malto-oligosaccharide-forming amylase active at high pH from Bacillus clausii BT-21.  

PubMed

Bacillus clausii BT-21 produced an extracellular malto-oligosaccharide-forming amylase active at high pH when grown on starch substrates. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the enzyme estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoresis was 101 kDa. The enzyme showed an optimum of activity at pH 9.5 and 55 degrees C. Maltohexaose was detected as the main initially formed starch hydrolysis product. Maltotetraose and maltose were the main products obtained after hydrolysis of starch by the enzyme for an extended period of time and were not further degraded. The enzyme readily hydrolysed soluble starch, amylopectin and amylose, while cyclodextrins, pullulan or dextran were not degraded. The mode of action during hydrolysis of starch indicated an exo-acting type of amylolytic enzyme mainly producing maltohexaose and maltotetraose. Amino acid sequencing of the enzyme revealed high homology with the maltohexaose-forming amylase from Bacillus sp. H-167. PMID:11086690

Duedahl-Olesen, L; Kragh, K M; Zimmermann, W

2000-10-20

318

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) extract as well as (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and its mammalian derivatives are potent inhibitors of ?-amylase activity.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the common global diseases. Flaxseed is by far the richest source of the dietary lignans (i.e., secoisolariciresinol diglucoside) which have been shown to delay the development of T2DM in animal models. Herein, we propose the first evidences for a mechanism of action involving the inhibition of the pancreatic ?-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) by flaxseed-derived lignans that could therefore constitute a promising nutraceutical for the prevention and the treatment of T2DM. PMID:23583514

Hano, Christophe; Renouard, Sullivan; Molinié, Roland; Corbin, Cyrielle; Barakzoy, Esmatullah; Doussot, Joël; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric

2013-03-16

319

Amylase, falling number, polysaccharide, protein and ash relationships in wheat millstreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat of two strong high-protein and two weak low-protein cultivars from New Zealand and Australia were milled to commercial\\u000a specifications. All millstreams were tested for ?-amylase, ?-amylase, falling number, protein, starch, damaged starch, amylose,\\u000a amylopectin, pentosan and ash. The distribution of ?-amylase in millstream flours was more variable among cultivars than ?-amylase.\\u000a Generally, both enzymes had lowest activity in sizing

Dale Every; Lyall Simmons; Jafar Al-Hakkak; Sarah Hawkins; Marcela Ross

2002-01-01

320

Wet-Milling and Dry-Milling Properties of Dent Corn with Addition of Amylase Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 83(4):321-323 A transgenic corn (amylase corn) has been developed that produces an endogenous ?-amylase that is activated in the presence of water and elevated temperature (>70°C). Wet- and dry-milling characteristics of amylase corn were evaluated using laboratory wet- and dry-milling procedures. Different amounts of amylase corn (0.1-10%) were added to dent corn (with the same genetic background as

Vijay Singh; Christopher J. Batie; Kent D. Rausch; Carl Miller

2006-01-01

321

Characterization of a new Bacillus stearothermophilus isolate: a highly thermostable ?-amylase-producing strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from samples of a potato-processing industry. Compared to known a-amylases from other B. stearothermophilus strains, the isolate was found to produce a highly thermostable a-amylase. The half-time of inactivation of this a-amylase was 5.1 h at 80°C and 2.4 h at 90°C. The temperature optimum for activity of the a-amylase was 70°C;

R. D. Wind; R. M. Buitelaar; G. Eggink; H. J. Huizing; L. Dijkhuizen

1994-01-01

322

Effects of membrane stabilizers on pancreatic amylase release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Compounds with membrane stabilizing activity were studied as to their ability to affect pancreatic amylase release and the steps in the stimulus-secretion coupling process. Chlorpromazine, propranolol, and thymol were all found to inhibit bethanechol-stimulated amylase release and at slightly higher concentrations to induce release regardless of the presence of the secretagogue. This biphasic effect was similar to that found

John A. Williams; Jørgen Hedemark Poulsen; Mark Lee

1977-01-01

323

Targeted Disruption of the  Amylase Gene in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfolobus solfataricus secretes an acid-resistant -amylase (amyA) during growth on starch as the sole carbon and energy source. Synthesis of this activity is subject to catabolite repression. To better understand -amylase function and regulation, the structural gene was identified and disrupted and the resulting mutant was characterized. Internal -amylase peptide sequences obtained by tandem mass spectroscopy were used to identify

Penny Worthington; Viet Hoang; Francisco Perez-Pomares; Paul Blum

2003-01-01

324

Amylase expression in taste receptor cells of rat circumvallate papillae.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the luminal content is now accepted to have a profound influence on the performance of chemosensory receptors. Gustatory and intestinal chemoreceptors have in common their expression of molecules involved in taste sensing and signal transduction pathways. The recent finding that enterocytes of the duodenal epithelium are capable of expressing luminal pancreatic amylase suggests that taste cells of the gustatory epithelium might, in the same way, express salivary amylase in the oral cavity. Therefore, we investigated amylase expression in rat circumvallate papillae by using analyses involving immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we used double-labeling confocal laser microscopy to compare amylase immunolabeling with that of the following markers: protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and chromogranin A (CgA) for endocrine cells, alpha-gustducin and phospholipase C beta 2 (PLC beta 2) as taste-signaling molecules, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and Clara-cell-specific secretory protein of 10-kDa (CC10) as secretory markers. The results showed that amylase was present in some taste bud cells; its immunoreactivity was observed in subsets of cells that expressed CgA, alpha-gustducin, PLC beta 2, CFTR, or CC10. PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity was never colocalized with amylase. The data suggest that amylase-positive cells constitute an additional subset of taste receptor cells also associated with chemoreceptorial and/or secretory molecules, confirming the occurrence of various pathways in taste buds. PMID:19408014

Merigo, Flavia; Benati, Donatella; Cecchini, Maria Paola; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

2009-05-01

325

Autonomous isolation, long-term culture and differentiation potential of adult salivary gland-derived stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells belong to the endodermal lineage and may serve as good candidates to replace their dysfunctional counterparts. The objective of this study was to isolate large numbers of salivary gland tissue-derived stem cells (SGSCs) from adult rats in order to develop a clinically applicable method that does not involve sorting or stem cell induction by duct ligation. We analysed SGSCs isolated from normal rat salivary glands to determine whether they retained the major characteristics of stem cells, self-renewal and multipotency, especially with respect to the various endodermal cell types. SGSCs expressed high levels of integrin ?6?1 and c-kit, which are surface markers of SGSCs. In particular, the integrin ?6?1(+) /c-kit(+) salivary gland cells maintained the morphology, proliferation activity and multipotency of stem cells for up to 92 passages in 12 months. Furthermore, we analysed the capacity of SGSCs to differentiate into endoderm lineage cell types, such as acinar-like and insulin-secreting cells. When cultured on growth factor reduced matrigel, the morphology of progenitor cells changed to acinar-like structures and these cells expressed the acinar cell-specific marker, ?-amylase, and tight junction markers. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data showed increased expression of pancreatic cell markers, including insulin, Pdx1, pan polypeptide and neurogenin-3, when these cells formed pancreatic clusters in the presence of activin A, exendin-4 and retinoic acid. These data demonstrate that adult salivary stem/progenitor cells may serve as a potential source for cell therapy in salivary gland hypofunction and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22915381

Baek, Hyunjung; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Joo Hee; Yeon, Soo-In; Jeong, Jaemin; Kwon, Heechung

2012-08-23

326

Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Thermostable, Alkaline Tolerant ?-Amylase from Bacillus cereus.  

PubMed

Thermostable alkaline ?-amylase producing bacterium Bacilluscereus strain isolated from Cuddalore harbour waters grew maximally in both shake flask and fermentor, and produced ?-amylase at 35°C, pH 7.5 and 1.0% of substrate concentrations. ?-Amylase activity was maximum at 65°C, pH 8.0, 89% of its activity was sustained even at pH 11.0. Added with MnCl(2,) ?-amylase activity showed 4% increase but it was inhibited by EDTA. The molecular weight of the purified ?-amylase is 42 kDa. PMID:23024403

Annamalai, N; Thavasi, R; Vijayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T

2011-02-13

327

[Diffuse bronchiolo-alveolar cell carcinoma that produced both amylase and CA19-9].  

PubMed

A 68-year-old man who worked as an editor was admitted to Aichi Medical University Hospital due to dyspnea on exertion and emaciation. The patient had noticed rapid weight loss during diet therapy for diabetes mellitus that started in the beginning of July, 1993. Laboratory examinations revealed elevated levels of LDH and amylase in serum. Ultrasonography disclosed minimal ascites. Dyspnea on exertion developed in September, 1993. Chest roentgenography showed diffuse bilateral small nodular or reticular opacities. CT-guided percutaneous needle aspiration was done and cytologic examination of a specimen of lung tissue revealed papillary adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. Serum levels of amylase were elevated. The amylase isozyme pattern was of the salivary type. Serum levels of CA19-9 and CEA were also elevated. The patient died of respiratory failure on December 4, 1993. Postmortem examination revealed diffuse small nodules in both lungs. Examination of the nodules showed bronchiolo-alveolar cell carcinoma. The tumor cells stained positively for amylase (salivary type, not pancreatic type) CA19-9, and CEA by the avidin biotin complex method, but they were immunohistologically negative for AFP. We conclude that this lung cancer produced amylase, CA19-9, and CEA. We know of only a few reports of cases in which lung cancer produced both amylase and CA19-9. PMID:9212668

Nonogaki, T; Morishita, M; Shimizu, N; Oguri, T; Aoki, S

1997-04-01

328

Amylase ?-2A Autoantibodies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE— The pathogenesis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and fulminant type 1 diabetes remains unclear, although it is known that immune-mediated processes severely compromise the endocrine and exocrine functions in both diseases. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We have screened a ?TriplEx2 human pancreas cDNA library with serum from a patient with AIP and obtained positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that 7 of 10 clones were identical to human amylase ?-2A. Using a recombinant COOH-terminal amylase ?-2A protein, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to detect autoantibodies against human amylase ?-2A. RESULTS— All 15 serum samples from patients with AIP recognized the recombinant protein, whereas sera from 25 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and sera from 25 patients with a pancreas tumor did not. Interestingly, 88% (15/17) of patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes were positive for an autoantibody against amylase ?-2A. These antibodies were detected in 21% of patients with acute-onset type 1 diabetes (9 of 42) and 6% of type 2 diabetic patients (4 of 67). CONCLUSIONS— These results suggest that an autoantibody against amylase ?-2A is a novel diagnostic marker for both AIP and fulminant type 1 diabetes and that, clinically and immunologically, AIP and fulminant type 1 diabetes are closely related.

Endo, Toyoshi; Takizawa, Soichi; Tanaka, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Fujii, Hideki; Kamisawa, Terumi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

2009-01-01

329

Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?  

PubMed

Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ? or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences. PMID:20412448

Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

2010-10-01

330

Glycogen content and activities of enzymes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism of the salivary glands of rats during postnatal development.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate metabolism was examined in the developing rat salivary glands by analysing enzymatic activity and glycogen content in the postnatal parotid and submandibular glands. The following enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism, hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the content of glycogen were determined in the salivary glands of rats aged 2, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days. The specific activity of HK increased from days 2 to 21 and then it decreased up to 60 days old. The values found for the submandibular glands were from 2.5 to 4.9 times higher than those found for the parotid gland, except for rats aged 60 days. PFK-1 showed a different pattern of variation between the glands. In the submandibular gland there was a statistically significant increase in PFK-1 specific activity from 2 to 30 days of age and then, in the 60 days old group a return to level of the rats aged 2 days. In parotid gland, the specific activity of PFK-1 decreased between 2 and 7 days of age, from 7 to 14 days the specific activity increased markedly and from 14 to 60 days old it gradually decreased. The specific activity of PK followed the same pattern of variation in the submandibular and parotid glands, showing no great variation. The specific activity of LDH decreased from 2 to 60 days old in the submandibular glands. In the parotid glands the mean values for this enzyme were higher for the 2 days old group, and then decreased to remained more or less constant. The potential capacity of the pentose phosphate pathway was greater than that of glycolysis at early ages. The glycogen content showed similar variation in both glands. It was initially high and then decreased. In conclusion, our results on the activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in submandibular and parotid glands may be relevant to the initiation of saliva secretion in these animals. PMID:12642228

Nicolau, José; Ganzerla, Emily; de Souza, Douglas Nesadal

2003-02-01

331

The fully conserved Asp residue in conserved sequence region I of the alpha-amylase family is crucial for the catalytic site architecture and activity.  

PubMed

The alpha-amylase family is a large group of starch processing enzymes [Svensson, B. (1994) Plant Mol. Biol. 25, 141-157]. It is characterized by four short sequence motifs that contain the seven fully conserved amino acid residues in this family: two catalytic carboxylic acid residues and four substrate binding residues. The seventh conserved residue (Asp135) has no direct interactions with either substrates or products, but it is hydrogen-bonded to Arg227, which does bind the substrate in the catalytic site. Using cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase as an example, this paper provides for the first time definite biochemical and structural evidence that Asp135 is required for the proper conformation of several catalytic site residues and therefore for activity. PMID:12706817

Leemhuis, Hans; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Dijkstra, Bauke W; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

2003-04-24

332

[Microbe amylases: characteristic, properties and practical use].  

