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1

Salivary amylase activity in Samoan migrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole saliva was collected from adults and children in three communities of Samoan migrants in Hawaii. Amylase isoenzymes were separated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. Measurements weremade of amylase activities and protein content. Compared with reports of other populations, Samoans have a reduced number of a?amylase isoenzymes and standard levels of salivary amylase and protein. Although the results are

Leslie Sue Lieberman; Harry Gahagan; George Yalich; Beatrice Walden

1977-01-01

2

Performance evaluation of salivary amylase activity monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to quantify psychological stress and to distinguish eustress and distress, we have been investigating the establishment of a method that can quantify salivary amylase activity (SMA). Salivary glands not only act as amplifiers of a low level of norepinephrine, but also respond more quickly and sensitively to psychological stress than cortisol levels. Moreover, the time-course changes of the

Masaki Yamaguchi; Takahiro Kanemori; Masashi Kanemaru; Noriyasu Takai; Yasufumi Mizuno; Hiroshi Yoshida

2004-01-01

3

Salivary amylase activity of the phlebotomine sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both male and female adult stages of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis have detectable amylase activity in their salivary glands, as indicated by formation of p-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltoside from p-nitrophenyl-?-D-octoside and by hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltoheptaoside-4,6,-O-ethylidene. No salivary ?-glucosidase was detected. Amylase activity was also found in the crop and midgut of female flies, although in a smaller amount. Salivary amylase is significantly

José M. C Ribeiro; Edgar D Rowton; Rosane Charlab

2000-01-01

4

Flow-injection-type biosensor system for salivary amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors aim to establish a method that can quantitatively evaluate vital reactions to stress. We have been examining the correlation between stress and salivary amylase activity in order to verify its validity as a stress index. In order to quantify human stress, which changes over time, the relationship between stress and salivary amylase activity must be verified by fast

Masaki Yamaguchi; Masashi Kanemaru; Takahiro Kanemori; Yasufumi Mizuno

2003-01-01

5

Estimation of restraint stress in rats using salivary amylase activity.  

PubMed

The rat is an ideal model animal for studying physical and psychological stresses. Recent human studies have shown that salivary amylase activity is a useful biomarker of stress in our social life. To estimate the usefulness of amylase activity as a biomarker of stress in rats, we analyzed changes in physiological parameters including amylase activity and anatomical variables, which were induced by a mild restraint of paws (10 min, 3 times/week, 9 weeks). The quantities of food and water intake and excretion amount of the stress rats were smaller than those of the control rats during the experimental period (5-13 weeks). The body weight of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats. Moreover, the enlargement of the adrenal gland was confirmed in the stress rats, indicating that the mild restraint caused a chronic stress response. The amylase activities of the stress rats were significantly greater than those of the control rats at 5 weeks of age. However, the amylase activity of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats after 6 weeks of age. These results indicate that amylase activity is increased by acute stress and reduced by chronic stress, which is caused by repeated restraint stress. In conclusion, amylase activity is a useful biomarker of acute and chronic stresses in rats. PMID:22753135

Matsuura, Tetsuya; Takimura, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ichinose, Mitsuyuki

2012-09-01

6

Impact of Calcium on Salivary ?-Amylase Activity, Starch Paste Apparent Viscosity, and Thickness Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thickness perception of starch-thickened products during eating has been linked to starch viscosity and salivary amylase activity.\\u000a Calcium is an essential cofactor for ?-amylase and there is anecdotal evidence that adding extra calcium affects amylase activity\\u000a in processes like mashing of beer. The aims of this paper were to (1) investigate the role of salivary calcium on ?-amylase\\u000a activity and

Cecile Morris; Susanne L. Fichtel; Andrew J. Taylor

7

Clinical Performance of a Salivary Amylase Activity Monitor During Hemodialysis Treatment  

PubMed Central

The hemodialysis procedure is thought to be a physical stressor in the majority of hemodialyzed patients. Previous studies suggest that elevated salivary amylase level may correlate with increased plasma norepinephrine level under psychological and physical stress conditions. In this study, we investigated biological stress reactivity during hemodialysis treatment using salivary amylase activity as a biomarker. Seven patients (male/female = 5/2, age: 67.7+/?5.9 years) who had been receiving regular 4 h hemodialysis were recruited. Salivary amylase activity was measured using a portable analyzer every hour during the hemodialysis session. Salivary amylase activity was shown to be relatively stable and constant throughout hemodialysis, whereas there were significant changes in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate associated with blood volume reduction. Our results show that hemodialysis treatment per se dose not affect salivary amylase activity. PMID:19578523

Shimazaki, Masaru; Matsuki, Takayuki; Yamauchi, Kazuaki; Iwata, Michihiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Ohata, Junichi; Nakamura, Yuichi; Okazaki, Yusuke

2008-01-01

8

Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review)  

PubMed Central

The secretion of salivary ?-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary ?-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary ?-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary ?-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary ?-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary ?-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary ?-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary ?-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

KOIBUCHI, ERI; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

2014-01-01

9

April 16, 2010 Caffeine and Stress Alter Salivary -Amylase Activity in Young Men  

E-print Network

males (age 18-30 yrs) who consumed caffeine on a daily basis. Methods: Using a between-subjects, double Introduction Laboratory-based investigations of caffeine are useful in illuminating mechanisms through whichApril 16, 2010 Caffeine and Stress Alter Salivary -Amylase Activity in Young Men *Laura Cousino

Ritter, Frank

10

Enhancing Maritime Education and Training: Measuring a Ship Navigator's Stress Based on Salivary Amylase Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the measurement of salivary amylase activity is an effective index to evaluate the stress of a ship navigator for safe navigation training and education. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation comes from the simulator and actual on-board experiments. The subjects are real captains who have…

Murai, Koji; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Miyado, Takashi; Fukushi, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yuji; Stone, Laurie C.

2009-01-01

11

Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity and Salivary Flow Rate in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

The secretion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is more associated with psychoneuroendocrinological response to stress than with the flow rate and age. The aim of this cross sectional study is to build an explanatory model based on patterns of relationship between age 20-39 in resting and stimulated saliva under no stressful condition in healthy volunteers. Both resting and stimulated saliva were collected from 40 subjects. The sAA values were log-transformed, the normality assumption was verified with the Shapiro-Wilk test and the reliability of the measurements was estimated by the Pearsons’ r correlation coefficient. The estimated model was based on the theory of the Linear Mixed Models. Significant mean changes were observed in flow rate and sAA activity between resting and stimulated saliva. The final model consists of two components, the first revealed a positive correlation between age and sAA while the second one revealed a negative correlation between the interaction of age × flow rate in its condition (resting or stimulated saliva), with sAA. Both flow rate and age influence sAA activity. PMID:23524385

Arhakis, Aristidis; Karagiannis, Vasilis; Kalfas, Sotirios

2013-01-01

12

Caffeine and stress alter salivary a-amylase activity in young men Laura C. Klein1*, Jeanette M. Bennett1  

E-print Network

caffeine on a daily basis. Methods Using a between-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 45-amylase; stress INTRODUCTION Laboratory-based investigations of caffeine are useful in illuminating mechanismsCaffeine and stress alter salivary a-amylase activity in young men Laura C. Klein1*, Jeanette M

Ritter, Frank

13

Effects of some mineral compounds on the salivary ?-amylase activity of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Put.) (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ohsen YAZDANIAN ??? Summary In this study, the effects of two concentrations (1 and 3 mM) of ammonium nitrate (AN), ammonium phosphate (AP), ammonium sulfate (AS), copper chloride (CC), magnesium chloride (MC), magnesium nitrate (MN), magnesium sulfate (MS), potassium nitrate (PN), sodium nitrate (SN) and sodium phosphate (SP) on salivary ?-amylase activity of adults of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps

Mohammad Sa; Reza Farshbaf; Mostafa VALIZADEH

14

Caffeine administration does not alter salivary ?-amylase activity in young male daily caffeine consumers  

PubMed Central

Background To follow up on a recent report from our lab [Hum Psychopharmacol 25:359–367, 2010.] we examined the effects of caffeine on salivary ?-amylase (sAA) activity in response to an engaging, non-stressful task in healthy young males (age 18–30 yrs) who consumed caffeine on a daily basis. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between-subjects design, 45 men received either placebo, 200 mg or 400 mg of caffeine (Vivarin®). Participants then rested for 20 minutes, and performed a 20-minute computerized air traffic controller-like task that was cognitively engaging but not stressful. Saliva samples (assayed for sAA and cortisol), blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before (baseline) and 15 minutes after the computerized task. Results Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and sAA activity increased across the laboratory session (F’s?>?9.20, p’s?salivary cortisol levels decreased (F?=?16.17, p?salivary cortisol, or cardiovascular measures, and caffeine did not interact with the task to alter these measures. Conclusions Laboratory administered caffeine does not alter sAA activity, even when sAA activity is stimulated by participating in a cognitively engaging task. These data demonstrate that caffeine administration does not affect sAA activity, at least in healthy young men who regularly consume caffeine. Results support recent findings that basal caffeine levels in habitual caffeine users are not associated with basal sAA activity and that daily caffeine intake and diurnal sAA activity are not related. PMID:24410993

2014-01-01

15

Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.  

PubMed

Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings. PMID:25298630

Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

2014-10-01

16

Hand-held monitor of sympathetic nervous system using salivary amylase activity and its validation by driver fatigue assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize a hand-held monitor of the sympathetic nervous system, we fabricated a completely automated analytical system for salivary amylase activity using a dry-chemistry system. This was made possible by the fabrication of a disposable test-strip equipped with built-in collecting and reagent papers and an automatic saliva transfer device. In order to cancel out the effects of variations

Masaki Yamaguchi; Mitsuo Deguchi; Junichi Wakasugi; Shin Ono; Noriyasu Takai; Tomoyuki Higashi; Yasufumi Mizuno

2006-01-01

17

Psychosocial Stress-Induced Activation of Salivary Alpha-Amylase: An Indicator of Sympathetic Activity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity is only possible to date via measurement of catecholamines in blood plasma or via electrophysiological methods. Both ways of measurement are restricted to endocrinological or psychophysiological laboratories, as both require either immediate freezing of blood samples or complex recording devices. Efforts have therefore been undertaken to find a method comparable to salivary cor-

NICOLAS ROHLEDER; URS M. NATER; JUTTA M. WOLF; ULRIKE EHLERT; CLEMENS KIRSCHBAUM

2004-01-01

18

Salivary ?-amylase, serum albumin, and myoglobin protect against DNA-damaging activities of ingested dietary agents in vitro.  

PubMed

Potent DNA-damaging activities were seen in vitro from dietary chemicals found in coffee, tea, and liquid smoke. A survey of tea varieties confirmed genotoxic activity to be widespread. Constituent pyrogallol-like polyphenols (PLPs) such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), pyrogallol, and gallic acid were proposed as a major source of DNA-damaging activities, inducing DNA double-strand breaks in the p53R assay, a well characterized assay sensitive to DNA strand breaks, and comet assay. Paradoxically, their consumption does not lead to the kind of widespread cellular toxicity and acute disease that might be expected from genotoxic exposure. Existing physiological mechanisms could limit DNA damage from dietary injurants. Serum albumin and salivary ?-amylase are known to bind EGCG. Salivary ?-amylase, serum albumin, and myoglobin, but not salivary proline-rich proteins, reduced damage from tea, coffee, and PLPs, but did not inhibit damage from the chemotherapeutics etoposide and camptothecin. This represents a novel function for saliva in addition to its known functions including protection against tannins. Cell populations administered repeated pyrogallol exposures had abatement of measured DNA damage by two weeks, indicating an innate cellular adaptation. We suggest that layers of physiological protections may exist toward natural dietary products to which animals have had high-level exposure over evolution. PMID:24842839

Hossain, M Zulfiquer; Patel, Kalpesh; Kern, Scott E

2014-08-01

19

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch. Images PMID:2788139

Scannapieco, F A; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M S; Levine, M J

1989-01-01

20

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

1989-09-01

21

Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase  

PubMed Central

Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent™), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate®), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Results: Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations. PMID:24130585

Sapra, Gaurav; Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Aggarwal, Ashish; Chandrashekar, K T; Sharma, Kanika

2013-01-01

22

Salivary amylase and stress during stressful environment: three Mars analog mission crews study.  

PubMed

After the establishment of the space age physicians, human factors engineers, neurologist and psychologists and their special attention to work on people's capability to meet up the physical, psychological, neuroscience and interpersonal strains of working in space, it has been regarded as an issue that seeks urgent consideration. Not study was conducted on effect of simulated Mars analog environment on stress and salivary amylase. So, this study aimed to confirm whether salivary amylase is act as stress biomarker in crew members who took part in Mars analog mission in an isolated and stressful environment. The 18 crew members were selected who took part in Mars Analog Research Station, Utah. Salivary amylase was measured using a biosensor of salivary amylase monitor and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score at pre-extravehicular activity, post-extravehicular activity and on before mission. The state and trait anxiety scores at pre-extravehicular activity for each commander were elevated as compared to after extravehicular activity. There were significant differences in the state and trait anxiety scores between before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity of Commander and other members, also there were significant differences in values of before-extravehicular activity between commanders and other members. There were significant differences in values of salivary amylase at before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity between commander group and other members. There was significant correlation between salivary amylase and state and trait anxiety scores in all groups. Measuring salivary amylase level could be useful for stress assessment of crew members and population working in a stressful and isolated environment. PMID:22554904

Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

2012-06-14

23

Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary ?-amylase during Incremental Exercise  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary ?-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary ?-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary ?-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload. PMID:25140097

Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

2014-01-01

24

Salivary ?-amylase response to endotoxin administration in humans.  

PubMed

Salivary ?-amylase (sAA) is a digestive enzyme that plays also an important role in mucosal immunity. Secretion of the sAA is largely under the control of the autonomic nervous system and increases in sAA activity have repeatedly been observed in response to various stressors. The present study aimed at investigating whether and to what extent sAA activity levels are affected during systemic inflammation. Fourteen healthy male volunteers received intravenous injections of either bacterial endotoxin or placebo at two different occasions in a randomized and double-blinded manner. sAA activity was monitored over a period of 6h together with inflammatory markers, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and salivary cortisol levels, vital parameters, and state anxiety. Endotoxin administration elicited a transient inflammatory response reflected by increases in body temperature, whole blood cell counts, and circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6. The immune changes were accompanied by a transient increase in sAA activity, elevations in salivary cortisol and plasma NE concentrations, as well as increases in heart rate and state anxiety. Although sAA and plasma NE responses showed distinct time courses, a significant positive correlation over the total observation period was found. Whether the observed sAA response is driven by an increase in sympathetic activity or more generally reflects inflammation induced changes in sympathetic-parasympathetic balance remains to be elucidated. PMID:23394872

Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Kullmann, Jennifer S; Oberbeck, Reiner; Schedlowski, Manfred; Engler, Harald

2013-09-01

25

Words number: 25491 Assessment of salivary alpha-amylase -a stress biomarker -in2  

E-print Network

1 Words number: 25491 Assessment of salivary alpha-amylase - a stress biomarker - in2 pregnant patients.3 4 Running tittle: Salivary alpha-amylase: a stress biomarker in pregnant patients5 6 Jean, Psychological5 Saliva6 Salivary alpha-Amylases7 Caesarean Section8 9 10 inserm-00847842,version1-24Jul2013 #12

Boyer, Edmond

26

Salivary ?-amylase levels as a biomarker of experienced fear  

PubMed Central

We recently reported data related to emotions collected in conjunction with a museum exhibit on emotion (Goose Bumps!—The Science of Fear).1 In this addendum, we present additional data collected as part of that study. We collected two commonly measured indices of emotional arousal, salivary cortisol and ?-amylase, before and after participants had gone through a realistic fear challenge course as part of the exhibit. We found that ?-amylase, but not cortisol, showed a highly specific increase only for those participants who endorsed both emotional arousal and negative valence. By contrast, the fear-inducing course resulted in high arousal but positive valence in some participants; in these, no increased ?-amylase was measured. We conclude that salivary ?-amylase is a promising biomarker for fearful experiences, and suggest that it is important to pay attention to positively valenced arousal that may be induced by fearful stimuli in a laboratory setting. PMID:21331229

Bibas, David; Adolphs, Ralph

2010-01-01

27

Salivary Amylase Promotes Adhesion of Oral Streptococci to Hydroxyapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated that several species of oral streptococci, such as Streptococcus gordonii, bind soluble salivary a-amylase. The goal of the present study was to determine if amylase immobilized onto a surface such as hydroxyapatite can serve as an adhesion receptor for S. gordonii. Initially, human parotid saliva was fractionated on Bio-Gel P60, and fractions were screened for their

F. A. Scannapieco; G. I. Torres; M. J. Levine

1995-01-01

28

Amylase activity in human bile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean amylase level in 42 human bile samples was 154 IU\\/l and there was no significant difference in the amylase activity of 32 paired serum and bile samples. Estimation of the amylase thermolability of bile showed it to be similar to that of serum. This suggests that the amylase activity in bile may have filtered through the liver from

L A Donaldson; S N Joffe; W McIntosh; M J Brodie

1979-01-01

29

Human salivary alpha-amylase reactivity in a psychosocial stress paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological indicators for stress reactions are valuable markers in psychophysiological research and clinical practice. Since the release of salivary enzyme alpha-amylase was reported to react to physiological and psychological stressors, we set out to investigate human salivary alpha-amylase changes employing a reliable laboratory stress protocol to investigate the reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase to a brief period of psychosocial stress.In a

Urs M. Nater; Nicolas Rohleder; Jens Gaab; Simona Berger; Andreas Jud; Clemens Kirschbaum; Ulrike Ehlert

2005-01-01

30

Klein, L. C., Whetzel, C. A., Bennett, J. M., Ritter, F. E., & Granger, D. A. (2006 March). Effects of caffeine and stress on salivary alpha-amylase in young men: A salivary biomarker  

E-print Network

of caffeine and stress on salivary alpha-amylase in young men: A salivary biomarker of sympathetic activity.pdf Please do not cite without permission (full paper in preparation). EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE AND STRESS in stress research, the present study examined whether AA levels respond to stress and caffeine (a known

Ritter, Frank

31

?-Amylase structure and activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two computerized methods of predicting protein secondary structure from amino acid sequences are evaluated by using them on the a-amylase ofAspergillus oryzae, for which the three-dimensional structure has been determined. The methods are then used, with amino acid alignments, to predict the structures of other a-amylases. It is found that all a-amylases of known amino acid sequence have the same

E. Ann MacGregor

1988-01-01

32

Response of Fatty Acid Synthesis Genes to the Binding of Human Salivary Amylase by Streptococcus gordonii  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus gordonii, an important primary colonizer of dental plaque biofilm, specifically binds to salivary amylase via the surface-associated amylase-binding protein A (AbpA). We hypothesized that a function of amylase binding to S. gordonii may be to modulate the expression of chromosomal genes, which could influence bacterial survival and persistence in the oral cavity. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis was performed to detect genes in S. gordonii strain CH1 that were differentially expressed in response to the binding of purified human salivary amylase versus exposure to purified heat-denatured amylase. Selected genes found to be differentially expressed were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Five genes from the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) cluster were highly (10- to 35-fold) upregulated in S. gordonii CH1 cells treated with native amylase relative to those treated with denatured amylase. An abpA-deficient strain of S. gordonii exposed to amylase failed to show a response in FAS gene expression similar to that observed in the parental strain. Predicted phenotypic effects of amylase binding to S. gordonii strain CH1 (associated with increased expression of FAS genes, leading to changes in fatty acid synthesis) were noted; these included increased bacterial growth, survival at low pH, and resistance to triclosan. These changes were not observed in the amylase-exposed abpA-deficient strain, suggesting a role for AbpA in the amylase-induced phenotype. These results provide evidence that the binding of salivary amylase elicits a differential gene response in S. gordonii, resulting in a phenotypic adjustment that is potentially advantageous for bacterial survival in the oral environment. PMID:22247133

Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.; Vickerman, M. Margaret; Gill, Steven R.

2012-01-01

33

Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrically stimulated physical stress in bipolar disorder patients  

PubMed Central

Background Bipolar disorder (BP) is often associated with a change in hypothalamus– pituitary–adrenal axis function change due to chronic stress. Salivary ?-amylase (sAA) levels increase in response to psychosocial stress and thus function as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system activity. However, sAA has been studied less often than salivary cortisol in BP patients. Method We measured Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, heart rate variability, and salivary cortisol levels during electrical stimulation stress in 25 BP patients and 22 healthy volunteers. Results Tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, anger–hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores in BP patients significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls. In contrast, the vigor scores of BP patients significantly decreased compared with those of the healthy controls. Significant difference in the sAA levels was observed between BP patients and healthy controls. sAA of female patients was significantly higher than that of female healthy controls, and sAA in male patients tended to be higher than that of male healthy controls. No difference in salivary cortisol was observed between BP patients and the healthy controls. Only three time points were measured before and after the electrical stimulation stress. Furthermore, sAA secretion by BP patients increased before and after electrical stimulation. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that sAA may be a useful biological marker for BP patients. PMID:24353422

Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Ikeda, Rie; Inoue, Ayako; Imanaga, Junko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

2013-01-01

34

Salivary alpha-amylase stability, diurnal profile and lack of response to the cold hand test in young women.  

PubMed

Salivary cortisol measurement has proved useful for the non-invasive study of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and salivary alpha-amylase has been suggested as a comparable marker for the sympathetic system. Despite some studies showing an increase in salivary alpha-amylase after challenges that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, questions remain about interpretation. The aims of this study were to explore the stability of salivary alpha-amylase, its diurnal profile, response to the cold hand test, and correlation with cortisol. Salivary alpha-amylase was stable following 5 days at room temperature, and five freeze-thaw cycles. Its diurnal profile was opposite to that of cortisol. There was no salivary alpha-amylase response to the cold hand stress test, in the morning (11am) or afternoon (3pm), unlike cortisol which showed a response in the afternoon in the same samples. There was no correlation between salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol at any time. In conclusion, salivary alpha-amylase is stable to a range of conditions. Its diurnal pattern is compatible with sympathetic stimulation. Lack of response to the cold hand test suggests that secretion of salivary alpha-amylase is controlled by mechanisms more complex than sympathetic regulation alone. PMID:19658030

O'Donnell, K; Kammerer, M; O'Reilly, R; Taylor, A; Glover, V

2009-11-01

35

Salivary ?-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in panic disorder patients.  

PubMed

Psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary ?-amylase (sAA) functions is as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in panic disorder patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with panic disorder following electrical stimulation stress. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) scores and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, heart rate variability (HRV), and levels of sAA and salivary cortisol in 34 patients with panic disorder and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. 34 alprazolam-treated patients with panic disorder were divided into non-responder and responder group. Vigor scores in patients with panic disorder were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. Another score in POMS in patients with panic disorder were significantly increased compared with healthy controls. Trait and state anxiety of STAI in panic disorder patients were higher than healthy controls. There was no difference in either HRV or threshold of electrical stimulation applied between panic disorder patients and healthy controls. SAA levels in the responder group were significantly elevated compared with the non-responder group and controls both before and after electrical stimulation. In addition, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between responder and non-responder groups of patients with panic disorder and control. The sample may not be representative of the general population. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be useful predictive biological markers of treatment responsiveness in patients with panic disorder. PMID:22391145

Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Imanaga, Junko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Isogawa, Koichi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

2012-05-01

36

Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in major depressive disorder patients.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary ?-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with MDD. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and sAA and salivary cortisol levels in 88 patients with MDD and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. Patients with major depressive disorder were 8 points or more on Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) scores. Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores in patients with MDD were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. There was no difference in heart rate variability measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. The threshold of electrical stimulation applied in MDD patients was lower than that in healthy controls. SAA levels in female MDD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. Finally, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between major depressive patients and controls. In the present study only three time points were explored. Furthermore, the increased secretion of sAA before and after stimulation could allude to an increased responsiveness of novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with MDD. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be a useful biological marker of MDD. PMID:22063648

Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

2012-03-30

37

Immobilisation and activity of human ?-amylase in the acquired enamel pellicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase is an important salivary component and structural element of the acquired enamel pellicle. Aim of the study was to establish a method for precise and direct determination of pellicle bound amylase activity in order to analyse kinetics and activity of the immobilised enzyme. Six bovine enamel slabs (5mm diameter) were fixed on individual maxillary trays and worn by five

Christian Hannig; Thomas Attin; Matthias Hannig; Elvira Henze; Kirsten Brinkmann; Ronald Zech

2004-01-01

38

Discovering an Accessible Enzyme: Salivary [alpha]-Amylase--"Prima Digestio Fit in Ore"--A Didactic Approach for High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human salivary [alpha]-amylase is used in this experimental approach to introduce biology high school students to the concept of enzyme activity in a dynamic way. Through a series of five easy, rapid, and inexpensive laboratory experiments students learn what the activity of an enzyme consists of: first in a qualitative then in a semi-quantitative…

Marini, Isabella

2005-01-01

39

Amylase activity in triticale, X Triticosecale Wittmack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity in leaves and the seed exhibited variations among 12 cultivars of hexaploid triticales and was considerably higher than either octaploid triticale or hexaploid wheat. Amylase activity was influenced by the levels of nitrogen and the maturity stages of the kernel. The bran-free endosperm had much lower amylase activity than the whole meal. The measurement of dry matter, starch,

B. Singh; J. A. Patel; V. T. Sapra

1978-01-01

40

Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol secretion in female adolescent tennis players after 16 weeks of training.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of 16 weeks of training on diurnal pattern of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), cortisol, and the ratio of sAA over cortisol (AOC) in 12 national adolescent female tennis players. Stress and recovery were also evaluated using the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Athletes-RESTQ-Sport. Data were collected after a 2-week rest (January, W0), and 4 months after W0 (W16). Subjects collected five saliva samples throughout a day. While all participants displayed the previously shown decrease after awakening in adolescents at W0, they showed a rise in the alpha-amylase awakening response and a higher alpha-amylase activity output (p<0.01) at W16 compared to W0. For the daily rhythm of cortisol we found subjects having a low overall output of salivary cortisol (p<0.01) and a blunted response to awakening at W16. Furthermore, an increase in the ratio AOC at W16, and a negative correlation between this ratio and Sport-specific recovery score. Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that increase of training load during the study period induced asymmetry activation between the two stress systems, in relation to psychological alterations and performance decrease. These results provide encouragement to continue exploring the impact of training program using a psychobiological approach among young athletes in order to prevent fatigue and preserve the health of these athletes. PMID:23200107

Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, Jose Pedro; Oliveira, Miguel; Massart, Alain

2013-07-01

41

Expression of the human amylase genes: Recent origin of a salivary amylase promoter from an actin pseudogene  

SciTech Connect

The human genes encoding salivary amylase (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase (AMY2) are nearly identical in structure and sequence. The authors have used ribonuclease protection studies to identify the functional gene copies in this multigene family. Riboprobes derived from each gene were hybridized to RNA from human pancreas, parotid and liver. The sizes of the protected fragments demonstrated that both pancreatic genes are expressed in pancreas. One of the pancreatic genes, AMY2B, is also transcribed at a low level in liver, but not from the promoter used in pancreas. AMY1 transcripts were detected in parotid, but not in pancreas or liver. Unexpected fragments protected by liver RNA led to the discovery that the 5{prime} regions of the five human amylase genes contain a processed {gamma}-actin pseudogene. The promoter and start site for transcription of AMY1 are recently derived from the 3{prime} untranslated region of {gamma}-actin. In addition, insertion of an endogenous retrovirus has interrupted the {gamma}-actin pseudogene in four of the five amylase genes.

Samuelson, L.C.; Gumucio, D.L.; Meisler, M.H. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Wiebauer, K. (Friedrich Miescher Institut, Basel (Switzerland))

1988-09-12

42

Amylase activity in potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Amylase activity in extracts of sprouted tubers was optimised at final concentrations of soluble starch in the incubation\\u000a medium of 0.6–2.0 mg cm?3. Optimum pH was 6. The exclusion of calcium ions from extraction and incubation media did not result in reduced enzyme activity.\\u000a This, together with a shift in the absorption maximum of the starch-iodine complex almost identical to

Heather A. Ross; H. V. Davies

1987-01-01

43

Taking the Starch out of Oral Biofilm Formation: Molecular Basis and Functional Significance of Salivary ?-Amylase Binding to Oral Streptococci  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase-binding streptococci (ABS) are a heterogeneous group of commensal oral bacterial species that comprise a significant proportion of dental plaque microfloras. Salivary ?-amylase, one of the most abundant proteins in human saliva, binds to the surface of these bacteria via specific surface-exposed ?-amylase-binding proteins. The functional significance of ?-amylase-binding proteins in oral colonization by streptococci is important for understanding how salivary components influence oral biofilm formation by these important dental plaque species. This review summarizes the results of an extensive series of studies that have sought to define the molecular basis for ?-amylase binding to the surface of the bacterium as well as the biological significance of this phenomenon in dental plaque biofilm formation. PMID:23144140

Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.

2013-01-01

44

Structural basis of ?-amylase activation by chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further investigate the mechanism and function of allosteric activation by chloride in some -amylases, the structure of the bacterial -amylase from the psychrophilic micro-organism Pseudoalteromonas halo- planktis in complex with nitrate has been solved at 2.1 Å, as well as the structure of the mutants Lys300Gln (2.5 Å) and Lys300Arg (2.25 Å). Nitrate binds strongly to -amylase but is

Nushin Aghajari; Georges Feller; Charles Gerday; Richard Haser

2002-01-01

45

Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortiol and Alpha-Amylase  

PubMed Central

This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = .33) completed a measure of peer victimization, teachers rated children’s aggression, and children’s saliva was collected prior to, and following, participation in a laboratory-based peer-oriented social challenge task. Children rated their level of frustration at the end of the task. Results revealed that victimization interacted with cortisol and sAA measured in anticipation of the task to predict aggression; the victimization × cortisol contribution to aggression was partly mediated by children’s self-reported frustration level. Victimization also was associated with heightened frustration in girls with high task-related sAA reactivity. Task-related sAA reactivity was associated with heightened aggression, but only for girls. These findings suggest that associations between peer victimization and aggression are moderated by variation in the activity of the major components of the psychobiology of stress; results are discussed in relation to theoretical models of individual differences in biological sensitivity to context. PMID:20405198

Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

46

Salivary Alpha-amylase and Cortisol in Toddlers: Differential Relations to Affective Behavior  

PubMed Central

This study applies a non-invasive and multi-system measurement approach (using salivary analytes) to examine associations between the psychobiology of the stress response and affective behavior in toddlers. Eighty-seven two-year-olds (48 females) participated in laboratory tasks designed to elicit emotions and behavior ranging from pleasure/approach to fear/withdrawal. Saliva samples were collected pre-task and immediately post-task, and assayed for markers of sympathetic nervous system (alpha-amylase or sAA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) activity. Individual differences in sAA were positively associated with approach behavior and positive affect; whereas, cortisol was positively associated with negative affect and withdrawal behavior. The findings suggest that individual differences in sAA may covary specifically with positive affect and approach behaviors or the predominant emotional state across a series of tasks. The results are discussed with respect to advancing biosocial models of the concomitants and correlates of young children’s affective behaviors. PMID:18688807

Fortunato, Christine K.; Dribin, Amy E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Buss, Kristin A.

2008-01-01

47

Effects of simulated firefighting on the responses of salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and psychological variables.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simulated firefighting intervention on salivary alpha-amylase (sA-A), free cortisol (sC), anxiety (STAI), and profile of mood states (POMS) in 20 male firefighters (age 32 +/- 1 years, VO(2peak): 43 +/- 5 ml/kg per min). During the 12-min firefighting intervention (ambient temperature: 13 +/- 1 degrees C; relative humidity: 63 +/- 1%), individuals spent 63 +/- 28% of the time working at heart rate (HR) >85% of individual HR(max), [La] (peak) 9.2 +/- 2.9 mM and ratings of perceived exertion 16 +/- 2. At 30 min post-intervention significant (p < 0.001) increases in sA-A (174%) and sC (109%) were found with regard to values recorded before and after 90 min of the firefighting intervention. Since no differences emerged between pre-intervention and post intervention for STAI and POMS values, the hormonal changes were attributable to the intense physical stress of the simulated intervention. Further research is needed during real firefighting activities, where high emotional stress may also be present. PMID:19401900

Perroni, F; Tessitore, A; Cibelli, G; Lupo, C; D'Artibale, E; Cortis, C; Cignitti, L; De Rosas, M; Capranica, L

2009-04-01

48

Estimation of Salivary Amylase in Diabetic Patients and Saliva as a Diagnostic Tool in Early Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the salivary amylase levels in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients and to correlate these findings with those in normal individuals, in order to provide salivary amylase level as a bio-chemical indicator for diagnosing and monitoring the glucose levels. Material and Methods: The study samples consisted of 60 individuals. Both males and females participated in the study. Thirty non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients of age group of 30 to 60 years and healthy individuals of same number and age group were included in this study. The data obtained in this study were statistically analyzed by using Student’s t–test. Results: In estimation of salivary amylase levels, the comparison of mean and standard deviation showed the highest mean score (2739.48 +1525.20) among the diabetic patients and lowest mean score (1740.38 + 638.51) among the non-diabetic patients. The p-value obtained was less than 0.01. Hence, a highly significant difference in the mean scores regarding salivary amylase (u/l) was found among the two groups. Conclusion: The mean scores of age, fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, HbA1c and salivary amylase levels were greater in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients. PMID:24392426

Malathi, L.; Masthan, K.M.K.; Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Rajesh, E.