PubMed

Current data concerning structure, properties and methods of purification ofmicrobial amylolytic enzymes are summarized in this paper. A short characteristic of the main methods of amylase activity measuring is presented, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are shown. It is proposed that novel techniques of enzyme immobilization stabilize the structure of amylases and allow their multiple uses. Scientific interest to amylases is analyzed that is explained by a number of their unique properties such as thermostability and pH-tolerance. Authors have demonstrated some examples of the practical using ofamylases in different fields of industry: textile, paper, food industries, brewing and wine-making. The prospects of their possible using in detergent preparing for laundries and dishwashers are presented. It is supposed that future investigations in this trend for isolating new amrnylases from native producers will be developed. PMID:18380181

Kubrak, O I; Lushchak, V I

333

Conjugation of ?-amylase with dextran for enhanced stability: process details, kinetics and structural analysis.  

PubMed

The influence of enzyme polysaccharide interaction on enzyme stability and activity was elucidated by covalently binding dextran to a model enzyme, ?-amylase. The conjugation process was optimized with respect to concentration of oxidizing agent, pH of enzyme solution, ratio of dextran to enzyme concentration, temperature and time of conjugate formation, and was found to affect the stability of ?-amylase. ?-Amylase conjugated under optimized conditions showed 5% loss of activity but with enhanced thermal and pH stability. Lower inactivation rate constant of conjugated ?-amylase within the temperature range of 60-80 °C implied its better stability. Activation energy for denaturation of ?-amylase increased by 8.81 kJ/mol on conjugation with dextran. Analysis of secondary structure of ?-amylase after covalent binding with dextran showed helix to turn conversion without loss of functional properties of ?-amylase. Covalent bonding was found to be mandatory for the formation of conjugate. PMID:22944451

Jadhav, Swati B; Singhal, Rekha S

2012-08-04

334

Effect of salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell-derived alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase on the bioactivity of macrophage activating factor.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) produced by human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (SGA) cells on the bioactivity of macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). High exo-alpha-NaGalase activity was detected in the SGA cell line HSG. HSG alpha-NaGalase had both exo- and endo-enzyme activities, cleaving the Gal-GalNAc and GalNAc residues linked to Thr/Ser but not releasing the [NeuAc2-6]GalNac residue. Furthermore, GcMAF enzymatically prepared from the Gc protein enhanced the superoxide-generation capacity and phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. However, GcMAF treated with purified alpha-NaGalase did not exhibit these effects. Thus, HSG possesses the capacity to produce larger quantities of alpha-NaGalase, which inactivates GcMAF produced from Gc protein, resulting in reduced phagocytic activity and superoxide-generation capacity of monocytes/macrophages. The present data strongly suggest that HSG alpha-NaGalase acts as an immunodeficiency factor in cancer patients. PMID:14767536

Matsuura, Takashi; Uematsu, Takashi; Yamaoka, Minoru; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

2004-03-01

335

Development of a potent bombesin receptor antagonist with prolonged in vivo inhibitory activity on bombesin-stimulated amylase and protein release in the rat.  

PubMed

Of the various types of potent bombesin(Bn)/gastrin releasing peptide receptor antagonists that have been discovered, the desMet14-methyl ester peptides are devoid of residual agonist activity and are among the most potent in terms of in vitro receptor blockade and also in terms of their prolonged inhibition of bombesin-stimulated amylase and protein release in the rat. We have now examined the in vitro and in vivo properties of a new series of methyl ester analogues, [D-Phe6]Bn(6-13)OMe, [D-Phe6,D-Ala11]Bn(6-13)OMe, N alpha-propionyl-[D-Ala24]GRP(20-26)OMe, and [D-pentafluoro-Phe6,D-Ala11]Bn(6-13)OMe, which have an additional D-amino acid substituent and some highly lipophilic moieties at the N-terminus. All analogues were able to potently antagonize the ability of Bn to stimulate amylase release from rat acinar cells, with IC50 values of 2.4, 2.5, 0.6, and 1.3 nM, respectively. The four peptides were found to have binding affinities for these cells comparable to Bn itself, with K(i)s of 10.3, 2.8, 5.5, and 3.6 nM, respectively, but all had little or no affinity for neuromedin B receptors on murine C6 cells. Single bolus IV injections of these peptides were found to potently inhibit amylase and protein release caused by IV infusion of bombesin into the rat. Generally the peptides containing the D-Ala substituent were longer acting than [D-Phe6]Bn(6-13)OMe, so that [D-Phe6,D-Ala11]Bn(6-13)OMe and N alpha-propionyl-[D-Ala24]GRP(20-26)OMe displayed significant inhibitory effects for up to 1.5 h after administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1279632

Coy, D H; Mungan, Z; Rossowski, W J; Cheng, B L; Lin, J T; Mrozinski, J E; Jensen, R T

336

Salivary agglutinin and lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein 340 have broad anti-influenza activities and interactions with surfactant protein D that vary according to donor source and sialylation  

PubMed Central

We previously found that scavenger receptor cysteine-rich gp-340 (glycoprotein-340), isolated from lung or saliva, directly inhibits human IAVs (influenza A viruses). We now show that salivary gp-340 has broad antiviral activity against human, equine and porcine IAV strains. Although lung and salivary gp-340 are identical in protein sequence, salivary gp-340 from one donor had significantly greater antiviral activity against avian-like IAV strains which preferentially bind sialic acids in ?(2,3) linkage. A greater density of ?(2,3)-linked sialic acids was present on the salivary gp-340 from this donor as compared with salivary gp-340 from another donor or several preparations of lung gp-340. Hence, the specificity of sialic acid linkages on gp-340 is an important determinant of anti-IAV activity. Gp-340 binds to SP-D (surfactant protein D), and we previously showed that lung gp-340 has co-operative interactions with SP-D in viral neutralization and aggregation assays. We now report that salivary gp-340 can, in some cases, strongly antagonize certain antiviral activities of SP-D. This effect was associated with greater binding of salivary gp-340 to the carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-D as compared with the binding of lung gp-340. These findings may relate to inter-individual variations in innate defence against highly pathogenic IAV and to effects of aspiration of oral contents on SP-D-mediated lung functions.

Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Ligtenberg, Antoon; White, Mitchell R.; van Eijk, Martin; Hartshorn, Max; Pemberton, Lily; Holmskov, Uffe; Crouch, Erika

2005-01-01

337

Consumption of kininogen in the submandibular salivary gland when activated by chorda stimulation  

PubMed Central

1. A method is described for determination of kininogen 1 (substrate mainly for plasma kallikrein) and kininogen 2 (substrate for glandular kallikrein) independently in cat plasma. 2. In anaesthetized cats the arterial inflow to, and venous outflow from, the submandibular salivary gland were isolated: a roller pump giving constant volume inflow was interposed in the arterial circuit. 3. Venous blood was collected at rest, during and after stimulation of the chorda tympani, and its content of kininogens 1 and 2 were estimated. Kininogen 2 was reduced up to 60% by chorda stimulation, whereas the level of kininogen 1 was unchanged. 4. On close arterial infusion of bradykinin or histamine in amounts which produce large vascular effects, including increased capillary permeability, the venous blood levels of both kininogens 1 and 2 were unchanged. 5. It is concluded that the selective loss of kininogen 2 on chorda stimulation results from the release of kallikrein into the tissue spaces and reflects the extent of kinin formation within the gland.

Gautvik, K. M.; Hilton, S. M.; Torres, Sonia H.

1970-01-01

338

Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of

W. Zetterquist; C. Pedroletti; J. O. n. Lundberg; K. Alving

1999-01-01

339

The effectiveness of the Uchida-Kraepelin test for psychological stress: an analysis of plasma and salivary stress substances  

PubMed Central

Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system are the major stress-response pathways. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) represents HPA axis activity, while plasma catecholamines are used as markers of the SAM system. Salivary alpha amylase (AA), chromogranin A (CgA), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are candidate markers of stress activation, although their role has not been established. The Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test is a questionnaire that requires intense concentration and effort, and has been used as a tool to induce mental stress. However, it is not clear whether or not the test is effective as a psychological/mental stressor. Methods In this study, normal young women took the U-K test and serial measurements of plasma ACTH and catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline) (n = 10), as well as salivary AA, CgA, and IgA (n = 16) before, during and after the test. Results We found no changes in any of these parameters at any time point during or after the U-K test. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the U-K test is not a suitable for measuring the psychological/mental stress of young women because the plasma data showed that it did not affect the HPA axis and SAM system. The U-K test should be employed carefully as a psychological/mental stressor due to insufficient scientific evidence of its effectiveness. In addition, salivary AA, CgA, and IgA should not simply be compared with previous reports, because the mechanism of secretion and normal range of each salivary parameter remain unknown. Salivary AA, CgA, and IgA may not be suitable candidate markers of psychological/mental stress.

Sugimoto, Koreaki; Kanai, Aya; Shoji, Noriaki

2009-01-01

340

Purification and characterization of five alkaline, thermotolerant, and maltotetraose-producing ?-amylases from Bacillus halodurans MS2-5, and production of recombinant enzymes in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated strain, MS-2-5, identified as Bacillus halodurans, produced five alkaline and thermotolerant amylases. The five amylases, named amylases A–E, were separated from each other, and purified to homogeneity. The molecular masses of these amylases were different from each other, and estimated to be 90, 85, 70, 65, and 58kDa. These amylases showed the maximal activities at 60–65°C and

Shuichiro Murakami; Kenji Nagasaki; Haruka Nishimoto; Ryo Shigematu; Jun Umesaki; Shinji Takenaka; Jarunee Kaulpiboon; Manchumas Prousoontorn; Tipaporn Limpaseni; Piamsook Pongsawasdi; Kenji Aoki

2008-01-01

341

Induction of a Peptide with Activity against a Broad Spectrum of Pathogens in the Aedes aegypti Salivary Gland, following Infection with Dengue Virus  

PubMed Central

The ultimate stage of the transmission of Dengue Virus (DENV) to man is strongly dependent on crosstalk between the virus and the immune system of its vector Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Infection of the mosquito's salivary glands by DENV is the final step prior to viral transmission. Therefore, in the present study, we have determined the modulatory effects of DENV infection on the immune response in this organ by carrying out a functional genomic analysis of uninfected salivary glands and salivary glands of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes infected with DENV. We have shown that DENV infection of salivary glands strongly up-regulates the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in the vector's innate immune response, including the immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll signalling pathways, and that it induces the expression of the gene encoding a putative anti-bacterial, cecropin-like, peptide (AAEL000598). Both the chemically synthesized non-cleaved, signal peptide-containing gene product of AAEL000598, and the cleaved, mature form, were found to exert, in addition to antibacterial activity, anti-DENV and anti-Chikungunya viral activity. However, in contrast to the mature form, the immature cecropin peptide was far more effective against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and, furthermore, had strong anti-parasite activity as shown by its ability to kill Leishmania spp. Results from circular dichroism analysis showed that the immature form more readily adopts a helical conformation which would help it to cause membrane permeabilization, thus permitting its transfer across hydrophobic cell surfaces, which may explain the difference in the anti-pathogenic activity between the two forms. The present study underscores not only the importance of DENV-induced cecropin in the innate immune response of Ae. aegypti, but also emphasizes the broad-spectrum anti-pathogenic activity of the immature, signal peptide-containing form of this peptide.

Patramool, Sirilaksana; Dumas, Emilie; Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Saune, Laure; Hamel, Rodolphe; Bernard, Eric; Sereno, Denis; Thomas, Frederic; Piquemal, David; Yssel, Hans; Briant, Laurence; Misse, Dorothee

2011-01-01

342

The relative effect of an anticholinergic drug, glycopyrrolate, on basal gastric secretion and sweat- and salivary-gland activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A finger-tip sweat-gland counting method and a salivary flow test have been used as indices of undesirable effects in a study of an injectable form of glycopyrrolate. Both tests were reliable indicators of drug effect, but the sweat-gland test was more repeatable and more sensitive than the salivary flow technic. Using these tests, glycopyrrolate in the injectable form had a

Kerrison Juniper

1967-01-01

343

Water stress enhances expression of an alpha-amylase gene in barley leaves.  

PubMed

The amylases of the second leaves of barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Betzes) were resolved into eight isozymes by isoelectric focusing, seven of which were beta-amylase and the other, alpha-amylase. The alpha-amylase had the same isoelectric point as one of the gibberellin-induced alpha-amylase isozymes in the aleurone layer. This and other enzyme characteristics indicated that the leaf isozyme corresponded to the type A aleurone alpha-amylase (low pI group). Crossing experiments indicated that leaf and type A aleurone isozymes resulted from expression of the same genes.In unwatered seedlings, leaf alpha-amylase increased as leaf water potential decreased and ABA increased. Water stress had no effect on beta-amylase. alpha-Amylase occurred uniformly along the length of the leaf but beta-amylase was concentrated in the basal half of the leaf. Cell fractionation studies indicated that none of the leaf alpha-amylase occurred inside chloroplasts.Leaf radiolabeling experiments followed by extraction of alpha-amylase by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation showed that increase of alpha-amylase activity involved synthesis of the enzyme. However, water stress caused no major change in total protein synthesis. Hybridization of a radiolabeled alpha-amylase-related cDNA clone to size fractionated RNA showed that water-stressed leaves contained much more alpha-amylase mRNA than unstressed plants. The results of these and other studies indicate that regulation of gene expression may be a component in water-stress induced metabolic changes. PMID:16664625

Jacobsen, J V; Hanson, A D; Chandler, P C

1986-02-01

344

Amylases in Pea Tissues with Reduced Chloroplast Density and/or Function 1  

PubMed Central

Pea (Pisum sativum L.) tissues with reduced chloroplast density (e.g. petals and stems) or function (i.e. senescent leaves and leaves darkened for prolonged periods) were surveyed to determine whether tissues with genetically or environmentally reduced chloroplast density and/or function also have significantly different amylolytic enzyme activities and/or isoform patterns than leaf tissues with totally competent chloroplasts. Native PAGE followed by electrophoretically blotting through a starch or ?-limit dextrin containing gel and KI/I2 staining revealed that the primary amylases in leaves, stems, petals, and roots were the primarily vacuolar ?-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) and the primarily apoplastic ?-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1). Among tissues of light grown pea plants, petals contained the highest levels of total amylolytic (primarily ?-amylase) activity and considerably higher ratios of ?- to ?-amylase. In aerial tissues there was an inverse relationship between chlorophyll and starch concentration, and ?-amylase activity. In sections of petals and stems there was a pronounced inverse relationship between chlorophyll concentration and the activity of ?-amylase. Senescing leaves of pea, as determined by age, and protein and chlorophyll content, contained 3.8-fold (fresh weight basis) and 32-fold (protein basis) higher ?-amylase activity than fully mature leaves. Leaves maintained in darkness for 12 days displayed a 14-fold (fresh weight basis) increase in ?-amylase activity over those grown under continuous light. In senescence and prolonged darkness studies, the ?-amylase that was greatly increased in activity was the primarily apoplastic ?-amylase. These studies indicate that there is a pronounced inverse relationship between chloroplast function and levels of apoplastic ?-amylase activity and in some cases an inverse relationship between chloroplast density and/or function and vacuolar ?-amylase activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Saeed, Muhammad; Duke, Stanley H.

1990-01-01

345

Amylases in Pea Tissues with Reduced Chloroplast Density and/or Function.  

PubMed

Pea (Pisum sativum L.) tissues with reduced chloroplast density (e.g. petals and stems) or function (i.e. senescent leaves and leaves darkened for prolonged periods) were surveyed to determine whether tissues with genetically or environmentally reduced chloroplast density and/or function also have significantly different amylolytic enzyme activities and/or isoform patterns than leaf tissues with totally competent chloroplasts. Native PAGE followed by electrophoretically blotting through a starch or beta-limit dextrin containing gel and KI/I(2) staining revealed that the primary amylases in leaves, stems, petals, and roots were the primarily vacuolar beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) and the primarily apoplastic alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1). Among tissues of light grown pea plants, petals contained the highest levels of total amylolytic (primarily beta-amylase) activity and considerably higher ratios of beta- to alpha-amylase. In aerial tissues there was an inverse relationship between chlorophyll and starch concentration, and beta-amylase activity. In sections of petals and stems there was a pronounced inverse relationship between chlorophyll concentration and the activity of alpha-amylase. Senescing leaves of pea, as determined by age, and protein and chlorophyll content, contained 3.8-fold (fresh weight basis) and 32-fold (protein basis) higher alpha-amylase activity than fully mature leaves. Leaves maintained in darkness for 12 days displayed a 14-fold (fresh weight basis) increase in alpha-amylase activity over those grown under continuous light. In senescence and prolonged darkness studies, the alpha-amylase that was greatly increased in activity was the primarily apoplastic alpha-amylase. These studies indicate that there is a pronounced inverse relationship between chloroplast function and levels of apoplastic alpha-amylase activity and in some cases an inverse relationship between chloroplast density and/or function and vacuolar beta-amylase activity. PMID:16667921

Saeed, M; Duke, S H

1990-12-01

346

Production of ?-Amylase by the Ruminal Anaerobic Fungus Neocallimastix frontalis  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase production was examined in the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis. The enzyme was released mainly into the culture fluid and had temperature and pH optima of 55°C and 5.5, respectively, and the apparent Km for starch was 0.8 mg ml?1. The products of ?-amylase action were mainly maltotriose, maltotetraose, and longer-chain oligosaccharides. No activity of the enzyme was observed towards these compounds or pullulan, but activity on amylose was similar to starch. Evidence for the endo action of ?-amylase was also obtained from experiments which showed that the reduction in iodine-staining capacity and release in reducing power by action on amylose was similar to that for commercial ?-amylase. Activities of ?-amylase up to 4.4 U ml?1 (1 U represents 1 ?mol of glucose equivalents released per min) were obtained for cultures grown on 2.5 mg of starch ml?1 in shaken cultures. No growth occurred in unshaken cultures. With elevated concentrations of starch (>2.5 mg ml?1), ?-amylase production declined and glucose accumulated in the cultures. Addition of glucose to cultures grown on low levels of starch, in which little glucose accumulated, suppressed ?-amylase production, and in bisubstrate growth studies, active production of the enzyme only occurred during growth on starch after glucose had been preferentially utilized. When cellulose, cellobiose, glucose, xylan, and xylose were tested as growth substrates for the production of ?-amylase (initial concentration, 2.5 mg ml?1), they were found to be less effective than starch, but maltose was almost as effective. The fungal ?-amylase was found to be stable at 60°C in the presence of low concentrations of starch (?5%), suggesting that it may be suitable for industrial application.

Mountfort, Douglas O.; Asher, Rodney A.

1988-01-01

347

Interferon-gamma sensitizes the human salivary gland cell line, HSG, to tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced activation of dual apoptotic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated immune cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon–gamma\\u000a (IFN-gamma) and Fas ligand (FasL) and these cytokines have been reported to induce apoptosis in numerous cell types. Apoptotic\\u000a cell death has been associated with the progression of numerous autoimmune diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines are reportedly\\u000a involved in apoptosis in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren’s

Kashmira Kulkarni; Kaisa Selesniemi; Thomas L. Brown

2006-01-01

348

Integrating Terminal Truncation and Oligopeptide Fusion for a Novel Protein Engineering Strategy To Improve Specific Activity and Catalytic Efficiency: Alkaline ?-Amylase as a Case Study.  

PubMed

In this work, we integrated terminal truncation and N-terminal oligopeptide fusion as a novel protein engineering strategy to improve specific activity and catalytic efficiency of alkaline ?-amylase (AmyK) from Alkalimonas amylolytica. First, the C terminus or N terminus of AmyK was partially truncated, yielding 12 truncated mutants, and then an oligopeptide (AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK) was fused at the N terminus of the truncated AmyK, yielding another 12 truncation-fusion mutants. The specific activities of the truncation-fusion mutants AmyK?C500-587::OP and AmyK?C492-587::OP were 25.5- and 18.5-fold that of AmyK, respectively. The kcat/Km was increased from 1.0 × 10(5) liters · mol(-1) · s(-1) for AmyK to 30.6 × and 23.2 × 10(5) liters · mol(-1) · s(-1) for AmyK?C500-587::OP and AmyK?C492-587::OP, respectively. Comparative analysis of structure models indicated that the higher flexibility around the active site may be the main reason for the improved catalytic efficiency. The proposed terminal truncation and oligopeptide fusion strategy may be effective to engineer other enzymes to improve specific activity and catalytic efficiency. PMID:23956385

Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2013-08-16

349

Salivary gland disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland disorders are conditions that lead to swelling or pain in the saliva-producing tissues around the mouth. ... The salivary glands produce saliva (spit), which moistens food ... and swallowing. Saliva contains enzymes that begin the digestion ...

350

Salivary Gland Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

351

Experimental Approach To Optimize the Use of ?-Amylases in Breadmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

R-Amylases from different origins (wheat, malted barley, fungi, and bacteria) are used extensively to improve breadmaking. However, the enzyme activities, in addition to the differences associated with their origins, are strongly affected by the process conditions and the presence of other compounds in the medium. The activity of different R-amylases was tested under different conditions (pH and temperature), and in

Cristina M. Rosell; Monica Haros; Consuelo Escrivá; Carmen Benedito de Barber

2001-01-01

352

Salivary gland disease.  

PubMed

Salivary gland disease covers a wide range of pathological entities, including salivary gland-specific disease, as well as manifestations of systemic diseases. This chapter discusses the recent advances in managing obstructive salivary gland disease, the move from gland excision to gland preservation, the dilemmas in diagnosing and managing tumours of the salivary glands, and the international data collection to understand the aetiology and progression of Sjögren's disease. PMID:20428015

Thomas, Bethan L; Brown, Jackie E; McGurk, Mark

2010-04-20

353

In Sjögren's syndrome, B lymphocytes induce epithelial cells of salivary glands into apoptosis through protein kinase C delta activation.  

PubMed

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune epithelitis associated with diffuse lymphocytic infiltration that varies in composition and differs according to lesion severity. T lymphocytes have been viewed as competent in their own right in the destruction of epithelial cells, whereas B lymphocytes that predominate in severe lesions have never been implicated in direct tissue damage. Using co-culture experiments with human salivary gland (HSG) cell line cells and tonsilar B lymphocytes, we observed that direct HSG cell-B lymphocyte contacts were able to induce apoptosis in epithelial cells. This B lymphocyte-mediated cell death could not be ascribed to Fas-Fas ligand interactions but required translocation of protein kinase C delta (PKC ?) into the nucleus of epithelial cells. Ultimately, activation of PKC? resulted in histone H2B phosphorylation on serine 14 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Our results suggest that B lymphocytes infiltrating the SGs of patients with SS could evoke epithelial cell apoptosis. PMID:22001522

Varin, Marie-Michèle; Guerrier, Thomas; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Jamin, Christophe; Youinou, Pierre; Pers, Jacques-Olivier

2011-10-07

354

The neurite-stimulating activity of components of the salivary gland secretion of the medicinal leech in cultures of sensory neurons.  

PubMed

The effects of components of the salivary gland secretion (proteases and protease inhibitors) of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) on the growth of neurites of sensory neurons from chick embryos (10-11 days old) were studied in organotypic cultures. Destabilase and high-molecular-weight bdellin B, (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1 ng/ml), bdellastasin (0.02 and 0.05 ng/ml), and eglin C (0.1 ng/ml) had neurite-stimulating effects on day 3 of cultivation of spinal ganglia. Identification of the neurite-stimulating activity of these components of medicinal leech salivary gland secretions creates the basis for creating new therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:12774845

Chalisova, N I; Pennijajnen, V P; Baskova, I P; Zavalova, L L; Bazanova, A V

2003-05-01

355

Characterisation, immunolocalisation and antifungal activity of a lipid transfer protein from chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) seeds with novel ?-amylase inhibitory properties.  

PubMed

Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) were thus named because they facilitate the transfer of lipids between membranes in vitro. This study was triggered by the characterization of a 9-kDa LTP from Capsicum annuum seeds that we call Ca-LTP(1) . Ca-LTP(1) was repurified, and in the last chromatographic purification step, propanol was used as the solvent in place of acetonitrile to maintain the protein's biological activity. Bidimensional electrophoresis of the 9-kDa band, which corresponds to the purified Ca-LTP(1) , showed the presence of three isoforms with isoelectric points (pIs) of 6.0, 8.5 and 9.5. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis suggested a predominance of ?-helices, as expected for the structure of an LTP family member. LTPs immunorelated to Ca-LTP(1) from C. annuum were also detected by western blotting in exudates released from C. annuum seeds and also in other Capsicum species. The tissue and subcellular localization of Ca-LTP(1) indicated that it was mainly localized within dense vesicles. In addition, isolated Ca-LTP(1) exhibited antifungal activity against Colletotrichum lindemunthianum, and especially against Candida tropicalis, causing several morphological changes to the cells including the formation of pseudohyphae. Ca-LTP(1) also caused the yeast plasma membrane to be permeable to the dye SYTOX green, as verified by fluorescence microscopy. We also found that Ca-LTP(1) is able to inhibit mammalian ?-amylase activity in vitro. PMID:21382036

Diz, Mariângela S; Carvalho, Andre O; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Da Cunha, Maura; Beltramini, Leila; Rodrigues, Rosana; Nascimento, Viviane V; Machado, Olga L T; Gomes, Valdirene M

2011-03-28

356

Differential modulation of voltage-activated conductances by intracellular and extracellular cyclic nucleotides in leech salivary glands.  