2013-01-01

49

Specific Determination of ?-Amylase Activity in Crude Plant Extracts Containing ?-Amylase 1  

PubMed Central

The specific measurement of ?-amylase activity in crude plant extracts is difficult because of the presence of ?-amylases which directly interfere with most assay methods. Methods compared in this study include heat treatment at 70°C for 20 min, HgCl2 treatment, and the use of the ?-amylase specific substrate starch azure. In comparing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and malted barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), the starch azure assay was the only satisfactory method for all tissues. While ?-amylase can liberate no color alone, over 10 International units per milliliter ?-amylase activity has a stimulatory effect on the rate of color release. This stimulation becomes constant (about 4-fold) at ?-amylase activities over 1,000 International units per milliliter. Two starch azure procedures were developed to eliminate ?-amylase interference: (a) the dilution procedure, the serial dilution of samples until ?-amylase levels are below levels that interfere; (b) the ?-amylase saturation procedure, addition of exogenous ?-amylase to increase endogenous ?-amylase activity to saturating levels. Both procedures yield linear calibrations up to 0.3 International units per milliliter. These two procedures produced statistically identical results with most tissues, but not for all tissues. Differences between the two methods with some plant tissues was attributed to inaccuracy with the dilution procedure in tissues high in ?-amylase activity or inhibitory effects of the commercial ?-amylase. The ?-amylase saturation procedure was found to be preferable with most species. The heat treatment was satisfactory only for malted barley, as ?-amylases in alfalfa and soybeans are heat labile. Whereas HgCl2 proved to be a potent inhibitor of ?-amylase activity at concentrations of 10 to 100 micromolar, these concentrations also partially inhibited ?-amylase in barley malt. The reported ?-amylase activities in crude enzyme extracts from a number of plant species are apparently the first specific measurements reported for any plant tissues other than germinating cereals. PMID:16662809

Doehlert, Douglas C.; Duke, Stanley H.

1983-01-01

50

Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary

Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

2010-01-01

51

Enzymatic properties of alpha-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of mulberry moth, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The pyralid moth, Glyphode pyloalis Walker, is an important pest of the mulberry. Amylases are the hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the alpha-D-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared fifth stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut (MG) and the salivary glands (SG) were removed by dissection under a dissecting microscope and alpha-amylase activity was assayed using the dinitrosalicylic acid procedure. The activity of alpha-amylase in the MG and the SG were 0.011 and 0.0018 micromol/min, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature for alpha-amylase were 9 for MG at 37-40 degrees C and 10 for SG at 37 degrees C respectively. Various concentrations of compounds (NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), Urea, EDTA, SDS and CaCl(2)) had differential effects on the enzyme activity. Plant amylase inhibitors may play an important role against insect pests. Hence, the characterization of digestive enzymes and the examination of their inhibitors may be a useful tool in future management of this important mulberry pest. PMID:20176331

Yezdani, Elham; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Zibaee, Arash; Ghadamyari, Mohammad

2010-01-01

52

Flow injection spectrophotometric assay of ?-amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric flow injection method for the determination of ?-amylase activity is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of the maltose obtained during the hydrolysis of amylose in the presence of ?-amylase and relies on the reaction of 3,5 dinitrosalicylic-acid and maltose at boiling temperatures to form a brick red coloured complex, monitored spectrophotometrically at 540nm. The method

J. F van Staden; L. V Mulaudzi

2000-01-01

53

The sensitivity and specificity of the RSID™-saliva kit for the detection of human salivary amylase in the Forensic Science Laboratory, Dublin, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate here that the RSID™-saliva test can be used as a test for human salivary ?-amylase on samples routinely examined in forensic casework. We show that the RSID™-saliva test detects salivary ?-amylase at lower concentrations than the Phadebas® Quantitative test, that the RSID™-saliva test does not cross-react with forensically important human fluids and that the RSID™-saliva test can be

David G. Casey; Judy Price

2010-01-01

54

Amylase activity and growth in internodes of deepwater rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoelectrofocusing, product analysis, thermal denaturation studies and affinity chromatography on cycloheptaamylose-Sephadex were used to identify the amylolytic enzymes in internodes of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.). Amylolytic activity in internodes of deepwater rice consists of a-amylase (sometimes separated into two isoforms) and of ß-amylase. During submergence of whole plants, a-amylase activity increases in young, growing internodes, but ß-amylase activity declines.

Mary A. Smith; John V. Jacobsen; Hans Kende

1987-01-01

55

Effect of lecturing to 200 students on heart rate variability and alpha-amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular [heart rate variability (HRV)] and autonomic nervous system activation\\u000a (by evaluating salivary alpha-amylase activity) that occur in professors both to, and after, the delivery of a lecture to\\u000a 200 students and to determine whether gender is an influencing factor upon response. Fifty-two participants (26 women and\\u000a 26 men) collected eight unstimulated

Edith Filaire; Hugues Portier; Alain Massart; Luis Ramat; Anna Teixeira

2010-01-01

56

Heritability of urine and plasma amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Urine amylase activity was measured in 142 boys and girls including unrelated twin individuals, aged 12–16 years. Statistical analysis revealed different distribution in the group with positive protein or blood reaction. Log distribution in a homogeneous sample population was unimodal with a skewness (\\u000a

K. S. Park

1977-01-01

57

Salivary-type amylase producing lung cancers examined clinically and pathologically in 260 Japanese patients of lung lobectomy or segmentectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative mechanisms of lung cancers producing salivary-type amylase (S-Amy) were hypothesized from clinical and pathological\\u000a analysis of lung cancers. A total of 260 Japanese patients who received lung lobectomy or segmentectomy during the last 4 years\\u000a at Hamamatsu University Hospital, Japan, were objective patients in this study. Among the 260 patients, 212 patients were\\u000a operated on for lung cancers. Of

Tadako Nakatsuji

2008-01-01

58

Phlebotomus papatasi and Leishmania major parasites express ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities were found in homogenates of young, unfed male and female Phlebotomus papatasi and in gut and salivary gland preparations. A significant increase in both enzyme activities in females and of ?-amylase in males was recorded for flies that had fed overnight on a plant (Capparis spinosa). After plant feeding, ?-amylase activity was relatively lower in female

Raymond L. Jacobson; Yosef Schlein

2001-01-01

59

Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children  

PubMed Central

We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases (baseline, 3 months later, 6 months later). There were modest increases in waking cortisol and sAA levels in AUT relative to TYP, but the increases were not statistically significant. Important differences were observed in cortisol and sAA variability between AUT and TYP. There was also a graded response among AUT by functional status—cortisol and sAA secretion levels were higher when IQ was lower. PMID:22477468

Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

2013-01-01

60

?-Amylase activity during pullulan production and ?-amylase gene analyses of Aureobasidium pullulans.  

PubMed

Aureobasidium pullulans is the source of commercially produced pullulan, a high molecular weight polysaccharide that is used in the manufacture of edible films. It has been proposed that ?-amylase decreases the molecular weight of pullulan in late cultures. Based on a recent phylogenetic analysis, five representative strains were chosen to study the relationship between ?-amylase and pullulan production. In sucrose-grown cultures, pullulan yields increased over time while the molecular weight of pullulan generally decreased. However, no ?-amylase activity was detected in these cultures. Low levels of ?-amylase were present in starch-grown culture, but pullulan analysis was complicated by residual starch. To facilitate further studies on the role of ?-amylase in the reduction of pullulan molecular weight, the ?-amylase gene from A. pullulans NRRL Y-12974 was cloned and characterized. The coding region of the complete ?-amylase gene contains 2,247 bp, including 7 introns and 8 exons. The putative mRNA was 1,878 bp long, encoding an ?-amylase of 625 amino acid residues. Southern blot analysis indicated that there was only one copy of this gene in the genome. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene was transcribed in both sucrose- and starch-grown cultures. It is possible that very low levels of ?-amylase attack the minor maltotetraose subunits of pullulan and cause the reduction of molecular weight. PMID:21113644

Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Skory, Christopher D; Leathers, Timothy D; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Eveleigh, Douglas E; Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Punnapayak, Hunsa

2011-09-01

61

Developmental differences in infant salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responses to stress  

PubMed Central

Summary This study examined developmental differences in infants’ salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels and responses to the well-baby exam/inoculation stress protocol at 2, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Mother-infant pairs (N = 85; 45 girls) were assessed during well-baby visits and saliva was sampled before the well baby exam/inoculation procedure (pretest) and at 5, 10, and 20 minutes post inoculation stress. Older infants (24 months) had higher levels of sAA than younger infants (2, 6 and 12 months). Stress-related sAA increases were evident at 6 and 12 months, but not at 2 or 24 months of age. Stress-related cortisol increases were present at 2 and 6 months, but not at older ages. Mothers had higher sAA levels than their infants, but did not show sAA or cortisol increases to their infants’ inoculation. Pre-test, maternal and infant sAA levels were positively correlated (rs.47 to.65) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age, but not at 2 months. These findings suggest that the association between the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system and the secretion of sAA develops between 2 and 6 months of age, when levels of sAA are responsive to exposure to a painful stressor. PMID:19268476

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

62

Developmental differences in infant salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responses to stress.  

PubMed

This study examined developmental differences in infants' salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels and responses to the well-baby exam/inoculation stress protocol at 2, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Mother-infant pairs (n=85; 45 girls) were assessed during well-baby visits and saliva was sampled before the well-baby exam/inoculation procedure (pre-test) and at 5, 10, and 20 min post-inoculation stress. Older infants (24 months) had higher levels of sAA than younger infants (2, 6 and 12 months). Stress-related sAA increases were evident at 6 and 12 months, but not at 2 or 24 months of age. Stress-related cortisol increases were present at 2 and 6 months, but not at older ages. Mothers had higher sAA levels than their infants, but did not show sAA or cortisol increases to their infants' inoculation. Pre-test, maternal and infant sAA levels were positively correlated (rs .47 to .65) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age, but not at 2 months. These findings suggest that the association between the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system and the secretion of sAA develops between 2 and 6 months of age, when levels of sAA are responsive to exposure to a painful stressor. PMID:19268476

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Granger, Douglas A

2009-07-01

63

Variation in amylase activities in radish (Raphanus sativus) cultivars.  

PubMed

The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family which shows amylolytic activity in the taproot. However, there is little information about differences in these amylolytic activities among radish cultivars. We analyzed the amylase activities and starch contents of 7 kinds of radish cultivars. The Koshin cultivar showed the highest amylase activity, with a level approximately 6 times higher than that of the Sobutori cultivar, which had the lowest. Cultivars with higher amylase activities showed higher starch contents. These results suggest that there are intraspecies variations in amylolytic activities in radishes, and positive correlations between amylase activity and starch content. PMID:19655255

Hara, Masakazu; Ito, Fumio; Asai, Tatsuo; Kuboi, Toru

2009-09-01

64

Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to taekwondo competition in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an official taekwondo competition (three 1-min rounds with a 1-min recovery in-between) on heart rate (HR), salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and salivary-free cortisol (sC) in children. Parental consent was obtained for 12 young (10.4 ± 0.2 years) male taekwondo athletes. Saliva sample were collected 15 min before and 1 min after an official taekwondo competition, and at 30, 60, and 90 min of the recovery period. To evaluate the exercise intensity during the competition, HR was measured and expressed as a percentage of individuals HR(peak). Athletes spent 78% of the time working at HR > 90% HR(max), with significant increases from round 1 to round 2 and 3. Peak sAA observed at the end of the match (169.6 ± 47.0 U/mL) was different (P = 0.0001) from the other samplings (pre-competition 55.0 ± 14.0 U/mL, 30-min recovery 80.4 ± 17.7 U/mL, 60-min recovery 50.5 ± 7.6 U/ml; 90-min recovery 53.2 ± 9.6 U/mL). Peak sC values observed at 30-min recovery (17.9 ± 3.5 nmol/L) were different (P < 0.0001) from pre-competition (5.6 ± 0.9 nmol/L), post-competition (9.0 ± 2.0 nmol/L), 60-min recovery (10.3 ± 2.6 nmol/L) and 90-min recovery (4.2 ± 0.8 nmol/L) values. These findings confirm that taekwondo competitions pose a high stress on young athletes. The different sAA and sC reactions in response to the physical stressor mirror the faster reactivity of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system relatively to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system, respectively. This experimental paradigm might represent a useful model for further research on the effects of various stressors (i.e., training and competition) in taekwondo athletes. PMID:21643917

Capranica, Laura; Lupo, Corrado; Cortis, Cristina; Chiodo, Salvatore; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Tessitore, Antonio

2012-02-01

65

Microbial and Hybrid Sensors for Determination of ?-Amylase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial (maltose induced B. subtilis) and hybrid (B. subtilis and glucoamylase) sensors have been developed for determination of ?-amylase activity by measuring the change of respiration rate of microorganisms caused by uptake of splitting products of starch. Up to 3 I.U. bacterial ?-amylase a linear relationship between enzyme activity and change of respiration rate has been found with the hybrid

R. Renneberg; K. Riedel; P. Liebs; F. Scheller

1984-01-01

66

The effect of carbohydrates on ?-amylase activity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ceralpha method can be used for ?-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ?-amylase activity measurements was measured over a broad concentration range. It was found that starch has the largest influence and glucose

Tim Baks; Anja E. M. Janssen; Remko M. Boom

2006-01-01

67

A new potentiometric sensor for the determination of ?-amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A platinum redox sensor for the direct potentiometric determination of ?-amylase concentration has been described. The sensor measured the amount of triiodide released from a starch–triiodide complex, which was correlated with the ?-amylase activity after biocatalytic starch degradation. The composition and stability of the potassium triiodide solution was optimized. The starch–triiodide complex was characterized potentiometrically at variable starch and triiodide

Nikola Saka?; Milan Sak-Bosnar; Marija Horvat; Dubravka Maduni?-?a?i?; Aleksandar Szechenyi; Barna Kovacs

2011-01-01

68

A biosensor for the determination of amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new biosensing flow injection method for the determination of ?-amylase activity has been introduced. The method is based on the analysis of maltose produced during the hydrolysis of starch in the presence of ?-amylase. Maltose determination in the flow system was allowed by the application of peroxide electrode equipped with an enzyme membrane. The membrane was obtained by immobilisation

Ludmila Zajoncová; Milan J??lek; Veronika Beranová; Pavel Pe?

2004-01-01

69

Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits  

PubMed Central

Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behavior in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focused. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis): the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behavior is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focused behavior following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase [indicative of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis (SAM)] and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling. PMID:24474909

van den Bos, Ruud; Taris, Ruben; Scheppink, Bianca; de Haan, Lydia; Verster, Joris C.

2013-01-01

70

Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits.  

PubMed

Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behavior in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focused. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis): the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behavior is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focused behavior following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase [indicative of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis (SAM)] and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling. PMID:24474909

van den Bos, Ruud; Taris, Ruben; Scheppink, Bianca; de Haan, Lydia; Verster, Joris C

2013-01-01

71

Regulation of amylase activity in Drosophila melanogaster: Variation in the number of enzyme molecules produced by different amylase genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified amylases from high- and low-activity variants of Drosophila melanogaster showed identical specific activities. Immunoelectrophoresis of crude larval homogenates showed severalfold differences between strains in the amounts of cross-reacting material. Control of amylase activity is “trans”-acting in heterozygotes between high- and low-activity variants. These results suggest the existence of polymorphic regulatory genes affecting the production levels of amylase protein in

D. A. Hickey

1981-01-01

72

Variation in Amylase Activities in Radish ( Raphanus sativus ) Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family which shows amylolytic activity in the taproot. However, there is little\\u000a information about differences in these amylolytic activities among radish cultivars. We analyzed the amylase activities and\\u000a starch contents of 7 kinds of radish cultivars. The Koshin cultivar showed the highest amylase activity, with a level approximately\\u000a 6

Masakazu Hara; Fumio Ito; Tatsuo Asai; Toru Kuboi

2009-01-01

73

Measurement of ?-amylase activity by Sequential Injection Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) system for monitoring a-amylase activity is described. The SIA analyser is a further development of previously investigated Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) analyser. The analysis of a-amylase activity is based on monitoring the decoloration of an iodine-starch complex. Performances of the SIA analyser have been compared with the FIA analyser. A good agreement has been obtained

Rong Wei Min; Morten Carlsen; Jens Nielsen; John Villadsen

1995-01-01

74

Determination of ?-amylase activity using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the determination of ?-amylase activity in aqueous solutions and human serum with FTIR-spectroscopy is proposed.\\u000a The chemical reaction catalyzed by the enzyme under study can be followed directly when applying FTIR-spectroscopic detection\\u000a also in the case, where no colored or electrochemical active species are generated or consumed during the course of the reaction\\u000a of ?-amylase with

P. Krieg; B. Lendl; R. Vonach; R. Kellner

1996-01-01

75

Salivary pellicles on titanium and their effect on metabolic activity in Streptococcus oralis  

PubMed Central

Background Titanium implants in the oral cavity are covered with a saliva-derived pellicle to which early colonizing microorganisms such as Streptococcus oralis can bind. The protein profiles of salivary pellicles on titanium have not been well characterized and the proteins of importance for binding are thus unknown. Biofilm bacteria exhibit different phenotypes from their planktonic counterparts and contact with salivary proteins may be one factor contributing to the induction of changes in physiology. We have characterized salivary pellicles from titanium surfaces and investigated how contact with uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces affects metabolic activity in adherent cells of S. oralis. Methods Salivary pellicles on smooth titanium surfaces were desorbed and these, as well as purified human saliva, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. A parallel plate flow-cell model was used to study binding of a fresh isolate of S. oralis to uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces. Metabolic activity was assessed using the BacLight CTC Vitality Kit and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results analyzed using Student’s t-test or ANOVA. Results Secretory IgA, ?-amylase and cystatins were identified as dominant proteins in the salivary pellicles. Selective adsorption of proteins was demonstrated by the enrichment of prolactin-inducible protein and absence of zinc-?2-glycoprotein relative to saliva. Adherence of S. oralis to titanium led to an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the population after 2 hours. In the presence of a salivary pellicle, this effect was enhanced and sustained over the following 22 hour period. Conclusions We have shown that adherence to smooth titanium surfaces under flow causes an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the early oral colonizer S. oralis, most likely as part of an adaptation to the biofilm mode of life. The effect was enhanced by a salivary pellicle containing sIgA, ?-amylase, cystatins and prolactin-inducible protein which was, for the first time, identified as an abundant component of salivary pellicles on titanium. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the effect of surface contact on metabolic activity as well as to identify the salivary proteins responsible for enhancing the effect. PMID:23866104

2013-01-01

76

Effect of combined cognitive-behavioural therapy and endurance training on cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase in panic disorder.  

PubMed

Current data point to an alteration of both the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-system and the peripheral transmission of catecholamines in anxiety disorders. There is also some evidence for the effect of several components of cognitive-behavioural interventions such as coping and control and for an effect of exercise training on the neuroendocrine stress response in healthy subjects as well as patients suffering from distinct (mental) disorders. This double-blind, controlled study investigated the effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in combination with either high-level endurance training or low-level exercise on salivary cortisol (sC) and on levels of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in patients suffering from panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia. In comparison to the low-level exercise condition, there were significantly lower sC-levels in the experimental group performing high-level endurance training at a 7-month follow-up. In contrast, there were no group differences in sAA levels during the study period. In this trial, we found evidence for a decelerated effect of endurance-training on HPA-system's functioning in PD. Further studies addressing the alteration of sAA levels in this population might investigate physical exercise different in intensity and duration. PMID:25085607

Plag, Jens; Gaudlitz, Katharina; Schumacher, Sarah; Dimeo, Fernando; Bobbert, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ströhle, Andreas

2014-11-01

77

Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. (University Hospital, Umea (Sweden))

1991-02-01

78

A new potentiometric sensor for the determination of ?-amylase activity.  

PubMed

A platinum redox sensor for the direct potentiometric determination of ?-amylase concentration has been described. The sensor measured the amount of triiodide released from a starch-triiodide complex, which was correlated with the ?-amylase activity after biocatalytic starch degradation. The composition and stability of the potassium triiodide solution was optimized. The starch-triiodide complex was characterized potentiometrically at variable starch and triiodide concentrations. The response mechanism of the platinum redox sensor towards ?-amylase was proposed and the appropriate theoretical model was elaborated. The results obtained using the redox sensor exhibited satisfactory accuracy and precision and good agreement with a standard spectrophotometric method and high-sensitive fully automated descret analyser method. The sensor was tested on pure ?-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1, Fluka, Switzerland), industrial granulated ?-amylase Duramyl 120 T and an industrial cogranulate of protease and ?-amylase Everlase/Duramyl 8.0 T/60 T. The detection limit was found to be 1.944 mU for ?-amylase in the range of 0-0.54 U (0-15 ?g), 0.030 mKNU for Duramyl 120 T in the range of 0-9.6 mKNU (0-80 ?g) and 0.032 mKNU for Everlase/Duramyl 8.0 T/60 T in the range of 0-9.24 mKNU (0-140 ?g). PMID:21238759

Sakac, Nikola; Sak-Bosnar, Milan; Horvat, Marija; Maduni?-Caci?, Dubravka; Szechenyi, Aleksandar; Kovacs, Barna

2011-02-15

79

Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice.  

PubMed

In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening for salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae) and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75%) of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose. PMID:24068095

De Gouveia, Neire M; De Albuquerque, Cibele L; Espindola, Laila S; Espindola, Foued S

2013-09-01

80

Modified Method for the Determination of Grain Amylase Activity by the Falling Number  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard method for determination of amylase activity by the falling number was modified by us to study the carbohydrate–amylase complex and time course of starch hydrolysis by amylases from rye grain. The method is based on the use of potato starch as a standard substrate and aqueous extract of grain amylases as an enzyme source.

I. S. Vorob'eva; M. P. Popov

2002-01-01

81

Amylase activity of Torulopsis ingeniosa Di Menna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torulopsis ingeniosaDi Menna was found to possess an ?-amylase strongly attached to the cell wall, its pH optimum being at 5.5, optimum temperature at\\u000a 50 °C, highly sensitive to thermal inactivation. The enzyme was found to be induced by starch but the synthesis is not subject\\u000a to a glucose effect.

G. Moulin; P. Galzy

1978-01-01

82

The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.  

PubMed

Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and ?-amylase StAmy23, ?-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both ?-amylase and ?-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers. PMID:24985879

Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

2014-09-01

83

Introducing transglycosylation activity in a liquefying ?-amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

By mutating Ala-289 by Phe or Tyr in the Bacillus stearothermophilus ?-amylase, we induced this enzyme to perform alcoholytic reactions, a function not present in the wild-type enzyme. This residue was selected from homology analysis with neopullulanase, where the residue has been implicated in the control of transglycosylation [Kuriki et al. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 17321–17329]. We made some

Gloria Saab-Rincón; Gabriel del-R??o; Rosa I Santamar??a; Agust??n López-Mungu??a; Xavier Soberón

1999-01-01

84

Who is stressed? A pilot study of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase concentrations in agoraphobic patients and their novice therapists undergoing in vivo exposure.  

PubMed

In cognitive behavioural therapy of phobic anxiety, in vivo exposure is considered as an effective treatment strategy. Apparently, it involves the experience of stress and anxiety in patients. Given the therapist's role during exposure sessions, it is conceivable that the performance is also accompanied with the experience of stress in therapists, especially when unversed in conducting psychotherapy. Studies confirmed that cognitive behavioural therapists tend to avoid therapist-guided in vivo exposure. The objective of this study was the simultaneous investigation of therapist's and patient's stress response during in vivo exposure. Therefore, 23 agoraphobic patients and their 23 treating therapists in training provided five saliva samples during an in vivo exposure and five samples during an ordinary therapy session. Before and during exposure session, subjective evaluations of stress and anxiety were assessed. Results suggested that therapists reported similar levels of perceived stress as patients before exposure. Both groups displayed significantly elevated salivary cortisol (sC) levels during exposure compared to the control session and a trend for alterations in salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity was found. Therapists reached peak concentrations of sC before start of the intervention followed by a decline during exposure, while patients displayed peak levels of cortisol secretion after 60min of exposure. In vivo exposure seems to be a demanding intervention not only for the patient, but also for therapists in training. However, it was also demonstrated that physiological and subjective stress rather decrease during the intervention and that both groups rated exposure to be substantially successful. Based on the presented results, another potential factor contributing to the under-usage of exposure treatment is conceivable and needs to be addressed in future research. PMID:25127086

Schumacher, Sarah; Gaudlitz, Katharina; Plag, Jens; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Fehm, Lydia; Fydrich, Thomas; Ströhle, Andreas

2014-11-01

85

Functional roles of protein domains on rice ?-amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of two rice ?-amylases Amy1A and Amy3D, and those of two chimeric enzymes Amy1A\\/3D and Amy3D\\/1A, engineered\\u000a from the two isozymes, were compared in the light of the functional roles of protein domains in ?-amylase. The enzymes that\\u000a have an Amy1A-type N-terminal domain, Amy1A and Amy1A\\/3D, showed high activity against soluble starch, while the enzymes that\\u000a have an Amy3D-type

M. Terashima; M. Hosono; S. Katoh

1997-01-01

86

a-Amylase activity from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei is able to grow in a minimal medium containing ammonium acetate as a carbon and nitrogen source. When this medium is enriched with starch, a-amylase activity is excreted to the medium in low concentration. Here we report methods to concentrate and purify the enzyme. The relative molecular mass of the enzyme, determined by gel filtration,

F. Pérez-Pomares; V. Bautista; J. Ferrer; C. Pire; F. C. Marhuenda-Egea; M. J. Bonete

2003-01-01

87

The functional significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster VI. Duration of development and amylase activity in larvae when starch is a limiting factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stocks homozygous for the amylase alleles Amy1 and Amy4, 6 were compared for amylase activity during larval development and duration of larval development on a food medium on which addition of starch promotes survival. The two stocks have the same development time when reared under optimal food conditions. Then, the higher amylase activity which characterizes the Amy4, 6 stock

A. J. W. Hoorn; W. Scharloo

1981-01-01

88

Allele-Dependent Barley Grain ?-Amylase Activity1  

PubMed Central

The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high ?-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and ?-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high ?-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the ?-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the ?-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct ?-amy1 alleles. Two of these ?-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain ?-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated ?-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of ?-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed. PMID:9625721

Erkkila, Maria J.; Leah, Robert; Ahokas, Hannu; Cameron-Mills, Verena

1998-01-01

89

Salivary alpha-amylase during pregnancy: diurnal course and associations with obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood.  

PubMed

Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) in pregnant women have not previously been described. The current study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between the diurnal sAA, obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood during pregnancy. Saliva was self-collected by 83 pregnant women (89% White, age 25.3-43.0 years; mean gestational age 21.9 weeks, range 6-37 weeks; gravida 1-6) at home over three days. Results indicated that current pregnancy (gestational age and fetal sex) and maternal demographics were not related to diurnal sAA. In contrast, a history of previous miscarriage (Parameter = -.17; SE = .05; p < .05) was associated with an atypical diurnal pattern. Even after accounting for obstetric history, trait anxiety (Parameter = .16; SE = .04; p < .001) was associated with increased sAA over the day while chronic levels of fatigue (Parameter = -.06; SE = .03; p < .05) were associated with decreased sAA. In a separate model, we also tested the time varying covariation of sAA and mood. The effects of momentary mood were in contrast to those for trait mood. Both momentary depression (Parameter = .22; SE = .09; p < .01) and vigour/positive mood (Parameter = .12; SE = .04; p < .001) were associated with momentary increases in sAA while momentary anxiety and fatigue were not related to sAA. The findings suggest that basal sAA during pregnancy is sensitive to emotional arousal. Evaluating diurnal patterns of sAA holds promise for advancing understanding of how emotional arousal during pregnancy may affect fetal development. PMID:22315130

Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Granger, Douglas A; Campbell, Tavis; Kaplan, Bonnie

2013-03-01

90

b-AMYLASE4, a Noncatalytic Protein Required for Starch Breakdown, Acts Upstream of Three Active b-Amylases in  

E-print Network

This work investigated the roles of b-amylases in the breakdown of leaf starch. Of the nine b-amylase (BAM)–like proteins encoded in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, at least four (BAM1,-2,-3, and-4) are chloroplastic. When expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, BAM1, BAM2, and BAM3 had measurable b-amylase activity but BAM4 did not. BAM4 has multiple amino acid substitutions relative to characterized b-amylases, including one of the two catalytic residues. Modeling predicts major differences between the glucan binding site of BAM4 and those of active b-amylases. Thus, BAM4 probably lost its catalytic capacity during evolution. Total b-amylase activity was reduced in leaves of bam1 and bam3 mutants but not in bam2 and bam4 mutants. The bam3 mutant had elevated starch levels and lower nighttime maltose levels than the wild type, whereas bam1 did not. However, the bam1 bam3 double mutant had a more severe phenotype than bam3, suggesting functional overlap between the two proteins. Surprisingly, bam4 mutants had elevated starch levels. Introduction of the bam4 mutation into the bam3 and bam1 bam3 backgrounds further elevated the starch levels in both cases. These data suggest that BAM4 facilitates or regulates starch breakdown and operates independently

W Oa; Arabidopsis Chloroplasts; Steven M. Smith; Samuel C. Zeeman B

91

Kinetic Nephelometric Procedure forMeasurement of Amylase Activity inSerum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a kinetic procedure for determina- tion of amylase activity in serum by use of neph- elometric measurements. Light scattering from the substrate, a stable suspension of starch, is decreased as amylase hydrolyzes the starch to soluble fragments. Values obtained for serum amylase correlate closely with those determined by a method in which a starch-dye complex is used. Precision

James R. Shipe; John Savory

92

Halotolerant Ability and ?-Amylase Activity of Some Saltwater Fungal Isolates.  

PubMed

Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and ?-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the ?-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum (isolate U1; CBS 132820), Fusarium incarnatum (isolate U2; CBS 132821), and Penicillium polonicum (isolate U3; CBS 132822, and isolate U4; CBS 132823). The growth of these isolates was determined by measuring the colony diameter and mycelia dry weight in Sabouraud dextrose agar and yeast nitrogen base medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, and LiCl. Isolate U4 showed a growth up in 15% NaCl and U1 was the only isolate that could grow in 20% KCl. None of the strains grew in a media containing LiCl. The salt supplemented medium did not increase the size of colony diameter in all isolates (p > 0.05). The ability of the selected isolates for amylase production was quantitatively tested and showed that P. polonicum isolate U4 was the most potent producer of amylase with a yield of 260.9 U/L after 60 h, whereas P. polonicum isolate U3 was the lowest one with a production level of 97.9 U/L after 48 h. P. polonicum isolate U4 could be a suitable candidate for production of amylase on an industrial scale after optimization. PMID:24250679

Niknejad, Farhad; Moshfegh, Mahsa; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Houbraken, Jos; Rezaei, Shahla; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran

2013-01-01

93

Histopathologic correlates of serum amylase activity in acute experimental pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of serum amylase activity with the extent of pancreatic injury in acute pancreatitis is unclear. To clarify this relationship, we induced acute pancreatitis ranging from mild to lethal in 118 Sprague-Dawley rats (350–450 g). This was achieved by controlled intraductal infusion of low- or high-dose bile salt, with or without enterokinase, followed by intravenous cerulein or saline for

J. Schmidt; K. Lewandrowski; C. Fernandez-Del Castillo; U. Mandavilli; C. C. Compton; A. L. Warshaw; D. W. Rattner

1992-01-01

94

Effect of plant a-amylase inhibitors on sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), alpha-amylase activity.  

PubMed

Plant-insect interaction is a dynamic system, subjected to continual variation and change. In order to reduce insect attack, plants developed different defence mechanisms including chemical and physical barriers such as the induction of defensive proteins, volatiles that attract predators of the insect herbivores and secondary metabolites. Proteinaceous inhibitors of alpha-amylase and proteases are widely distributed in cereals, legumes and some other plants. Because of the possible importance of these inhibitors in plant physiology and animal nutrition, extensive research has been conducted on their properties and biological effects. Sunn pest like other insect pests of wheat lives on a polysaccharide-rich diet and depends to a large extent on effectiveness of their alpha-amylases for survival, a-amylase (1-4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase) hydrolyses starch, and related polysaccharides by randomly cleaving internal alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages and has a major role in the utilization of polysaccharides. The enzyme inhibitors act on key insect gut digestive hydrolyses, alpha-amylase. Several kinds of a-amylase inhibitors present in seeds and vegetative organs of plant, act to regulate number of phytophagous insects. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to study cereal proteinaceous inhibitors of insect digestive enzymes and their potential use as resistance factors against Sunn pest. The proteinaceous inhibitors from different cereal species including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were extracted and tested in in vitro condition against Sunn pest alpha-amylase. Extraction was made with NaCl (0.15 M) at room temperature and further purification was done by ammonium sulphate precipitation. It was found that fractions obtained from barley had more inhibitory effect on amylase activity of Sunn pest than fractions obtained from wheat. Knowledge gained through these studies can be used to select resistant plant against insect pest. PMID:16628930

Bandani, A R

2005-01-01

95

Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

2012-01-01

96

Probing the role of aromatic residues at the secondary saccharide binding sites of human salivary ?-amylase in substrate hydrolysis and bacterial binding  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Human salivary ?-amylase (HSAmy) has three distinct functions relevant to oral health: 1) hydrolysis of starch; 2) binding to hydroxyapatite; and 3) binding to bacteria (e.g. viridans streptococci). Although the active site of HSAmy for starch hydrolysis is well characterized, the regions responsible for the bacterial binding are yet to be defined. Since HSAmy possesses several secondary saccharide-binding sites in which aromatic residues are prominently located, we hypothesized that one or more of the secondary saccharide binding sites harboring the aromatic residues may play an important role in bacterial binding. To test this hypothesis, the aromatic residues at five secondary binding sites were mutated to alanine to generate six mutants representing either single (W203A, Y276A and W284A), double (Y276A/W284A and W316A/W388A) or multiple (HSAmy-ar; W134A/W203A/Y276A/W284A/W316A/W388A) mutations. The crystal structure of HSAmy-ar was determined at a resolution of 1.5 Å as an acarbose complex and compared with the existing wild type acarbose complex. The wild type and the mutant enzymes were characterized for their abilities to exhibit enzyme activity, starch binding, hydroxyapatite and bacterial binding activities. Our results clearly showed that 1) mutation of aromatic residues does not alter the overall conformation of the molecule; 2) the single or double mutants showed either moderate or minimal changes in both starch and bacterial binding activities activity whereas the HSAmy-ar showed significant reduction in these activities; 3) the starch hydrolytic activity was reduced 10-fold in HSAmy-ar; 4) oligosaccharide hydrolytic activity was reduced in all the mutants but the action pattern was similar to that of the wild type enzyme; and 5) the hydroxyaptite binding was unaffected in HSAmy-ar. These results clearly show that the aromatic residues at the secondary saccharide binding sites in HSAmy play a critical role in bacterial binding and starch hydrolytic functions of HSAmy. PMID:18951906

Ragunath, Chandran; Manuel, Suba G.A.; Venkataraman, Venkat; Sait, Hameetha B.R.; Kasinathan, Chinnasamy; Ramasubbu, Narayanan

2008-01-01

97

Changes in carbohydrate and nitrogenous components and amylase activities during germination of grain amaranth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus), Yercaud local variety, was soaked overnight and germinated for 192 h taking the soaked grains as the zero time (0 h) sample. The changes in the activities of a- and ß-amylases, starch, sugar, protein and lysine contents during germination are reported. Activity of a-amylase was high in the 0 h soaked grains, while ß-amylase activity was

Theymoli Balasubramanian; S. Sadasivam

1989-01-01

98

Activity of pectinases, amylases, and saccharase in Pythium spp.  

PubMed

The activity of pectine-lyase, polygalacturonase, pectine-methyl-esterase, amylase, and saccharase in Pythium ultimum, Pythium oligandrum, and Pythium debaryanum was determined. Cultures of fungi were cultivated under different temperatures and pH-values within 24 hours and 15 days. The optimum temperature for production of the mentioned enzymes was found to be 24 degrees C. Furthermore, the influence of pH and age of culture on activity of enzyme was investigated. The same trend was found in all the fungus species examined. PMID:95072

Krátká, J; Veselý, D

1979-01-01

99

Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine\\/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the crude extracts was measured by monitoring the amount of starch hydrolyzed by the crude extract

C. O. Edeogu

2009-01-01

100

?-Amylase activity during pullulan production and ?-amylase gene analyses of Aureobasidium pullulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aureobasidium pullulans is the source of commercially produced pullulan, a high molecular weight polysaccharide that is used in the manufacture of\\u000a edible films. It has been proposed that ?-amylase decreases the molecular weight of pullulan in late cultures. Based on a\\u000a recent phylogenetic analysis, five representative strains were chosen to study the relationship between ?-amylase and pullulan\\u000a production. In sucrose-grown

Pennapa Manitchotpisit; Christopher D. Skory; Timothy D. Leathers; Pongtharin Lotrakul; Douglas E. Eveleigh; Sehanat Prasongsuk; Hunsa Punnapayak

101

Green Tea Consumption after Intense Taekwondo Training Enhances Salivary Defense Factors and Antibacterial Capacity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, ?-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and ?-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, ?-amylase activity and the ratio of ?-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of ?-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

2014-01-01

102

Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, ?-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and ?-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, ?-amylase activity and the ratio of ?-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of ?-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

2014-01-01

103

Amylase activity of a yellow pigmented bacterium isolated from cassava waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the amylase activity of a yellow pigmented bacterium isolated from cassava wastes obtained from a dumpsite near a gari processing factory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Isolate was grown in nutrient broth containing 1% starch and then centrifuged at 5,000 rpm. Amylase activity was assayed using the DNSA method for the detection of reducing sugar. Best enzyme activity was

Bolanle Kudirat

104

Retroviral and psuedogene insertion sites reveal the lineage of human salivary and pancreatic amylase genes from a single gene during primate evolution  

SciTech Connect

The authors have analyzed the junction regions of inserted elements within the human amylase gene complex. This complex contains five genes which are expressed at high levels either in the pancreas or in the parotid gland. The proximal 5{prime}-flanking regions of these genes contain two inserted elements. A {gamma}-actin pseudogene is located at a position 20 base pairs upstream of the first coding exon. All of the amylase genes contain this insert. The subsequent insertion of an endogenous retrovirus interrupted the {gamma}-actin pseudogene within its 3{prime}-untranslated region. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the inserted elements associated with each of the five human amylase genes has revealed a series of molecular events during the recent history of this gene family. The data indicate that the entire gene family was generated during primate evolution from one ancestral gene copy and that the retroviral insertion activated a cryptic promoter.

Samuelson, L.C.; Snow, C.M.; Meisler, M.H. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Dept. of Human Genetics); Wiebauer, K. (Friedrich Meischer Inst., CH-4002 Basel (CH))

1990-06-01

105

Potentiometric flow injection determination of amylase activity by using hexacyanoferrate(III)-hexacyanoferrate(II) potential buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive potentiometric flow injection determination of amylase activity was carried out, utilizing a redox reaction of hexacyanoferrate(III) in alkaline media with reducing sugar as product of the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of starch with amylase. The analytical method is based on the potential change detection of a flow-through type redox electrode detector due to the composition change of a

Hiroki Ohura; Toshihiko Imato; Yasukazu Asano; Sumio Yamasaki

1998-01-01

106

Antihemostatic activity in salivary glands of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus (Anoplura: Pediculidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thrombin inhibitor, factor Xa inhibitor and apyrase activity were demonstrated in the salivary glands of Pediculus humanus humanus. Less than 0.15 ?g of salivary gland extracts (SGE), which is equivalent to approximately 0.15 lice salivary glands, caused 50% inhibition of thrombin activity, while 1 ?l of SGE was sufficient to double thrombin time using rat plasma. A single peak

K. Y. Mumcuoglu; R. Galun; Y. Kaminchik; A. Panet; A. Levanon

1996-01-01

107

Human Salivary Mucin MG1 Selectively Forms Heterotypic Complexes with Amylase, Proline-rich Proteins, Statherin, and Histatins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterotypic complexes between the high-molecular-weight mucin MG1 and other salivary proteins in human submandibular\\/sublingual secretion (HSMSL) could have a significant impact on the biological properties of these proteins in oral fluids in both health and disease. We describe a mild procedure for isolation and purification of native MG1 by gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B which does not involve dialysis,

I. Iontcheva; F. G. Oppenheim; R. F. Troxler

1997-01-01

108

An analytical method for measuring ?-amylase activity in starch-containing foods.  

PubMed

The quality of starch-containing foods may be significantly impaired by contamination with very small amounts of ?-amylase, which can enzymatically hydrolyze the starch and cause viscosity loss. Thus, for quality control, it is necessary to have an analytical method that can measure low amylase activity. We developed a sensitive analytical method for measuring the activity of ?-amylase (from Bacillus subtilis) in starch-containing foods. The method consists of six steps: (1) crude extraction of ?-amylase by centrifugation and filtration; (2) ?-amylase purification by desalting and anion-exchange chromatography; (3) reaction of the purified amylase with boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-labeled substrate, which releases a fluorescent fragment upon digestion of the substrate, thus avoiding interference from starch derivatives in the sample; (4) stopping the reaction with acetonitrile; (5) reversed-phase solid-phase extraction of the fluorescent substrate to remove contaminating dye and impurities; and (6) separation and measurement of BODIPY fluorescence by HPLC. The proposed method could quantify ?-amylase activities as low as 10 mU/mL, which is enough to reduce the viscosity of starch-containing foods. PMID:23074083

Koyama, Kazuo; Hirao, Takashi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2013-05-01

109

An ESR assay for ?-amylase activity toward succinylated starch, amylose and amylopectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The esterification of the three polysaccharides, starch, amylose and amylopectin was carried out in pyridine–DMSO by succinic anhydride. The carboxylic groups in the succinylated polysaccharides were measured by FT–IR spectroscopy. The succinic derivatives were tested as ?-amylase (1,4-?-d-glucan glucano hydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1) substrates. A colorimetric assay of the ?-amylase activity indicated that this enzyme is active on succinic esters of

Michele Marcazzan; Fabio Vianello; Marina Scarpa; Adelio Rigo

1999-01-01

110

Salinity Induced Changes in ?-Amylase Activity During Germination and Early Cotton Seedling Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity induced changes in a-amylase activity in three cotton cultivars (NIAB-Karishma, NIAB-86 and K-115) was studied during germination and early seedling growth under controlled conditions. The increase in NaCl concentration resulted in the decrease in a-amylase activity and break down of starch into reducing and non-reducing sugars in all cultivars, however, it was more pronounced in NIAB-86. K-115 showed highest

M. Y. Ashraf; G. Sarwar; R. Afaf; A. Sattar

2002-01-01

111

Inhibitory activity of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase by plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease in the world. One therapeutic approach for treating diabetes is inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels. In vitro tests showed that several plant extracts from Brazilian cerrado species can inhibit the activity of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. The extracts of Eugenia dysenterica, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Pouteria caimito, Pouteria ramiflora, and Pouteria torta showed strong ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Eugenia dysenterica, P. caimito, P. ramiflora, and P. torta aqueous extracts exerted the highest activity against ?-amylase (IC??) values of 14.93, 13.6, 7.08, and 5.67 µg/mL, respectively) and ?-glucosidase (IC?? values of 0.46, 2.58, 0.35, and 0.22 µg/mL, respectively). Stryphnodendron adstringens ethanol extract also exhibited inhibitory activity against both enzymes (IC??) 1.86 µg/mL against ?-amylase and 0.61 µg/mL against ?-glucosidase). The results suggest that the activity of these cerrado plants on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase represents a potential tool for development of new strategies for treatment of diabetes. PMID:22134849

Souza, Paula Monteiro de; Sales, Paloma Michelle de; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Elton Clementino; Silveira, Dâmaris; Magalhães, Pérola de Oliveira

2012-03-01

112

[Influence of tobacco smoking on amylase activity in serum persons occupational exposed to heavy metals].  

PubMed

The newest conducted investigations showed the significant role of tobacco smoking in inducing pathological changes in pancreas. Additionally exposure to heavy metals presents on polluted environment influences on function this organ. However, the mechanism of development of these changes has not been fully recognised. The aim of this study is to prove the influence of tobacco smoking on total amylase and termolabile amylase activity in serum of smoking and nonsmoking healthy persons and workers at cooper foundry in Legnica occupationally exposed to heavy metals: cadmium, arsenic, lead. Blood has been collected from 28 healthy persons and 60 founders. The enzyme total activity has been determined using the colorimetric method with substrate 1,2-odilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6-methylresorufin) ester. The thermolability activity has been determined using the thermolability test. It has been noted significant higher total amylase and thermolabile amylase activity in serum of smoking healthy persons (p < 0.0002; p < 0.002) and of non-smoking (p < 0.001; p < 0.01) and smoking founders (p < 0.0004; p < 0.001) comparison with non-smoking healthy persons. It hasn't been found significant differences in total and thermolabile amylase activity in smoking founders and non-smoking founders. The fact that there are significant differences in serum amylase activity in serum of smoking and nonsmoking founders in comparison with nonsmoking healthy persons prove a significant influence of exposure to heavy metals on exocrine function of pancreas. PMID:19189531

Sliwi?ska-Mosso?, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina; Zuchniewicz, Agnieszka; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta

2008-01-01

113

Beta Amylase Activity and Thermostability in Two Mutants Derived from the Malting Barley cv. Triumph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malting barley cultivar, Triumph, and two mutants derived from it with higher (TL9) and lower (TL43) dormancy, respectively, were grown in replicated trials at Lleida, Spain and Dundee, Scotland, in 1999. Measurement ofbeta -amylase in the mature grain showed both mutants to have higher enzyme activity than the parental type with Spanish-grown samples higher in beta -amylase than Scottish-grown.

J. S. Swanston; J. L. Molina-Cano

2001-01-01

114

Determination of alpha-amylase activity in dextran, ficoll and polyethylene glycol solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A new insoluble chromolytic substrate for the spectrophotometric determination of alpha-amylase activity (starch cross-linked\\u000a with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether in the presence of black drawing ink; “black starch”) has been shown to work well also\\u000a in the presence of dextran, Ficoll and polyethylene glycol; on the other hand these phase-forming polymers interfere with\\u000a some commonly used alpha-amylase assays.

Ivo Šafa?ík; Miroslava Šafa?íková

1992-01-01

115

Relationship between molecular states (conformation and orientation) and activities of ?-amylase adsorbed on ultrafine silica particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis ?-amylase, which contains a relatively large amount of ?-helix, was adsorbed on two types of ultrafine silica particles (silica-1\\u000a and-2, average diameter 15 nm) under various conditions. The changes in circular dichroism (CD) spectra of ?-amylase upon\\u000a adsorption were measured, and the extent of conformational changes was estimated from the reduction in ?-helix content. In\\u000a additions the activities

A. Kondo; T. Urabe

1995-01-01

116

LEADER 3--Lipase and Amylase Activity in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objectives This report from the LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results) trial describes baseline lipase and amylase activity in type 2 diabetic subjects without acute pancreatitis symptoms before randomization to the glucagonlike peptide analog liraglutide or placebo. Methods The LEADER is an international randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the cardiovascular safety of liraglutide in 9340 type 2 diabetic patients at high cardiovascular risk. Fasting lipase and amylase activity was assessed at baseline, before receiving liraglutide or placebo, using a commercial assay (Roche) with upper limit of normal values of 63 U/L for lipase and 100 U/L for amylase. Results Either or both enzymes were above the upper limit of normal in 22.7% of subjects; 16.6% (n = 1540) had an elevated lipase level (including 1.2% >3-fold elevated), and 11.8% (n = 1094) had an elevated amylase level (including 0.2% >3-fold elevated). In multivariable regression models, severely reduced kidney function was associated with the largest effect on increasing activity of both. However, even among subjects with normal kidney function, 12.2% and 7.7% had elevated lipase and amylase levels. Conclusions In this large study of type 2 diabetic patients, nearly 25% had elevated lipase or amylase levels without symptoms of acute pancreatitis. The clinician must take these data into account when evaluating abdominal symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:25275271

Steinberg, William M.; Nauck, Michael A.; Zinman, Bernard; Daniels, Gilbert H.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Mann, Johannes F.E.; Steen Ravn, Lasse; Moses, Alan C.; Stockner, Mette; Baeres, Florian M.M.; Marso, Steven P.; Buse, John B.

2014-01-01

117

The amylase activity associated with Cellulomonas flavigena is cell associated and inducible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Analysis of the amylase activity associated withCellulomonas flavigena showed that it was a cell associated activity that could be released upon sonication, it was active against amylopectin and starch but showed no activity against pullulan and only slight activity against amylose. The enzyme was also found to have liquifying activity and to be inducible.

J F McCarthy; J Tony Pembroke

1988-01-01

118

Mechanisms Leading to Excess Alpha Amylase Activity in Wheat ( Triticum aestivum, L) Grain in the U.K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and mechanisms of four modes of alpha -amylase enzyme accumulation in U.K. wheat, retained pericarp alpha -amylase activity (RPAA), pre-maturity alpha -amylase activity (PMAA), pre-maturity sprouting (PrMS) and post-maturity sprouting (PoMS), were investigated in field and laboratory experiments. Of 56 cultivar site year combinations (four model cultivars grown at up to four sites from 1994–1997), enzyme activity was

B Lunn; B. J. Major; P. S. Kettlewell; R. K. Scott

2001-01-01

119

The effect of chronic treatment with fluoride on salivary activity, tooth, and bone in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the effect of chronic treatment with sodium fluoride on salivary activity, tooth, and bone in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The treatment was made with a 20-ppm NaF solution added to the drinking water for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure values were obtained by plethysmography; fluoride concentration was determined by an ion-selective electrode; calcium concentration and amylase activity were determined by commercial kits; and enamel microhardness was verified by longitudinal section. Systolic blood pressure values and animals' weight were not changed by treatment. However, the salivary flow rate-which was lowered in SHR at baseline when compared to Wistar rats-was found to be increased with the treatment with NaF. The fluoride concentration was increased in the plasma of the treated groups, even though it remained lower for the treated SHR in relation to the treated Wistar rats. Calcium concentration was decreased in the saliva and plasma of SHR treated with NaF. A reduction in the plasmatic total protein concentration was observed in SHR treated with NaF. The fluoride concentration on bone surface was found to be increased in Wistar or SHR treated with NaF. In treated SHR's femurs, it was observed a significant reduction in fluoride concentrations. Enamel microhardness of the incisor teeth was not changed by the treatment with NaF in both groups. The distribution of fluoride to the salivary glands in SHR is poor, and treatment with NaF causes a decrease in the concentration of important biochemical parameters to the salivary physiology in SHR. PMID:24390229

Picco, Daniele C R; Delbem, Alberto C B; Sassaki, Kikue T; Sumida, Doris H; Antoniali, Cristina

2014-04-01

120

Influence of Three Morus Species Extracts on ?-Amylase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine diseases and its type II is the major form of diabetes, accounting for 90% of cases worldwide. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as ?-amylase can be an important strategy in the control of blood glucose levels in patients with type II diabetes. In this investigation, three Morus species, M.

Bahman Nickavar; Golboo Mosazadeha

121

Cholecystokinin receptors: disparity between phosphoinositide breakdown and amylase releasing activity of CCK analogues in pancreas  

SciTech Connect

Cholecystokinin (CCK) peptides are a family of hormones which also occur in brain. In pancreas CCK stimulates the release of amylase, a process that is dependent on the mobilization of intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. Recent evidence suggests that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the breakdown product of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, is responsible for the rise in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. Their laboratory has developed assays to study synthetic CCK analogues using radioligand binding, PI breakdown and amylase release. They have shown that there are good correlations among these three assay systems for the carboxy terminal fragments of CCK/sub 8/. Recently, they have discovered synthetic analogues of CCK/sub 4/ that are full agonists in amylase release but are ineffective in causing PI breakdown. In particular, A-61576, Boc-5-amino-2-indolemethylene-pent-2-ene-1-oyl-Leu-Asp-Phe-NH/sub 2/, is a full agonist in the amylase releasing assay, but is devoid of PI stimulating activity. A-61576 completely reverses the stimulation of PI response induced by CCK/sub 8/, indicative of an antagonist. Since a mechanism other than the PI breakdown is responsible for amylase release by A-61576, they suggest that separate receptors are responsible for PI breakdown and amylase release.

Lin, C.W.; Grant, D.; Bianchi, B.; Miller, T.; Witte, D.; Shue, Y.K.; Nadzan, A.

1986-03-05

122

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Caffeine administration does not alter salivary  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Caffeine administration does not alter salivary -amylase activity in young male daily caffeine consumers Laura Cousino Klein1,2* , Courtney A Whetzel1 , Jeanette M Bennett1 report from our lab [Hum Psychopharmacol 25:359­367, 2010.] we examined the effects of caffeine

Ritter, Frank

123

Ixodes scapularis:Salivary Kininase Activity Is a Metallo Dipeptidyl Carboxypeptidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribeiro, J. M. C., and Mather, T. N. 1998.Ixodes scapularis:Salivary kininase activity is a metallo dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase.89,213–221. Saliva and salivary gland homogenates ofIxodes scapulariscontain a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase activity that accounts for the previously described salivary kininase activity of this tick. Reversed phase HPLC and laser desorption mass spectrography of the reaction products identified bradykinin fragment 1–7 and 1–5 as being

José M. C. Ribeiro; Thomas N. Mather

1998-01-01

124

Regulation of amylase activity in Drosophila melanogaster : Effects of dietary carbohydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of amylase activity in larvae and adults of Drosophia melanogaster is dependent on the dietary carbohydrate source; flies or larvae from a food medium containing starch show higher levels of activity than individuals from a food containing simple sugars. This is shown to be due to repression of activity by sugars rather than enhancement of activity by starch.

D. A. Hickey; Bernhard Benkel

1982-01-01

125

Selection for high and low amylase activity in adult flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of selection for high amylase activity in two strains of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum, mean activity considerably increased. Selection for low activity was ineffective in one strain, and mean activity increased, contrary to expectation, in the downward-selection line of the other.

D. Wool; E. Shirtz

1984-01-01

126

?-AMYLASE4, a Noncatalytic Protein Required for Starch Breakdown, Acts Upstream of Three Active ?-Amylases in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts[W][OA  

PubMed Central

This work investigated the roles of ?-amylases in the breakdown of leaf starch. Of the nine ?-amylase (BAM)–like proteins encoded in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, at least four (BAM1, -2, -3, and -4) are chloroplastic. When expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, BAM1, BAM2, and BAM3 had measurable ?-amylase activity but BAM4 did not. BAM4 has multiple amino acid substitutions relative to characterized ?-amylases, including one of the two catalytic residues. Modeling predicts major differences between the glucan binding site of BAM4 and those of active ?-amylases. Thus, BAM4 probably lost its catalytic capacity during evolution. Total ?-amylase activity was reduced in leaves of bam1 and bam3 mutants but not in bam2 and bam4 mutants. The bam3 mutant had elevated starch levels and lower nighttime maltose levels than the wild type, whereas bam1 did not. However, the bam1 bam3 double mutant had a more severe phenotype than bam3, suggesting functional overlap between the two proteins. Surprisingly, bam4 mutants had elevated starch levels. Introduction of the bam4 mutation into the bam3 and bam1 bam3 backgrounds further elevated the starch levels in both cases. These data suggest that BAM4 facilitates or regulates starch breakdown and operates independently of BAM1 and BAM3. Together, our findings are consistent with the proposal that ?-amylase is a major enzyme of starch breakdown in leaves, but they reveal unexpected complexity in terms of the specialization of protein function. PMID:18390594

Fulton, Daniel C.; Stettler, Michaela; Mettler, Tabea; Vaughan, Cara K.; Li, Jing; Francisco, Perigio; Gil, Manuel; Reinhold, Heike; Eicke, Simona; Messerli, Gaelle; Dorken, Gary; Halliday, Karen; Smith, Alison M.; Smith, Steven M.; Zeeman, Samuel C.

2008-01-01

127

Inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities by ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) leaf  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. (Curcubitaceae) (T. occidentalis) leaf on key enzyme linked to type-2 diabetes (? - amylase and ? - glucosidase) as well as assess the effect of blanching (a commonly practiced food processing technique) of the vegetable on these key enzymes. Methods Fresh leaves of T. occidentalis were blanched in hot water for 10 minutes, and the extracts of both the fresh and blanched vegetables were prepared and used for subsequent analysis. The inhibitory effect of the extract on ? - amylase and ? - glucosidase activities as well as some antioxidant parameter was determined in vitro. Results The result revealed that unprocessed T. occidentalis leaf reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ and also inhibited ? - amylase and ? - glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, blanching of the leafy vegetables caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in the antioxidant properties but decrease their ability to inhibit ? - amylase and ? - glucosidase activities. Conclusions This antioxidant properties and enzyme inhibition could be part of the mechanism by which they are used in the treatment/prevention of type-2 diabetes. However, the blanched vegetable reduces their ability to inhibit both ? - amylase and ? - glucosidase activity in vitro. PMID:23570004

Oboh, G; Akinyemi, AJ; Ademiluyi, AO

2012-01-01

128

Identification of active site residues of Fenugreek ?-amylase: Chemical modification and in silico approach.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of Fenugreek ?-amylase is not available in protein data bank. Therefore, an attempt has been made to identify the catalytic amino acid residues of enzyme by employing studies of pH dependence of enzyme catalysis, chemical modification and bioinformatics. Treatment of purified Fenugreek ?-amylase with EDAC in presence of glycine methyl ester and sulfhydryl group specific reagents (IAA, NEM and p-CMB), followed a pseudo first-order kinetics and resulted in effective inactivation of enzyme. The reaction with EDAC in presence of NTEE (3-nitro-l-tyrosine ethylester) resulted into modification of two carboxyl groups per molecule of enzyme and presence of one accessible sulfhydryl group at the active site, per molecule of enzyme was ascertained by titration with DTNB. The above results were supported by the prevention of inactivation of enzyme in presence of substrate. Based on MALDI-TOF analysis of purified Fenugreek ?-amylase and MASCOT search, ?-amylase of Medicago sativa was found to be the best match. To further confirm the amino acid involved in catalysis, homology modelling of ?-amylase of M. sativa was performed. The sequence alignment, superimposition of template and target models, along with study of interactions involved in docking of sucrose and maltose at the active site, led to identification of Glu187, Glu381 and Cys344 as active site residues. PMID:25179433

Srivastava, Garima; Singh, Vinay K; Kayastha, Arvind M

2014-10-01

129

Detection of amylase activity from fruit and vegetables in an undergraduate classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to construct a hands-on activity for undergraduate students to understand how to detect and compare amylase activity from various sources by using a simple method. The amylolytic activity of extracts from 10 kinds of vegetables, Chinese white vegetable, tomato, cucumber, pumpkin, pea eggplant, carrot, cabbage, morning glory, Chinese broccoli, and yard long bean as well as 10

Surasak Laloknam; Supaporn Sirisopana; Somkiat Phornphisutthimas

2009-01-01

130

Comparative study of digestive enzymes in fish with different nutritional habits. Proteolytic and amylase activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work provides a comparative study of the proteolytic and amylase activities in six species of fish with different nutritional habits: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European eel (Anguilla anguilla), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and tench (Tinca tinca). Trout and carp showed the highest digestive proteolytic activity. When proteolytic activity was determined in a

M. C Hidalgo; E Urea; A Sanz

1999-01-01

131

Phlebotomus papatasi and Leishmania major parasites express alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase.  

PubMed

Alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase activities were found in homogenates of young, unfed male and female Phlebotomus papatasi and in gut and salivary gland preparations. A significant increase in both enzyme activities in females and of alpha-amylase in males was recorded for flies that had fed overnight on a plant (Capparis spinosa). After plant feeding, alpha-amylase activity was relatively lower in female salivary glands and higher in guts, while in the males the activity in the salivary glands had increased. Alpha-glucosidase activity increased in guts of both sexes and in the salivary glands of the females. In addition, alpha-amylase activity was found in preparations of Leishmania major and L. infantum promastigotes, but not in those of L. donovani or L. tropica. Alpha-glucosidase activity was present in promastigote preparations of L. major, L. infantum, L. donovani, L. braziliensis, Crithidia fasciculata and Herpetomonas muscarum. It was lacking in similar preparations of L. tropica, Sauroleishmania agamae or Leptomonas seymouri. The growth rate of L. major promastigotes in medium supplemented with starch or with glucose was similar and it was significantly higher than in glucose poor medium. In this study, we demonstrate that P. papatasi and L. major possess the enzymes for hydrolyzing starch grains that are included in the plant tissue-diet of the sand flies. PMID:11164750

Jacobson, R L; Schlein, Y

2001-01-15

132

Smart phone: a popular device supports amylase activity assay in fisheries research.  

PubMed

Colourimetric determinations of amylase activity were developed based on a standard dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) staining method, using maltose as the analyte. Intensities and absorbances of red, green and blue (RGB) were obtained with iPhone imaging and Adobe Photoshop image analysis. Correlation of green and analyte concentrations was highly significant, and the accuracy of the developed method was excellent in analytical performance. The common iPhone has sufficient imaging ability for accurate quantification of maltose concentrations. Detection limits, sensitivity and linearity were comparable to a spectrophotometric method, but provided better inter-day precision. In quantifying amylase specific activity from a commercial source (P>0.02) and fish samples (P>0.05), differences compared with spectrophotometric measurements were not significant. We have demonstrated that iPhone imaging with image analysis in Adobe Photoshop has potential for field and laboratory studies of amylase. PMID:24912700

Thongprajukaew, Karun; Choodum, Aree; Sa-E, Barunee; Hayee, Ummah

2014-11-15

133

?- and ?-Amylases in seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first 24 h of germination of wheat seeds, starch is hydrolysed by free ?-amylase. In the next 24 h, some amount\\u000a of inactive form of ?-amylase is converted into active form and this together with ?-amylase synthesizedde novo brings about the hydrolysis of starch. The amount of ?-amylase is greater in seeds with embryo intact than with embryo

A. K. Goswami; M. K. Jain; B. Paul

1977-01-01

134

Salivary mental stress proteins.  

PubMed

Of the major diagnostic specimen types, saliva is one of the most easily collected. Many studies have focused on the evaluation of salivary proteins secreted by healthy people and patients with various diseases during responses to acute mental stress. In particular, such studies have focused on cortisol, ?-amylase, chromogranin A (CgA), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as salivary stress markers. Each of these salivary stress markers has its own strengths and weaknesses as well as data gaps related to many factors including collection technique. In this review, we summarize the critical knowledge of the positive and negative attributes and data gaps pertaining to each salivary stress marker. PMID:23939251

Obayashi, Konen

2013-10-21

135

Altered Regulation of beta -amylase Activity in Mutants of Arabidopsis with Lesions in Starch Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three classes of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold with alterations in starch metabolism were found to have higher levels of leaf amylase activity than the wild type when grown in a 12-hr photoperiod. This effect was dependent upon the developmental stage of the plants and was largely suppressed during growth in continuous light. The various amylolytic activities in crude

Timothy Caspar; Tsan-Piao Lin; Jonathan Monroe; Werner Bernhard; Steven Spilatro; Jack Preiss; Chris Somerville

1989-01-01

136

In Vitro ?-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extract of Amaranthus Caudatus Linn  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study was aimed to investigate the ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus Linn (MeAc). Methods Methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus was screened for ?-amylase inhibition activity by CNPG3 method (2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotrioside) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and 2.2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. MeAc was also screened for non enzymatic hemoglycosylation. Results The methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition activity (IC50 19.233 µg/ml). MeAc showed significant antioxidant activity in all the in vitro antioxidant models. Furthermore, the MeAc was found to be extremely effective in scavenging ABTS radical activity (IC50 48.75±1.1 µg/ml) when compared to DPPH (IC50 77.5±0.4 µg/ml), SOD (IC50 62.5±2.1 µg/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 88.50±1.8 µg/ml) and NO (IC50 67.5±2.2 µg/ml) scavenging activity. Conclusions The methanolic extract of A. caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities. PMID:22043408

Kumar, Ashok; Khan, Saleemulla

2011-01-01

137

?-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of six selected Malaysian plants with a reputation of usefulness in treating diabetes were examined for ?-amylase inhibition using an in vitro model. Inhibitory activity studied by two different protocols (with and without pre-incubation) showed that Phyllanthus amarus hexane extract had ?-amylase inhibitory properties. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Averrhoa bilimbiPithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa

Hasenah Ali; P. J. Houghton; Amala Soumyanath

2006-01-01

138

Characterization of ?-amylase activity in five species of Mediterranean sparid fishes (Sparidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, amylase activity existing in the gut of different species of sparid fish was measured and characterized. The study was conducted on five species of Mediterranean sparids, (F. Sparidae), some of which coexist in the same coastal waters; Pagrus pagrus, Pagellus erytrhinus, P. bogaraveo, Boops boops and Diplodus annularis. Main differences were found in the optimal pH

I Fernández; F. J Moyano; M D??az; T Mart??nez

2001-01-01

139

Comparison of TwoMethods for Determining Amylase Activity in SerumandUrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for estimating amylase activity in serum and urine are com- pared. A method that uses a chromogenic substrate in a kit was shown to be preferable over the older amyloclastic procedure, which uses starch sub- strates. The precision of both methods was determined. Additional Keyphrases starch-iodine #{149}\\

Kim Y. Chung; Ram M. Sinha; J. Allan Trew

140

Changes in rheological properties and amylase activities of trifoliate yam, Dioscorea dumetorum, starch after harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in rheological properties and amylase activities occurring in trifoliate yam, Dioscorea dumetorum, starch after harvest were investigated. Trifoliate yam tubers were harvested and stored under tropical ambient (28 °C) and cold room conditions (4 °C) for 12, 24 and 36 h. The D. dumetorum starches were extracted from the tubers under study and samples were evaluated for changes in their rheological

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Samuel Sefa-Dedeh

2002-01-01

141

Gibberellic acid effects on germination and ?-amylase activity of winter wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to GA in non-Gai genome winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars was investigated to determine magnitude of variation of the trait, its association with other traits, and effects of geographical location of production. a-Amylase enzyme activity was measured before and after treatment with gibberellic acid in 18 cultivars grown at one location and in five cultivars grown at six

A. J. McCrate; M. T. Nielsen; G. M. Paulsen; E. G. Heyne

1981-01-01

142

Hotspot activating PRKD1 somatic mutations in polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands.  