PubMed Central

1. Two-electrode voltage clamp was used to study the effects of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) on voltage-dependent ion channels in salivary gland cells of the leech, Haementeria ghilianii. 2. Intracellular cyclic AMP specifically blocked delayed rectifier K+ channels. This was shown by use of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor), forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase) and intracellular injection of cyclic AMP and its dibutyryl and 8-bromo analogues. Cyclic AMP appeared to be the second messenger for the putative neuroglandular transmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine. 3. Intracellular injection of cyclic GMP specifically potentiated high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ current and the effect was mimicked by zaprinast, an inhibitor of cyclic GMP-dependent phosphodiesterase. 4. Extracellularly, cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP specifically decreased the amplitude and increased the rate of inactivation of HVA Ca2+ current. These effects of the cyclic nucleotides are identical to those known for extracellular ATP, which activates a presumed purinoceptor. The pyrimidine nucleotide, UTP, was almost equipotent to ATP (threshold dose < 10(-6) M), indicative of a vertebrate-type nucleotide receptor. However, suramin (5 x 10(-5) M), a non-specific P2-receptor antagonist, failed to block the effects of 5 x 10(-6) M ATP (higher suramin doses could not be reliably tested because of the depolarization and increase in membrane conductance produced by the drug). 5. Activation of the putative purinoceptor by ATP did not affect inward rectifier Na+/K+ current which is known to be potentiated by intracellular cyclic AMP and reduced by intracellular cyclic GMP. 6. The preparation may provide a useful model for study of nucleotide actions, and interactions, in channel modulation. It has technical advantages such as large cells (1200 microns in diameter) which lack intercellular coupling and may be individually dissected for biochemical studies.

Everill, B.; Berry, M. S.

1995-01-01

357

Salivary alpha amylase–cortisol asymmetry in maltreated youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMaltreatment represents a major stressor in the lives of many youth. Given the known effects of stress exposure on subsequent functioning of biological stress response systems, researchers have been interested in the effects of maltreatment on the functioning of these systems. Experimental studies reveal that previous exposure to stress affects the symmetry between components of the physiological stress response to

Elana B. Gordis; Douglas A. Granger; Elizabeth J. Susman; Penelope K. Trickett

2008-01-01

358

Lufaxin, a Novel Factor Xa Inhibitor from the Salivary Gland of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, Blocks PAR2 Activation and Inhibits Inflammation and Thrombosis in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Objective Blood-sucking arthropods salivary glands (SGs) contain a remarkable diversity of antihemostatics. The aim of this study was to identify the unique salivary anticoagulant of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, which remained elusive for decades. Methods and Results Several L. longipalpis salivary proteins were expressed in HEK293 cells and screened for inhibition of blood coagulation. A novel 32.4-kDa molecule, named Lufaxin, was identified as a slow, tight, non-competitive, and reversible inhibitor of Factor Xa (FXa). Notably, Lufaxin primary sequence does not share similarity to any physiological or salivary inhibitors of coagulation reported to date. Lufaxin is specific for FXa and does not interact with FX, DEGR- FXa, or 15 other enzymes. In addition, Lufaxin blocks prothrombinase and increases both PT and aPTT. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that FXa binds Lufaxin with a KD ~3 nM, and isothermal titration calorimetry determined a stoichiometry of 1:1. Lufaxin also prevents PAR2 activation by FXa in the MDA-MB-231 cell line and abrogates edema formation triggered by injection of FXa in the paw of mice. Moreover, Lufaxin prevents FeCl3-induced carotid artery thrombus formation and prolongs aPTT ex vivo, implying that it works as an anticoagulant in vivo. Finally, SG of sandflies was found to inhibit FXa and to interact with the enzyme. Conclusion Lufaxin belongs to a novel family of slow-tight FXa inhibitors, which display antithrombotic and antiinflamatory activities. It is a useful tool to understand FXa structural features and its role in pro-hemostatic and pro-inflammatory events.

Collin, Nicolas; Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Gilmore, Dana; Dutra-Oliveira, Angelica; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; Teixeira, Clarissa; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

2012-01-01

359

Sodium tungstate on some biochemical parameters of the parotid salivary gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a short-term study.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown the antidiabetic properties of sodium tungstate. In this study, we evaluated some biochemical parameters of the parotid salivary gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with sodium tungstate solution (2 mg/ml). The studied groups were: untreated control (UC), treated control (TC), untreated diabetic (UD), and treated diabetic (TD). After 2 and 6 weeks of treatment, parotid gland was removed and total protein and sialic acid (free and total) concentration and amylase and peroxidase activities were determined. Data were compared by variance analysis and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The sodium tungstate treatment modestly decreased the glycemia of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. At week 2 of the study, parotid gland of diabetic rats presented a reduction of total protein concentration (55%) and an increase of amylase (120%) and peroxidase (160%) activities, free (150%) and total (170%) sialic acid concentration. No alteration in the evaluated parameters at week 6 of the study was observed. Sodium tungstate presented no significant effect in parotid gland. Our results suggest that diabetes causes initial modification in biochemical composition of parotid. However, this gland showed a recovery capacity after 6 week of the experimental time. Sodium tungstate has no effect in peripheral tissues, such as salivary glands. PMID:18810331

Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Nicolau, José

2008-09-20

360

Properties and synthesis de novo of auxin-induced ?-amylase in pea cotyledons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of starch-degrading enzymes in a crude extract of detached cotyledons of Pisum sativum L. by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) demonstrated the presence of one band of a-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) activity. The activity of only this amylase was promoted in cotyledons incubated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The auxin-induced a-amylase from pea cotyledons was purified to homogeneity, as judged by the

Eiji Hirasawa; Susumu Yamamoto

1991-01-01

361

Secretion, purification, and characterisation of barley ? -amylase produced by heterologous gene expression in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient production of recombinant barley ?-amylase has been achieved in Aspergillus niger. The cDNA encoding ?-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) and its signal peptide was placed under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) promoter and the A. nidulans trpC gene terminator. Secretion yields up to 60?mg\\/l were obtained in media optimised for ?-amylase activity and low protease\\u000a activity.

N. Juge; B. Svensson; G. Williamson

1998-01-01

362

Purification and characterization of ?-amylase from the infective juveniles of the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycogen content and ?-amylase activity were estimated in the infective juveniles (IJs) of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora at different times of storage. The glycogen content declined from 5.8 to 2.5 ng\\/IJ during storage for 40 days at 27 °C. The change in glycogen content coincided with the change of ?-amylase activity during storage. ?-Amylase was purified from IJs at zero time of

Magda A. Mohamed

2004-01-01

363

Expression and characterization of amylase encoded by a gene cloned from Cellulomonas sp. NCIM 2353  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Cellulomonas genomic fragment encoding extracellular amylase activity was isolated as a clone (ACs2) in Escherichia coli DH10B. The amylase was expressed in the absence of IPTG and in the presence of starch or maltose. This enzyme corresponded to the low mobility activity of Cellulomonas amylases as demonstrated on gel electrophoresis. Maltose, as well as lactose, xylose and xylan cross-induced

N. N. Kumar; D. N. Deobagkar

1997-01-01

364

ACTIVATION OF INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSES THROUGH TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 3 CAUSES A RAPID LOSS OF SALIVARY GLAND FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have demonstrated the expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in salivary glands and epithelial cell lines derived from Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) patients. Since viral infections are considered to be a trigger for SS, in this study we investigated whether in vivo engagement of TLR3 affects salivary gland function. Methods Female NZB/WF1 mice were repeatedly injected with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)). TLR3 expression within submandibular glands was studied by immunohistochemistry. RNA levels of inflammatory cytokines in the submandibular glands were determined by real time PCR. Pilocarpine induced saliva volume was used as an index of glandular function. Results Immunohistochemical analysis of submandibular glands showed TLR3 expression in epithelium of serous and mucous acini, granular convoluted tubules and ducts. Poly(I:C) treatment rapidly upregulated the mRNA levels of type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines in the submandibular glands. By one week after treatment, the saliva volumes in poly(I:C) treated mice were significantly reduced in comparison with the PBS treated mice. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that salivary gland histology was normal and lymphocytic foci were not detected. Glandular function recovered after poly(I:C) treatment was stopped. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that engagement of TLR3 within the salivary glands results in a rapid loss of glandular function. This phenomenon is associated with the production of type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines in the salivary glands. Restoration of glandular function suggests that for viral etiology of SS, a chronic infection of salivary glands might be necessary.

Deshmukh, Umesh S.; Nandula, Seshagiri Rao; Thimmalapura, Pushpa-Rekha; Scindia, Yogesh M; Bagavant., Harini

2009-01-01

365

Cortisol and Children’s Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined relations among cortisol, markers of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity (including salivary alpha-amylase\\u000a and skin conductance level), and children’s adjustment. We also tested the Bauer et al. (Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23(2), 102–113, 2002) hypothesis that interactions between the SNS and cortisol would be associated with internalizing and externalizing problems.\\u000a Saliva samples were obtained from 8-

Mona El-Sheikh; Stephen A. Erath; Joseph A. Buckhalt; Douglas A. Granger; Jacquelyn Mize

2008-01-01

366

Substrate-inhibitor interactions in the kinetics of alpha-amylase inhibition by ragi alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor (RATI) and its various N-terminal fragments.  

PubMed

The ragi alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitor (RATI) from Indian finger millet, Ragi (Eleucine coracana Gaertneri), represents a new class of cereal inhibitor family. It exhibits a completely new motif of trypsin inhibitory site and is not found in any known trypsin inhibitor structures. The alpha-amylase inhibitory site resides at the N-terminal region. These two sites are independent of each other and the inhibitor forms a ternary (1:1:1) complex with trypsin and alpha-amylase. The trypsin inhibition follows a simple competitive inhibition obeying the canonical serine protease inhibitor mechanism. However, the alpha-amylase inhibition kinetics is a complex one if larger (> or =7 glucose units) substrate is used. While a complete inhibition of trypsin activity can be achieved, the inhibition of amylase is not complete even at very high molar concentration. We have isolated the N-terminal fragment (10 amino acids long) by CNBr hydrolysis of RATI. This fragment shows a simple competitive inhibition of alpha-amylase activity. We have also synthesized various peptides homologous to the N-terminal sequence of RATI. These peptides also show a normal competitive inhibition of alpha-amylase with varying potencies. It has also been shown that RATI binds to the larger substrates of alpha-amylase. In light of these observations, we have reexamined the binding of proteinaceous inhibitors to alpha-amylase and its implications on the mechanism and kinetics of inhibition. PMID:11284678

Alam, N; Gourinath, S; Dey, S; Srinivasan, A; Singh, T P

2001-04-10

367

Salivary Esterase Activity and Its Association with the Biodegradation of Dental Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudocholinesterase (PCE) and cholesterol esterase (CE) can hydrolyze bisphenylglycidyl dimethacrylate (bisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. This study will test the hypothesis that enzyme activities showing CE and PCE character are found in human saliva at levels sufficient to hydrolyze ester-containing composites important to restorative denstistry. The study also seeks to ask if the active sites of CE and

Y. Finer; J. P. Santerre

2004-01-01

368

Candida albicans Flu1-Mediated Efflux of Salivary Histatin 5 Reduces Its Cytosolic Concentration and Fungicidal Activity  

PubMed Central

Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary human antimicrobial peptide that is toxic to the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Fungicidal activity of Hst 5 requires intracellular translocation and accumulation to a threshold concentration for it to disrupt cellular processes. Previously, we observed that total cytosolic levels of Hst 5 were gradually reduced from intact cells, suggesting that C. albicans possesses a transport mechanism for efflux of Hst 5. Since we identified C. albicans polyamine transporters responsible for Hst 5 uptake, we hypothesized that one or more polyamine efflux transporters may be involved in the efflux of Hst 5. C. albicans FLU1 and TPO2 were found to be the closest homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TPO1, which encodes a major spermidine efflux transporter, indicating that the products of these two genes may be involved in efflux of Hst 5. We found that flu1?/? cells, but not tpo2?/? cells, had significant reductions in their rates of Hst 5 efflux and had significantly higher cytoplasmic Hst 5 and Hst 5 susceptibilities than did the wild type. We also found that flu1?/? cells had reduced biofilm formation compared to wild-type cells in the presence of Hst 5. Transcriptional levels of FLU1 were not altered over the course of treatment with Hst 5; therefore, Hst 5 is not likely to induce FLU1 gene overexpression as a potential mechanism of resistance. Thus, Flu1, but not Tpo2, mediates efflux of Hst 5 and is responsible for reduction of its toxicity in C. albicans.

Li, Rui; Kumar, Rohitashw; Tati, Swetha; Puri, Sumant

2013-01-01

369

Characterization of a purified ?-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crude extract prepared from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) showed ?-amylase inhibitory activity. Four fractions showed ?-amylase inhibitory activity after the extract was subjected to reverse phase chromatography. The fraction with the highest activity was isolated and characterized. It was found to be a glycoprotein with an N-glycosylation site whose deglycosylated molecular weight is 54,847 as determined by electrospray

Bernard F Gibbs; Inteaz Alli

1998-01-01

370

Salivary histatin 5: dependence of sequence, chain length, and helical conformation for candidacidal activity.  