PubMed

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is the second most frequent type of malignant tumor of the minor salivary glands. We identified PRKD1 hotspot mutations encoding p.Glu710Asp in 72.9% of PLGAs but not in other salivary gland tumors. Functional studies demonstrated that this kinase-activating alteration likely constitutes a driver of PLGA. PMID:25240283

Weinreb, Ilan; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Martelotto, Luciano G; Waggott, Daryl; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Harding, Nicholas J; Alfaro, Javier; Chu, Kenneth C; Viale, Agnes; Fusco, Nicola; da Cruz Paula, Arnaud; Marchio, Caterina; Sakr, Rita A; Lim, Raymond; Thompson, Lester D R; Chiosea, Simion I; Seethala, Raja R; Skalova, Alena; Stelow, Edward B; Fonseca, Isabel; Assaad, Adel; How, Christine; Wang, Jianxin; de Borja, Richard; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; Howlett, Christopher J; Nichols, Anthony C; Wen, Y Hannah; Katabi, Nora; Buchner, Nicholas; Mullen, Laura; Kislinger, Thomas; Wouters, Bradly G; Liu, Fei-Fei; Norton, Larry; McPherson, John D; Rubin, Brian P; Clarke, Blaise A; Weigelt, Britta; Boutros, Paul C; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

2014-11-01

143

Cigarette smoke effect on total salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity.  

PubMed

Saliva is the first biological fluid that inhaled cigarette smoke (CS) encounters. CS contains several carcinogens known to initiate and promote tumourigenesis and metastasis. One of the aims of this study was to establish if glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamyltranspherase (GGT) could be used as possible markers for evaluating the oral oxidative stress caused by smoking. The effect of CS on free radical generation was investigated using two methods. Using different assays, different antioxidants present in saliva may be evidenced due to the different principles on which they are based. Our results indicate that exposure to CS caused a statistically significant decrease of both salivary glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.01) and salivary GGT (p < 0.01). We also found that exposure to CS caused a statistically significant decrease of salivary total antioxidant status (p < 0.01). Such decreases may have a consistent role in the mechanisms by which the toxic effects of CS initiate oral inflammatory diseases, promote precancerous transformations, and destroy the oral cavity homeostasis. Therefore the evaluation of total antioxidant capacity of saliva is important but it must be done together with the evaluation of salivary specific markers of oxidative stress, such as uric acid, albumin and possibly, GGT. PMID:19346588

Greabu, Maria; Totan, Alexandra; Battino, Maurizio; Mohora, Maria; Didilescu, Andreea; Totan, Cosmin; Spinu, Tudor

2008-01-01

144

Amylase - urine  

MedlinePLUS

... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

145

Automated measurement of alpha-amylase isoenzymes with 6(3)-deoxymaltotriose as selective amylase inhibitor.  

PubMed

We developed an automated method for measurement of alpha-amylase isoenzymes in serum by a single kinetic assay (SKA) and a double kinetic assay (DKA) with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-6(5)-azido-6(5)-deoxy-beta-maltopentaoside as a substrate and 6(3)-deoxymaltotriose (DOG3) as a novel selective amylase inhibitor. DOG3 showed a large difference in inhibitory activity between human pancreatic alpha-amylase (HPA; 86.9% inhibition) and salivary alpha-amylase (32.1% inhibition) at 0.33 mmol/L. Constant inhibition was obtained immediately after addition of DOG3. The inhibitory effect did not change with variation in concentrations of amylase up to approximately 3000 U/L. The results obtained by SKA correlated well with those obtained by three methods: monoclonal antibody (r = 0.988), wheat germ inhibitor (r = 0.989), and DKA (r = 0.995). The within-run and between-run CVs for HPA were 0.63-2.32% on SKA, 0.69-1.81% on DKA. No significant interferences by endogenous serum compounds were observed with the proposed methods. PMID:7720240

Uchida, R; Tokutake, S; Motoyama, Y; Hosoi, K; Yamaji, N

1995-04-01

146

Divergence of the Regulation of alpha-Amylase Activity in Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila funebris, and Drosophila saltans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of amylase activity in threeDrosophila species, D. melanogaster,D. funebris and D. saltans, wasanalyzed by measuring the specific activity levels infour dietary environments, cornmeal, glucose, 5% starch, and 10% starch, at threedevelopmental stages, i.e., the third-instar larval,pupal, and 2-day-old adult stages. The developmentalprofiles of amylase activity for the threeDrosophila species showed that the level of activity washigh at the

Yozo Eguchi; Yoshinori Matsuo

1999-01-01

147

Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20°C, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20°C. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures. PMID:24031702

Cotarlet, Mihaela; Negoita, Teodor Gh.; Bahrim, Gabriela E.; Stougaard, Peter

2011-01-01

148

Salivary Gland Hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 Knockout Mice Is Due to Primary Hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

Background Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were ? 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine–induced salivary flow and salivary ?-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary ?-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism. PMID:23951251

Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Siefert, Joseph C.; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Pinson, David M.; Moore, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

149

Regulation of ?-amylase activity in Amaranthus caudatus seeds by methyl jasmonate, gibberellin A 3 , benzyladenine and ethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 10-3Minhibited Amaranthus caudatus seed germination anddecreased a-amylase activity. Exogenous gibberellin A3(GA3) and ethylene, but not benzyladenine (BA), increased activity ofthe enzyme in the presence of JA-Me, with ethylene being the most effective. Theinhibitor of ethylene action, 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD) inhibited seed germinationand decreased a-amylase activity. The inhibitory action of JA-Me onAmaranthus caudatus seed germination is associated with

Bo?ena Bia?ecka; Jan K?pczy?ski

2003-01-01

150

Effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid on growth and amylase activity in the radish taproot  

Microsoft Academic Search

5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) promotes the growth of plants by enhancing their photosynthetic activities, but there is little\\u000a information on how ALA influences the metabolism of sugars produced by photosynthesis. Here, we report the effects of ALA\\u000a on tissue growth, sugar content, and amylase activity in the radish taproot. 5-Aminolevulinic acid was applied with a foliar\\u000a spray (5.3–13,500 ?M), and application at

Masakazu Hara; Ikuo Takahashi; Michiyo Yamori; Toru Tanaka; Shigeyuki Funada; Keitaro Watanabe

2011-01-01

151

Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

2012-09-12

152

Studies on activity, distribution, and zymogram of protease, ?-amylase, and lipase in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula.  

PubMed

A series of biochemical determination and electrophoretic observations have been conducted to analyze the activities and characteristics of protease, ?-amylase, and lipase of paddlefish Polyodon spathula. The results obtained have been compared with those of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and hybrid sturgeon (Huso dauricus ? × Acipenser schrenki Brandt ?), in order to increase available knowledge of the physiological characteristics of this sturgeon species and to gain information with regard to its nutrition. Further, a comparative study of enzymatic activity, distribution, and characterization between commercial feed-reared paddlefish (CG) and natural live food-reared (NG) paddlefish was conducted. Results showed that higher proteolytic activity was observed in the pH range 2.5-3.0 and at a pH of 7.0 for paddlefish. Levels of acid protease activity of paddlefish were similar to that of hybrid sturgeon, and significantly higher than that of bighead carp. The inhibition assay of paddlefish showed that the rate of inhibition of tosyl-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone was approximately 2.6-fold that of tosyl-lysine chloromethyl ketone. There was no significant difference observed for acid protease activity between PG and CG groups, whereas the activity of alkaline protease, ?-amylase, and lipase in the PG group were significantly lower than those in the CG group. The substrate sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis further showed that there were certain types of enzymes, especially ?-amylase, with similar molecular mass in the paddlefish and hybrid sturgeon. It can be inferred that acid digestion was main mechanism for protein hydrolysis in paddlefish, as reported for other fishes with a stomach. This indicates that the paddlefish requires higher alkaline protease, ?-amylase, and lipase activity to digest natural live food. PMID:21894570

Ji, H; Sun, H T; Xiong, D M

2012-06-01

153

Light effects on ?-amylase activity and carbohydrate content in relation to lipid mobilization during the seedling growth of sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in ?-amylase activity and in starch and free sugar content were investigated in correlation with lipid mobilization\\u000a inHelianthus annuus during the first 15 days of seedling growth in discontinuous light and in darkness. Throughout the seedling development ?-amylase\\u000a activity increased more significantly in light than in darkness. It was always lower in cotyledons than in other tissues of

Nicole Darbelley; Njara Razafindramboa; Jean-Pierre Chambost; Andr'e Pavia

1997-01-01

154

Original Article Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural activity  

E-print Network

Original Article Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural: Challenge hypothesis Testosterone Tsimane Resource production Competition Physical activity Testosterone, testosterone may also play a key role in facilitating male provisioning of offspring as muscular

Gurven, Michael

155

Effects of metals on {alpha}-amylase activity in the digestive gland of the green mussel, Perna viridis L.  

SciTech Connect

A number of digestive enzymes in the green mussel, Perna viridis L., have been reported, and {alpha}-amylase is believed to have a higher activity than the others. Small plankton, on which the green mussel feeds, may supply plenty of starch and glycogen. They may be an important source of nutrients for the green mussel and the ability of the latter to make good use of them depends mainly on the activities of amylase. The effect of heavy metals on amylase activity is also important as the ability of the mussel`s digestive gland to accumulate these metals is well known. High concentrations of heavy metals, especially lead, have been observed in the water around Singapore. The in vitro inhibition of some metals on the activities of digestive enzymes from the green mussel has been observed, but kinetic properties of the inhibition and the in vivo inhibition of the heavy metals on digestive enzymes are little understood. In the present study, in vitro inhibition of four metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Hg) on the activity of {alpha}-amylase from the digestive gland of the green mussel will be compared. Their effects on the K{sub M} and V{sub max} values of {alpha}-amylase will also be compared. Finally, lead is either added to the food or water, to see how it affects the activity of {alpha}-amylase and how this effect acts in combination with starvation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Yan, T.; Teo, L.H.; Sin, Y.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

1996-04-01

156

Amylase isozyme polymorphism in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase isozyme polymorphisms were shown to exist in certain genetic stocks of Zea mays, using the technique, of starch gel electrophoresis. The earliest period of amylase activity was detected during the second day after germination of seeds. The third day after germination gave the best resolution of amylase activity in the form of distinct zones. Tissues examined from adult plants

John G. Scandalios

1966-01-01

157

Chemical modification, antioxidant and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of corn silk polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Water-soluble corn silk polysaccharides (CSPS) were chemically modified to obtain their sulfated, acetylated and carboxymethylated derivatives. Chemical characterization and bioactivities of CSPS and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scavenging DPPH free radical assay, scavenging hydroxyl radical assay, ferric reducing power assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay and ?-amylase activity inhibitory assay, respectively. Among the three derivatives, carboxylmethylated polysaccharide (C-CSPS) demonstrated higher solubility, narrower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, significantly higher antioxidant and ?-amylase inhibitory abilities compared with the native polysaccharide and other derivatives. C-CSPS might be used as a novel nutraceutical agent for human consumption. PMID:23987364

Chen, Shuhan; Chen, Haixia; Tian, Jingge; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha; Wang, Jia

2013-10-15

158

Concerted evolution of human amylase genes  

SciTech Connect

Cosmid clones containing 250 kilobases of genomic DNA from the human amylase gene cluster have been isolated. These clones contain seven distinct amylase genes which appear to comprise the complete multigene family. By sequence comparison with the cDNAs, the authors have identified two pancreatic amylase gene and three salivary amylase genes. Two truncated pseudogenes were also recovered. Intergenic distances of 17 to 22 kilobases separate the amylase gene copies. Within the past 10 million years, duplications, gene conversion, and unequal crossover events have resulted in a very high level of sequence similarity among human amylase gene copies. To identify sequence elements involved in tissue-specific expression and hormonal regulation, the promoter regions of the human amylase genes were sequenced and compared with those of the corresponding mouse genes. The promoters of the human and mouse pancreatic amylase genes are highly homologous between nucleotide - 160 and the cap site. Two sequence elements througth to influence pancreas-specific expression of the rodent genes are present in the human genes. In contrast, similarity in the 5' lanking sequences of the salivary amylase genes is limited to several short sequence elements whose positions and orientations differ in the two species. Some of these sequence elements are also associated with other parotid-specific genes and may be involved in their tissue-specific expression. A glucocorticoid response element and a general enhancer element are closely associated in several of the amylase promoters.

Gumucio, D.L.; Wiebauer, K.; Caldwell, R.M.; Samuelson, L.C.; Meisler, M.H.

1988-03-01

159

alpha-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus.  

PubMed

Extracts of six selected Malaysian plants with a reputation of usefulness in treating diabetes were examined for alpha-amylase inhibition using an in vitro model. Inhibitory activity studied by two different protocols (with and without pre-incubation) showed that Phyllanthus amarus hexane extract had alpha-amylase inhibitory properties. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Averrhoa bilimbiPithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa were not active when tested without pre-incubation. Extraction and fractionation of Phyllanthus amarus hexane extract led to the isolation of dotriacontanyl docosanoate, triacontanol and a mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Dotriacontanyl docosanoate and the mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are reported from this plant species for the first time. All compounds were tested in the alpha-amylase inhibition assay and the results revealed that the oleanolic acid and ursolic acid (2:1) mixture was a potent alpha-amylase inhibitor with IC(50)=2.01 microg/ml (4.41 microM) and that it contributes significantly to the alpha-amylase inhibition activity of the extract. Three pure pentacyclic triterpenoids, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and lupeol were shown to inhibit alpha-amylase. PMID:16678367

Ali, Hasenah; Houghton, P J; Soumyanath, Amala

2006-10-11

160

A amylase activity of nymphal stages of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).  

PubMed

Wheat production in Iran has changed substantially over the past one or two decades with development of higher-yielding cultivars and improved methods of planting. Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), is the most important cereal pest in Iran. Sunn pest like other insect pests of wheat lives on a polysaccharide-rich diet and depends to a large extent on effectiveness of their alpha-amylases for survival. alpha-amylase (1-4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase) hydrolyses starch, and related polysaccharides by randomly cleaving internal alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages and has a major role in the utilization of polysaccharides. The recent increase in study of insect digestive enzymes seems to make sense in the realization that the gut is the major interface between the insect and its environment. Hence, an understanding of digestive enzyme function is essential when developing methods of insect control such as the use of enzyme inhibitor's and transgenic plants to control phytophagous insects. The aim of the current study is to identify and characterize alpha-amylase activity in order to gain a better understanding of its digestive physiology, which hopefully will lead to new strategies of the insect control. In order to analyze a-amylase activity adult and different nymphal stages were collected from wheat field from Karaj area and midgut complex from these individuals were dissected under a light microscope in ice-cold saline buffer (0.006M NaCl). After homogenization in buffer, homogenate was centrifuged at 15000 g for 20 min at 4 degrees C. The supernatant was pooled and stored at -20 degrees C for subsequent analysis. alpha-amylase activity was assayed by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) procedure using soluble starch as substrate (starch 1%). Our result showed that enzyme activities in different nymphal stages (first, second, third, fourth and fifth stadium) were 0.19, 0.78, 1.21, 1.23, 1.25 units/mg protein, respectively. PMID:16628929

Kazzazi, M; Bandani, A R; Ashuri, A; Hosseinkhani, S

2005-01-01

161

[Influence of light regimens, melatonin, and epitalon on amylase activity in the pancreas and small intestine in rats of different age].  

PubMed

The study shows that keeping rats in different light modes has a different impact on pancreatic and intestine amylase activity and has its peculiarities in regard of age as well as geroprotectors' influence on it. Melatonin use entails pancreatic amylase activity increase in mature animals in natural light of the North-West of Russia (NL) and 24-hour constant light (LD) and on the contrary amylase activity drops in case of using epitalon. Simultaneously, the enzyme activity in young and old rats under LD, melatonin and epitalon decreases. Intestine amylase activity influenced by both preparations rises in NL and drops in LD mode with respect to the control group. PMID:17152723

Svechkina, E B; Tiutiunnik, N N; Vinogradova, I A

2006-01-01

162

Role of Streptococcus gordonii Amylase-Binding Protein A in Adhesion to Hydroxyapatite, Starch Metabolism, and Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between bacteria and salivary components are thought to be important in the establishment and ecology of the oral microflora. -Amylase, the predominant salivary enzyme in humans, binds to Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer of the tooth. Previous studies have implicated this interaction in adhesion of the bacteria to salivary pellicles, catabolism of dietary starches, and biofilm formation. Amylase binding

JEFFREY D. ROGERS; ROBERT J. PALMER; PAUL E. KOLENBRANDER; FRANK A. SCANNAPIECO

2001-01-01

163

Purification and characterization of a halophilic ?-amylase with increased activity in the presence of organic solvents from the moderately halophilic Nesterenkonia sp. strain F.  

PubMed

An extracellular halophilic ?-amylase was purified from Nesterenkonia sp. strain F using 80 % ethanol precipitation and Q-Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The enzyme showed a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 110 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The amylase exhibited maximal activity at pH 7-7.5, being relatively stable at pH 6.5-7.5. Optimal temperature for the amylase activity and stability was 45 °C. The purified enzyme was highly active in the broad range of NaCl concentrations (0-4 M) with optimal activity at 0.25 M NaCl. The amylase was highly stable in the presence of 3-4 M NaCl. Amylase activity was not influenced by Ca²?, Rb?, Li?, Cs?, Mg²? and Hg²?, whereas Fe³?, Cu²?, Zn²? and Al³?) strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. The ?-amylase was inhibited by EDTA, but was not inhibited by PMSF and ?-mercaptoethanol. K(m) value of the amylase for soluble starch was 6.6 mg/ml. Amylolytic activity of the enzyme was enhanced not only by 20 % of water-immiscible organic solvents but also by acetone, ethanol and chloroform. Higher concentration (50 %) of the water-miscible organic solvents had no significant effect on the amylase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on increased activity of a microbial ?-amylase in the presence of organic solvents. PMID:22592324

Shafiei, Mohammad; Ziaee, Abed-Ali; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali

2012-07-01

164

Amylase - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

165

Evaluation of ten wild nigerian mushrooms for amylase and cellulase activities.  

PubMed

Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25?, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ? 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ? 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively. PMID:22783085

Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

2011-06-01

166

Activation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) [alpha]-amylase inhibitor requires proteolytic processing of the proprotein  

SciTech Connect

Seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain a plant defense protein that inhibits the [alpha]-amylases of mammals and insects. This [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]Al) is synthesized as a proprotein on the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed after arrival in the protein storage vacuoles to polypeptides of relative molecular weight (M[sub r]) 15,000 to 18,000. The authors report two types of evidence that proteolytic processing is linked to activation of the inhibitory activity. First, by surveying seed extracts of wild accessions of P. vulgaris and other species in the genus Phaseolus, they found that antibodies to [alpha]Al recognize large (M[sub r] 30,000-35,000) polypeptides as well as typical [alpha]Al processing products (M[sub r] 15,000-18,000). [alpha]Al activity was found in all extracts that had the typical [alpha]Al processed polypeptides, but was absent from seed extracts that lacked such polypeptides. Second, they made a mutant [alpha]Al in which asparagine-77 is changed to aspartic acid-77. This mutation slows down the proteolytic processing of pro-[alpha]Al when the gene is expressed in tobacco. When pro-[alpha]Al was separated from mature [alpha]Al by gel filtration, pro-[alpha]Al was found not to have [alpha]-amylase inhibitory activity. The authors interpret these results to mean that formation of the active inhibitor is causally related to proteolytic processing of the proprotein. They suggest that the polypeptide cleavage removes a conformation constraint on the precursor to produce the biochemically active molecule. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Pueyo, J.J.; Hunt, D.C.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States))

1993-04-01

167

?-amylase from wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds: its purification, biochemical attributes and active site studies.  

PubMed

Glycosylated ?-amylase from germinated wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum) has been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with a final specific activity of 1,372 U/mg. The enzyme preparation when analysed on SDS-PAGE, displayed a single protein band with Mr 33 kDa; Superdex 200 column showed Mr of 32 kDa and MS/MS analysis further provided support for these values. The enzyme displayed its optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and 68 °C with an activation energy of 6.66 kcal/mol and Q10 1.42. The primary substrate for this hydrolase appears to be starch with Km 1.56 mg/mL, Vmax 1666.67 U/mg and kcat 485 s(-1) and hence is suitable for application in starch based industries. Thermal inactivation of ?-amylase at 67 °C resulted in first-order kinetics with rate constant (k) 0.0086 min(-1) and t1/2 80 min. The enzyme was susceptible to EDTA (10mM) with irreversible loss of hydrolytic power. In the presence of 1.0mM SDS, the enzyme lost only 14% and 23% activity in 24 and 48 h, respectively. Chemical modification studies showed that the enzyme contains histidine and carboxylic residues at its active site for its catalytic activity and possibly conserved areas. PMID:24874349

Singh, Kritika; Kayastha, Arvind M

2014-11-01

168

Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/?-catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands  

PubMed Central

Purpose Many head-and-neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explores the potential of transient activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single dose radiation in head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary gland. Transient Wnt1 over-expression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before, in together with, after or without local radiation, then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/?-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated Wnt/?-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene Puma, while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of Wnt/?-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:22342093

Hai, Bo; Yang, Zhenhua; Shangguan, Lei; Zhao, Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

2011-01-01

169

Active secretion and protective effect of salivary nitrate against stress in human volunteers and rats  

PubMed Central

Up to 25% of the circulating nitrate in blood is actively taken up, concentrated, and secreted into saliva by the salivary glands. Salivary nitrate can be reduced to nitrite by the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity or stomach and then further converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, which may play a role in gastric protection. However, whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings has not yet been determined. This study was designed to determine whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings as an acute stress response and what role salivary nitrate plays in stress-induced gastric injury. To observe salivary nitrate function under stress conditions, alteration of salivary nitrate and nitrite was analyzed among 22 healthy volunteers before and after a strong stress activity, jumping down from a platform at the height of 68m. A series of stress indexes was analyzed to monitor the stress situation. We found that both the concentration and the total amount of nitrate in mixed saliva were significantly increased in the human volunteers immediately after the jump, with an additional increase 1 h later (p < 0.01). Saliva nitrite reached a maximum immediately after the jump and was maintained 1 h later. To study the biological functions of salivary nitrate and nitrite in stress protection, we further carried out a water-immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) assay in male adult rats with bilateral parotid and submandibular duct ligature (BPSDL). Intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO; gastric mucosal blood flow; and gastric ulcer index (UI) were monitored and nitrate was administrated in drinking water to compensate for nitrate secretion in BPSDL animals. Significantly decreased levels of intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO and gastricmucosal blood flow were measured in BPSDL rats during the WIRS assay compared to sham control rats (p < 0.05). Recovery was observed in the BPSDL rats upon nitrate administration. The WIRS-induced UI was significantly higher in the BPSDL animals compared to controls, and nitrate administration rescued the WIRS-induced gastric injury in BPSDL rats. In conclusion, this study suggests that stress promotes salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation, which may play important roles in gastric protection against stress-induced injury via the nitrate-dependent NO pathway. PMID:23277147

Jin, Luyuan; Qin, Lizheng; Xia, Dengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Gu, Liankun; He, Junqi; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

2014-01-01

170

Salivary parameters of relevance for assessing caries activity in individuals and populations.  

PubMed

A review of the non-microbial salivary parameters with respect to their possible association with caries activity is presented. The parameters are limited to those which already are or at least in the near future will obviously be simple enough, also for clinical purposes. Salivary flow rate is undoubtedly the most important single parameter since the cariostatic activity or efficacy of practically all other salivary parameters depends on the flow rate. Flow rate as such has no linear association with dental caries but there seems to exist an individual "threshold" limit which is decisive for enhanced caries activity. This threshold limit varies among different individuals and therefore the so-called normal values for unstimulated or stimulated flow rate are more reliable on a population level than among individuals for screening purposes. In any individual a regular and longitudinal follow-up of the flow rate is of higher clinical value than only a single cross-sectional measurement. Salivary buffer effect has only a weak negative association with caries activity and again, this effect is of greater clinical significance on a population level. Since the decisive processes in caries attack occur within or under the dental plaque, the buffering effect of saliva is limited and obviously more important to screen for erosion-than caries-prone individuals. Although important for dental health, none of the salivary antimicrobial agents as such has shown any strong association with caries activity. The only ones with some evidence of a regulatory role are secretory IgA antibodies, hypothiocyanite ions, and agglutinins. However, the data are controversial and it seems that instead of measuring individual parameters, the assessment of saliva's functional properties (such as the ability to aggregate bacteria, prevent their adhesion to hydroxyapatite or sugar metabolism etc.) is more important for clinical purposes. Of the parameters involved in de- and remineralization process, only salivary fluoride content has some association with caries susceptibility but its diagnostic or predictive value is questionable. PMID:9088696

Tenovuo, J

1997-02-01

171

Effects of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid on ?-amylase activity and ultrastructure of aleurone cells of Avena sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of GA3 and\\/or ABA on the ?-amylase activity and the ultrastructure of aleurone cells in halves of seeds without embryos (embryo-less\\u000a half seeds) of oats (Avena sativa L.) were studied.\\u000a \\u000a ?-Amylase activity was detected by the starch-agar gel method in the aleurone layers of embryo-less half seeds soaked in 1\\u000a ?M GA3 solution or 100 ?M GA3+10 ?M

Aiko Sakai-Wada; Shigeno Kaneko

1989-01-01

172

Variation in ?-amylase activity and thermostability in Tibetan annual wild and cultivated barley genotypes.  

PubMed

?-Amylase activity (BAA) and thermostability (BAT) are important traits for malt quality. In this study, 138 Tibetan annual wild barley accessions and 20 cultivated genotypes differing in BAA were planted and analyzed in 2009 and 2012. Significant differences were detected among genotypes in BAA and BAT. The cultivated genotypes had a mean BAA of 1137.6 U/g and a range of from 602.1 to 1407.5 U/g, while the wild accessions had a mean of 1517.9 U/g and a range of from 829.7 to 2310.0 U/g. The cultivated genotypes had a mean relative residual ?-amylase activity (RRBAA) of 61.6% and a range of from 22.2% to 82.3%, while the wild barleys had a mean of 57.8% and a range of from 21.9% to 96.1%. Moreover, there was a significant difference among genotypes in the response of RRBAA to the temperature and duration of heat treatment. The wild barleys had wider variation in BAA and BAT than cultivated genotypes. PMID:25183034

Zhang, Hai-tao; Chen, Tian-long; Zhang, Bing-lin; Wu, De-zhi; Huang, Ye-chang; Wu, Fei-bo; Zhang, Guo-ping

2014-09-01

173

Variation in ?-amylase activity and thermostability in Tibetan annual wild and cultivated barley genotypes*  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase activity (BAA) and thermostability (BAT) are important traits for malt quality. In this study, 138 Tibetan annual wild barley accessions and 20 cultivated genotypes differing in BAA were planted and analyzed in 2009 and 2012. Significant differences were detected among genotypes in BAA and BAT. The cultivated genotypes had a mean BAA of 1137.6 U/g and a range of from 602.1 to 1407.5 U/g, while the wild accessions had a mean of 1517.9 U/g and a range of from 829.7 to 2310.0 U/g. The cultivated genotypes had a mean relative residual ?-amylase activity (RRBAA) of 61.6% and a range of from 22.2% to 82.3%, while the wild barleys had a mean of 57.8% and a range of from 21.9% to 96.1%. Moreover, there was a significant difference among genotypes in the response of RRBAA to the temperature and duration of heat treatment. The wild barleys had wider variation in BAA and BAT than cultivated genotypes. PMID:25183034

Zhang, Hai-tao; Chen, Tian-long; Zhang, Bing-lin; Wu, De-zhi; Huang, Ye-chang; Wu, Fei-bo; Zhang, Guo-ping

2014-01-01

174

Enhanced antifungal and insect ?-amylase inhibitory activities of Alpha-TvD1, a peptide variant of Tephrosia villosa defensin (TvD1) generated through in vitro mutagenesis.  

PubMed

TvD1 is a small, cationic, and highly stable defensin from the weedy legume, Tephrosia villosa with demonstrated in vitro antifungal activity. We show here peptide modifications in TvD1 that lead to enhanced antifungal activities. Three peptide variants, S32R, D37R, and Alpha-TvD1 (-G-M-T-R-T-) with variations in and around the ?2-?3 loop region that imposes the two ?-strands, ?2 and ?3 were generated through in vitro mutagenesis. Alpha-TvD1 exhibited enhanced antifungal activity against the fungal pathogens, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium oxysporum with respective IC(50) values of 2.5 ?M and 3.0 ?M, when compared to S32R (<5.0 ?M and >5.0 ?M), D37R (5.5 ?M and 4.5 ?M), and the wild type TvD1 (6.5 ?M). Because of the enhanced antifungal activity, this variant peptide was characterized further. Growth of F. culmorum in the presence of Alpha-TvD1 showed deformities in hyphal walls and nuclear damage. With respect to the plant pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000, both Alpha-TvD1 and the wild type TvD1 showed comparable antibacterial activity. Both wild type TvD1 and Alpha-TvD1 displayed inhibitory activity against the ?-amylase of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TMA) with the latter showing enhanced activity. The human salivary as well as barley ?-amylase activities were not inhibited even at concentrations of up to 50 ?M, which has been predicted to be due to differences in the pocket size and the size of the interacting loops. Present study shows that the variant Alpha-TvD1 exhibits enhanced antifungal as well as insect ?-amylase inhibitory activity. PMID:22244814

Vijayan, S; Imani, J; Tanneeru, K; Guruprasad, L; Kogel, K H; Kirti, P B

2012-02-01

175

Therapeutic effects of soy isoflavones on ?-amylase activity, insulin deficiency, liver–kidney function and metabolic disorders in diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural estrogens have demonstrated a wide variety of biological activities, which makes them a good candidate for the treatment of diabetes. In vitro, this study evidenced that isoflavones enhanced insulin secretion and inhibited ?-amylase activity. In vivo, the findings indicated that soy isoflavones stimulated insulin secretion, increased the hepatic glycogen content and suppressed blood glucose level. The soy isoflavones were

Khaled Hamden; Bassem Jaouadi; Serge Carreau; Abdallah Aouidet; Abdelfattah Elfeki

2011-01-01

176

Human ?-amylase Present in Lower-Genital-Tract Mucosal Fluid Processes Glycogen to Support Vaginal Colonization by Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary ?-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of ?-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of ?-amylase digestion. These studies show that human ?-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract. PMID:24737800

Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

2014-10-01

177

Increased telomerase activity and hTERT expression in human salivary gland carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Approximately 85% of human malignant tumors express increased levels of telomerase. The marked association of telomerase activity with malignant tissue provides strong evidence that telomerase activity is a significant marker for the diagnosis of cancer. In this study, telomerase activity was examined in 12 benign salivary gland tumors (8 pleomorphic adenomas and 4 adenolymphomas), 24 malignant tumors (15 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 6 adenoid cystic carcinomas and 3 acinic cell carcinomas) and 6 non-neoplastic salivary glands. The mRNA expression of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and additional telomerase?associated proteins (hTEP1, p23, Hsp90 and dyskerin) was also examined. Of the 24 malignant tumors, 15 revealed strong telomerase activity. The non-neoplastic salivary glands appeared to have a negative telomerase expression. Furthermore, telomerase activity was significantly higher in high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas compared to low?grade ones (Student's t-test, p<0.05). A significant correlation was found between telomerase activity and mRNA expression of hTERT in 15 cases, including non-neoplastic salivary glands and tumors (Spearman's rank correlation test, p<0.05). Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between telomerase activity and mRNA expression of EGFR (Spearman's rank correlation test, p<0.001). The results suggest that not only hTERT, but also EGFR play a significant role in the activation of telomerase. In conclusion, the results suggest that telomerase activity and hTERT/EGFR mRNA expression are useful markers for the detection of malignant cells in salivary gland carcinomas. Moreover, our results indicated that telomerase activity determines the degree of malignancy of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:22866138

Shigeishi, Hideo; Sugiyama, Masaru; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Ono, Shigehiro; Kumar Bhawal, Ujjal; Okura, Masaya; Kogo, Mikihiko; Shinohara, Masanori; Shindoh, Masanobu; Shintani, Satoru; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Takata, Takashi; Kamata, Nobuyuki

2011-01-01

178

Anticoagulation activity of salivary gland extract of oriental blackfly Simulium indicum  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the morphology of the salivary gland of the female blackfly of the species Simulium indicum (S. indicum) along with protein profile and anticoagulant activity of the salivary gland extract. Methods Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the protein profile of the salivary gland extract (SGE) and anticoagulant activities against thrombin, and the extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation pathways were found in S. indicum SGE in the TT, PT and APTT assays, respectively. Results Results revealed that each gland consisted of a cylindrical U-shaped secretory lobe and a more or less spherical reservoir. The protein contents of whole salivary glands were also quantified and the amount of salivary gland proteins in the adult female S. indicum was found out to be approximately 1.12±0.13 µg/female. At least 16 major and several minor protein bands were detected in the female salivary glands. The molecular masses of these major protein bands were estimated at 69, 65, 61, 58, 44, 42, 39, 33, 30, 28, 27, 26, 23, 21, 18 and 16 kDa, consecutively. Anticoagulant activities were found in S. indicum SGE in all the assays. It was found that SGE prolonged human plasma clotting time in a dose-dependent manner. Factor Xa inhibition was shown by the SGE of S. indicum. Percent inhibition value was 93.8. A positive correlation (r=0.89) was observed between total protein and percent inhibition of factor Xa. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that the mode of action of the anticoagulant(s) is mainly on the inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa along with other target factors of the coagulation cascade.

Borah, Subhalaxmi; Naglot, Ashok; Goswami, Sewali; Rahman, Imtiaz; Deka, Manab

2014-01-01

179

Two Immunoregulatory Peptides with Antioxidant Activity from Tick Salivary Glands*  

PubMed Central

Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that may secrete immunosuppressant molecules, which inhibit host inflammatory and immune responses and provide survival advantages to pathogens at tick bleeding sites in hosts. In the current work, two families of immunoregulatory peptides, hyalomin-A and -B, were first identified from salivary glands of hard tick Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. Three copies of hyalomin-A are encoded by an identical gene and released from the same protein precursor. Both hyalomin-A and -B can exert significant anti-inflammatory functions, either by directly inhibiting host secretion of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemotectic protein-1, and interferon-? or by indirectly increasing the secretion of immunosuppressant cytokine of interleukin-10. Hyalomin-A and -B were both found to potently scavenge free radical in vitro in a rapid manner and inhibited adjuvant-induced inflammation in mouse models in vivo. The JNK/SAPK subgroup of the MAPK signaling pathway was involved in such immunoregulatory functions of hyalomin-A and -B. These results showed that immunoregulatory peptides of tick salivary glands suppress host inflammatory response by modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species. PMID:20178988

Wu, Jing; Wang, Yipeng; Liu, Han; Yang, Hailong; Ma, Dongying; Li, Jianxu; Li, Dongsheng; Lai, Ren; Yu, Haining

2010-01-01

180

Effect of nucleotide polymorphism in cis-regulatory and coding regions on amylase activity and fitness in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, there are many amylase (AMY) isozymes encoded by the duplicated genes, but their adaptive significance remains unclear. One approach to elucidate this issue is to understand the molecular basis of functional differences between the allelic classes. In this study, the effects of nucleotide polymorphism in 5?-flanking (cis-regulatory) and coding regions on AMY activity were

H Goto; A E Szmidt; T Yamazaki; N Inomata

2005-01-01

181

Effects of different food commodities on larval development and ?-amylase activity of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was undertaken to study the influence of four commodities (wheat flour, dates, sorghum and barley) on Plodia interpunctella post-embryonic development. Larval weight, larval mortality, pupation and adult emergence were recorded. The study also aimed to find out the effect of these commodities on protein and glycogen production as well as on ?-amylase activity. Results indicated that the

Noureddin Bouayad; Kacem Rharrabe; Naima Ghailani; Fouad Sayah

2008-01-01

182

Effects of Metals on ?-Amylase Activity in the Digestive Gland of the Green Mussel, Perna viridis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of digestive enzymes in the green mussel, Perna viridis L., have been reported, and α-amylase is believed to have a higher activity than the others. Small plankton, on which the green mussel feeds, may supply plenty of starch and glycogen. They may be an important source of nutrients for the green mussel and the ability of the latter

T. Yan; L. H. Teo; Y. M. Sin

1996-01-01

183

The Effectiveness of Ultrasound Treatment on the Germination Stimulation of Barley Seed and its Alpha-Amylase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effects of ultrasound as emerging technology were investigated on germination stimulation, amount of alpha-amylase activity on dry barley seeds before steeping stage of malting process. All experiments were carried out at 20 KHz on the ultrasonic generator in 3 different ultrasonic intensities (20, 60 and 100% setting from total power of device) and time (5,

M. Yaldagard; S. A. Mortazavi; F. Tabatabaie

2008-01-01

184

Salivary Gland Hypofunction Induced by Activation of Innate Immunity is Dependent on Type I Interferon Signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Activation of innate immunity through polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) causes acute salivary gland hypofunction. Since a major consequence of poly(I:C) treatment is type I interferon (IFN) production, this study was undertaken to investigate their role in salivary gland dysfunction. Methods Different strains of mice, deficient either in interferon alpha receptor (IFNAR1?/?), or IL-6?/?, or IL-10?/?, or EBI3?/? were treated with poly(I:C). Salivary gland function was determined by measuring pilocarpine induced saliva volume. Gene expression levels were measured by real time PCR. Ca2+ mobilization studies were done using ex-vivo acinar cells. Results A single injection of poly(I:C) rapidly induced salivary gland hypofunction in wild type B6 mice (41% drop in saliva volumes compared to PBS treated mice). In contrast, the loss of function in poly(I:C) treated IFNAR?/? mice was only 9.6%. Gene expression analysis showed reduced levels of Il-6, Il-10 and Il-27 in submandibular glands of poly(I:C) treated IFNAR?/? mice. While salivary gland dysfunction in poly(I:C) treated IL-10?/? and EBI3?/? mice was comparable to wild type mice, the IL-6?/? mice were more resistant, with only a 21 % drop in function. Pilocarpine induced Ca2+ flux was significantly suppressed in acinar cells obtained from poly(I:C) treated wild type mice. Conclusions Our data demonstrates that a combined action of type I IFNs and IL-6 contributes towards salivary gland hypofunction. This happens through interference with Ca2+ mobilization within acinar cells. Thus, in acute viral infections and diseases like Sjögren’s syndrome, elevated levels of type I IFNs and IL-6 can directly affect glandular function. PMID:22672212

Nandula, Seshagiri-Rao; Dey, Paromita; Corbin, Kathryn L.; Nunemaker, Craig; Bagavant, Harini; Deshmukh, Umesh S.

2012-01-01

185

Vampire Bat Salivary Plasminogen Activator (Desmoteplase) A Unique Fibrinolytic Enzyme That Does Not Promote Neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) promotes excitotoxic and ischemic injury within the brain. These findings have implications for the use of tPA in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The plasminogen activator from vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) saliva (D rotundus salivary plasminogen activator (DSPA); desmoteplase) is an effective plasminogen activator but, in contrast to tPA, is nearly inactive in

Gabriel T. Liberatore; André Samson; Christopher Bladin; Wolf-Dieter Schleuning; Robert L. Medcalf

186

Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation  

E-print Network

Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation George H Perry1,2, Nathaniel J­3. This behavioral variation raises the possibility that different selective pressures have acted on amylase, the enzyme responsible for starch hydrolysis4. We found that copy number of the salivary amylase gene (AMY1

Sorenson, Michael

187

Pharmacological Activation of the EDA/EDAR Signaling Pathway Restores Salivary Gland Function following Radiation-Induced Damage  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR) signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1) normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage. PMID:25409170

Hill, Grace; Headon, Denis; Harris, Zoey I.; Huttner, Kenneth; Limesand, Kirsten H.

2014-01-01

188

Evaluation of salivary sialic acid level and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity in type 1 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

In this study, our aim was to determine whether or not type 1 diabetes mellitus affects salivary sialic acid level and SOD activity. For this purpose, unstimulated saliva specimen was collected. Saliva sialic acid level and SOD activity were measured by the methods of Warren and Sun, respectively. We found significantly decline in salivary sialic acid level and SOD activity. The decrease of salivary sialic acid level in type 1 diabetes may be due to changes in the activities of the enzymes taking part of in the synthesis and catabolism of sialic acid. The main reason for the decrease of salivary SOD activity may be increased glycation of the enzyme and/or deleterious effect of increased free oxygen radicals by glycated proteins on SOD activity in diabetes. We conclude the decline both in sialic acid and SOD in saliva may be a possible factor leading to oral complications of diabetes mellitus. PMID:11249151

Belce, A; Uslu, E; Kucur, M; Umut, M; Ipbüker, A; Seymen, H O

2000-11-01

189

Inhibitory Activities of Cyanidin and Its Glycosides and Synergistic Effect with Acarbose against Intestinal ?-Glucosidase and Pancreatic ?-Amylase  

PubMed Central

Cyanidin and its glycosides are naturally dietary pigments which have been indicated as promising candidates to have potential benefits to humans, especially in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. We investigated the structure activity relationships of cyanidin and its glycosides to inhibit intestinal ?-glucosidases and pancreatic ?-amylase in vitro. The results found that cyanidin and its glycosides are more specific inhibitors of intestinal sucrase than intestinal maltase. Cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside were the most potent inhibitors against intestinal sucrase and pancreatic ?-amylase with IC50 values of 0.50 ± 0.05 and 0.30 ± 0.01 mM, respectively. Our findings indicate that the structural difference between glucose and galactose at the 3-O-position of cyanidin was an important factor for modulating the inhibition of intestinal sucrase and pancreatic ?-amylase. The combination of cyandin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3- galactoside or cyanidin-3,5-diglucosides with a low concentration of acarbose showed synergistic inhibition on intestinal maltase and sucrase. The synergistic inhibition was also found for a combination of cyanidin or cyanidin-3-glucoside with a low concentration of acarbose. The findings could provide a new insight into a use for the naturally occurring intestinal ?-glucosidase and pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. PMID:20957102

Akkarachiyasit, Sarinya; Charoenlertkul, Piyawan; Yibchok-anun, Sirintorn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

2010-01-01

190

Antioxidative Activity and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Type-2 Diabetes (?-Glucosidase and ?-Amylase) by Khaya Senegalensis.  

PubMed

Abstract This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidative activity of Khaya senegalensis extracts and inhibitory effects of some solvent fractions on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities. The stem bark, root and leaf samples of the plant were sequentially extracted with ethyl acetate, ethanol and water and then tested for antioxidative activity. Our findings revealed that the ethanolic extract of the root had the highest antioxidative activity. Solvent-solvent fractionation of the root ethanolic extract yielded a butanol fraction that showed higher antioxidative activity than other fractions. Furthermore, the butanol fraction had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 2.89 ± 0.46 and 97.51 ± 5.72 ?g mL-1, respectively. Enzyme kinetic studies indicated that the butanol fraction is a non-competitive inhibitor for ?-glucosidase with an inhibition binding constant Ki of 1.30 ?g mL-1 and a competitive inhibitor of ?-amylase with a Ki of 7.50 ?g mL-1. GC-MS analysis revealed that the butanol fraction contained two chromones, p-anilinophenol and 3-ethyl-5-(3- ethyl-(3H)-benzothiazol-2-ylidene)-2-(p-tolylvinylamino)- 4-thiazolidinone. Data obtained in the study suggest that the butanol fraction derived from the ethanolic extract of K. senegalensis root possessed excellent antioxidative as well as ?-glucosidase and a-amylase inhibitory activities while chromones and/or p-anilinophenol could be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the observed activities. PMID:25296677

Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

2014-09-01

191

Effect of salivary pellicle on antibacterial activity of novel antibacterial dental adhesives using a dental plaque microcosm biofilm model  

PubMed Central

Objectives Antibacterial primer and adhesive are promising to inhibit biofilms and caries. Since restorations in vivo are exposed to saliva, one concern is the attenuation of antibacterial activity due to salivary pellicles. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of salivary pellicles on bonding agents containing a new monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) or nanoparticles of silver (NAg) against biofilms for the first time. Methods DMADDM and NAg were synthesized and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer. Specimens were either coated or not coated with salivary pellicles. A microcosm biofilm model was used with mixed saliva from ten donors. Two types of culture medium were used: an artificial saliva medium (McBain), and Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) medium without salivary proteins. Metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), and lactic acid production of plaque microcosm biofilms were measured (n = 6). Results Bonding agents containing DMADDM and NAg greatly inhibited biofilm activities, even with salivary pellicles. When using BHI, the pre-coating of salivary pellicles on resin surfaces significantly decreased the antibacterial effect (p < 0.05). When using artificial saliva medium, pre-coating of salivary pellicles on resin did not decrease the antibacterial effect. These results suggest that artificial saliva yielded medium-derived pellicles on resin surfaces, which provided attenuating effects on biofilms similar to salivary pellicles. Compared with the commercial control, the DMADDM-containing bonding agent reduced biofilm CFU by about two orders of magnitude. Significance Novel DMADDM- and NAg-containing bonding agents substantially reduced biofilm growth even with salivary pellicle coating on surfaces, indicating a promising usage in saliva-rich environment. DMADDM and NAg may be useful in a wide range of primers, adhesives and other restoratives to achieve antibacterial and anti-caries capabilities. PMID:24332270

Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Fouad, Ashraf F.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

2014-01-01

192

Xanthine derivatives as activators of alpha-amylase: hypothesis on a link with the hyperglycemia induced by caffeine.  

PubMed

Summary: Inhibitors of the mammalian alpha-amylases have been widely studied as medicines to be used in diabetes and obesity. However, there are few reports on activation of the enzyme, which could be detrimental in those conditions. Here, the effect of purine-derivated compounds has been studied on porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. Methylxanthine-derivatives pentoxyfilline, theobromine and caffeine caused a 20-30% increase in enzyme activity in the presence of the natural substrate, starch. The activation effect was not dose-dependent, observed in the range of 10-200 ?M of the compounds, and hypothesized to be related with the hyperglycemia that is observed upon consuming caffeine.: PMID:24308891

Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

2013-12-01

193

Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.  

PubMed

Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted. PMID:25129040

Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

2014-10-01

194

Modified ?-amylase activity among insecticide-resistant and -susceptible strains of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fitness cost is usually associated with insecticide resistance and may be mitigated by increased energy accumulation and mobilization. Preliminary evidence in the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggested possible involvement of amylases in such phenomenon. Therefore, ?-amylases were purified from an insecticide-susceptible and two insecticide-resistant strains (one with fitness cost [resistant cost strain], and the other without it [resistant no-cost strain]).

K. V. G. Lopes; L. B. Silva; A. P. Reis; M. G. A. Oliveira; R. N. C. Guedes

2010-01-01

195

Extracellular amylase activities of Rhizomucor pusillus and Humicola lanuginosa at initial stages of growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among thermophilic fungi,Rhizomucor Pusillus andHumicola lanuginosa have been reported to be among the most prolific producers of amylase, an apparently heat stable enzyme vital to the incorporation of carbon from macromolecular sources such as starch. Yet the highest levels of extracellular amylase in starch-yeast cultures of these fungi were measured after most of the growth had occurred; pre-growth levels appeared

P. R. Adams

1994-01-01

196

The lower salivary testosterone levels among unmarried and married sexually active men  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influences of regular sexual activity and marital status on salivary testosterone levels in healthy adult\\u000a Japanese men. Forty-four men (20–66 years) collected their saliva thrice a day (0900–1000, 1300–1400, and 1700–1800). The\\u000a testosterone levels at each collection time negatively correlated with the ages of the participants; therefore, residual testosterone\\u000a levels were used for analyses after correcting for age

K. Sakaguchi; M. Oki; S. Honma; H. Uehara; T. Hasegawa

2007-01-01

197

Production of Thermostable ? Amylase and Cellulase from Cellulomonas sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterium, isolated from rabbit's waste and identified as Cellulomonas sp., had cellulase and thermostable ? -amylase activity when grown on wheat bran. Maximum activity of thermostable ? -amylase was obtained by adding 3% soluble starch. However, soybean oil (1 ml l - 1 ) could increase the production of ? -amylase and cellulase in wheat bran. The ? -amylase

G. EMTIAZI; I. NAHVI

2004-01-01

198

Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila.  

E-print Network

Note Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila. Analysis of the association variability at the level of the specific activity of a-amylases and their tissue-specific expression- sults indicate a homogeneous distribution of the phenotypes with a different numbers of a-amylase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

Effect of two wheat genotypes and Swedish environment on falling number, amylase activities, and protein concentration and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in falling number, amylase activities, protein concentration and composition were investigated in two wheat cultivars\\u000a grown in Sweden over two seasons, in four locations, with four N fertilizer rates, with and without fungicide treatment. The\\u000a results showed that;\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Tarso had higher falling number, amylase activities, protein concentration and amount of most protein components compared\\u000a to Kosack.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The

Eva Johansson

2002-01-01

200

The ingredients in Saengshik, a formulated health food, inhibited the activity of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase as anti-diabetic function  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES We investigated total 26 ingredients of Saengshik which will be commercially produced as an anti-diabetic dietary supplement. SUBJECTS/METHODS Thirteen vegetables, nine cereals, three legumes and one seed were extracted with aqueous ethanol for 2 h at 60?, and evaluated for their inhibitory effects against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase and for total phenolic and flavonoid contents. RESULTS All ingredients inhibited ?-amylase activity except cabbage. Strong inhibitory activity of ?-amylase was observed in leek, black rice, angelica and barley compared with acarbose as a positive control. Stronger inhibition of ?-glucosidase activity was found in small water dropwort, radish leaves, sorghum and cabbage than acarbose. All Saengshik ingredients suppressed ?-glucosidase activity in the range of 0.3-60.5%. Most ingredients contained total phenols which were in the range of 1.2-229.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. But, total phenolic contents were not observed in carrot, pumpkin and radish. All ingredients contained flavonoid in the range of 11.6-380.7 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate that Saengshik containing these ingredients would be an effective dietary supplement for diabetes.

Kim, Misook; Kim, Eunji; Kwak, Han Sub

2014-01-01

201

Hypoglycemic activity of Pyrus biossieriana Buhse leaf extract and arbutin: Inhibitory effects on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase  

PubMed Central

Background: The mechanism of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Pyrus biossieriana Buhse leaf extract (PbBLE) and its phytochemical component arbutin, have not been well determined. The present study was performed to understand the hypoglycemic activity mechanisms of pbBLE and arbutin more clearly. Methods: In vitro enzymatic carbohydrate digestion with PbBLE and arbutin was assessed using ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase powders. The enzyme solutions were premixed with PbBLE and arbutin at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml). Substrate solutions and colorimetric reagents were added to the reaction. The release of glucose was determined by spectrophotometric method. Acarbose was used as the positive control. Results: The extract (10, 100 mg/ ml) completely inhibit ?- amylase and ?- glucosidase activities. The extract produced higher reduction of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity than arbutin. Inhibition at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/ml) were significantly different (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results exhibited that both the extract and arbutin were able to suppress the enzymes strongly. PMID:24294470

Yousefi, Fatemeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khadir, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

202

Assessment of stress associated with an oral public speech in veterinary students by salivary biomarkers.  

PubMed

In this report, salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase activity, and testosterone were measured to assess stress associated with a public oral presentation in Veterinary Clinical Pathology students. Stimulated saliva samples were collected before and directly after a 5-minute oral presentation and at 20 and 35 minutes after the beginning of the presentation. Cortisol peaked 20 minutes after the beginning of the presentation, whereas salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) peaked at 5 minutes, just at the end of the speech. These changes were not related to the level of stress that was indicated by the student in a questionnaire, the student's sex, or the quality of the presentation. No changes were detected in testosterone levels during the study. Saliva biomarkers evaluated in this research could be extended to other stress-producing situations in the university life of veterinary students. PMID:24449705

Tecles, Fernando; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Fatjó, Jaume; Cerón, José J

2014-01-01

203

Characterization of a recombinant amylolytic enzyme of hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermofilum pendens with extremely thermostable maltogenic amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene (Tpen_1458) encoding a putative alpha amylase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermofilum pendens (TfMA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant amylolytic enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and its catalytic properties were examined.\\u000a Purified TfMA was extremely thermostable with a half-life of 60 min at an optimal temperature of 95°C. TfMA activity increased\\u000a to 136% in the

Xiaolei Li; Dan Li; Yongguang Yin; Kwan-Hwa Park

2010-01-01

204

Searching for Amylase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information about sequence, structure, and active sites for many proteins is accessible online. This real world application of bioinformatics introduces us to amylases and asks us to explore functionally similar enzymes from markedly divergent organisms. Here, we search for microbial enzymes useful in the starch processing industry. Several tools useful for dealing with sequence information are introduced through the Biology Workbench.Information about sequence, structure, and active sites for many proteins is accessible online. This real world application of bioinformatics introduces us to amylases and asks us to explore functionally similar enzymes from markedly divergent organisms. Here, we search for microbial enzymes useful in the starch processing industry. Several tools useful for dealing with sequence information are introduced through the Biology Workbench. * investigate the use of bioinformatics to identify potentially useful microbial amylases for industry

Keith D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

205

Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of wheat, barley, or rye triggers small intestinal inflammation in patients with celiac disease. Specifically, the storage proteins of these cereals (gluten) elicit an adaptive Th1-mediated immune response in individuals carrying HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 as major genetic predisposition. This well-defined role of adaptive immunity contrasts with an ill-defined component of innate immunity in celiac disease. We identify the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) CM3 and 0.19, pest resistance molecules in wheat, as strong activators of innate immune responses in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ATIs engage the TLR4–MD2–CD14 complex and lead to up-regulation of maturation markers and elicit release of proinflammatory cytokines in cells from celiac and nonceliac patients and in celiac patients’ biopsies. Mice deficient in TLR4 or TLR4 signaling are protected from intestinal and systemic immune responses upon oral challenge with ATIs. These findings define cereal ATIs as novel contributors to celiac disease. Moreover, ATIs may fuel inflammation and immune reactions in other intestinal and nonintestinal immune disorders. PMID:23209313

Junker, Yvonne; Zeissig, Sebastian; Kim, Seong-Jun; Barisani, Donatella; Wieser, Herbert; Leffler, Daniel A.; Zevallos, Victor; Libermann, Towia A.; Dillon, Simon; Freitag, Tobias L.; Kelly, Ciaran P.

2012-01-01

206

Crystal structure of ?-amylase from Oryza sativa: molecular insights into enzyme activity and thermostability.  

PubMed

AmyI-1 is an ?-amylase from Oryza sativa (rice) and plays a crucial role in degrading starch in various tissues and at various growth stages. This enzyme is a glycoprotein with an N-glycosylated carbohydrate chain, a unique characteristic among plant ?-amylases. In this study, we report the first crystal structure of AmyI-1 at 2.2-Å resolution. The structure consists of a typical (?/?)8-barrel, which is well-conserved among most ?-amylases in the glycoside hydrolase family-13. Structural superimposition indicated small variations in the catalytic domain and carbohydrate-binding sites between AmyI-1 and barley ?-amylases. By contrast, regions around the N-linked glycosylation sites displayed lower conservation of amino acid residues, including Asn-263, Asn-265, Thr-307, Asn-342, Pro-373, and Ala-374 in AmyI-1, which are not conserved in barley ?-amylases, suggesting that these residues may contribute to the construction of the structure of glycosylated AmyI-1. These results increase the depths of our understanding of the biological functions of AmyI-1. PMID:25036124

Ochiai, Akihito; Sugai, Hiroshi; Harada, Kazuki; Tanaka, Seiya; Ishiyama, Yohei; Ito, Kosuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchiumi, Toshio; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Mitsui, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

207

Effects of Oolong Tea Polyphenols, EGCG, and EGCG3?Me on Pancreatic ?-Amylase Activity in Vitro.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the inhibitory effects and possible mechanisms of Oolong tea polyphenols, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3?Me) on pancreatic ?-amylase, the inhibition, enzyme kinetics, ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of ?-amylase were investigated. The results showed that Oolong tea polyphenols, EGCG, and EGCG3?Me all exhibited inhibitory effects against ?-amylase, and their half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were 0.375, 0.350, and 0.572 mg/mL, respectively. The results of Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plot indicated that the inhibitory types of Oolong tea polyphenols and EGCG were competitive, whereas EGCG3?Me was in a noncompetitive pattern. Oolong tea polyphenols, EGCG, and EGCG3?Me all induced red-shift of UV absorbance and quenching of fluorescence of ?-amylase, suggesting possible changes in the conformation of ?-amylase. The differences of inhibitory effects and inhibition types for EGCG and EGCG3?Me might be due to their structural difference (the hydroxyl group at C-3 in D ring of EGCG substituted by methoxy group, forming EGCG3?Me). PMID:25222598

Fei, Qunqin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yi; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Li; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

2014-10-01

208

Salivary soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio in periodontal disease and health  

PubMed Central

Purpose The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a significant role in osteoclastogenesis, activation of osteoclasts, and regulation of bone resorption. This study aimed to evaluate the use of the salivary soluble RANKL (sRANKL)/OPG ratio as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis in nonsmokers. Methods Twenty-five patients with chronic periodontitis and 25 individuals with a healthy periodontium were enrolled in this study. Samples containing 5 mL of unstimulated saliva were obtained from each subject. Salivary sRANKL and OPG concentrations were determined using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 18.0. Results The levels of sRANKL and OPG were detectable in all of the samples. Positive relationships were found between the plaque index and clinical attachment level and both the salivary concentration of sRANKL and the salivary sRANKL/OPG ratio (P<0.05). The salivary concentration of sRANKL and the sRANKL/OPG ratio were significantly higher in the periodontitis group than in the healthy group (P=0.004 and P=0.001, respectively). In contrast, the OPG concentration showed no significant differences between the groups (P=0.455). Conclusions These findings suggest that the salivary sRANKL/OPG ratio may be helpful in the screening and diagnosis of periodontitis. However, longitudinal studies with larger populations are needed to confirm these results. PMID:24236245

Tabari, Zahra Alizadeh; Azadmehr, Abbas; Tabrizi, Mohammad Amir Alizadeh; Hamissi, Jalaloddin

2013-01-01

209

Vampire Bat Salivary Plasminogen Activator (Desmoteplase) Inhibits Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator-Induced Potentiation of Excitotoxic Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—In contrast to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) salivary plasminogen activator (desmoteplase (DSPA)) does not promote excitotoxic injury when injected directly into the brain. We have compared the excitotoxic effects of intravenously delivered tPA and DSPA and determined whether DSPA can antagonize the neurotoxic and calcium enhancing effects of tPA. Methods—The brain striatal region of

Courtney Reddrop; Randal X. Moldrich; Philip M. Beart; Mark Farso; Gabriel T. Liberatore; David W. Howells; Karl-Uwe Petersen; Wolf-Dieter Schleuning; Robert L. Medcalf

2010-01-01

210

The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.  

PubMed

The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity. PMID:24722755

DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

2014-08-01

211

Chemical modification of lysine residues in Bacillus ?-amylases: effect on activity and stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical modification of lysine residues in two bacterial ?-amylases, a mesophilic enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BAA) and a thermophilic enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis (BLA) was carried out using citraconic anhydride. 13 ± 1 residues in BAA and 10 ± 1 residues in BLA were found modified under defined experimental conditions. Modification brought about dramatic enhancement of thermal stability of BAA

Khosro Khajeh; Hossein Naderi-Manesh; Bijan Ranjbar; Ali akbar Moosavi-Movahedi; Mohsen Nemat-Gorgani

2001-01-01

212

Association of Novel Domain in Active Site of Archaic Hyperthermophilic Maltogenic Amylase from Staphylothermus marinus*  

PubMed Central

Staphylothermus marinus maltogenic amylase (SMMA) is a novel extreme thermophile maltogenic amylase with an optimal temperature of 100 °C, which hydrolyzes ?-(1–4)-glycosyl linkages in cyclodextrins and in linear malto-oligosaccharides. This enzyme has a long N-terminal extension that is conserved among archaic hyperthermophilic amylases but is not found in other hydrolyzing enzymes from the glycoside hydrolase 13 family. The SMMA crystal structure revealed that the N-terminal extension forms an N? domain that is similar to carbohydrate-binding module 48, with the strand-loop-strand region forming a part of the substrate binding pocket with several aromatic residues, including Phe-95, Phe-96, and Tyr-99. A structural comparison with conventional cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing enzymes revealed a striking resemblance between the SMMA N? domain position and the dimeric N domain position in bacterial enzymes. This result suggests that extremophilic archaea that live at high temperatures may have adopted a novel domain arrangement that combines all of the substrate binding components within a monomeric subunit. The SMMA structure provides a molecular basis for the functional properties that are unique to hyperthermophile maltogenic amylases from archaea and that distinguish SMMA from moderate thermophilic or mesophilic bacterial enzymes. PMID:22223643

Jung, Tae-Yang; Li, Dan; Park, Jong-Tae; Yoon, Se-Mi; Tran, Phuong Lan; Oh, Byung-Ha; Janecek, Stefan; Park, Sung Goo; Woo, Eui-Jeon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

2012-01-01

213

AnAutomated, Saccharogenic Method for Determining SerumAmylase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated adaptationof the Somogyl saccharogenic determination of serum amylase is described in which conventional AutoAnalyzer modules are used. Adequate sensitivity with short incubation is achieved by incor- porating glucose oxidase and catalase in the substrate to destroy serum glucose during incubation. Maltose and other dialyzable oligosaccharides are measured with the alkaline copper-neocuproine reaction. A simulta- neous blank run is

Wendell R. O'Neal

214

Expression of b-Amylase from Alfalfa Taproots1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots contain large quantities of b-amylase, but little is known about its role in vivo. We studied this by isolating a b-amylase cDNA and by examining signals that affect its expression. The b-amylase cDNA encoded a 55.95-kD polypep- tide with a deduced amino acid sequence showing high similarity to other plant b-amylases. Starch concentrations, b-amylase activities,

Joyce A. Gana; Newton E. Kalengamaliro; Suzanne M. Cunningham; Jeffrey J. Volenec

1998-01-01

215

Original article Amylase polymorphism  

E-print Network

Original article Amylase polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster: haplotype frequencies in tropical December 1992) Summary - The frequencies of phenotypic haplotypes at the Amylase loci of D melanogaster by demographic bottlenecks related to recent colonizations. amylase / polymorphism / tropical populations

Boyer, Edmond

216

Heat shock inhibits. alpha. -amylase synthesis in barley aleurone without inhibiting the activity of endoplasmic reticulum marker enzymes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heat shock on the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase and on the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone were studied. Heat shock, imposed by raising the temperature of incubation from 25{degree}C to 40{degree}C for 3 hours, inhibits the accumulation of {alpha}-amylase and other proteins in the incubation medium of barley aleurone layers treated with gibberellic acid and Ca{sup 2+}. When ER is isolated from heat-shocked aleurone layers, less newly synthesized {alpha}-amylase is found associated with this membrane system. ER membranes, as indicated by the activities of NADH cytochrome c reductase and ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} transport, are not destroyed by heat stress, however. Although heat shock did not reduce the activity of ER membrane marker enzymes, it altered the buoyant density of these membranes. Whereas ER from control tissue showed a peak of marker enzyme activity at 27% to 28% sucrose (1.113-1.120 grams per cubic centimeter), ER from heat-shocked tissue peaked at 30% to 32% sucrose (1.127-1.137 grams per cubic centimeter). The synthesis of a group of proteins designated as heat-shock proteins (HSPs) was stimulated by heat shock. These HSPs were localized to different compartments of the aleurone cell. Several proteins ranging from 15 to 30 kilodaltons were found in the ER and the mitochondrial/plasma membrane fractions of heat-shocked cells, but none of the HSPs accumulated in the incubation medium of heat-shocked aleurone layers.

Sticher, L.; Biswas, A.K.; Bush, D.S.; Jones, R.L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1990-02-01

217

Periodontal status, salivary immunoglobulin, and microbial counts after short exposure to an isolated environment.  

PubMed

Salivary flow rate, immunoglobulin, and periodontal status were affected during a simulated Skylab mission. The effect is more prominent after long-duration space flights and can persist for several weeks after landing. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a simulated Mars environment on periodontal status and levels of salivary microorganisms and immunoglobulins in the human oral cavity. Twelve healthy male volunteers were studied before, at 1 and 2 weeks, and after completion of a mission in an isolated, confined simulated Mars environment at the Mars Desert Research Station, USA. We conducted a current stress test, measured salivary immunoglobulin, cortisol, ?-amylase, salivary flow rate, and levels of plaque and salivary microbes, and assessed clinical periodontal parameters (probing depth, bleeding on probing, and clinical loss of attachment). Salivary IgG levels and Streptococcus mutans activity were significantly higher at 1 week. Values for clinical periodontal parameters (probing depth, bleeding on probing, and clinical loss of attachment) significantly differed at 1 week. Stress might be caused by the difficulty of the mission rather than the isolated environment, as mission duration was quite short. Periodontal condition might worsen due to poor oral hygiene during the mission. The present findings show that all periodontal conditions and levels of oral bacteria and stress after completion of the simulated Mars mission differed from those at baseline. To verify the relationship between stress status and periodontal health in simulated Mars missions, future studies using larger patient samples and longer follow-up will be required. PMID:23748453

Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep

2013-01-01

218

Evaluation of the specificity and effectiveness of selected oral hygiene actives in salivary biofilm microcosms.  

PubMed

The microbiological effects of biocidal products used for the enhancement of oral hygiene relate to the active compound(s) as well as other formulation components. Here, we test the specificities of selected actives in the absence of multiple excipients. Salivary ecosystems were maintained in tissue culture plate-based hydroxyapatite disc models (HDMs) and modified drip-flow biofilm reactors (MDFRs). Test compounds stannous fluoride (SF), SDS, triclosan (TCS), zinc lactate (ZL) and ZL with SF in combination (ZLSF) were delivered to the HDMs once and four times daily for 6 days to MDFRs. Plaques were characterized by differential viable counting and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). TCS and SDS were the most effective compounds against HDM plaques, significantly reducing total viable counts (P<0.05), whilst SF, ZL and ZLSF were comparatively ineffective. TCS exhibited specificity for streptococci (P<0.01) and Gram-negative anaerobes (P<0.01) following a single dosing and also on repeated dosing in MDFRs. In contrast to single exposures, multiple dosing with ZLSF also significantly reduced all bacterial groups, whilst SF and ZL caused significant but transient reductions. According to PCR-DGGE analyses, significant (P<0.05) reductions in eubacterial diversity occurred following 6 day dosing with both TCS and ZLSF. Concordance of MDFR eubacterial profiles with salivary inocula ranged between 58 and 97%. TCS and ZL(SF) exhibited similar specificities to those reported for formulations. TCS was the most potent antibacterial, after single and multiple dosage regimens. PMID:20724503

Ledder, Ruth G; Sreenivasan, Prem K; DeVizio, William; McBain, Andrew J

2010-12-01

219

Enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity of Aca s 4, an alpha-amylase allergen from the storage mite Acarus siro  

PubMed Central

Background Enzymatic allergens of storage mites that contaminate stored food products are poorly characterized. We describe biochemical and immunological properties of the native alpha-amylase allergen Aca s 4 from Acarus siro, a medically important storage mite. Results A. siro produced a high level of alpha-amylase activity attributed to Aca s 4. This enzyme was purified and identified by protein sequencing and LC-MS/MS analysis. Aca s 4 showed a distinct inhibition pattern and an unusual alpha-amylolytic activity with low sensitivity to activation by chloride ions. Homology modeling of Aca s 4 revealed a structural change in the chloride-binding site that may account for this activation pattern. Aca s 4 was recognized by IgE from house dust mite-sensitive patients, and potential epitopes for cross-reactivity with house dust mite group 4 allergens were found. Conclusions We present the first protein-level characterization of a group 4 allergen from storage mites. Due to its high production and IgE reactivity, Aca s 4 is potentially relevant to allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:22292590

2012-01-01

220

A new nano-optical sensor thin film cadmium sulfide doped in sol-gel matrix for assessment of ?-amylase activity in human saliva.  