PubMed

Histatin 5 (Asp1-Ser-His-Ala4-Lys-Arg-His-His8-Gly-Tyr-Lys-Arg12-Lys-Ph e-His-Glu16-Lys-His - His-Ser20-His-Arg-Gly-Tyr24), one of the basic histidine-rich peptides present in human parotid saliva and several of its fragments, 1-16 (N16), 9-24 (C16), 11-24 (C14), 13-24 (C12), 15-24 (C10), and 7-16 (M10), were synthesized by solid-phase procedures. Native histatin 5 from human parotid saliva was also purified. Their antifungal activities on two strains of Candida albicans have been studied and their conformational preferences both in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions examined by circular dichroism. The synthetic histatin 5, C16, and C14 peptides were highly active and inhibited the growth of C. albicans. The candidacidal activity data of synthetic histatin 5 were comparable to the values of the native histatin 5 isolated from parotid saliva and those reported previously, although the assay system used and the strains examined were different. The C16 fragment was as active as the whole peptide itself, whereas the N16 fragment was far less active than C14, suggesting that the sequence at the C-terminal is important for its fungicidal activity. An increase in the chain length of the C-terminal sequence from 12 to 16 residues increased the candidacidal activity, thereby indicating that a peptide chain length of at least 12 residues is necessary to elicit optimum biological activity. The CD spectra of these linear peptides showed that they are structurally more flexible, and they adopt different conformations depending on the solvent environment. CD studies provided evidence that histatin 5 and the longer fragments, C16, N16, and C14 preferred alpha-helical conformations in non-aqueous solvents such as trifluoroethanol and methanol, while in water and pH 7.4 phosphate buffers, they favored random coil structures. The shorter sequences seemed to adopt either turn structures or unordered structures both in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. It appears that the sequence at the C-terminal of histatin 5 with a minimum chain length of 14 residues and alpha-helical conformation are the important structural requirements for appreciable candidacidal activity. PMID:2406266

Raj, P A; Edgerton, M; Levine, M J

1990-03-01

371

Production of bacterial ?-amylase by B. amyloliquefaciens under solid substrate fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of ?-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, under solid substrate fermentation (SSF) was investigated in shaken-culture. The maximum ?-amylase activity was obtained under the following optimized conditions: corn gluten meal (CGM) 30g\\/l, yeast extract (YE) 10g\\/l, agitation rate 150rpm and fermentation temperature 33°C. The results showed that ?-amylase production in a medium with CGM was five times higher than that in

M. Saban Tanyildizi; Dursun Özer; Murat Elibol

2007-01-01

372

Development of Anti-Interference Enzyme Layer for ? Amylase Measurements in Glucose Containing Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glucose oxidase-glucoamylase-bienzyme electrode has been developed and tested for determination of ?-amylase activity. To eliminate interfering endogeneous glucose a glucose oxidase-catalase anti-interference layer was coupled with the bienzyme electrode. Linearity was obtained for the kinetic signal up to 1.0 I.U. ?-amylase. Glucose was effectively eliminated up to 2 mM final concentration thus not influencing ?-amylase determinations. A general concept

Reinhard Renneberg; Frieder Scheller; Klaus Riedel; Eckhard Litschko; Manfred Richter

1983-01-01

373

Enzymatic detergent formulation containing amylase from Aspergillus niger: A comparative study with commercial detergent formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a wide range of biotechnological applications for amylases, including the textile, pharmaceutical, food and laundry industries. Hydrolytic enzymes are 100% biodegradable and enzymatic detergents can achieve effective cleaning with lukewarm water. Microorganisms and culture media were tested for amylase production and the best producer was Aspergillus niger L119 (3.9Uml?1±0.2) in submerged culture and its amylase demonstrated excellent activity

Sydnei Mitidieri; Anne Helene Souza Martinelli; Augusto Schrank; Marilene Henning Vainstein

2006-01-01

374

Characterization and application of a detergent-stable ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis strain ASS01a  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain AS-S01a, capable of producing high-titer alkaline ?-amylase, was isolated from a soil sample of Assam, India and was taxonomically identified as Bacillus subtilis strain AS-S01a. Optimized ?-amylase yield by response surface method (RSM) was obtained as 799.0 units with a specific activity of 201.0 U\\/mg in a process control bioreactor. A 21.0kDa alkaline ?-amylase purified from this strain

Jetendra K. Roy; Sudhir K. Rai; Ashis K. Mukherjee

375

Differences in the pH Activity Profile of Human and Monkey Salivary Lysozyme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pH activity profile of human parotid saliva lysozyme, monkey parotid saliva lysozyme and hen-egg white lysozyme were compared. While the pH optima for the human and hen enzymes were the same (6.5), the monkey enzyme was markedly different (pH 8.0). (A...

S. Polyzois B. J. Baum W. H. Bowen R. W. Longton

1976-01-01

376

Deletion of ATG5 Shows a Role of Autophagy in Salivary Homeostatic Control.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a catabolic pathway utilized to maintain a balance among the synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components, thereby playing a role in cell growth, development, and homeostasis. Previous studies revealed that a conditional knockout of essential member(s) of autophagy in a variety of tissues causes changes in structure and function of these tissues. Acinar cell-specific expression of knocked-in Cre recombinase through control of aquaporin 5 (Aqp5) promoter/enhancer (Aqp5-Cre) allows us to specifically inactivate Atg5, a protein necessary for autophagy, in salivary acinar cells of Atg5(f/f);Aqp5-Cre mice. There was no difference in apoptotic or proliferation levels in salivary glands of Atg5/Cre mice from each genotype. However, H&E staining and electron microscopy studies revealed modestly enlarged acinar cells and accumulated secretory granules in salivary glands of Atg5(f/f);Aqp5-Cre mice. Salivary flow rates and amylase contents of Atg5/Cre mice indicated that acinar-specific inactivation of ATG5 did not alter carbachol-evoked saliva and amylase secretion. Conversely, autophagy intersected with salivary morphological and secretory manifestations induced by isoproterenol administration. These results identified a role for autophagy as a homeostasis control in salivary glands. Collectively, Atg5(f/f);Aqp5-Cre mice would be a useful tool to enhance our understanding of autophagy in adaptive responses following targeted head and neck radiation or Sjögren syndrome. PMID:23884556

Morgan-Bathke, M; Lin, H H; Chibly, A M; Zhang, W; Sun, X; Chen, C-H; Flodby, P; Borok, Z; Wu, R; Arnett, D; Klein, R R; Ann, D K; Limesand, K H

2013-07-24

377

Alpha-amylases of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and their inhibition by two plant amylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The adult coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari [Coleoptera: Scolytidae]), a major insect pest of coffee, has two major digestive alpha-amylases that can be separated by isoelectric focusing. The alpha-amylase activity has a broad pH optimum between 4.0 and 7.0. Using pH indicators, the pH of the midgut was determined to be between 4.5 and 5.2. At pH 5.0, the coffee berry borer alpha-amylase activity is inhibited substantially (80%) by relatively low levels of the amylase inhibitor (alphaAI-1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and much less so by the amylase inhibitor from Amaranthus. We used an in-gel zymogram assay to demonstrate that seed extracts can be screened to find suitable inhibitors of amylases. The prospect of using the genes that encode these inhibitors to make coffee resistant to the coffee berry borer via genetic engineering is discussed. PMID:10732988

Valencia, A; Bustillo, A E; Ossa, G E; Chrispeels, M J

2000-03-01

378

Modification of innervation pattern by fluoroquinolone treatment in the rat salivary glands.  

PubMed

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQAs) are widely used in dental and medical therapy. Despite their known severe adverse actions on the central and peripheral nervous system, little attention has been directed toward the potential toxic side effects of these compounds on the oral tissues. As the saliva secretion is controlled by the nervous system and neuropeptides, the neurotoxic effect of pefloxacin (PEF), a representative member of FQAs, was studied in rats in the present work. Previously, we demonstrated a significant weight loss of parotid gland tissue, a marked decrease in 3H-thymidine incorporation, a decreased volume of saliva and amylase activity of the glandular tissue in response to PEF. Animals received intraperitoneal injection of PEF (20 mg/100 g body weight daily) for 3 and 7 days. Normal histology, and neurofilament 200, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related polypeptide (CGRP) containing nerve fibers were detected with immunohistochemical methods. A marked decrease of the weights in salivary glands and the acinar diameters were measured. Similarly, a strong and significant decrease of the number of SP and CGRP containing nerve fibers were detected. These findings suggest that the impaired morphology and innervation pattern of salivary glands is related to the neurotoxic adverse effect of FQA treatment. PMID:19937634

Kelentey, Barna; Deak, Adam; Zelles, Tivadar; Matesz, Klara; Földes, Istvan; Veress, Gabor; Bacskai, Timea

2010-02-01

379

Thrombolytic Properties of Desmodus rotundus (vampire bat) Salivary Plasminogen Activator in Experimental Pulmonary Embolism in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE INITIAL anticipation that the safety of thrombo- T lytic therapy would improve with the introduction of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has not been fulfilled in clinical trials.' The expectation that bleed- ing episodes might be reduced with t-PA was based on early in vitro and experimental animal work which suggested that t-PA, unlike other clinically available thrombolytics, would

Werner Witt; Berthold Baldus; Peter Bringmann; Linda Cashion; Peter Donner; Wolf-Dieter Schleuning

1992-01-01

380

Phosphopeptides derived from human salivary acidic proline-rich proteins. Biological activities and concentration in saliva.  

PubMed Central

Human saliva contains a large number of phosphopeptides derived by cleavage of acidic proline-rich proteins (APRPs). These peptides were purified by column chromatography and they constituted 0.5% of APRPs in parotid saliva, but 11% of APRPs in saliva expectorated from the mouth (whole saliva), indicating that there is considerable cleavage of APRPs after secretion from the gland. Similarly to APRP, the phosphopeptides bind Ca2+, but they accounted for only 4% of protein-bound Ca2+ in whole saliva. APRPs as well as the phosphopeptides inhibited formation of hydroxyapatite, but, whereas 19-20 micrograms of APRP was needed for 50% inhibition, only 0.7-3.3 micrograms of purified peptides was needed for the same degree of activity, and the phosphopeptides accounted for 18% of total inhibitory activity in whole saliva. All phosphopeptides adsorbed on hydroxyapatite in vitro, and adsorption of phosphopeptides on tooth surfaces in vivo could also be demonstrated, indicating that they would be able to inhibit unwanted mineral formation on the tooth surface in vivo. Degradation of APRPs after secretion therefore does not lead to a loss of their biological activities. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8.

Madapallimattam, G; Bennick, A

1990-01-01

381

Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and enzymatic characterization of an alpha-amylase from the ruminal bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c.  

PubMed Central

A Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens amylase gene was cloned and expressed by using its own promoter on the recombinant plasmid pBAMY100 in Escherichia coli. The amylase gene consisted of an open reading frame of 2,931 bp encoding a protein of 976 amino acids with a calculated Mr of 106,964. In E. coli(pBAMY100), more than 86% of the active amylase was located in the periplasm, and TnphoA fusion experiments showed that the enzyme had a functional signal peptide. The B. fibrisolvens amylase is a calcium metalloenzyme, and three conserved putative calcium-binding residues were identified. The amylase showed high sequence homology with other alpha-amylases in the three highly conserved regions which constitute the active centers. These and other conserved regions were located in the N-terminal half, and no similarity with any other amylase was detected in the remainder of the protein. Deletion of approximately 40% of the C-terminal portion of the amylase did not result in loss of amylolytic activity. The B. fibrisolvens amylase was identified as an endo-alpha-amylase by hydrolysis of the Phadebas amylase substrate, hydrolysis of gamma-cyclodextrin to maltotriose, maltose, and glucose and the characteristic shape of the blue value and reducing sugar curves. Maltotriose was the major initial hydrolysis product from starch, although extended incubation resulted in its hydrolysis to maltose and glucose. Images

Rumbak, E; Rawlings, D E; Lindsey, G G; Woods, D R

1991-01-01

382

Purification and Characterization of Pea Epicotyl ?-Amylase 1  

PubMed Central

The most abundant ?-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) in pea (Pisum sativum L.) was purified greater than 880-fold from epicotyls of etiolated germinating seedlings by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, glycogen precipitation, and preparative electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobility and relative abundance of this ?-amylase are the same as that of an exoamylase previously reported to be primarily vacuolar. The enzyme was determined to be a ?-amylase by end product analysis and by its inability to hydrolyze ?-limit dextrin and to release dye from starch azure. Pea ?-amylase is an approximate 55 to 57 kilodalton monomer with a pl of 4.35, a pH optimum of 6.0 (soluble starch substrate), an Arrhenius energy of activation of 6.28 kilocalories per mole, and a Km of 1.67 milligrams per milliliter (soluble starch). The enzyme is strongly inhibited by heavy metals, p-chloromer-curiphenylsulfonic acid and N-ethylmaleimide, but much less strongly by iodoacetamide and iodoacetic acid, indicating cysteinyl sulfhydryls are not directly involved in catalysis. Pea ?-amylase is competitively inhibited by its end product, maltose, with a Ki of 11.5 millimolar. The enzyme is partially inhibited by Schardinger maltodextrins, with ?-cyclohexaamylose being a stronger inhibitor than ?-cycloheptaamylose. Moderately branched glucans (e.g. amylopectin) were better substrates for pea ?-amylase than less branched or non-branched (amyloses) or highly branched (glycogens) glucans. The enzyme failed to hydrolyze native starch grains from pea and glucans smaller than maltotetraose. The mechanism of pea ?-amylase is the multichain type. Possible roles of pea ?-amylase in cellular glucan metabolism are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Lizotte, Pauline A.; Henson, Cynthia A.; Duke, Stanley H.