PubMed

A novel, simple, sensitive and precise spectrofluorimetric method is developed for measuring the activity of the ?-amylase enzyme in human saliva. The remarkable quenching of the luminescence intensity at 634 nm of nano CdS doped in a sol-gel matrix by various concentrations of maltose (produced from the reaction of the enzyme with the starch substrate) was successfully used as an optical sensor for the assessment of ?-amylase activity. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 4.8 × 10(-10) to 1.2 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) maltose with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and a detection limit of 5.7 × 10(-11) mol L(-1). The method was used satisfactorily for assessment of the ?-amylase activity in a number of human saliva samples collected from various healthy volunteers. PMID:24358458

Attia, M S; Zoulghena, H; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

2014-02-21

221

Effect of tin oxide nanoparticle binding on the structure and activity of ?-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proteins adsorbed on nanoparticles (NPs) are being used in biotechnology, biosensors and drug delivery. However, understanding the effect of NPs on the structure of proteins is still in a nascent state. In the present paper tin oxide (SnO2) NPs were synthesized by the reaction of SnCl4·5H2O in methanol via the sol-gel method and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The binding of these SnO2-NPs with ?-amylase was investigated by using UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. A strong quenching of tryptophan fluorescence intensity in ?-amylase was observed due to formation of a ground state complex with SnO2-NPs. Far-UV CD spectra showed that the secondary structure of ?-amylase was changed in the presence of NPs. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), was found to be 26.96 and 28.45 mg ml - 1, while Vmax was 4.173 and 3.116 mg ml - 1 min - 1 for free and NP-bound enzyme, respectively.

Jahir Khan, Mohammad; Qayyum, Shariq; Alam, Fahad; Husain, Qayyum

2011-11-01

222

Effect of codon-optimized E. coli signal peptides on recombinant Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase periplasmic localization, yield and activity.  

PubMed

Recombinant proteins can be targeted to the Escherichia coli periplasm by fusing them to signal peptides. The popular pET vectors facilitate fusion of target proteins to the PelB signal. A systematic comparison of the PelB signal with native E. coli signal peptides for recombinant protein expression and periplasmic localization is not reported. We chose the Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase (MA), an industrial enzyme widely used in the baking and brewing industry, as a model protein and analyzed the competence of seven, codon-optimized, E. coli signal sequences to translocate MA to the E. coli periplasm compared to PelB. MA fusions to three of the signals facilitated enhanced periplasmic localization of MA compared to the PelB fusion. Interestingly, these three fusions showed greatly improved MA yields and between 18- and 50-fold improved amylase activities compared to the PelB fusion. Previously, non-optimal codon usage in native E. coli signal peptide sequences has been reported to be important for protein stability and activity. Our results suggest that E. coli signal peptides with optimal codon usage could also be beneficial for heterologous protein secretion to the periplasm. Moreover, such fusions could even enhance activity rather than diminish it. This effect, to our knowledge has not been previously documented. In addition, the seven vector platform reported here could also be used as a screen to identify the best signal peptide partner for other recombinant targets of interest. PMID:25038884

Samant, Shalaka; Gupta, Gunja; Karthikeyan, Subbulakshmi; Haq, Saiful F; Nair, Ayyappan; Sambasivam, Ganesh; Sukumaran, Sunilkumar

2014-09-01

223

Effect of Alcohol Withdrawl on Glutathione S-transferase, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Amylase in Blood and Saliva of Alcohol-Dependent Males  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Alcohol biomarkers help in the early detection of alcoholism and its complications. There is a paucity of studies in India on the salivary markers of systemic diseases in general and on salivary alcohol biomarkers in particular. Objectives: The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of alcohol withdrawal on the antioxidants and amylase in blood and saliva, and at finding the correlation between the blood and the salivary parameters in alcoholics. Methods: Sixty alcohol-dependent males who were in the age group of 30 – 70 years, who were admitted to the Deaddiction Centre for alcohol withdrawal treatment for one month, were the subjects of this study; age-matched healthy individuals were the controls. In the blood and saliva samples, the activities of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) and amylase and the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were assayed. Results: The alcohol-dependent subjects showed significantly lower GST and amylase activities and the TAC in blood and saliva as compared to those in the controls (P<0.001). The alcohol withdrawal caused a significant increase in the GST and amylase activities and the TAC to near-control values. In the alcohol-dependent subjects, there was a significant correlation between the values in blood and saliva with respect to GST and TAC. Conclusions: Alcoholism causes an impaired antioxidant capacity and a decreased secretion of amylase, which is ameliorated due to the alcohol withdrawal regimen . The strong correlation between blood and saliva with respect to the antioxidants suggests the potential future use of saliva as a laboratory tool in clinical medicine. PMID:23814713

Peter, Neethumol; Chiramel, Kevin J.; A.R., Shivashankara

2013-01-01

224

Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malted and un-malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant ( p<0.05) reduction in alpha and beta amylase activity (22% and 32%, respectively). Irradiation of un-malted flour increased the rates of utilization of glucose and maltose by 53% and 100%, respectively, during fermentation. However, microbial growth, rate of lactic acid production, final lactic acid concentration and pH were not affected. Starch granules appeared normal externally even after re-irradiation, however, granules ruptured and dissolved easily after hydration and gelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum.

Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

2012-03-01

225

Saliva flow rate, amylase activity, and protein and electrolyte concentrations in saliva after acute alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of acute alcohol consumption on saliva secretion rate and selected salivary parameters in healthy nonalcoholic volunteers. Study Design: Twenty-four volunteers (37.7 ± 9.6 years, mean ± SD) consumed 0.6 g or 0.7 g alcohol\\/kg of body weight (for women and men, respectively) in a soft drink. Saliva samples were

Nina Enberg; Hannu Alho; Vuokko Loimaranta; Marianne Lenander-Lumikari

2001-01-01

226

Developmental Expression of Amylases During Barley Malting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity and qualitative changes in amylase isoenzymes as a function of barley seedling age were investigated in 10 Brazilian barley cultivars. All cultivars showed few isoenzymes in early germination. An increase in general activity ensued in the following days when new isoenzymes were detected and those already observed since early germination had their activity increased. All cultivars disclosed increase

J. E. Georg-Kraemer; E. C. Mundstock; S. Cavalli-Molina

2001-01-01

227

Salivary digestive enzymes of the wheat bug, Eurygaster integriceps (Insecta: Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).  

PubMed

The digestive enzymes from salivary gland complexes (SGC) of Eurygaster integriceps, and their response to starvation and feeding were studied. Moreover, digestive amylases were partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The SGC are composed of two sections, the principal glands and accessory glands. The principal glands are further divided into the anterior lobes and posterior lobes. The SGC main enzyme was ?-amylase, which hydrolyzed starch better than glycogen. The other carbohydrases were also present in the SGC complexes. Enzymatic activities toward mannose (?/?-mannosidases) were little in comparison to activities against glucose (?/?-glucosidases) and galactose (?/?-galactosidases), the latter being the greatest. Acid phosphatase showed higher activity than alkaline phosphatase. There was no measurable activity for lipase and aminopeptidase. Proteolytic activity was detected against general and specific protease substrates. Activities of all enzymes were increased in response to feeding in comparison to starved insects, revealing their induction and secretion in response to feeding pulse. The SGC amylases eluted in four major peaks and post-electrophoretic detection of the ?-amylases demonstrated the existence of at least five isoamylases in the SGC. The physiological implication of these findings in pre-oral digestion of E. integriceps is discussed. PMID:24961557

Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali Reza; Dastranj, Mehdi

2014-06-01

228

Thermostable pullulanase and ?-amylase activity from Clostridium thermosulfurogenes SV9—Optmization of culture conditions for enzyme production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of pullulanase and ?-amylase by Clostridium thermosulfurogenes SV9 was optimized employing suitable environmental conditions and various nitrogen and carbon sources. The optimal temperature and pH values for the formation of pullulanase and ?-amylase were 60°C and 7·0, respectively. Maximum amounts of pullulanase and ?-amylase were produced at the end of the exponential growth phase (12 h). Peptone with

M. V. Swamy; G. Seenayya

1996-01-01

229

21 CFR 862.1070 - Amylase test system.  

...measure the activity of the enzyme amylase in serum and urine. Amylase measurements are used primarily for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). (b) Classification. Class...

2014-04-01

230

21 CFR 862.1070 - Amylase test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...measure the activity of the enzyme amylase in serum and urine. Amylase measurements are used primarily for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). (b) Classification. Class...

2013-04-01

231

Vicilin-like peptides from Capsicum baccatum L. seeds are ?-amylase inhibitors and exhibit antifungal activity against important yeasts in medical mycology.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to isolate antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum baccatum seeds and evaluate their antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effects against ?-amylase. Initially, proteins from the flour of C. baccatum seeds were extracted in sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.4, and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. The D1 and D2 fractions were subjected to antifungal tests against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Kluyveromyces marxiannus, and tested against ?-amylases from Callosobruchus maculates and human saliva. The D2 fraction presented higher antimicrobial activity and was subjected to further purification and seven new different fractions (H1-H7) were obtained. Peptides in the H4 fraction were sequenced and the N-terminal sequences revealed homology with previously reported storage vicilins from seeds. The H4 fraction exhibited strong antifungal activity and also promoted morphological changes in yeast, including pseudohyphae formation. All fractions, including H4, inhibited mammalian ?-amylase activity but only the H4 fraction was able to inhibit C. maculatus ?-amylase activity. These results suggest that the fractions isolated from the seeds of C. baccatum can act directly in plant defenses against pathogens and insects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 102: 335-343, 2014. PMID:24817604

Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Rodrigues, Rosana; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Carvalho, Andre O; Gomes, Valdirene M

2014-04-01

232

Thermal adaptation of ?-amylases: a review.  

PubMed

The temperature adaptation of ?-amylase can be gained by different adjustments in protein structure with consecutive effects on the stability and flexibility of the protein. In this review, meso, thermo and cold-active ?-amylases have been compared with respect to their structure and intramolecular interactions. With decrease in temperature, the number of ionic interactions also decreases, leading to greater flexibility of proteins. It has also been observed that the proline and arginine content is higher in thermophilic amylases as compared to meso and psychrophilic amylases, increasing the rigidity and structural stability of protein molecule. PMID:25116053

Hiteshi, Kalpana; Gupta, Reena

2014-11-01

233

Changes in functioning of rat submandibular salivary gland under streptozotocin-induced diabetes are associated with alterations of Ca 2+ signaling and Ca 2+ transporting pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xerostomia and pathological thirst are troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus associated with impaired functioning of salivary glands; however, their cellular mechanisms are not yet determined. Isolated acinar cells were loaded with Ca2+ indicators fura-2\\/AM for measuring cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) or mag-fura-2\\/AM—inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found a dramatic decrease in pilocarpine-stimulated saliva flow, protein content and amylase activity

N. V. Fedirko; I. A. Kruglikov; O. V. Kopach; J. A. Vats; P. G. Kostyuk; N. V. Voitenko

2006-01-01

234

Potent ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of standardized 50% ethanolic extracts and sinensetin from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth as anti-diabetic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, we tested a 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus plants and its isolated bioactive compound with respect to their ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities. Methods Bioactive flavonoid sinensetin was isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus. The structure of this pure compound was determined on the NMR data and the ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of isolated sinensetin and 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus were evaluated. Results In vitro studies of a 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus and the isolated sinensetin compound showed inhibitory activity on ?-glucosidase (IC50: 4.63 and 0.66 mg/ml, respectively) and ?-amylase (IC50: 36.70 mg/ml and 1.13 mg/ml, respectively). Inhibition of these enzymes provides a strong biochemical basis for the management of type 2 diabetes via the control of glucose absorption. Conclusion Alpha-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibition could the mechanisms through which the 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus and sinensetin exert their antidiabetic activity, indicating that it could have potential use in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. PMID:23039079

2012-01-01

235

A novel cold-active and salt-tolerant ?-amylase from marine bacterium Zunongwangia profunda: molecular cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization.  

PubMed

A novel gene (amyZ) encoding a cold-active and salt-tolerant ?-amylase (AmyZ) was cloned from marine bacterium Zunongwangia profunda (MCCC 1A01486) and the protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene has a length of 1785 bp and encodes an ?-amylase of 594 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 13 and shows the highest identity (25%) to the characterized ?-amylase TVA II from thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47. The recombinant ?-amylase showed the maximum activity at 35 °C and pH 7.0, and retained about 39% activity at 0 °C. AmyZ displayed extreme salt tolerance, with the highest activity at 1.5 M NaCl and 93% activity even at 4 M NaCl. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) of AmyZ increased from 115.51 (with 0 M NaCl) to 143.30 ml mg(-1) s(-1) (with 1.5 M NaCl) at 35 °C and pH 7.0, using soluble starch as substrate. Besides, the thermostability of the enzyme was significantly improved in the presence of 1.5 M NaCl or 1 mM CaCl2. AmyZ is one of the very few ?-amylases that tolerate both high salinity and low temperatures, making it a potential candidate for research in basic and applied biology. PMID:24318109

Qin, Yongjun; Huang, Zongqing; Liu, Ziduo

2014-03-01

236

Dietary effects of harmine, a ?-carboline alkaloid, on development, energy reserves and ?-amylase activity of Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

PubMed Central

The physiological and developmental effects of harmine, a ?-carboline alkaloid, on the insect pest Plodia interpunctella have been analyzed. When added at the larval diet, harmine induced a strong reduction of larvae weight, cannibalism between larvae, in addition to significant mortality. On the other hand, it caused a remarkable development disruption, manifested by both delay and reduction of pupation and adult emergence. Using spectrophotometric assays, we have shown that harmine ingestion provoked a severe reduction in protein, glycogen and lipid contents. Beside, when larvae fed harmine, the activity of the digestive enzyme ?-amylase was strongly reduced. In conclusion, our experiments clearly show the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to harmine ingestion revealing the potent bioinsecticidal effect of harmine. PMID:23961164

Bouayad, Noureddin; Rharrabe, Kacem; Lamhamdi, Mostafa; Nourouti, Naima Ghailani; Sayah, Fouad

2010-01-01

237

Original article Effect of age and exogenous amylase  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of age and exogenous amylase and protease on development of the digestive supplemented with 2 levels of enzyme preparations containing amylase and proteases up to 14 d of age. Enzyme of chymotrypsin in the pancreas and the'activity of amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin in the intestinal contents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Digestive enzymes in marine species. II. Amylase activities in gut from seabream ( Sparus aurata), turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) and redfish ( Sebastes mentella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amylase activity of the digestive tract of three carnivorous fish species (Sparus aurata, Scophthalmus maximus and Sebastes mentella) has been studied. The activity of seabream and turbot showed its maximum at neutral pH (7.0–7.5); meanwhile, the activity of redfish had an optimum pH at 4.5-5.0. The t° function ranged between 35 and 45°C for the three species. The Arrhenius

R. Munilla-Morán; F. Saborido-Rey

1996-01-01

239

Is the Difference in ?-Amylase Activity in the Strains of Drosophila melanogaster with Different Allozymes Due to Transcriptional or Posttranscriptional Control?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alpha-amylase in Drosophilamelanogaster is a highly polymorphic enzyme, atboth the allozyme level and the specific activity level.This enzyme changes its specific activity drasticallydepending on both food conditions and developmental stages,and it has been suggested that the ability to change itsactivity depending on the source of food has positivecorrelation with fitness. But the cause of thedifference of specific activity among

Nobuko Yamate; Tsuneyuki Yamazaki

1999-01-01

240

Effect of laser phototherapy on enzymatic activity of salivary glands of hamsters treated with 5-Fluorouracil.  

PubMed

The chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) can induce salivary gland hypofunction (SGH); however, previous studies did not reach final conclusions on the influence of this drug on glandular tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-FU on submandibular (SMs) and sublingual glands (SLs), as well as, the effect of laser phototherapy (LPT) on SGH induced by 5-FU. Eighty-five hamsters were divided into three groups: control (C), chemotherapy (CT) and laser (L), and the SGH was induced by two injections of 5-FU in groups CT and L. The irradiation was performed using a diode (?780 nm/20 mW/5 J cm(-2)/0.2 J and 10 s per point/spot size of 0.04 cm(2)) and applied daily. On the euthanasia day, SMs and SLs were removed and biochemical analyses were carried out. The lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in group CT when compared with group C for SLs and SMs (P < 0.05). In addition, the peroxidase and catalase activities were increased and superoxide dismutase was decreased by 5-FU (P < 0.05). However, LPT appears to be a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, tending to alter the activity of these antioxidant enzymes, suggesting LPT as a promising therapy to modulate the 5-FU harmful effect. PMID:24172058

Campos, Luana; Nicolau, José; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Simões, Alyne

2014-01-01

241

cGMP phosphodiesterase activity evaluation in human carcinoma of salivary glands.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate differences of cGMP-PDE activity in salivary glands, between a control group and different benign tumour groups and, where present, with malign tumour groups. Endogen cGMP was evaluated too. The enzymatic reaction used the method of Spoto et al., with minor variations. The samples were organized in six groups: A (Adenolymphoma and Warthins tumour); B (Pleomorphic Adenoma); C (Basaloid Adenoma); D (Myoepitelioma). The control group was represented by healthy patients. In A and B groups, we have analyzed malign pathologies (Adenocarcinoma and Parotid Lymphoma) The benign tumours have more activity than controls, especially in Myoepitelioma (D) but with a decrement in the C group, which presents lower values of cGMP than the other three groups, where the concentration is similar. Between A and B groups, the activity values of malign tumours are similar, higher than controls and than the other benign pathologies, but not higher than in myoepitelioma. The cyclic concentration is similar for malign pathologies, with concentrations lower than controls, similar to Basaloid Adenoma (C). PMID:16857103

Spoto, G; Mariani, A; Santoleri, F; Fioroni, M; Vitale, D; Piatelli, A; Di Nicola, M; Rubini, C

2004-01-01

242

T lymphocyte activation state in the minor salivary glands of patients with Sj?gren's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Local lymphoplasmacytoid infiltration of the diseased exocrine glands is a cardinal sign of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The state of T lymphocyte activation present in these local infiltrations was studied by three different techniques: determination of interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor (Tac) on cell surface membrane; autoradiography combined with immunoperoxidase staining of T cell epitopes; and electron microscopic analysis of the lymphoblast subclasses. Although 64 (SEM 4)% of the local inflammatory cells expressed Ia antigen, only 4 (SEM 1)% of them displayed the T cell activation antigen Tac. Autoradiography-immunoperoxidase double labelling showed that less than 1% of all T cells in situ were [3H]thymidine incorporating blasts. This finding suggests that although T lymphocyte is the dominant cell in situ, only a few of these cells have passed the G0/G1 interphase, and even fewer have been pushed to the S phase of the cell cycle by IL2. Transmission electron microscopy showed that few T blasts were present, even though there were many plasma cells. This result further confirms the impression that only a minor T cell subpopulation in situ is blast transformed despite the fact that many of the local T lymphocytes in the diseased salivary glands in SS are Ia positive. Images PMID:3118826

Segerberg-Konttinen, M; Bergroth, V; Jungell, P; Malmstrom, M; Nordstrom, D; Sane, J; Immonen, I; Konttinen, Y T

1987-01-01

243

Chemical modification of wheat ?-amylase by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, methoxypolyethylene glycol, and glutaraldehyde to improve its thermal stability and activity.  

PubMed

The amino groups of wheat ?-amylase (WBA) were modified by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), 2,4-bis (O-methoxypolyethylene glycol)-6-chloro-s-triazine (mPEG), and glutaraldehyde (GA) to improve its thermal stability and activity. Modification of WBA by 5mM TNBS, 4.8?M mPEG and 11 mM GA improved its T50 (the temperature at which 50% of its activity is lost after 30 min of incubation) from 47 ± 1°C to 48 ± 2, 55 ± 2, and 54 ± 2°C, respectively. The catalytic activity of WBA was reduced by 15% and 59% with modification by 5mM TNBS and 11mM GA, respectively. In all cases, the enhancement of thermostability of modified WBA was entropically driven. The activity of WBA modified by 4.8?M mPEG was enhanced by 39% at 25°C. Therefore, the thermal stability of WBA was significantly improved by modification with mPEG, GA and slightly by TNBS and its catalytic activity was enhanced by mPEG. PMID:24315646

Daba, Tadessa; Kojima, Kenji; Inouye, Kuniyo

2013-12-10

244

Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number George H. Perry1,2,*, Nathaniel J. Dominy3,*, Katrina G. Claw1,4, Arthur S. Lee2, Heike  

E-print Network

Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation George H. Perry1,2,*, Nathaniel-3. This behavioral variation raises the possibility that different selective pressures have acted on amylase, the enzyme responsible for starch hydrolysis4. We found that salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy number

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

245

Salivary alkaline phosphatase and calcium in caries-active type II diabetes mellitus patients: An in vivo study  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic syndrome, affecting the oral health in various ways with dental caries being one of the most common problems encountered. Saliva is one of the most abundant secretions in the human body with a variety of natural protective and defence molecules bathing the oral cavity maintaining equilibrium. Its collection is easy and non-invasive. Aims: To compare and evaluate salivary alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium ion levels between caries active type II diabetes mellitus patients and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on caries-active age and gender matched 60 non-diabetic and 60 patients with known Type II diabetes mellitus subjects of age group 25-50 years with DMFT index >10. Saliva sample was collected to analyse for alkaline phosphatase enzyme and concentration of calcium ions using Agappe kits. Statistical Analysis: Student ‘t’ test was used to correlate the salivary electrolyte concentration in non- diabetic and diabetic patients with dental caries. A ‘P’ value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation (X ± SD). Results: The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in saliva was higher in diabetic patients when compared to that of non-diabetic patients with salivary calcium ions were significantly higher in non-diabetic individuals. Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus patients are more prone to dental caries, hence require intervention to improve the quality of saliva.

Hegde, Mithra N.; Tahiliani, Divya; Shetty, Shilpa; Devadiga, Darshana

2014-01-01

246

Effects of infrared radiation, solar cooking and microwave cooking on alpha-amylase inhibitor in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).  

PubMed

Three domestic cooking methods were studied in alpha-amylase inhibitory activity in sorghum grains. In all the treatments, overnight soaked seeds lost amylase inhibitory activity much faster. All the three treatments reduced the inhibitory activity. Use of solar cooker for reducing amylase inhibitory activity works out very economically and efficiently. Microwave cooking eliminates amylase inhibitory activity within 5 minutes. PMID:7855094

Mulimani, V H; Supriya, D

1994-10-01

247

Tsetse Salivary Gland Proteins 1 and 2 Are High Affinity Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins with Residual Nuclease Activity  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans) saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2) display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with KD values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents. PMID:23110062

Caljon, Guy; Ridder, Karin De; Stijlemans, Benoit; Coosemans, Marc; Magez, Stefan; De Baetselier, Patrick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

2012-01-01

248

Expression of the Schwanniomyces occidentalis SWA2 amylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of N-glycosylation on activity, stability and secretion.  

PubMed Central

The role of N-linked glycosylation on the biological activity of Schwanniomyces occidentalis SWA2 alpha-amylase, as expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was analysed by site-directed mutagenesis of the two potential N-glycosylation sites, Asn-134 and Asn-229. These residues were replaced by Ala or Gly individually or in various combinations and the effects on the activity, secretion and thermal stability of the enzyme were studied. Any Asn-229 substitution caused a drastic decrease in activity levels of the extracellular enzyme. In contrast, substitutions of Asn-134 had little or no effect. The use of antibodies showed that alpha-amylase was secreted in all the mutants tested, although those containing substitutions at Asn-229 seemed to have a lower rate of synthesis and/or higher degradation than the wild-type strain. alpha-Amylases with substitution at Asn-229 had a 2 kDa lower molecular mass than the wild-type protein, as did the wild-type protein itself after treatment with endoglycosidase F. These findings indicate that Asn-229 is the single glycosylated residue in SWA2. Thermostability analysis of both purified wild-type (T50=50 degrees C, where T50 is the temperature resulting in 50% loss of activity) and mutant enzymes indicated that removal of carbohydrate from the 229 position results in a decrease of approx. 3 degrees C in the T50 of the enzyme. The Gly-229 mutation does not change the apparent affinity of the enzyme for starch (Km) but decreases to 1/22 its apparent catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). These results therefore indicate that glycosylation at the 229 position has an important role in the extracellular activity levels, kinetics and stability of the Sw. occidentalis SWA2 alpha-amylase in both its wild-type and mutant forms. PMID:9405276

Yanez, E; Carmona, T A; Tiemblo, M; Jimenez, A; Fernandez-Lobato, M

1998-01-01

249

Determination of the human salivary peptides histatins 1, 3, 5 and statherin by high-performance liquid chromatography and by diode-array detection.  

PubMed

A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode-array detection for the quantification of several human salivary peptides is described. Sample pretreatment consisted of the acidification of whole saliva by phosphate buffer. This treatment produced precipitation of mucins, alpha-amylases and other high-molecular-mass salivary proteins, simultaneous inhibition of intrinsic protease activities and reduction of sample viscosity. Direct HPLC analysis by diode-array detection of the resulting acidic sample allowed one to quantify histatin 1, histatin 3, histatin 5, statherin, as well as uric acid, in normal subjects. Moreover, the groups of peaks pertaining to proline-rich proteins and cystatins were tentatively identified. The method can be useful in assessing the concentration of salivary peptides from normal subjects and from patients suffering oral and/or periodontal diseases. PMID:11232845

Castagnola, M; Congiu, D; Denotti, G; Di Nunzio, A; Fadda, M B; Melis, S; Messana, I; Misiti, F; Murtas, R; Olianas, A; Piras, V; Pittau, A; Puddu, G

2001-02-10

250

Diosgenin from Dioscorea bulbifera: Novel Hit for Treatment of Type II Diabetes Mellitus with Inhibitory Activity against ?-Amylase and ?-Glucosidase  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disease characterized by post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitors aim to explore novel therapeutic agents. Herein we report the promises of Dioscorea bulbifera and its bioactive principle, diosgenin as novel ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitor. Among petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and 70% ethanol (v/v) extracts of bulbs of D. bulbifera, ethyl acetate extract showed highest inhibition upto 72.06 ± 0.51% and 82.64 ± 2.32% against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase respectively. GC-TOF-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extract indicated presence of high diosgenin content. Diosgenin was isolated and identified by FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR and confirmed by HPLC which showed an ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition upto 70.94 ± 1.24% and 81.71 ± 3.39%, respectively. Kinetic studies confirmed the uncompetitive mode of binding of diosgenin to ?-amylase indicated by lowering of both Km and Vm. Interaction studies revealed the quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of ?-amylase in presence of diosgenin. Similarly, circular dichroism spectrometry showed diminished negative humped peaks at 208 nm and 222 nm. Molecular docking indicated hydrogen bonding between carboxyl group of Asp300, while hydrophobic interactions between Tyr62, Trp58, Trp59, Val163, His305 and Gln63 residues of ?-amylase. Diosgenin interacted with two catalytic residues (Asp352 and Glu411) from ?-glucosidase. This is the first report of its kind that provides an intense scientific rationale for use of diosgenin as novel drug candidate for type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:25216353

Ghosh, Sougata; More, Piyush; Derle, Abhishek; Patil, Ajay B.; Markad, Pramod; Asok, Adersh; Kumbhar, Navanath; Shaikh, Mahemud L.; Ramanamurthy, Boppana; Shinde, Vaishali S.; Dhavale, Dilip D.; Chopade, Balu A.

2014-01-01

251

Effect of gas phase and particulate phase of cigarette smoke on salivary antioxidants. What can be the role of vitamin C and pyridoxine?  

PubMed

The effect of smoking is in our days a serious global public health problem of major concern. Incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in cigarette smokers is four to seven times higher than in nonsmokers. There is a constant and direct attack of various cigarette smoke constituents on the oral epithelial cells, which gradually accumulate and cause malignant transformation. Saliva is the first biological fluid that encounters inhaled cigarette smoke (CS). We have studied the influence of CS on salivary antioxidant capacity, uric acid, amylase and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). In our study both, gas and particulate phase of CS were tested separately, and possible antioxidant effect of pyridoxine on salivary components was examined. Our results indicate that exposure to both, gas and particulate phase of CS caused a statistically significant decrease in salivary uric acid, LDH and amylase activity. We have also studied the effect of vitamin C (10 mg/dl) and vitamin B6 (1 mM) during incubation of saliva in the presence of CS. The addition of vitamin C had a significant (p < 0.05) protective effect on salivary uric acid level (0.25 +/- 0.12 for saliva incubated with gas phase of CS vs. 0.65 +/- 0.12 for saliva incubated with gas phase of CS in the presence of vitamin C). Vitamin C was not able to maintain/restore the original uric acid level. In the presence of the gas phase, pyridoxine had no protective effect, neither on salivary uric acid level nor on the FRAP activity of saliva. The purpose of our study was to discover a connection between the level of antioxidants in saliva in the presence of the two components of CS. Our results show that salivary antioxidant system is significantly and distinctly affected by both gas and particulate phase of CS and suggest that an adequate intake of antioxidants may help smokers to avoid CS-induced oxidative damage and to prevent degenerative diseases. PMID:18048964

Greabu, Maria; Battino, Maurizio; Totan, Alexandra; Mohora, Maria; Mitrea, Niculina; Totan, Cosmin; Spinu, Tudor; Didilescu, Andreea

2007-01-01

252

Influence of pH and temperature on the activity of SnO2-bound ?-amylase: a genotoxicity assessment of SnO2 nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Immobilization of biologically important molecules on a myriad of nanosized materials has attracted great attention due to their small size, biocompatibility, higher surface-to-volume ratio, and lower toxicity. These properties make nanoparticles (NPs) a superior matrix over bulk material for the immobilization of enzymes and proteins. In the present study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ?-amylase was immobilized on SnO2 nanoparticles by a simple adsorption mechanism. Nanoparticle-adsorbed enzyme retained 90% of the original enzyme activity. Thermal stability of nanosupport was investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed that NPs have porous structure for the high-yield immobilization of ?-amylase. The genotoxicity of SnO2-NPs was analyzed by pUC(19) plasmid nicking and comet assay and revealed that no remarkable DNA damage occurred in lymphocytes. The pH-optima was found to be the same for both free and SnO2-NPs bound enzyme, while the temperature-optimum for NPs-adsorbed ?-amylase was 5°C higher than its free counterpart. Immobilized enzyme retained more than 70% enzyme activity even after its eight repeated uses. PMID:24499361

Khan, Mohd Jahir; Husain, Qayyum

2014-01-01

253

THE SALIVARY CATECHOL OXIDASE\\/PEROXIDASE ACTIVITIES OF THE MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ALBIMANUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Salivary gland homogenates from adult female Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes relaxed aortic rings preconstricted with noradrenaline (NA). This relaxation is slow and is due to destruction of NA. Incubation of NA with the homogenate yielded a product with a spectrum consistent with the corresponding adrenochrome. Oxidation of NA was enhanced by a superoxide generation system and inhibited by the combined

JOSÉ M. C. RIBEIRO; ROBERTO H. NUSSENZVEIG

1993-01-01

254

Salivary Surrogates of Plasma Nitrite and Catecholamines during a 21-Week Training Season in Swimmers  

PubMed Central

The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA), chromogranin A (sCgA), and the concentration of total protein (sTP) as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2) in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2), respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes. PMID:23700456

Diaz Gomez, Miguel Mauricio; Bocanegra Jaramillo, Olga Lucia; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Espindola, Foued Salmen

2013-01-01

255

Interaction of chaperone alpha-crystallin with unfolded state of alpha-amylase: Implications for reconstitution of the active enzyme.  

PubMed

Alpha-crystallin is reported to act like molecular chaperone by suppressing the aggregation of damaged crystallins in eye lens. In this work, it is shown that alpha-crystallin increases the reactivation of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-denatured alpha-amylase from porcine pancreas. 8-Anilinonaphthalene-sulphonate (ANS) binding studies reveal the involvement of hydrophobic interactions in the formation of the complex of alpha-crystallin and alpha-amylase. On the basis of our fluorescence spectroscopic and gel-filtration results, we propose that alpha-crystallin blocks the unfavorable pathways that lead to irreversible denaturation of alpha-amylase and keep it in folding-competent intermediate state. PMID:19786046

Kumar, Ajit; Singh, Suren

2009-12-01

256

Characterization of Schwanniomyces castellii mutants with increased productivity of amylases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of a-amylase activity in the yeast Schwanniomyces castellii strain 1402 is repressed in the presence of the non-metabolizable glucose analogue, 2-deoxy-glucose. Selection for resistance to 2-deoxy-glucose after treatment with ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) or UV light has yielded mutants displaing increased a-amylase activities. One such mutant, S. castellii strain 1436, was found to exhibit constitutive a-amylase activity in

A. M. Sills; P. S. J. Zygora; G. G. Stewart

1984-01-01

257

Novel Family of Insect Salivary Inhibitors Blocks Contact Pathway Activation by Binding to Polyphosphate, Heparin, and Dextran Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Objective Polyphosphate and heparin are anionic polymers released by activated mast cells and platelets that are known to stimulate the contact pathway of coagulation. These polymers promote both the autoactivation of factor XII and the assembly of complexes containing factor XI, prekallikrein, and high-molecular-weight kininogen. We are searching for salivary proteins from blood-feeding insects that counteract the effect of procoagulant and proinflammatory factors in the host, including elements of the contact pathway. Approach and Results Here, we evaluate the ability of the sand fly salivary proteins, PdSP15a and PdSP15b, to inhibit the contact pathway by disrupting binding of its components to anionic polymers. We attempt to demonstrate binding of the proteins to polyphosphate, heparin, and dextran sulfate. We also evaluate the effect of this binding on contact pathway reactions. We also set out to determine the x-ray crystal structure of PdSP15b and examine the determinants of relevant molecular interactions. Both proteins bind polyphosphate, heparin, and dextran sulfate with high affinity. Through this mechanism they inhibit the autoactivation of factor XII and factor XI, the reciprocal activation of factor XII and prekallikrein, the activation of factor XI by thrombin and factor XIIa, the cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen in plasma, and plasma extravasation induced by polyphosphate. The crystal structure of PdSP15b contains an amphipathic helix studded with basic side chains that forms the likely interaction surface. Conclusions The results of these studies indicate that the binding of anionic polymers by salivary proteins is used by blood feeders as an antihemostatic/anti-inflammatory mechanism. PMID:24092749

Alvarenga, Patricia H.; Xu, Xueqing; Oliveira, Fabiano; Chagas, Andrezza C.; Nascimento, Clarissa R.; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Juliano, Maria A.; Juliano, Luiz; Scharfstein, Julio; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Andersen, John F.

2014-01-01

258

Transglycosylation by barley ?-amylase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transglycosylation activity of barley ?-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K\\/S48G and V47G\\/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids play important role in substrate binding at subsites at ?3 through ?5. Although mutation

János A. Mótyán; Erika Fazekas; Haruhide Mori; Birte Svensson; Péter Bagossi; Lili Kandra; Gyöngyi Gyémánt

2011-01-01

259

The inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from sorghum, foxtail millet and proso millet on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal crops have recently experienced increased interest due to their potential health benefits. It has been suggested that the intake of whole grain foods is beneficial to the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of 70% EtOH extracts from different cultivars of sorghum, foxtail millet and proso millet on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase.

Ju-Sung Kim; Tae Kyung Hyun; Myong-Jo Kim

2011-01-01

260

?-Glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of Nepalese medicinal herb Pakhanbhed ( Bergenia ciliata, Haw.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicine has been used for many years by different cultures around the world for the treatment of diabetes. The Nepalese herb Pakhanbhed, is one of the traditional remedies used for diabetes since prehistoric times. In this study, we examined the anti-diabetic activity using an in vitro model and isolated the active compounds from Pakhanbhed. Extraction and fractionation of the

Megh Raj Bhandari; Nilubon Jong-Anurakkun; Gao Hong; Jun Kawabata

2008-01-01

261

Inhibition of Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, ?-Amylases by ?-Amylase Inhibitors (T-?AI) from Triticale  

PubMed Central

The effect of triticale ?-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps ?-amylases. The effects of the triticale ?-amylase inhibitor (T-?AI) on ?-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the Km remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (Vmax) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T50) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps ?-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-?AI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut ?-amylase. PMID:21062146

Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R.; Saadati, Fatemeh

2010-01-01

262

Inhibition of Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, ?-amylases by ?-amylase inhibitors (T-?AI) from Triticale.  

PubMed

The effect of triticale ?-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps ?-amylases. The effects of the triticale ?-amylase inhibitor (T-?AI) on ?-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the K(m) remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (V(max)) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T(50)) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps ?-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-?AI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut ?-amylase. PMID:21062146

Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R; Saadati, Fatemeh

2010-01-01

263

Interferon-? Induces Immunoproteasomes and the Presentation of MHC I-Associated Peptides on Human Salivary Gland Cells  

PubMed Central

A prominent histopathological feature of Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease, is the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates in the salivary and lachrymal glands. Such infiltrates are comprised of activated lymphocytes and macrophages, and known to produce multiple cytokines including interferon-gamma (IFN-?). In this study, we have demonstrated that IFN-? strongly induces the expression of immunoproteasome beta subunits (?1i, ?2i and ?5i) and immunoproteasome activity but conversely inhibits the expression of proteasome beta subunits (?1, ?2 and ?5) in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Mass spectrometric analysis has revealed potential MHC I-associated peptides on the HSG cells, including a tryptic peptide derived from salivary amylase, due to IFN-? stimulation. These results suggest that IFN-? induces immunoproteasomes in HSG cells, leading to enhanced presentation of MHC I-associated peptides on cell surface. These peptide-presenting salivary gland cells may be recognized and targeted by auto-reactive T lymphocytes. We have also found that lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, inhibits the expression of ?1 subunit in HSG cells and blocks the IFN-?-induced expression of ?1i and immunoproteasome activity. However, the expression of ?2i and ?5i in HSG cells is not affected by lactacystin. These results may add new insight into the mechanism regarding how lactacystin blocks the action of proteasomes or immunoproteasomes. PMID:25102056

Arellano-Garcia, Martha E.; Misuno, Kaori; Tran, Simon D.; Hu, Shen

2014-01-01

264

Salivary pellicles.  

PubMed

The salivary pellicle is a thin acellular organic film that forms on any type of surface upon exposure to saliva. The role of the pellicle is manifold, and it plays an important role in the maintenance of oral health. Its functions include not only substratum protection and lubrication, but also remineralization and hydration. It also functions as a diffusion barrier and possesses buffering ability. Not only the function, but also the formation, composition and stability of the pellicle are known to be highly influenced by the physicochemical properties of both substrata and ambient media. In this chapter, we discuss these aspects of salivary pellicles, an area where research has boomed in the past years partly because of the application of experimental techniques often reserved for more traditional surface science studies. PMID:24862592

Lindh, Liselott; Aroonsang, Watcharapong; Sotres, Javier; Arnebrant, Thomas

2014-01-01

265

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

266

[A case of swelling of salivary gland due to drug treatment for threatened premature labor].  

PubMed

Ritodrine hydrochloride (luteonin), a beta-agonist with predominant effects on beta adrenoreceptors such as those of the uterus, is effective in suppressing premature uterine contractions. This medicine was used in drug treatment in the case of threatened premature labor. A 26-year-old female who complained of acute swelling of the bilateral salivary glands was consulted to our otorhinolaryngological department. The soft swelling of the bilateral parotid and submandibular glands had developed after intravenous administration of ritodrine hydrochloride for treatment of her threatened premature labor. In addition, serum amylase levels were elevated. The swelling of the salivary glands and the elevation of the serum amylase subsided following discontinuation of the ritodrine hydrochloride. In salivary glands, too, the beta-adrenoreceptors exist. Following stimulation of those receptors in those glands increased secretion of amylase occurs. Our findings suggested that beta-stimulation by ritodrine hydrochloride led to the swelling of the salivary glands and the elevation of the serum amylase. To our knowledge, in Japan, our case is the first otorhinolaryngological report of swelling of the salivary glands due to ritodrine hydrochloride. Otolaryngologist should therefore have full knowledge regarding swelling of salivary glands due to ritodrine hydrochloride. PMID:25158563

Kimura, Hiroshi; Yuki, Hiroyoshi

2014-07-01

267

A critical assessment of a viscometric assay for measuring Saccharomycopsis fibuligera ?-amylase activity on gelatinised cassava starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A viscometric technique for measuring Saccharomycopsis fibuligera DSM-70554 ?-amylase on gelatinised cassava starch aqueous solutions was assessed. The selected conditions for working over a reliable viscosity measurement range involved a starch concentration of 5% (w\\/v) and a shear rate of 0.168 1\\/s. Viscometric assay involved the determination of the slope of the decrease in viscosity with time of the starch

C. F González; J. I Fariña; L. I. C Figueroa

2002-01-01

268

Encapsulation of amylase in colloidosomes.  

PubMed

Aqueous core colloidosomes encapsulating the enzyme amylase were manufactured with a shell comprising polymer latex particles of diameter 153 nm. The colloidosomes were sealed with calcium carbonate by precipitation between an inner phase of Na2CO3 and an outer phase of CaCl2. This seal allowed the retention of small molecules, such as dyes, as well as larger enzyme molecules, for several months. The encapsulated material could be released by dissolution of the CaCO3 with acid, upon a large dilution in water, or by applying a sufficient shear. The degree of release could be controlled since the greater the mass of CaCO3 precipitated onto the colloidosome shell, the greater the dilution or shear required to achieve release. The calcium carbonate seal protected encapsulated amylase from the detrimental effects of components in a liquid laundry detergent for several months so that, on triggered release, the enzyme retained its high activity. PMID:24517717

Keen, Polly H R; Slater, Nigel K H; Routh, Alexander F

2014-03-01

269

Autonomous isolation, long-term culture and differentiation potential of adult salivary gland-derived stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells belong to the endodermal lineage and may serve as good candidates to replace their dysfunctional counterparts. The objective of this study was to isolate large numbers of salivary gland tissue-derived stem cells (SGSCs) from adult rats in order to develop a clinically applicable method that does not involve sorting or stem cell induction by duct ligation. We analysed SGSCs isolated from normal rat salivary glands to determine whether they retained the major characteristics of stem cells, self-renewal and multipotency, especially with respect to the various endodermal cell types. SGSCs expressed high levels of integrin ?6?1 and c-kit, which are surface markers of SGSCs. In particular, the integrin ?6?1(+) /c-kit(+) salivary gland cells maintained the morphology, proliferation activity and multipotency of stem cells for up to 92 passages in 12 months. Furthermore, we analysed the capacity of SGSCs to differentiate into endoderm lineage cell types, such as acinar-like and insulin-secreting cells. When cultured on growth factor reduced matrigel, the morphology of progenitor cells changed to acinar-like structures and these cells expressed the acinar cell-specific marker, ?-amylase, and tight junction markers. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data showed increased expression of pancreatic cell markers, including insulin, Pdx1, pan polypeptide and neurogenin-3, when these cells formed pancreatic clusters in the presence of activin A, exendin-4 and retinoic acid. These data demonstrate that adult salivary stem/progenitor cells may serve as a potential source for cell therapy in salivary gland hypofunction and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22915381

Baek, Hyunjung; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Joo Hee; Yeon, Soo-In; Jeong, Jaemin; Kwon, Heechung

2014-09-01

270

Salivary gland and peripheral blood T helper 1 and 2 cell activity in Sjo?gren’s syndrome compared with non-Sjo?gren’s sicca syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate whether differences in T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell activity in salivary glands (“local”) or (“peripheral”) blood can discriminate between Sjo?gren’s syndrome (SS) and non-Sjo?gren’s sicca syndrome (nSS-sicca). Additionally, to study relationships of local and peripheral Th cell activities with each other and with disease activity measures.Methods: 62 sicca patients (32 with SS, 30 with nSS-sicca)

J M van Woerkom; A A Kruize; M J G Wenting-van Wijk; E Knol; I C Bihari; J W G Jacobs; J W J Bijlsma; F P J G Lafeber; J A G van Roon

2005-01-01

271

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with ?-amylase and limit dextrinase activities and ?-glucan and protein fraction contents in barley*  

PubMed Central

High malting quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) relies on many traits, such as ?-amylase and limit dextrinase activities and ?-glucan and protein fraction contents. In this study, interval mapping was utilized to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting these malting quality parameters using a doubled haploid (DH) population from a cross of CM72 (six-rowed) by Gairdner (two-rowed) barley cultivars. A total of nine QTLs for eight traits were mapped to chromosomes 3H, 4H, 5H, and 7H. Five of the nine QTLs mapped to chromosome 3H, indicating a possible role of loci on chromosome 3H on malting quality. The phenotypic variation accounted by individual QTL ranged from 8.08% to 30.25%. The loci of QTLs for ?-glucan and limit dextrinase were identified on chromosomes 4H and 5H, respectively. QTL for hordeins was coincident with the region of silica eluate (SE) protein on 3HS, while QTLs for albumins, globulins, and total protein exhibited overlapping. One locus on chromosome 3H was found to be related to ?-amylase, and two loci on chromosomes 5H and 7H were found to be associated with glutelins. The identification of these novel QTLs controlling malting quality may be useful for marker-assisted selection in improving barley malting quality. PMID:19882759

Wei, Kang; Xue, Da-wei; Huang, You-zong; Jin, Xiao-li; Wu, Fei-bo; Zhang, Guo-ping

2009-01-01

272

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) extract as well as (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and its mammalian derivatives are potent inhibitors of ?-amylase activity.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the common global diseases. Flaxseed is by far the richest source of the dietary lignans (i.e., secoisolariciresinol diglucoside) which have been shown to delay the development of T2DM in animal models. Herein, we propose the first evidences for a mechanism of action involving the inhibition of the pancreatic ?-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) by flaxseed-derived lignans that could therefore constitute a promising nutraceutical for the prevention and the treatment of T2DM. PMID:23583514

Hano, Christophe; Renouard, Sullivan; Molinié, Roland; Corbin, Cyrielle; Barakzoy, Esmatullah; Doussot, Joël; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric

2013-05-15

273

Effects of temperature on the endogenous activity and synaptic interactions of the salivary burster neurones in the terrestrial slug Limax maximus.  

PubMed

(1) The activity of the endogenously active salivary burster neurones (SBs) shows temperature acclimation and has characteristic cold and warm blockade temperatures. (2) Temperature acclimation affects the upper and lower limits of the temperature range over which SBs are active. The absolute range, in centigrade degrees, during warming, is unaffected by acclimation. (3) Acclimatization of burster activity is a slow response to the mean ambient temperature. (4) There is increased synchrony of activity between the right and left salivary bursters at low temperature which is correlated with an increased electrical coupling between the SBs and protractor motoneurones (B7s). There is a corresponding increase in the input resistance of B7 at low temperatures. PMID:7108437

Prior, D J; Grega, D S

1982-06-01

274

Immobilization of ?-Amylase onto Luffa operculata Fibers  

PubMed Central

A commercial amylase (amy) was immobilized by adsorption onto Luffa operculata fibers (LOFs). The derivative LOF-amy presented capacity to hydrolyze starch continuously and repeatedly for over three weeks, preserving more than 80% of the initial activity. This system hydrolyzed more than 97% of starch during 5?min, at room temperature. LOF-amy was capable to hydrolyze starch from different sources, such as maize (93.96%), wheat (85.24%), and cassava (79.03%). A semi-industrial scale reactor containing LOF-amy was prepared and showed the same yield of the laboratory-scale system. After five cycles of reuse, the LOF-amy reactor preserved over 80% of the initial amylase activity. Additionally, the LOF-amy was capable to operate as a kitchen grease trap component in a real situation during 30 days, preserving 30% of their initial amylase activity. PMID:23606948

Morais, Ricardo R.; Pascoal, Aline M.; Caramori, Samantha S.; Lopes, Flavio M.; Fernandes, Katia F.

2013-01-01

275

Identification of archaeon-producing hyperthermophilic alpha-amylase and characterization of the alpha-amylase.  

PubMed

The extremely thermophilic anaerobic archaeon strain, HJ21, was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, could produce hyperthermophilic alpha-amylase, and later was identified as Thermococcus from morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The extracellular thermostable alpha-amylase produced by strain HJ21 exhibited maximal activity at pH 5.0. The enzyme was stable in a broad pH range from pH 5.0 to 9.0. The optimal temperature of alpha-amylase was observed at 95 degrees C. The half-life of the enzyme was 5 h at 90 degrees C. Over 40% and 30% of the enzyme activity remained after incubation at 100 degrees C for 2 and 3 h, respectively. The enzyme did not require Ca(2+) for thermostability. This alpha-amylase gene was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence displayed an open reading frame of 1,374 bp, which encodes a protein of 457 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that four homologous regions common in amylases were conserved in the HJ21 alpha-amylase. The molecular weight of the mature enzyme was calculated to be 51.4 kDa, which correlated well with the size of the purified enzyme as shown by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:18587570

Wang, Shujun; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lu, Mingsheng; Qin, Song; Liu, Hongfei; Deng, Xiangyuan; Lin, Qian; Chen, Jianan

2008-09-01

276

Suppression of white light generation (supercontinuum) in biological media: a pilot study using human salivary proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation of ultrashort pulses of intense, infrared light through transparent medium gives rise to a visually spectacular phenomenon known as supercontinuum (white light) generation wherein the spectrum of transmitted light is very considerably broader than that of the incident light. We have studied the propagation of ultrafast (<45 fs) pulses of intense infrared light through biological media (water, and water doped with salivary proteins) which reveal that white light generation is severely suppressed in the presence of a major salivary protein, ?-amylase.

Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Alti, K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Mathur, D.

2007-02-01

277

Alpha-amylase inhibitor, CS-1036 binds to serum amylase in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner.  

PubMed

(2R,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl 4-O-(6-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (CS-1036), which is an ?-amylase inhibitor, exhibited biphasic and sustained elimination with a long t1/2 (18.4-30.0 hours) in rats and monkeys, but exhibited a short t1/2 (3.7-7.9 hours) in humans. To clarify the species differences in the t1/2, the plasma protein binding of CS-1036 was evaluated by ultrafiltration. A concentration-dependent and saturable plasma protein binding of CS-1036 was observed in rats and monkeys with the dissociation rate constant (KD) of 8.95 and 27.2 nM, and maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 52.8 and 22.1 nM, respectively. By the assessments of the recombinant amylase and immunoprecipitation, the major binding protein of CS-1036 in rats was identified as salivary amylase (KD 5.64 nM). CS-1036 also showed concentration-dependent and saturable binding to human salivary and pancreatic amylase, with similar binding affinity in rats. However, the protein binding of CS-1036 was constant in human plasma (?10.2%) due to the lower serum amylase level compared with rats and monkeys. From the calculation of the unbound fraction (fu) in plasma based on in vitro KD and Bmax, the dose-dependent increase in fu after oral administration is speculated to lead to a dose-dependent increase in total body clearance and a high area under the curve/dose at lower doses, such as 0.3 mg/kg in rats. PMID:24319124

Honda, Tomohiro; Kaneno-Urasaki, Yoko; Ito, Takashi; Kimura, Takako; Matsushima, Nobuko; Okabe, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi

2014-03-01

278

Microbial ?-amylases: a biotechnological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylases are one of the most important and oldest industrial enzymes. These comprise hydrolases, which hydrolyse starch molecules to fine diverse products as dextrins, and progressively smaller polymers composed of glucose units. Large arrays of amylases are involved in the complete breakdown of starch. However, ?-amylases which are the most in demand hydrolyse ?-1,4 glycosidic bond in the interior of

Rani Gupta; Paresh Gigras; Harapriya Mohapatra; Vineet Kumar Goswami; Bhavna Chauhan

2003-01-01

279

Induction of a Peptide with Activity against a Broad Spectrum of Pathogens in the Aedes aegypti Salivary Gland, following Infection with Dengue Virus  

PubMed Central

The ultimate stage of the transmission of Dengue Virus (DENV) to man is strongly dependent on crosstalk between the virus and the immune system of its vector Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Infection of the mosquito's salivary glands by DENV is the final step prior to viral transmission. Therefore, in the present study, we have determined the modulatory effects of DENV infection on the immune response in this organ by carrying out a functional genomic analysis of uninfected salivary glands and salivary glands of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes infected with DENV. We have shown that DENV infection of salivary glands strongly up-regulates the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in the vector's innate immune response, including the immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll signalling pathways, and that it induces the expression of the gene encoding a putative anti-bacterial, cecropin-like, peptide (AAEL000598). Both the chemically synthesized non-cleaved, signal peptide-containing gene product of AAEL000598, and the cleaved, mature form, were found to exert, in addition to antibacterial activity, anti-DENV and anti-Chikungunya viral activity. However, in contrast to the mature form, the immature cecropin peptide was far more effective against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and, furthermore, had strong anti-parasite activity as shown by its ability to kill Leishmania spp. Results from circular dichroism analysis showed that the immature form more readily adopts a helical conformation which would help it to cause membrane permeabilization, thus permitting its transfer across hydrophobic cell surfaces, which may explain the difference in the anti-pathogenic activity between the two forms. The present study underscores not only the importance of DENV-induced cecropin in the innate immune response of Ae. aegypti, but also emphasizes the broad-spectrum anti-pathogenic activity of the immature, signal peptide-containing form of this peptide. PMID:21249175

Patramool, Sirilaksana; Dumas, Emilie; Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Saune, Laure; Hamel, Rodolphe; Bernard, Eric; Sereno, Denis; Thomas, Frederic; Piquemal, David; Yssel, Hans; Briant, Laurence; Misse, Dorothee

2011-01-01

280

Effects of various hormones and adrenalectomy on the levels of amylase in rat pancreas and parotid gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Dexamethasone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine increased the amylase activities in both the pancreas and the parotid gland of infant rats. After adrenalectomy, the amylase activities of the pancreas and parotid gland were about half the control levels, suggesting that both glucocorticoid and thyroxine are involved in maintaining the amylase activities in these organs.

T. Takeuchi; M. Ogawa; T. Sugimura

1977-01-01

281

TLR3-mediated apoptosis and activation of phosphorylated Akt in the salivary gland epithelial cells of primary Sjögren's syndrome patients.  

PubMed

This study aimed at ascertain whether innate immunity is involved in the apoptosis of primary cultured salivary gland epithelial cells (SGECs) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Induction of apoptosis of SGECs was performed using a TLR3 ligand, poly (I:C). Activation of phosphorylated-Akt (pAkt) and cleaved-caspase 3 was determined by Western blotting or immunofluorescence. Expression of TLR2 and TLR3 with pAkt was observed in cultured SGECs after 24-h stimulation with each ligand. Compared with stimulation with the peptidoglycan or lipopolysaccharide, that with poly (I:C) induced significant nuclear fragmentation, as determined by Hoechst staining (p = 0.0098). Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining of SGECs from pSS patients and a normal subject. A significant increase in TUNEL-positive cells was observed by the addition of a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Poly (I:C) phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-terminal kinase and p44/42 MAP kinase as well as Akt. Furthermore, poly (I:C)-induced caspase 3 cleavage in SGECs was also inhibited by LY294002. Similar results were obtained using SGECs obtained from a normal subject. The results demonstrated for the first time that TLR3 induces the apoptotic cell death of SGECs via the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. PMID:22457005

Nakamura, Hideki; Horai, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Takahisa; Okada, Akitomo; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Koji, Takehiko; Kawakami, Atsushi

2013-02-01

282

GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

Freeland, P. W.

1972-01-01

283

Measurement of Beta -amylase in Malting Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.). II. The Effect of Germination and Kilning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level ofbeta-amylase in germinating barley grain and the kilned malt has been examined by assaying for activity, quantitative ELISA and immunoblotting using antibodies specific tobeta-amylase. During germination there is a substantial increase in combinedbeta-amylase activity; the sum ofbeta-amylase soluble in aqueous salt solutions and that extracted in the presence of ?-mercaptoethanol (ME). Although previous studies have attributed this increase

D. E. Evans; W. Wallace; R. C. M. Lance; L. C. MacLeod

1997-01-01

284

High-Resolution ?-Amylase Assay Combined with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Solid-Phase Extraction-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Expedited Identification of ?-Amylase Inhibitors: Proof of Concept and ?-Amylase Inhibitor in Cinnamon.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes affects millions of people worldwide, and new improved drugs or functional foods containing selective ?-amylase inhibitors are needed for improved management of blood glucose. In this article the development of a microplate-based high-resolution ?-amylase inhibition assay with direct photometric measurement of ?-amylase activity is described. The inhibition assay is based on porcine pancreatic ?-amylase with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-?-d-maltotriose as substrate, which this gives a stable, sensitive, and cheap inhibition assay as requested for high-resolution purposes. In combination with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR, this provides an analytical platform that allows simultaneous chemical and biological profiling of ?-amylase inhibitors in plant extracts. Proof-of-concept with an artificial mixture of six compounds-of which three are known ?-amylase inhibitors-showed that the high-resolution ?-amylase inhibition profiles allowed detection of sub-microgram amounts of the ?-amylase inhibitors. Furthermore, the high-resolution ?-amylase inhibition assay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR platform allowed identification of cinnamaldehyde as the ?-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl.). PMID:25368916

Okutan, Leyla; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

2014-11-26

285

Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands  

PubMed Central

Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome). In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit+ cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency. PMID:18446241

Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

2008-01-01

286

Rescue of salivary gland function after stem cell transplantation in irradiated glands.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome). In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit(+) cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency. PMID:18446241

Lombaert, Isabelle M A; Brunsting, Jeanette F; Wierenga, Pieter K; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H; Kampinga, Harm H; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P

2008-01-01

287

What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?  

PubMed Central

The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

Gibbins, Hannah L.; Yakubov, Gleb E.; Proctor, Gordon B.; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H.

2014-01-01

288

The Enzyme-Like Domain of Arabidopsis Nuclear ?-Amylases Is Critical for DNA Sequence Recognition and Transcriptional Activation[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Plant BZR1-BAM transcription factors contain a ?-amylase (BAM)–like domain, characteristic of proteins involved in starch breakdown. The enzyme-derived domains appear to be noncatalytic, but they determine the function of the two Arabidopsis thaliana BZR1-BAM isoforms (BAM7 and BAM8) during transcriptional initiation. Removal or swapping of the BAM domains demonstrates that the BAM7 BAM domain restricts DNA binding and transcriptional activation, while the BAM8 BAM domain allows both activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BAM7 and BAM8 interact on the protein level and cooperate during transcriptional regulation. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in the BAM domain of BAM8 shows that its function as a transcriptional activator is independent of catalysis but requires an intact substrate binding site, suggesting it may bind a ligand. Microarray experiments with plants overexpressing truncated versions lacking the BAM domain indicate that the pseudo-enzymatic domain increases selectivity for the preferred cis-regulatory element BBRE (BZR1-BAM Responsive Element). Side specificity toward the G-box may allow crosstalk to other signaling networks. This work highlights the importance of the enzyme-derived domain of BZR1-BAMs, supporting their potential role as metabolic sensors. PMID:24748042

Soyk, Sebastian; Šimková, Klára; Zürcher, Evelyne; Luginbühl, Leonie; Brand, Luise H.; Vaughan, Cara K.; Wanke, Dierk; Zeeman, Samuel C.

2014-01-01

289

Sugar Modulation of ??Amylase Genes under Anoxia  

PubMed Central

Tolerance to low oxygen availability is likely to be due to the interaction of several factors. Sugar availability is one of the elements required to support anaerobic metabolism. In cereal grains the availability of soluble sugars is limited, while starch is stored in large amounts. Degradation of starch under anoxia is therefore needed to avoid sugar starvation leading to rapid cell death. The striking difference in the ability to produce ??amylase when comparing the anoxia?tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains with grains of other cereals is not easily explained. Rice is able to respond to gibberellins under anoxia, but the response is too slow to explain the rapid production of ??amylase enzyme. In the present work we demonstrated that ??amylase production during the first 2 d after imbibition is mostly due to the activity of the Ramy3D gene, encoding for the G and H isoforms of ??amylase. The induction of Ramy3D transcription is likely to result from a low sugar content in the grains incubated under anoxia. The ability of rice embryos to sense sugars under anoxia is reported. PMID:12509335

LORETI, ELENA; YAMAGUCHI, JUNJI; ALPI, AMEDEO; PERATA, PIERDOMENICO

2003-01-01

290

Biochemical Characterization and Mass Spectrometric Disulfide Bond Mapping of Periplasmic -Amylase MalS of Escherichia coli*  

E-print Network

Biochemical Characterization and Mass Spectrometric Disulfide Bond Mapping of Periplasmic -Amylase Republic of Germany Periplasmic -amylase of Escherichia coli, the malS gene product, hydrolyzes linear-nitrophenylhexaoside hydrolyzed per min per mg of protein. Amylase activity was optimal at pH 8 and was dependent on divalent

Rippe, Karsten

291

Ghrelin Protection against Cytotoxic Effect of Ethanol on Rat Salivary Mucin Synthesis involves Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Activation through S-Nitrosylation  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in identifying the salivary constituents of significance to the maintenance of soft oral tissue integrity have brought to focus the importance of a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, ghrelin. Here, we report on the role of ghrelin in countering the disturbances in salivary mucin synthesis caused by ethanol cytotoxicity in rat sublingual gland acinar cells. We show that the countering effect of ghrelin on mucin synthesis was associated with the increase in NO and PGE2 production, and the enhancement in cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity. The ghrelin-induced up-regulation in mucin synthesis, like that of cPLA2 activity, was subject to suppression by Src inhibitor, PP2, ERK inhibitor, PD98059, as well as Akt inhibitor, SH-5 and ascorbate. Moreover, the loss in countering effect of ghrelin on the ethanol cytotoxicity and mucin synthesis was attained with cNOS inhibitor, L-NAME as well as COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560. Furthermore, while the effect of L-NAME was also reflected in the inhibition of the acinar cell capacity for NO and PGE2 generation, and cPLA2 S-nitrosylation, the COX-1 inhibitor caused the inhibition in PGE2 only. Our findings demonstrate that ghrelin protection of the acinar cells against ethanol cytotoxicity and the impairment in salivary mucin synthesis involves Src kinase activation of the Akt/cNOS pathway that leads to up-regulation in cNOS activity. We also show that cNOS-derived NO induction of the cPLA2 activation through S-nitrosylation, for the increase in PGE2 generation, is an essential element of the protective mechanism of ghrelin action. PMID:23675174

Slomiany, Bronislaw L.; Slomiany, Amalia

2010-01-01

292

Extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.  

PubMed

The fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (WN) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(CSR) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. Using CSR as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth of B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively. These values were slightly lower than the values obtained using soluble starch as the carbon source. Maximum enzyme synthesis in CSR incorporated medium occurred at the growth temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Presence of inorganic NH4+ salts like ammonium acetate and ammonium nitrate in culture medium yielded more amylase than the other nitrogen sources. Amylase(s) production in the controlled environment of a Table-Top glass Jar Fermenter (2-L capacity) was 4.8 and 5.1 units for B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively using CSR as the carbon substrate. It is concluded that CSR, a cheap agricultural waste obtained after starch extraction from cassava could replace soluble starch as carbon substrate for commercial production of fungal amylase(s). PMID:15907080

Ray, R C

2004-10-01

293

Identification of archaeon-producing hyperthermophilic ?-amylase and characterization of the ?-amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extremely thermophilic anaerobic archaeon strain, HJ21, was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, could produce\\u000a hyperthermophilic ?-amylase, and later was identified as Thermococcus from morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The extracellular\\u000a thermostable ?-amylase produced by strain HJ21 exhibited maximal activity at pH 5.0. The enzyme was stable in a broad pH range\\u000a from

Shujun Wang; Zhaoxin Lu; Mingsheng Lu; Song Qin; Hongfei Liu; Xiangyuan Deng; Qian Lin; Jianan Chen

2008-01-01

294

Nanoactivator mediated modifications in thermostable amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.  

PubMed

Gram-positive rod-shaped thermophilic bacteria were isolated using samples collected from terrestrial natural thermal spring located at Unkeshwar (Longitude 78.22 degree East to 78.34 degree East, Latitude 19 degree 34' North to 19 degree 40' North), District Nanded, Maharashtra State, India. The isolates were then cultivated using selective media and identified using culture-dependent techniques. One prominent isolate (UN1) exhibited high temperature stability and remarkable amylase production and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. Amylase production was carried out in starch media and the enzyme was partially purified and characterized for optimization of pH and temperature. Amylolytic activity of the enzyme was determined. Nanoactivator-mediated modifications were carried out to enhance amylolytic activity of the partially purified amylase. Three-fold increase in catalytic efficiency of amylase was obtained after modification. PMID:23350283

Khairnar, Rajendra S; Mahabole, Megha P; Pathak, Anupama P

2012-12-01

295

Purification and characterization of ?-amylase from the infective juveniles of the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycogen content and ?-amylase activity were estimated in the infective juveniles (IJs) of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora at different times of storage. The glycogen content declined from 5.8 to 2.5 ng\\/IJ during storage for 40 days at 27 °C. The change in glycogen content coincided with the change of ?-amylase activity during storage. ?-Amylase was purified from IJs at zero time of

Magda A. Mohamed

2004-01-01

296

Stabilization of ?-amylase by using anionic surfactant during the immobilization process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the entrapment of ?-amylase into butylacrylate-acrylic acid copolymer (BuA/AAc) using ? irradiation. The effect of an anionic surfactant (AOT), the reuse efficiency, and kinetic behavior of immobilized ?-amylase were studied. Covering of ?-amylase with bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) made the enzyme more stable than the uncovered form. The hydrolytic activity of the pre-coated immobilized ?-amylase was increased below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) (10 mmol/L). The results showed an increase in the relative activity with increase in the degree of hydration. The pre-coated immobilized ?-amylase showed a higher k/K and lower activation energy compared to the free and uncoated-immobilized preparation, respectively. The results suggest that the immobilization of ?-amylase is a potentially useful approach for commercial starch hydrolysis in two-phase systems.