1990-01-01

383

Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.  

PubMed

alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088

Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

2009-11-26

384

Molecular analysis of cis -regulatory sequences at the ?-amylase locus in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheAmylase locus inDrosophila melanogaster contains duplicate, divergently transcribed structural genes for ?-amylase,AmyA andAmyB. A sensitive and reliable transient expression assay was developed for testing amylase activities produced by exogenousAmy genes in somatically transformed larvae of an amylase-null strain of flies. Alleles tested,AmyA\\u000a 1 andAmyB\\u000a 3, came from recombinant clone ?Dm65, which contains genomic DNA from a Canton-S strain. The transient

Sylvia A. Hawley; Winifred W. Doane; R. A. Norman

1992-01-01

385

The fully conserved Asp residue in conserved sequence region I of the ?-amylase family is crucial for the catalytic site architecture and activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-amylase family is a large group of starch processing enzymes [Svensson, B. (1994) Plant Mol. Biol. 25, 141–157]. It is characterized by four short sequence motifs that contain the seven fully conserved amino acid residues in this family: two catalytic carboxylic acid residues and four substrate binding residues. The seventh conserved residue (Asp135) has no direct interactions with either

Hans Leemhuis; Henriëtte J. Rozeboom; Bauke W. Dijkstra; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

2003-01-01

386

Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

387

Stabilization of a raw-starch-digesting amylase by multipoint covalent attachment on glutaraldehyde-activated amberlite beads.  

PubMed

Raw-starch-digesting enzyme (RSDA) was immobilized on Amberlite beads by conjugation of glutaraldehyde/ polyglutaraldehyde (PG)-activated beads or by crosslinking. The effect of immobilization on enzyme stability and catalytic efficiency was evaluated. Immobilization conditions greatly influenced the immobilization efficiency. Optimum pH values shifted from pH 5 to 6 for spontaneous crosslinking and sequential crosslinking, to pH 6-8 for RSDA covalently attached on polyglutaraldehyde-activated Amberlite beads, and to pH 7 for RSDA on glutaraldehyde-activated Amberlite. RSDA on glutaraldehyde-activated Amberlite beads had no loss of activity after 2 h storage at pH 9; enzyme on PG-activated beads lost 9%, whereas soluble enzyme lost 65% of its initial activity. Soluble enzyme lost 50% initial activity after 3 h incubation at 60 degrees C, whereas glutaraldehyde-activated derivative lost only 7.7% initial activity. RSDA derivatives retained over 90% activity after 10 batch reuse at 40 degrees C. The apparent Km of the enzyme reduced from 0.35 mg/ml to 0.32 mg/ml for RSDA on glutaraldehyde-activated RSDA but increased to 0.42 mg/ml for the PG-activated RSDA derivative. Covalent immobilization on glutaraldehyde Amberlite beads was most stable and promises to address the instability and contamination issues that impede the industrial use of RSDAs. Moreover, the cheap, porous, and non-toxic nature of Amberlite, ease of immobilization, and high yield make it more interesting for the immobilization of this enzyme. PMID:22561856

Nwagu, Tochukwu N; Okolo, Bartho N; Aoyagi, Hideki

2012-05-01

388

Voltage and Ca2+-activated K+ channel in baso-lateral acinar cell membranes of mammalian salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nervous or hormonal stimulation of many exocrine glands evokes release of cellular K+ (ref. 1), as originally demonstrated in mammalian salivary glands2,3, and is associated with a marked increase in membrane conductance1,4,5. We now demonstrate directly, by using the patch-clamp technique6, the existence of a K+ channel with a large conductance localized in the basolateral plasma membranes of mouse and

Y. Maruyama; D. V. Gallacher; O. H. Petersen

1983-01-01

389

Effect of Various Post-Brushing Activities on Salivary Fluoride Concentration after Toothbrushing with a Sodium Fluoride Dentifrice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study consisted of eight experiments, divided into three series, aimed at investigating the effect on the salivary fluoride (F) concentration of three post-brushing regimes: (1) rinsing once or twice with water, (2) rinsing either with a slurry of the toothpaste foam and water or with an 0.05% NaF solution, or a single NaF mouthrinse with no prior brushing, and

K. Sjögren; D. Birkhed

1994-01-01

390

Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma: demonstration of transcriptionally active human papillomavirus 16/18.  

PubMed

Herein we test the following hypotheses: (1) High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) may be involved in the etiology of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), and (2) The detection rate of HR-HPV in MEC has been increasing over time. Ninety-eight archival MEC specimens from three institutions spanning three decades were studied for HPV16/18 E6/E7 transcripts. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded specimens and HPV16/18 E6/E7 expression assessed by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A subset of MEC were also studied for MECT1-MAML2 fusion transcripts by nested RT-PCR and amplicon sequencing. The HPV expression data was validated by immunofluorescence (IF) with monoclonal HPV16/18 E6 antibody, PCR with the GP5+/6+ consensus primers, and sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons. HPV genome was localized by in-situ hybridization with the Ventana Inform HPVIII Family 16 probe. P16(INK4a) overexpression and aberrant p53 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. HPV16 E6/E7 transcripts were demonstrated in (29/98) 30% of MEC by RT-PCR. HPV18 E6/E7 transcripts were demonstrated in 13/98 (13%) of MEC by RT-PCR. Seven of 98 tumors (7%) demonstrated both HPV16/18. No significant association was found between HPV status and gender, age, and tumor site. All 13 HPV18+ MEC were diagnosed between 2001 and 2010, whereas 45 MEC diagnosed from 1977 to 2000 were negative for HPV18 (p = 0.002). By contrast, there was no significant difference with respect to HPV16 detection and date of diagnosis. All MEC that were positive for E6 protein were also HPV16/18 positive by RT-PCR. Sequencing a subset of RT-PCR amplicons confirmed HPV type- and region-specific sequences. PCR using GP5+/6+ consensus primers demonstrated HPV status concordance in 9 of 10 cases. DNA degradation was present in the last case; the RT-PCR amplicons were sequenced from this case which confirmed the presence of HPV type- and region-specific sequences. Strong (+4/+4) and diffuse (>50%) nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression was seen in 64% of MEC in the glandular regions, and 18% of MEC in the solid, squamoid regions. No correlation was seen between p16 expression and HPV status. Twenty-nine MEC (22 HPV+ and 7 HPV-negative) were selected for further evaluation for p53 expression. Strong aberrant nuclear p53 expression was present in only 2/22 HPV + MEC (9%, both Grade 3); no HPV-negative MEC demonstrated aberrant p53 expression. MECT1-MAML2 fusion transcripts were demonstrated in 23/37 (62%) MEC. No significant association was found between the presence of the MECT1-MAML2 fusion transcripts and tumor grade, HPV status, gender, era of diagnosis (2000 and earlier vs. 2001-2010) or tumor site. We demonstrate for the first time that transcriptionally active HPV16/18 is common to MEC. These findings were validated by demonstrating concordant results by separate PCR with consensus primers, and/or confirming the presence of HPV type- and region-specific sequences in the RT-PCR amplicons. We also visualized E6 viral oncoprotein and HPV genome within tumor cells. HR-HPV is thus potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of MEC. The frequency of HPV18 detection is significantly increased in MEC diagnosed after 2001, whereas we found no differences in the HPV16 detection rates per era of diagnosis. PMID:23233027

Isayeva, Tatyana; Said-Al-Naief, Nasser; Ren, Zhiyong; Li, Rong; Gnepp, Douglas; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

2012-12-12

391

Regulation and formation of the Drosophila salivary glands.  

PubMed

The homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is a master regulator of Drosophila salivary gland formation. Embryos in which Scr function is missing do not form salivary glands, and embryos in which SCR protein is expressed everywhere form extra salivary glands. However, other known proteins, including the homeotic protein Abdominal-B, the unusual zinc finger protein Teashirt, and the secreted signaling molecule Decapentaplegic (a TGF-beta family member), limit the recruitment of SCR-expressing cells to salivary glands. To learn the molecular details of how salivary gland gene expression is controlled and as a first step toward understanding how the SCR transcription factor controls salivary gland morphogenesis, we screened for genes expressed in the developing salivary gland. Among our best candidates for potential direct downstream targets of SCR in the salivary gland are the genes trachealess (trh), dCREB-A, jalapeño, and Semaphorin II (SemaII). Our genetic studies suggest distinct and important roles for each of these genes in salivary gland morphogenesis. Current work includes studying the molecular interactions between SCR and these downstream target genes and asking how target genes coordinate their activities to effect the cell biological changes required to build functional salivary glands. PMID:9599294

Andrew, D J

1998-04-15

392

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

393

Physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the atmosphere of the forest)--using salivary cortisol and cerebral activity as indicators.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the atmosphere of the forest). The subjects were 12 male students (22.8+/-1.4 yr). On the first day of the experiments, one group of 6 subjects was sent to a forest area, and the other group of 6 subjects was sent to a city area. On the second day, each group was sent to the opposite area for a cross check. In the forenoon, the subjects were asked to walk around their given area for 20 minutes. In the afternoon, they were asked to sit on chairs and watch the landscapes of their given area for 20 minutes. Cerebral activity in the prefrontal area and salivary cortisol were measured as physiological indices in the morning at the place of accommodation, before and after walking in the forest or city areas during the forenoon, and before and after watching the landscapes in the afternoon in the forest and city areas, and in the evening at the place of accommodation. The results indicated that cerebral activity in the prefrontal area of the forest area group was significantly lower than that of the group in the city area after walking; the concentration of salivary cortisol in the forest area group was significantly lower than that of the group in the city area before and after watching each landscape. The results of the physiological measurements show that Shinrin-yoku can effectively relax both people's body and spirit. PMID:17435354

Park, Bum-Jin; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Kasetani, Tamami; Hirano, Hideki; Kagawa, Takahide; Sato, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

2007-03-01

394

Structural basis for the inhibition of mammalian and insect alpha-amylases by plant protein inhibitors.  

PubMed

Alpha-amylases are ubiquitous proteins which play an important role in the carbohydrate metabolism of microorganisms, animals and plants. Living organisms use protein inhibitors as a major tool to regulate the glycolytic activity of alpha-amylases. Most of the inhibitors for which three-dimensional (3-D) structures are available are directed against mammalian and insect alpha-amylases, interacting with the active sites in a substrate-like manner. In this review, we discuss the detailed inhibitory mechanism of these enzymes in light of the recent determination of the 3-D structures of pig pancreatic, human pancreatic, and yellow mealworm alpha-amylases in complex with plant protein inhibitors. In most cases, the mechanism of inhibition occurs through the direct blockage of the active center at several subsites of the enzyme. Inhibitors exhibiting "dual" activity against mammalian and insect alpha-amylases establish contacts of the same type in alternative ways. PMID:14871658

Payan, Françoise

2004-02-12

395

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

PubMed Central

Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosquito species) immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus) and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi) displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus) indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed.

2012-01-01

396

A Pilot Study of Psychotherapist Trainees' Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Levels During Treatment of Recently Suicidal Clients With Borderline Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotherapists often experience stress while providing psychotherapy, in particular when working with difficult presentations such as suicidality. As part of a larger study on the treatment of recently suicidal college students with borderline traits, 6 therapists in training collected their own salivary samples for alpha-amylase (AA) and cortisol (C) analyses immediately before and after sessions with 2 selected clients. On

Grant D. Miller; Katherine M. Iverson; Markus Kemmelmeier; Chelsea MacLane; Jacqueline Pistorello; Alan E. Fruzzetti; Katrina Y. Crenshaw; Karen M. Erikson; Barrie M. Katrichak; Megan Oser; Larry D. Pruitt; Melanie M. Watkins

2010-01-01

397

Ingestion of potato starch decreases chymotrypsin but does not affect trypsin, amylase, or lipase activity in the pancreas in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas was evaluated in rats fed diets composed of potato starch as a carbohydrate source. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at 7 weeks were fed 4 different diets containing 60% sucrose, cornstarch, or 2 kinds of starch derived from different potato varieties. Enzyme activity in the pancreas of rats was determined at 0, 1, 3, and

Hitoshi Mineo; Kyo Ishida; Nao Morikawa; Sayako Ohmi; Ayaka Machida; Takahiro Noda; Michihiro Fukushima; Hideyuki Chiji

2007-01-01

398

Intrinsic halotolerance of the psychrophilic ?-amylase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The halotolerance of a cold adapted ?-amylase from the psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (AHA) was investigated. AHA exhibited hydrolytic activity over a broad range of NaCl concentrations (0.01–4.5 M). AHA showed\\u000a 28% increased activity in 0.5–2.0 M NaCl compared to that in 0.01 M NaCl. In contrast, the corresponding mesophilic (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) and thermostable (B. licheniformis) ?-amylases showed a 39 and 46% decrease in activity

Soundararajan Srimathi; Gurunathan Jayaraman; Georges Feller; Bengt Danielsson; Paranji R. Narayanan

2007-01-01

399

Cortisol, alpha amylase, and daily stressors in spouses of persons with mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of daily primary objective stressors (behavioral problems exhibited by persons with mild cognitive impairment) and subjective stressors (unpleasant marital interactions) on the diurnal cortisol pattern and the diurnal pattern of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) of spousal care partners. Thirty spouse care partners (age 59-85 years) participated in a 7-day diary study and submitted saliva samples on 4 consecutive study days, totaling 406 valid samples. Results from multilevel models revealed that daily objective stressors were associated with elevated cortisol levels and a flatter slope but were not associated with sAA activity. Conversely, unpleasant marital interactions were associated with flatter sAA slopes but not associated with cortisol activity. Furthermore, daily levels of sAA moderated variations in cortisol in the presence of a primary objective stressor. The utility of our research has implications for advancing scientific understanding of biosocial processes and the development of stress prevention and intervention strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23772982

Savla, Jyoti; Granger, Douglas A; Roberto, Karen A; Davey, Adam; Blieszner, Rosemary; Gwazdauskas, Frank

2013-06-17

400

Further Experiments on Gibberellin-Stimulated Amylase Production in Cereal Grains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experiments conducted on wheat and barley grains to analyze activities of alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes. Gibberellins were used exogenously. Techniques are described in detail. Results on different cultivars revealed that beta-amylase was not an invariable result of imbibition. Techniques employed can be used by school students. (PS)|

Coppage, Jo; Hill, T. A.

1973-01-01

401

Stable, inducible thermoacidophilic alpha-amylase from Bacillus acidocaldarius.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus acidocaldarius Agnano 101 produces an inducible thermoacidophilic alpha-amylase. The enzyme production occurs during the stationary phase of growth in the presence of compounds with alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages. The enzymatic activity is both present in the culture medium and associated with the cells; the enzymes purified from both sources show identical molecular and catalytic properties. The purified amylase has a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 68,000 and behaves like an alpha-amylase with affinity constants for starch and related substances of 0.8 to 0.9 mg/ml. The pH and temperature optima for activity are 3.5 and 75degreesC, respectively. The amylase is stable at acidic pH (below 4.5). Its thermal stability is strictly dependent upon protein concentration; the half-life at 60degreesC of the amylase in a 70-mug/ml solution is about 5 days.

Buonocore, V; Caporale, C; De Rosa, M; Gambacorta, A

1976-01-01

402

Anti-apoptotic gene transcription signature of salivary gland neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Background Development of accurate therapeutic approaches to salivary gland neoplasms depends on better understanding of their molecular pathogenesis. Tumour growth is regulated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated apoptosis in salivary tumours relying almost exclusively on immunohistochemistry or TUNEL assay. Furthermore, there is no information regarding the mRNA expression profile of apoptotic genes in salivary tumors. Our objective was to investigate the quantitative expression of BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic), BAX and Caspase3 (pro-apoptotic genes) mRNAs in salivary gland neoplasms and examine the association of these data with tumour size, proliferative activity and p53 staining (parameters associated with a poor prognosis of salivary tumours patients). Methods We investigated the apoptotic profile of salivary neoplasms in twenty fresh samples of benign and seven samples of malignant salivary neoplasms, using quantitative real time PCR. We further assessed p53 and ki-67 immunopositivity and obtained clinical tumour size data. Results We demonstrated that BCL-2 mRNA is overexpressed in salivary neoplasms, leading to an overall anti-apoptotic profile. We also found an association between the anti-apoptotic index (BCL-2/BAX) with p53 immunoexpression. A higher proliferative activity was found in the malignant tumours. In addition, tumour size was associated with cell proliferation but not with the transcription of apoptotic genes. Conclusion In conclusion, we show an anti-apoptotic gene expression profile in salivary neoplasms in association with p53 staining, but independent of cell proliferation and tumour size.

2012-01-01

403

Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts  

PubMed Central

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to possess significant AA inhibitory activities. Two plant species were proved to have alpha amylase inhibitory activity for the first time.

Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

2010-01-01

404

Investigating the role of perceived stress on bacterial flora activity and salivary cortisol secretion: a possible mechanism underlying susceptibility to illness.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of academic stress on salivary cortisol concentrations and lactic acid bacteria activity. Whole, unstimulated saliva samples and faecal samples were collected from 23 healthy undergraduate students (23.0+/-6.8 years; range 18-44) over two 1-week periods: during the beginning of semester (low-stress baseline condition) and during the first week of exams (high-stress condition). Students also completed a series of questionnaires measuring perceived levels of stress, gastrointestinal symptoms, and nutritional intake. Significant findings indicated that faecal lactic acid bacterial levels were lower during the high-stress condition. Paralleling this, students rated perceived levels of stress as being greater during the exam period compared to the baseline condition. The findings from this study have provided further insight into the link between stress and gastrointestinal flora activity in humans. PMID:18023961

Knowles, Simon R; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Palombo, Enzo A

2007-10-02

405

Cloning of a salivary gland metalloprotease and characterization of gelatinase and fibrin(ogen)lytic activities in the saliva of the Lyme Disease tick vector Ixodes scapularis  

PubMed Central

The full-length sequence of tick salivary gland cDNA coding for a protein similar to metalloproteases (MP) of the reprolysin family is reported. The Ixodes scapularis MP is a 488 aminoacid (aa) protein containing pre- and pro-enzyme domains, the zinc-binding motif HExxHxxGxxH common to metalloproteases and a cysteine-rich region. In addition, the predicted amino-terminal sequences of I. scapularis MPs were found by Edman degradation of PVDF-transferred SDS/PAGE-separated tick saliva proteins, indicating these putative enzymes are secreted. Furthermore, saliva has a metal-dependent proteolytic activity towards gelatin, fibrin(ogen) and fibronectin, but not collagen or laminin. Accordingly, I. scapularis saliva has a rather specific metalloprotease similar to the hemorrhagic proteases of snake venoms. This is the first description of such activity in tick saliva and its role in tick feeding and Borrelia transmission are discussed.

Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Mather, Thomas N.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.

2010-01-01

406

Salivary gland neoplasms.  

PubMed

Treatment and cure of salivary gland neoplasms requires surgical intervention in most cases. For parotid neoplasms, the most common surgical procedure performed is the superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. Postoperative radiation therapy is indicated in high-grade salivary gland malignancies and malignancies with increased risk of locoregional recurrence. Primary radiation, including neutron beam techniques, may play a role in certain histologic types or nonoperative candidates. Chemotherapy has yet to result in improvements in survival or quality of life in the treatment of salivary gland malignancy. Advances in radiation therapy techniques, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy, provide opportunities for reduced morbidity. PMID:14697153

Day, Terry A; Deveikis, John; Gillespie, M Boyd; Joe, John K; Ogretmen, Besim; Osguthorpe, J David; Reed, Susan G; Richardson, Mary S; Rossi, Michael; Saini, Ranjiv; Sharma, Anand K; Stuart, Robert K

2004-02-01

407

Amylase production by endophytic fungi Cylindrocephalumsp. isolated from medicinal plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw.) Roscoe  

PubMed Central

Amylases are among the most important enzymes used in modern biotechnology particularly in the process involving starch hydrolysis. Fungal amylase has large applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Considering these facts, endophytic fungi isolated from the plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw.) Roscoe were screened for amylolytic activity on glucose yeast extract peptone agar (GYP) medium. Among thirty isolates of endophytic fungi, isolate number seven identified as Cylindrocephalum sp. (Ac-7) showed highest amylolytic activity and was taken for further study. Influence of various physical and chemical factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on amylase production in liquid media were studied. The maximal amylase production was found to be at 30ºC and at pH 7.0 of the growth medium. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, maltose at 1.5% and Sodium nitrate at 0.3% respectively gave optimum amylase production.

Sunitha, V. H.; Ramesha, A.; Savitha, J.; Srinivas, C

2012-01-01

408

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed April 9, 2012. Laurie SA. Salivary gland tumors: Epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation and ... e-mail Clicking "send" signifies that you have read and agree to our privacy policy. Share this ...

409

THE EFFECT OF CHIROPRACTIC MANIPULATION ON SALIVARY CORTISOL LEVELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The stress response in humans is a healthy response and is necessary for life. The effects of chiropractic manipulation (CM), if any, on stress are ill-defined. Cortisol has been used as an accurate measure of the stress response system in humans. Salivary cortisol is a noninvasive technique to accurately quantify biologically active cortisol. Objective: To determine whether basal salivary

Tara L. Whelan; J. Donald Dishman; Jean Burke; Seymour Levine; Veronica Sciotti

410

The effect of chiropractic manipulation on salivary cortisol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The stress response in humans is a healthy response and is necessary for life. The effects of chiropractic manipulation (CM), if any, on stress are ill-defined. Cortisol has been used as an accurate measure of the stress response system in humans. Salivary cortisol is a noninvasive technique to accurately quantify biologically active cortisol. Objective: To determine whether basal salivary

Tara L. Whelan; J. Donald Dishman; Jean Burke; Seymour Levine; Veronica Sciotti

2002-01-01

411

Ontogeny of guanylin-immunoreactive cells in rat salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guanylin-like peptides regulate electrolyte\\/water transport through the epithelia. Moreover, these peptides possess antiproliferative activity and regulate the turnover of epithelial cells. In an earlier study we localized guanylin immunoreactivity in secretory ducts of adult rodent salivary glands. In this study we investigated the appearance and distribution pattern of this peptide during the development of rat salivary glands. Guanylin immunoreactivity appeared

R. Vaccaro; Y. Cetin; T. G. Renda

2004-01-01

412

Evaluation of Salivary Profile among Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in South India  

PubMed Central

Background: A lack of consensus on the possible association between diabetes and salivary dysfunction motivated us to conduct this investigation on the salivary parameters in diabetic and non diabetic subjects. This could also make the use of saliva as an alternative to that of blood in the diagnosis/monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Objectives: To compare the salivary flow rates and the salivary physical and biochemical parameters of diabetic (D) and non diabetic (ND) subjects. Material and Methods: The participants in this study included 30 non diabetic subjects and 30 diabetic volunteers who had Type 2 Diabetes mellitus for a minimum of 2 years. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected in the fasting state. Salivary pH, flow rate and organic and inorganic constituents were evaluated. Data which was collected was statistically analysed and interpreted. Results: Salivary pH (ND=7.09±0.29, D=6.69±0.35), flow rate (ND=0.67±0.07, D=0.46±0.02) and salivary amylase (ND=92.51±13.74, D=19.20±1.8) were significantly lower in diabetics. They had significantly higher levels of salivary glucose (ND=4.33 ± 0.29, D=17.31±2.05), total proteins (ND=424.46±237.34, D=877.29±603.84), sodium (ND=4.31±0.65, D=14.42±1.83) and potassium (ND=20.84±0.71, D=25.95±1.56) and lower levels of calcium (ND=6.39±0.5, D=4.22±0.12) in comparison to those in the non-diabetic group. Conclusion: Significant variations were observed in salivary physical and biochemical parameters between diabetics and non diabetics. Evaluation of salivary parameters can be a cost effective and a non invasive alternative for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes, to blood.

K.M, Prathibha; Johnson, Priscilla; Ganesh, Mathangi; Subhashini, Arcot S.

2013-01-01

413

Rab3D regulates amylase levels, not agonist-induced amylase release, in AR42J cells.  

PubMed

Rab3D is a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein that associates with secretory granules in exocrine cells. AR42J cells are derived from rat pancreatic exocrine tumor cells and develop an acinar cell-like phenotype when treated with dexamethasone (Dex). In the present study, we examined the role of Rab3D in Dex-treated AR42J cells. Rab3D expression and localization were analyzed by subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting. The role of Rab3D was examined by overexpressing myc-labeled wild-type-Rab3D and a constitutively active form of Rab3D (Rab3D-Q81L) in AR42J cells. We found that Rab3D is predominantly membrane-associated in AR42J cells and co-localizes with zymogen granules (ZG). Following CCK-8-induced exocytosis, amylase-positive ZGs appeared to move towards the periphery of the cell and co-localization between Rab3D and amylase was less complete when compared to basal conditions. Overexpression of WT, but not mutant Rab3D, resulted in an increase in cellular amylase levels. Overexpression of mutant and WT Rab3D did not affect granule morphology, CCK-8-induced secretion, long-term (48 hr) basal amylase release or granule density. We conclude that Rab3D is not involved in agonist-induced exocytosis in AR42J cells. Instead, Rab3D may regulate amylase content in these cells. PMID:22367855

Limi, Saima; Ojakian, George; Raffaniello, Robert

2012-02-24

414

High-efficiency, one-step starch utilization by transformed Saccharomyces cells which secrete both yeast glucoamylase and mouse alpha-amylase.  

PubMed Central

Transformed, hybrid Saccharomyces strains capable of simultaneous secretion of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase have been produced. These strains could carry out direct, one-step assimilation of starch, with conversion efficiency greater than 93% during a 5-day growth period. One of the transformants converted 92.8% of available starch into reducing sugars in only 2 days. Glucoamylase secretion by these strains resulted from expression of one or more chromosomal STA genes derived from Saccharomyces diastaticus. The strains were transformed by a plasmid (pMS12) containing mouse salivary alpha-amylase cDNA in an expression vector containing yeast alcohol dehydrogenase promoter and a segment of yeast 2 micron plasmid. The major starch hydrolysis product produced by crude amylases found in culture broths was glucose, indicating that alpha-amylase and glucoamylase acted cooperatively.

Kim, K; Park, C S; Mattoon, J R

1988-01-01

415

Improvement of heterologous protein production in Aspergillus oryzae by RNA interference with alpha-amylase genes.  

PubMed

Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 has three alpha-amylase genes (amyA, amyB, and amyC), and secretes alpha-amylase abundantly. However, large amounts of endogenous secretory proteins such as alpha-amylase can compete with heterologous protein in the secretory pathway and decrease its production yields. In this study, we examined the effects of suppression of alpha-amylase on heterologous protein production in A. oryzae, using the bovine chymosin (CHY) as a reporter heterologous protein. The three alpha-amylase genes in A. oryzae have nearly identical DNA sequences from those promoters to the coding regions. Hence we performed silencing of alpha-amylase genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in the A. oryzae CHY producing strain. The silenced strains exhibited a reduction in alpha-amylase activity and an increase in CHY production in the culture medium. This result suggests that suppression of alpha-amylase is effective in heterologous protein production in A. oryzae. PMID:19897917

Nemoto, Takashi; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

2009-11-07

416

Cloning and expression of raw-starch-digesting alpha-amylase gene from Bacillus circulans F-2 in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The raw potato-starch-digesting alpha-amylase gene of Bacillus circulans F-2 was cloned for the first time in Escherichia coli C600, using plasmid pYEJ001. The recombinant plasmid, named pYKA3, has a 5.4 kb insert from a chromosome of the donor bacterium. Subcloning of this amylase gene gave plasmid pHA300 which carried 3.15 kb of the inserted DNA. The transformed bacterium, E. coli C600 (pYKA3), produced the amylase in the periplasmic space, whereas it is secreted outside the cell in the donor bacterium. The cloned raw-starch-digesting alpha-amylase has a molecular weight of 93,000 on SDS-PAGE, and its action pattern was absolutely the same as that of the potent raw-starch-digestible amylase produced by B. circulans F-2. The periplasmic amylase produced by the transformed E. coli (pHA300) could digest raw starch granules such as potato, corn and barley raw starch granules, indicating that the raw-starch-digesting amylase is active in E. coli. Furthermore, this amylase crossreacted with the rabbit antiserum raised against the raw potato-digesting alpha-amylase of B. circulans F-2. From these results it was concluded that the cloned amylase is the same amylase protein as B. circulans F-2 amylase, which has a potent raw-starch digestibility. Thus, this paper is to our knowledge the first describing the molecular cloning of raw-starch-digesting alpha-amylase from Bacillus species and its successful expression in E. coli. PMID:2182125

Kim, C H; Sata, H; Taniguchi, H; Maruyama, Y

1990-04-01

417

Characterization of ?-amylase and its deficiency in various rice cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amylase deficiency in various cultivars of rice was examined at the molecular level. Using an antibody against ?-amylase\\u000a purified from germinating seeds of rice, we were able to demonstrate the expression and organization of the ?-amylase gene\\u000a in normal and deficient cultivars. Although ?-amylase is a starch-hydrolyzing enzyme, as is ?-amylase, the ?-amylase protein\\/gene\\u000a is expressed differently from the ?-amylase

J. Yamaguchi; S. Itoh; T. Saitoh; A. Ikeda; T. Tashiro; Y. Nagato

1999-01-01

418

MOLECULAR CLONING OF TRYPSIN-LIKE CDNAS AND COMPARISON OF PROTEINASE ACTIVITIES IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS AND GUT OF THE TARNISHED PLANT BUG LYGUS LINEOLARIS (HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using specific proteinase inhibitors, we demonstrated that serine proteinases in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, are major proteinases from the salivary glands and gut tissues. Gut proteinases were less sensitive to inhibition than proteinases from the salivary glands. The pH optima for...

419

A rapid response of ?-amylase to nitric oxide but not gibberellin in wheat seeds during the early stage of germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nitric oxide (NO) and gibberellic acid (GA3) on the responses of amylases in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds (caryopses) were investigated during the first 12 h of germination. GA3 had no effects on the activities of a-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) or ß-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2), either in intact seeds or embryoless halves within 12 h. In contrast, addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an

Hua Zhang; Wen-Biao Shen; Wei Zhang; Lang-Lai Xu

2005-01-01

420

Deep metaproteomic analysis of human salivary supernatant  

PubMed Central

The human salivary proteome is extremely complex, including proteins from salivary glands, serum, and oral microbes. Much has been learned about the host component, but little is known about the microbial component. Here we report a metaproteomic analysis of salivary supernatant pooled from 6 healthy subjects. For deep interrogation of the salivary proteome, we combined protein dynamic range compression, multidimensional peptide fractionation, and high mass accuracy MS/MS with a novel two-step peptide identification method using a database of human proteins plus those translated from oral microbe genomes. Peptides were identified from 124 microbial species as well as uncultured phylotypes such as TM7. Streptococcus, Rothia, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Neisseria, Veilonella, Lactobacillus, Selenomonas, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Campylobacter were abundant among the 65 genera from 12 phyla represented. Taxonomic diversity in our study was broadly consistent with metagenomic studies of saliva. Proteins mapped to twenty KEGG pathways, with Carbohydrate Metabolism, Amino Acid Metabolism, Energy Metabolism, Translation, Membrane Transport, and Signal Transduction most represented. The communities sampled appear to be actively engaged in glycolysis and protein synthesis. This first deep metaproteomic catalog from human salivary supernatant provides a baseline for future studies of shifts in microbial diversity and protein activities potentially associated with oral disease.

Jagtap, Pratik; McGowan, Thomas; Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Tu, Zheng Jin; Seymour, Sean; Griffin, Timothy; Rudney, Joel

2012-01-01

421

Properties of an amylase from thermophilic Bacillus SP  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase production by thermophilic Bacillus sp strain SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid cultures containing soluble starch as a carbon source and supplemented with 0.05% whey protein and 0.2% peptone reached a maximum activity at 32 h, with levels of 37 U/mL. Studies on the amylase characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of this enzyme was 90°C. The enzyme was stable for 1 h at temperatures ranging from 40-50°C while at 90°C, 66% of its maximum activity was lost. However, in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2, the enzyme was stable at 90°C for 30 min and retained about 58% residual activity after 1 h. The optimum pH of the enzyme was found to be 8.5. After incubation of enzyme for 2 h at pH 9.5 and 11.0 was observed a decrease of about 6.3% and 16.5% of its original activity. At pH 6.0 the enzyme lost about 36% of its original activity. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Co2+, Cu2+ and Ba2+, but less affected by Mg2+, Na+ and K+. In the presence of 2.0 M NaCl, 63% of amylase activity was retained after 2 h incubation at 45°C. The amylase exhibited more than 70% activity when incubated for 1 h at 50°C with sodium dodecyl sulphate. However, very little residual activity was obtained with sodium hypochlorite and with hydrogen peroxide the enzyme was completely inhibited. The compatibility of Bacillus sp SMIA-2 amylase with certain commercial detergents was shown to be good as the enzyme retained 86%, 85% and 75% of its activity after 20 min incubation at 50°C in the presence of the detergent brands Omo®, Campeiro® and Tide®, respectively.

de Carvalho, Raquel Vieira; Correa, Thamy Livia Ribeiro; da Silva, Julia Caroline Matos; de Oliveira Mansur, Luciana Ribeiro Coutinho; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

2008-01-01

422

Metabolic Evolution in ?-Amylases from Drosophila virilis and D. repleta, Two Species with Different Ecological Niches  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amylases from Drosophila virilis and D. repleta were partially purified by ion exchange chromatography. The two amylases share common characteristics for pH and cations effects, although with slight differences. D. virilis has optimal activity at pH 6.6 and D. repleta at pH 7.2. Calcium, sodium, and potassium cations activate amylolytic activity in both species but Ba2+ has an activation effect

Stéphane Prigent; Mustapha Matoub; Corinne Rouland; Marie-Louise Cariou

1998-01-01

423

Purification and characterization of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk amylase.  

PubMed

Skimmed camel milk contains 59,900 U/L amylase, which is 39,363 times less than serum and plasma amylase. Camel milk beta-amylase was purified as a 61 KDa band using DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 and yielded 561 U/mg. The optimum working pH, Km and temperature were 7.0, 13.6 mg/Lstarch, 30-40 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme has been shown higher affinity toward amylose and soluble starch than glycogen, amylopectin, dextrin, or pullulan. Magnesium chloride, CaCl(2) and NaCl activated the amylase, while EDTA and EGTA decreased its activity. While its activity was increased in the presence of Triton X-100 and Triton X-114. Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride did not show any effect on enzyme activity. However, the enzyme activity was inhibited by urea, SDS, DTNB, iodoacetamide, N-ethylmalimide, aprotinin, and trypsin inhibitor. It worked on starch to yield a maltose. Scanning electron microscope images demonstrated a nano-degrading ability on starch granules from various sources (potato, corn, cassava, and rice). PMID:19291574

El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Serour, Ehab A; Abdelrahman, Aref M; Haroun, Bakry M; Redwan, El-Rashdy M

2009-01-01

424

Starch supplementation modulates amylase enzymatic properties and amylase B mRNA level in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.  

PubMed

In the oyster Crassostrea gigas consumption-related traits, amylase properties and growth were found to be linked through genotypes that differed for polymorphism in the two amylase genes AMYA and AMYB. Modulation of AMYA mRNA level had already been observed in response to food availability, whereas the functional role of AMYB was still unknown. To improve knowledge about the regulation of amylase expression in C. gigas and the respective roles of the two genes, we made an assay of amylase expression at mRNA and enzymatic levels in the digestive gland of oysters that had received dietary supplements of starch. After 18 days, a significant increase of translatable mRNA for AMYB was observed, with a correlated increase in Michaelis-Menten constant Km values and a decrease in total amylase activity. This modulation is the first evidence of observable functioning of AMYB in digestive processes. Amylase B is suggested to display a higher Km than amylase A, offering a means of adapting to high substrate concentrations. The highest starch supplement level (10 mgL(-1)) induced alteration in oyster physiology. The 1 mgL(-1) treatment should be tested as a practical food supplement that could lead to growth benefits for oysters. PMID:22580267

Huvet, A; Jeffroy, F; Daniel, J Y; Quéré, C; Le Souchu, P; Van Wormhoudt, A; Boudry, P; Moal, J; Samain, J F

2012-05-08

425

Alpha-amylase production by toxigenic fungi.  

PubMed

This study is concerned with the screening of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and Alternaria tenuissima (Kunze ex Pers.) Wilts strains for the biosynthesis of alpha-amylases. Nine strains of A. alternata and three strains of A. tenuissima were grown on enzyme production medium (EPM) and potato dextrose agar (PDA) using three pH levels (4.5-6.5); then the selected strains, able to produce bigger zones of starch hydrolysis on solid media, were subjected the testing of their amylolytic efficacy in liquid medium. In primary screening, the amylolytic activity of all the strains was tolerant to a wide range of initial culture pH values (4.5-6.5). Of all the cultures tested, A. alternata strains FCBP-100 and FCBP-385, and A. tenuissima strains FCBP-183 and FCBP-252 exhibited the maximum potential in terms of starch hydrolysis at pH 4.5 on EPM, and hence were selected for further studies. In secondary screening, the optimum pH of fermentation medium was adjusted to 4.5 using 0.05 M citrate buffer for the estimation of amylolytic enzyme activities. At 48 h incubation, the maximum alpha-amylase activity (31.8 units mL(-1)) was discerned by A. tenuissima strain FCBP-252. PMID:20812132

Shafique, Sobiya; Bajwa, Rukhsana; Shafique, Shazia