El-Batal, A. I.; Atia, K. S.; Eid, M.

2005-10-01

297

Thrombolytic Properties of Desmodus rotundus (vampire bat) Salivary Plasminogen Activator in Experimental Pulmonary Embolism in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE INITIAL anticipation that the safety of thrombo- T lytic therapy would improve with the introduction of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has not been fulfilled in clinical trials.' The expectation that bleed- ing episodes might be reduced with t-PA was based on early in vitro and experimental animal work which suggested that t-PA, unlike other clinically available thrombolytics, would

Werner Witt; Berthold Baldus; Peter Bringmann; Linda Cashion; Peter Donner; Wolf-Dieter Schleuning

1992-01-01

298

Changes in adrenal and testicular activity monitored by salivary sampling in males throughout marathon runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Measurement of cortisol and testosterone in saliva samples provided by marathon runners at 6.4 km (4-mile) intervals has been used for monitoring acute changes in adrenal and testicular activity, and the changes compared with mean values in timed samples on five rest days.The collection of mixed whole saliva was well accepted; the missed sample rate in the 8 runners in

N. J. Cook; G. F. Read; R. F. Walker; B. Harris; D. Riad-Fahmy

1986-01-01

299

The Impact of a 24-h Ultra-Marathon on Salivary Antimicrobial Protein Responses.  

PubMed

Depressed oral respiratory mucosal immunity and increased incidence of upper respiratory symptoms are commonly reported after bouts of prolonged exercise. The current study observed the impact of a 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon competition (distance range: 122-208?km; ambient temperature range: 0-20°C) on salivary antimicrobial protein responses and incidence of upper respiratory symptoms. Body mass, unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were taken from ultra-endurance runners (n=25) and controls (n=17), before and immediately after competition. Upper respiratory symptoms were assessed during and until 4-weeks after event completion. Samples were analyzed for salivary IgA, lysozyme, ?-amylase and cortisol in addition to plasma osmolality. Decreased saliva flow rate (p<0.001), salivary IgA (p<0.001) and lysozyme (p=0.015) secretion rates, and increased salivary ?-amylase secretion rate (p<0.001) and cortisol responses (p<0.001) were observed post-competition in runners, with no changes being observed in controls. No incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were reported by participants. A 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon resulted in the depression of some salivary antimicrobial protein responses, but no incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were evident during or following competition. Salivary antimicrobial protein synergism, effective management of non-infectious episodes, maintaining euhydration, and (or) favourable environmental influences could have accounted for the low prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms. PMID:24886918

Gill, S K; Teixeira, A M; Rosado, F; Hankey, J; Wright, A; Marczak, S; Murray, A; Costa, R J S

2014-10-01

300

Activation of histamine H4 receptor inhibits TNF?/IMD-0354-induced apoptosis in human salivary NS-SV-AC cells.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H4R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H4R signaling affect apoptosis of human salivary gland epithelial cell. Simian virus 40-immortalized acinar NS-SV-AC cells were cultured in serum-free keratinocyte medium ± histamine H4R agonist HST-10. Expression and internalization of H4R were studied by immunofluorescence staining ± clathrin inhibitor methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD). Apoptosis induced using tumor necrosis factor-? with nuclear factor-?B inhibitor IMD-0354 was studied using phase contrast microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HST-10-stimulated H4R internalization was inhibited by M?CD. Western blotting revealed diminished phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, but unchanged levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase pERK1/2 in H4R-stimulated samples compared to controls. qRT-PCR showed up-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-extra large/Bcl-xL mRNAs and proteins, whereas pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein/BAX remained unchanged in H4R-stimulated samples. H4R stimulation diminished cleavage of PARP and flow cytometry showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of H4R stimulation on apoptosis. As far as we know this is the first study showing inhibitory effect of H4R activation on apoptosis of human salivary gland cells. Diminished H4R-mediated activation may contribute to loss of immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases and in SS in particular. PMID:25239604

Stegajev, Vasili; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Salem, Abdelhakim; Rozov, Stanislav; Stark, Holger; Nordström, Dan C E; Konttinen, Yrjö T

2014-12-01

301

Original article Adaptative significance of amylase  

E-print Network

Original article Adaptative significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila. III. Geographic patterns in Drosophila subobscura tissue-specific expression of amylase in adult midgut M Andjelkovi controlled variation in tissue-specific expression of a-amylase enzyme. Polymorphism for amylase tissue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

Redox Regulation of a Novel Plastid-Targeted b-Amylase of Arabidopsis1(W)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine genes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encode for b-amylase isozymes. Six members of the family are predicted to be extrachloroplastic isozymes and three contain predicted plastid transit peptides. Among the latter, chloroplast-targeted b-amylase (At4g17090) and thioredoxin-regulated b-amylase (TR-BAMY; At3g23920; this work) are experimentally demon- strated to be targeted to plastids. Recombinant TR-BAMY was catalytically active only when expressed as a

Francesca Sparla; Alex Costa; Fiorella Lo Schiavo; Paolo Pupillo; Paolo Trost

303

Bio-Processing of Banana Peel for ?-Amylase Production by Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha amylase was produced by Bacillus subtilis utilizing banana peel in a solid state fermentation (SSF). The effect of varying incubation period, substrate level, pH of the medium, incubation temperature, peptone (nitrogen source) and micronutrients on the production of ?-amylase was investigated. The maximum activity of ?-amylase (9.06 IU\\/mL\\/min) was recorded after 24 hours of SSF at pH 7 and

SHAISTA KOKAB; M. ASGHAR; K. REHMAN; M. J. ASAD; O. ADEDYO

304

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

305

Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

2013-01-01

306

Implantable Three-Dimensional Salivary Spheroid Assemblies Demonstrate Fluid and Protein Secretory Responses to Neurotransmitters  

PubMed Central

Radiation treatment in patients with head and neck tumors commonly results in hyposalivation and xerostomia due to the loss of fluid-secreting salivary acinar cells. Patients develop susceptibility to oral infections, dental caries, impaired speech and swallowing, reducing the quality of life. Clinical management is largely unsatisfactory. The development of a tissue-engineered, implantable salivary gland will greatly benefit patients suffering from xerostomia. This report compares the ability of a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) and a three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA)-based culture system to support functional salivary units capable of producing fluid and phenotypic proteins. Parotid cells seeded on 2.5D, as well as those encapsulated in 3D HA hydrogels, self-assembled into acini-like structures and expressed functional neurotransmitter receptors. Structures in 3D hydrogels merged to form organized 50??m spheroids that could be maintained in culture for over 100 days and merged to form structures over 500??m in size. Treatment of acini-like structures with the ?-adrenergic agonists norepinephrine or isoproterenol increased granule production and ?-amylase staining in treated structures, demonstrating regain of protein secretion. Upon treatment with the M3 muscarinic agonist acetylcholine, acini-like structures activated the fluid production pathway by increasing intracellular calcium levels. The increase in intracellular calcium seen in structures in the 3D hydrogel culture system was more robust and prolonged than that in 2.5D. To compare the long-term survival and retention of acini-like structures in vivo, cell-seeded 2.5D and 3D hydrogels were implanted into an athymic rat model. Cells in 2.5D failed to maintain organized acini-like structures and dispersed in the surrounding tissue. Encapsulated cells in 3D retained their spheroid structure and structural integrity, along with the salivary biomarkers and maintained viability for over 3 weeks in vivo. This report identifies a novel hydrogel culture system capable of creating and maintaining functional 3D salivary spheroid structures for long periods in vitro that regain both fluid and protein secreting functions and are suitable for tissue restoration. PMID:23442148

Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Harrington, Daniel A.; Duncan, Randall L.; Jia, Xinqiao; Witt, Robert L.

2013-01-01

307

Optimization of Amylase Production from B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270) Using Solid State Fermentation.  

PubMed

Demand for microbial amylase production persists because of its immense importance in wide spectrum industries. The present work has been initiated with a goal of optimization of solid state fermentation condition for amylase using agroindustrial waste and microbial strain like B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270). In an aim to improve the productivity of amylase, fermentation has been carried out in the presence of calcium (Ca(+2)), Nitrate (NO3 (-)), and chloride ions (Cl(-)) as well as in the presence of D-inositol and mannitol. Amylase needs calcium ion for the preservation of its structure, activity and stability that proves beneficial also for amylase production using solid state fermentation. The inclusion of ions and sugars in the SSF media is promising which can be explained by the protection offered by them against thermal decay of amylase at various incubation periods at 37°C. PMID:24949017

Saha, Koel; Maity, Sujan; Roy, Sudeshna; Pahan, Koustav; Pathak, Rishija; Majumdar, Susmita; Gupta, Suvroma

2014-01-01

308

Optimization of Amylase Production from B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270) Using Solid State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Demand for microbial amylase production persists because of its immense importance in wide spectrum industries. The present work has been initiated with a goal of optimization of solid state fermentation condition for amylase using agroindustrial waste and microbial strain like B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270). In an aim to improve the productivity of amylase, fermentation has been carried out in the presence of calcium (Ca+2), Nitrate (NO3?), and chloride ions (Cl?) as well as in the presence of D-inositol and mannitol. Amylase needs calcium ion for the preservation of its structure, activity and stability that proves beneficial also for amylase production using solid state fermentation. The inclusion of ions and sugars in the SSF media is promising which can be explained by the protection offered by them against thermal decay of amylase at various incubation periods at 37°C. PMID:24949017

Saha, Koel; Maity, Sujan; Roy, Sudeshna; Pathak, Rishija; Majumdar, Susmita

2014-01-01

309

Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors  

PubMed Central

Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosquito species) immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus) and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi) displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus) indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed. PMID:23148599

2012-01-01

310

Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.  

PubMed

alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088

Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

2010-04-01

311

Glucan, Water Dikinase Activity Stimulates Breakdown of Starch Granules by Plastidial b-Amylases1(W)(OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucan phosphorylating enzymes are required for normal mobilization of starch in leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), but mechanisms underlying this dependency are unknown. Using two different activity assays, we aimed to identify starch degrading enzymes from Arabidopsis, whose activity is affected by glucan phosphory- lation. Breakdown of granular starch by a protein fraction purified from leaf

Christoph Edner; Jing Li; Tanja Albrecht; Sebastian Mahlow; Mahdi Hejazi; Hasnain Hussain; Fatma Kaplan; Charles Guy; Steven M. Smith; Martin Steup; Gerhard Ritte

312

Regulation and genetic enhancement of beta-amylase production in Clostridium thermosulfurogenes.  

PubMed

We studied the general mechanism for regulation of beta-amylase synthesis in Clostridium thermosulfurogenes. beta-Amylase was expressed at high levels only when the organism was grown on maltose or other carbohydrates containing maltose units. Three kinds of mutants altered in beta-amylase production were isolated by using nitrosoguanidine treatment, enrichment on 2-deoxyglucose, and selection of colonies with large clear zones on iodine-stained starch-glucose agar plates. beta-Amylase was produced only when maltose was added to cells growing on sucrose in wild-type and catabolite repression-resistant mutant strains, but the differential rate of enzyme synthesis in constitutive mutants was constant regardless of the presence of maltose. In carbon-limited chemostats of wild-type and catabolite repression-resistant mutant stains, beta-amylase was expressed on maltose but not on glucose or sucrose. beta-Amylase synthesis was immediately repressed by the addition of glucose. Therefore, we concluded that beta-amylase synthesis in C. thermosulfurogenes was inducible and subject to catabolite repression. The addition of cAMP did not eliminate the repressive effect of glucose. The mutants were generally characterized in terms of beta-amylase production, growth properties, fermentation product formation, and alterations in glucose isomerase and glucoamylase activities. A hyperproductive mutant produced eightfold more beta-amylase on starch medium than the wild type and more rapidly fermented starch to ethanol. PMID:2415505

Hyun, H H; Zeikus, J G

1985-12-01

313

Salivary gland neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Treatment and cure of salivary gland neoplasms requires surgical intervention in most cases. For parotid neoplasms, the most\\u000a common surgical procedure performed is the superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. Postoperative radiation\\u000a therapy is indicated in high-grade salivary gland malignancies and malignancies with increased risk of locoregional recurrence.\\u000a Primary radiation, including neutron beam techniques, may play a role in

Terry A. Day; John Deveikis; M. Boyd Gillespie; John K. Joe; Besim Ogretmen; J. David Osguthorpe; Susan G. Reed; Mary S. Richardson; Michael Rossi; Ranjiv Saini; Anand K. Sharma; Robert K. Stuart

2004-01-01

314

Salivary and serum analysis in children diagnosed with pneumonia.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to evaluate specific markers for pneumonia by using a non-invasive assessment of inflammatory/oxidative biomarkers in saliva accompanying a routine serum analysis. No study evaluating saliva of children with pneumonia has been published previously. Salivary analysis was performed in 15 children diagnosed with lobar pneumonia and in a parallel group of 16 children matching in age and gender in whom there was no respiratory illness, and compared to the serum analysis obtained routinely in both groups of children. Salivary flow rate was lower in the patients' group as was uric acid concentration (by 60%). Increase in salivary concentrations of almost all parameters analyzed was found: Ca, P, and Mg concentrations were higher in the patients' group by 23%, 55%, and 33%, respectively, while LDH, total protein amylase and albumin concentrations were higher by 275%, 79%, and 42%, respectively. In the serum, white cell counts and neutrophils were significantly higher, and sodium level significantly lower in the patients' group. Compositional changes were in the range of 3-80% while the saliva alterations were more profound, in the range of 42-275%. The results demonstrated in the current study indicate salivary analysis as a potentially novel tool for children with pneumonia. Human salivary collection and analysis is a non-invasive tool that could provide additional information for diagnosis and follow-up of pneumonia, especially in children. This is especially beneficial for pediatric patients, as salivary collection is simple, non-invasive, and patient-friendly. PMID:23532916

Klein Kremer, Adi; Kuzminsky, Ela; Bentur, Lea; Nagler, Rafael M

2014-06-01

315

Decreased shoot stature and grain alpha-amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene in transgenic wheat.  

PubMed

Ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene (PcGA2ox1) decreased the content of bioactive gibberellins (GAs) in transgenic wheat, producing a range of dwarf plants with different degrees of severity. In at least one case, a single transformation event gave rise to T(1) plants with different degrees of dwarfism, the phenotypes being stably inherited over at least four generations. The dwarf phenotype, which included dark-green leaves, increased tillering and, in severe cases, a prostrate growth habit, was replicated by the application of a GA biosynthesis inhibitor to the wild type. Ear rachis length, grain set, and grain size were also decreased in the wheat transformants, compared with an azygous (null) line. The extent of post-germination alpha-amylase production in grains reflected the severity of the shoot phenotype of the transformants and both developmental processes were restored to normal by the application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)). Expression of two GA biosynthesis genes (TaGA20ox1 and TaGA3ox2) was up-regulated, and that of two alpha-amylase gene families (alpha-Amy1 and alpha-Amy2) down regulated, in scutella of semi-dwarf lines, compared with controls. The marked decline in transcript abundance of both alpha-amylase gene families in aleurone was associated with a decreased content of bioactive GAs in grains of the semi-dwarf lines. PMID:17916639

Appleford, Nigel E J; Wilkinson, Mark D; Ma, Qian; Evans, Daniel J; Stone, Marlon C; Pearce, Stephen P; Powers, Stephen J; Thomas, Stephen G; Jones, Huw D; Phillips, Andrew L; Hedden, Peter; Lenton, John R

2007-01-01

316

Evaluation of Salivary Profile among Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in South India  

PubMed Central

Background: A lack of consensus on the possible association between diabetes and salivary dysfunction motivated us to conduct this investigation on the salivary parameters in diabetic and non diabetic subjects. This could also make the use of saliva as an alternative to that of blood in the diagnosis/monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Objectives: To compare the salivary flow rates and the salivary physical and biochemical parameters of diabetic (D) and non diabetic (ND) subjects. Material and Methods: The participants in this study included 30 non diabetic subjects and 30 diabetic volunteers who had Type 2 Diabetes mellitus for a minimum of 2 years. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected in the fasting state. Salivary pH, flow rate and organic and inorganic constituents were evaluated. Data which was collected was statistically analysed and interpreted. Results: Salivary pH (ND=7.09±0.29, D=6.69±0.35), flow rate (ND=0.67±0.07, D=0.46±0.02) and salivary amylase (ND=92.51±13.74, D=19.20±1.8) were significantly lower in diabetics. They had significantly higher levels of salivary glucose (ND=4.33 ± 0.29, D=17.31±2.05), total proteins (ND=424.46±237.34, D=877.29±603.84), sodium (ND=4.31±0.65, D=14.42±1.83) and potassium (ND=20.84±0.71, D=25.95±1.56) and lower levels of calcium (ND=6.39±0.5, D=4.22±0.12) in comparison to those in the non-diabetic group. Conclusion: Significant variations were observed in salivary physical and biochemical parameters between diabetics and non diabetics. Evaluation of salivary parameters can be a cost effective and a non invasive alternative for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes, to blood. PMID:24086848

K.M, Prathibha; Johnson, Priscilla; Ganesh, Mathangi; Subhashini, Arcot S.

2013-01-01

317

Adrenocortical activity in at-risk and normally developing adolescents: individual differences in salivary cortisol basal levels, diurnal variation, and responses to social challenges.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine adrenocortical activity (basal, diurnal variation, and responses to social stressors) in adolescents at risk for psychopathology. Salivary cortisol levels were examined in normally developing and at-risk youth with internalizing and externalizing symptoms ranging from subclinical to clinical levels. Adolescents showed expected patterns of diurnal variation, with high early morning cortisol levels and a pattern of decline throughout the day. Females showed higher midday and late afternoon levels than males, and these patterns interacted with risk status. Internalizing problems sometimes were associated with gradual rather than steep declines in basal cortisol production. Both immediate and delayed cortisol reactivity to a social performance stressor were associated with internalizing symptoms. There was no evidence of relations between externalizing problems and underarousal of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. These and other results suggest that gender is an important moderating factor linking psychopathology. development, and context with HPA axis functioning in adolescence. PMID:11523855

Klimes-Dougan, B; Hastings, P D; Granger, D A; Usher, B A; Zahn-Waxler, C

2001-01-01

318

Zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amylase inhibitors, also known as starch blockers, contain substances that prevent dietary starches from being absorbed by the body via inhibiting breakdown of complex sugars to simpler ones. In this sense, these materials are projected as having potential applications in diabetes control. In this context, we report on zinc oxide nanoparticles as possible alpha-amylase inhibitors. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using soft-chemistry approach and 1-thioglycerol was used as a surfactant to yield polycrystalline nanoparticles of size ˜18 nm, stabilized in wurtzite structure. Conjugation study and structural characterization have been done using x-ray diffraction technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity studies on human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) and skin carcinoma (A-431) cell lines as well as mouse primary fibroblast cells demonstrate that up to a dose of 20 ?g/ml, ZnO nanoparticles are nontoxic to the cells. We report for the first time the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of ZnO nanoparticles wherein an optimum dose of 20 ?g/ml was sufficient to exhibit 49% glucose inhibition at neutral pH and 35 °C temperature. This inhibitory activity was similar to that obtained with acarbose (a standard alpha-amylase inhibitor), thereby projecting ZnO nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors.

Dhobale, Sandip; Thite, Trupti; Laware, S. L.; Rode, C. V.; Koppikar, Soumya J.; Ghanekar, Ruchika-Kaul; Kale, S. N.

2008-11-01

319

Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts  

PubMed Central

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to possess significant AA inhibitory activities. Two plant species were proved to have alpha amylase inhibitory activity for the first time. PMID:24115900

Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

2010-01-01

320

Purification and characterization of thermostable ?-amylase from thermophilic Anoxybacillus flavithermus.  

PubMed

This study reports on the purification and characterization of thermostable ?-amylase (?-1-4 D-glucan glucanohydrolase EC 3.2.1.1) from a newly isolated Anoxybacillus flavithermus. A. flavithermus was used, which was isolated from hot water springs of Ömer, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. The gram-positive, spore-forming, motile, moderately thermophilic bacteria were found to be a strain of A. flavithermus analysed by 16S rRNA comparison. The optimal conditions for bacterial growth were determined to be at 20 thh, 55 °C and pH 6.0. Maximum ?-amylase activity was obtained at 55 °C at pH 7.0 after 24h of incubation. Thermostable ?-amylase from A. flavithermus was purified by 70% (NH4)2SO4 and ion-exchange chromatography (5.2-fold; 65.8% yield). The molecular weight of ?-amylase was 60 kDa, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The ?-amylase hydrolyzed soluble starch at 55 °C with Km: 0.005 mM and Vmax: 3.5 ?mol min(-1). PMID:24507266

Agülo?lu Fincan, S; Enez, B; Özdemir, S; Matpan Bekler, F

2014-02-15

321

alpha-Amylase from developing embryos of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii.  

PubMed

alpha-Amylase activity in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii was followed throughout embryogenesis. During purification of alpha-amylase III to homogeneity, ion exchange chromatography lead to four separate forms (termed I, II, III and IV). alpha-Amylase III with the highest specific activity was pure after chromatography on Sephacryl S-300. The molecular mass of alpha-amylase III was 106 kDa for the native enzyme, composed of two subunits of 43 and 66 kDa, respectively. alpha-Amylase had a value of 10 mg starch/ml. Varying alpha-amylase activity was detected when supplied with various substrates. alpha-Amylase III had a temperature optimum at 40 degrees C with heat stability up to 50 degrees C, and a pH optimum of 7.0. The enzyme activity was activated by CaCl2, MgCl2 and NaNO3, but not activated by NaCl, p-CMB, N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetamide. EDTA and beta-mercaptoethanol strongly inhibited activity. PMID:10825669

Mohamed, S A

2000-05-01

322

Beta-amylase-resistant amylose. Effect of urea on the limited hydrolysis of amylose by beta-amylase.  

PubMed Central

Amylose prepared from starch dispersed in 10M-urea, pH6.2, was found to be resistant to the action of beta-amylase and phosphorylase, though it was degraded by alpha-amylase. Amylose isolated by conventional methods was similarly refractory after urea treatment, and was hydrolysed by beta-amylase to the extent of 32-35%; it had no inhibitory effect towards beta-amylase. The physical and chemical properties of the modified amylose were in general comparable with those of normal amylose with a beta-amylolysis limit of 94-98%. Starch and amylopectin were unaffected by urea treatment, i.e. the presence of amylopectin protected amylose against changes induced in it by urea. It is speculated that urea treatment "freezes" amylose molecules in a conformation that renders non-reducing termini inaccessible to the active site of the exo-enzymes. Such changes may limit the degradative action of beta-amylase and phosphorylase. PMID:1275892

Patil, N B

1976-01-01

323

Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121) Using Solid State Fermentation.  

PubMed

Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars and plays a pivotal role in a variety of areas like use as digestives, for the production of ethanol and high fructose corn syrup, detergents, desiring of textiles, modified starches, hydrolysis of oil-field drilling fluids, and paper recycling. In the present work, solid state fermentation (SSF) for ? -amylase production has been used in lieu of submerged fermentation (SmF) due to its simple technique, low capital investment, lower levels of catabolite repression, and better product recovery. Bacillus subtilis has been well known as producer of alpha amylase and was tested using solid state fermentation for 48 hours at 37°C with wheat bran as substrate. Comparison between different fermentation hours demonstrated high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours. This alpha amylase has optimum pH and temperature at 7.1 and 40°C, respectively. With the goal to purify alpha amylase, 30-70% (NH4)2SO4 cut concentrated the amylase activity threefold with respect to crude fermented extract. This was verified in quantitative DNS assay method as well as in zymogram gel profile. The exact molecular weight of the amylase is yet to be determined with the aid of other protein purification techniques. PMID:24672727

Raul, Dibyangana; Biswas, Tania; Mukhopadhyay, Suchita; Kumar Das, Shrayan; Gupta, Suvroma

2014-01-01

324

Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121) Using Solid State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars and plays a pivotal role in a variety of areas like use as digestives, for the production of ethanol and high fructose corn syrup, detergents, desiring of textiles, modified starches, hydrolysis of oil-field drilling fluids, and paper recycling. In the present work, solid state fermentation (SSF) for ?-amylase production has been used in lieu of submerged fermentation (SmF) due to its simple technique, low capital investment, lower levels of catabolite repression, and better product recovery. Bacillus subtilis has been well known as producer of alpha amylase and was tested using solid state fermentation for 48 hours at 37°C with wheat bran as substrate. Comparison between different fermentation hours demonstrated high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours. This alpha amylase has optimum pH and temperature at 7.1 and 40°C, respectively. With the goal to purify alpha amylase, 30–70% (NH4)2SO4 cut concentrated the amylase activity threefold with respect to crude fermented extract. This was verified in quantitative DNS assay method as well as in zymogram gel profile. The exact molecular weight of the amylase is yet to be determined with the aid of other protein purification techniques. PMID:24672727

Raul, Dibyangana; Mukhopadhyay, Suchita; Kumar Das, Shrayan; Gupta, Suvroma

2014-01-01

325

Properties of an amylase from thermophilic Bacillus SP.  

PubMed

?-Amylase production by thermophilic Bacillus sp strain SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid cultures containing soluble starch as a carbon source and supplemented with 0.05% whey protein and 0.2% peptone reached a maximum activity at 32 h, with levels of 37 U/mL. Studies on the amylase characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of this enzyme was 90°C. The enzyme was stable for 1 h at temperatures ranging from 40-50°C while at 90°C, 66% of its maximum activity was lost. However, in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2, the enzyme was stable at 90°C for 30 min and retained about 58% residual activity after 1 h. The optimum pH of the enzyme was found to be 8.5. After incubation of enzyme for 2 h at pH 9.5 and 11.0 was observed a decrease of about 6.3% and 16.5% of its original activity. At pH 6.0 the enzyme lost about 36% of its original activity. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Co(2+), Cu(2+) and Ba(2+), but less affected by Mg(2+), Na(+) and K(+). In the presence of 2.0 M NaCl, 63% of amylase activity was retained after 2 h incubation at 45°C. The amylase exhibited more than 70% activity when incubated for 1 h at 50°C with sodium dodecyl sulphate. However, very little residual activity was obtained with sodium hypochlorite and with hydrogen peroxide the enzyme was completely inhibited. The compatibility of Bacillus sp SMIA-2 amylase with certain commercial detergents was shown to be good as the enzyme retained 86%, 85% and 75% of its activity after 20 min incubation at 50°C in the presence of the detergent brands Omo(®), Campeiro(®) and Tide(®), respectively. PMID:24031188

de Carvalho, Raquel Vieira; Côrrea, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro; da Silva, Júlia Caroline Matos; de Oliveira Mansur, Luciana Ribeiro Coutinho; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

2008-01-01

326

A rapid response of ?-amylase to nitric oxide but not gibberellin in wheat seeds during the early stage of germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nitric oxide (NO) and gibberellic acid (GA3) on the responses of amylases in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds (caryopses) were investigated during the first 12 h of germination. GA3 had no effects on the activities of a-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) or ß-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2), either in intact seeds or embryoless halves within 12 h. In contrast, addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an

Hua Zhang; Wen-Biao Shen; Wei Zhang; Lang-Lai Xu

2005-01-01

327

Rle de la muqueuse duodnale dans l'adaptation de l'?-amylase pancratique au rgime alimentaire chez le Porc  

E-print Network

Rôle de la muqueuse duodénale dans l'adaptation de l'?-amylase pancréatique au régime. The role of the duodenal mucosa in the adaptation of pancreatic a-amylase to the diet in the pig.001), total protein output (― 54.2 p. 100 ; P amylase activity (―15.8 p

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

Salivary testosterone levels in preadolescent children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Saliva reflects the plasma free fraction of testosterone which is biologically active, and available for uptake by tissues. Testosterone concentration in saliva, though differing slightly from the concentration of unbound testosterone in serum, is in good correlation with the latter, indicating that salivary testosterone provides a reliable method for determination of serum free testosterone. The study aimed to investigate

Daniela Ostatníková; Karol Pastor; Zdenek Putz; Monika Dohnányiová; Anna Mat'ašeje; Richard Hampl

2002-01-01

329

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging.  

PubMed

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-10-01

330

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-01-01

331

Changes in functioning of rat submandibular salivary gland under streptozotocin-induced diabetes are associated with alterations of Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ transporting pumps.  

PubMed

Xerostomia and pathological thirst are troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus associated with impaired functioning of salivary glands; however, their cellular mechanisms are not yet determined. Isolated acinar cells were loaded with Ca2+ indicators fura-2/AM for measuring cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) or mag-fura-2/AM-inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found a dramatic decrease in pilocarpine-stimulated saliva flow, protein content and amylase activity in rats after 6 weeks of diabetes vs. healthy animals. This was accompanied with rise in resting [Ca2+]i and increased potency of acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol (CCh) but not norepinephrine (NE) to induce [Ca2+]i transients in acinar cells from diabetic animals. However, [Ca2+]i transients mediated by Ca2+ release from ER stores (induced by application of either ACh, CCh, NE, or ionomycin in Ca2+-free extracellular medium) were decreased under diabetes. Application of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate led to smaller Ca2+ release from ER under the diabetes. Both plasmalemma and ER Ca2+-ATPases activity was reduced and the latter showed the increased affinity to ATP under the diabetes. We conclude that the diabetes caused impairment of salivary cells functions that, on the cellular level, associates with Ca2+ overload, increased Ca2+-mobilizing ability of muscarinic but not adrenergic receptors, decreased Ca2+-ATPases activity and ER Ca2+ content. PMID:16443349

Fedirko, N V; Kruglikov, I A; Kopach, O V; Vats, J A; Kostyuk, P G; Voitenko, N V

2006-03-01

332

Assessment of Salivary Hormones  

E-print Network

17 3 Assessment of Salivary Hormones Oliver C. Schultheiss Steven J. Stanton A Primer on Concepts and Measurement Issues in Behavioral Endocrinology "Hormones" are messenger molecules that are released). Thus one hormone can drive several different physi- ological and psychological functions through its

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

333

Alterations in salivary antioxidants, nitric oxide, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in relation to disease activity in Crohn's disease patients.  

PubMed

It has been postulated that oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO), and transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF- beta(1)) have major roles in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to determine the salivary levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), specific antioxidants (i.e., uric acid, albumin, transferrin, and thiol molecules), lipid peroxidation (LPO), NO, and TGF- beta(1) in CD patients and control subjects and to also investigate their correlation with activity of the disease. Twenty-eight patients with confirmed diagnosis of CD were enrolled and whole saliva samples were obtained. Smokers, diabetics, those who suffered from periodontitis, and those who were consuming antioxidant supplements were excluded from the study. The Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was used to determine the severity of the disease. Twenty healthy subjects were also recruited. In CD patients significant reductions in salivary levels of TAC (0.248 +/- 0.145 vs. 0.342 +/- 0.110 mmol/L), albumin (1.79 +/- 0.42 vs. 2.3 +/- 0.2 microg/mL), and uric acid (3.1 +/- 1.4 vs. 4.1 +/- 2.0 mg/dL) were found. TGF-beta(1) was significantly increased in CD patients compared to healthy subjects (3.02 +/- 1.54 vs. 2.36 +/- 0.52 ng/mL). A fourfold increase in NO levels (198.8 +/- 39.9 vs. 50.2 +/- 21.3 micromol/L) along with a fivefold increase in LPO concentration (0.146 +/- 0.064 vs. 0.027 +/- 0.019 micromol/L) was documented in CD patients in comparison to the control group. CDAI significantly correlated with the TAC, LPO, and the interaction between TAC and LPO (r(2) = 0.625, r(2) = 0.8, F-test's P < 0.00005). Saliva of CD patients exhibits an abnormal feature with respect to oxidative stress, NO, and TGF-beta(1). TAC and LPO modify the effect of each other in determination of CD severity, which underlines the importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:17341608

Rezaie, Ali; Ghorbani, Fakhteh; Eshghtork, Azadeh; Zamani, Mohammad J; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Taghavi, Bardia; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Daryani, Nasser E; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2006-12-01

334

Purification of extrachloroplastic. beta. -amylase from leaves of starchless and wild type Arabidopsis  

SciTech Connect

Amylase activity in crude leaf extracts from starchless mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana is 5 to 10 fold higher than in the wild type (WT) when plants are grown under a 12 h photoperiod. Visualized on native PAGE, the increased activity is attributed primarily to a previously characterized extrachloroplastic {beta}-(exo)amylase. The {beta}-amylases from phosoglucomutase deficient (starchless) and WT leaves were purified to homogeneity in two steps utilizing polyethylene glycol fractionation, and cyclohexaamylose affinity chromatography. The enzyme from both mutant and WT leaves had negligible activity toward either {beta}-limit dextrin or pullulan. The specific activities of both purified enzymes were similar indicating that the protein is over-expressed in the mutant. Preliminary antibody neutralization experiments suggest that the two {beta}-amylases are not different.

Somerville, C.; Monroe, J.; Preiss, J. (Michigan Sate Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-04-01

335

Structural and biochemical features of acidic ?-amylase of Bacillus acidicola.  

PubMed

The investigation is aimed at understanding structure-function aspect of ?-amylase of an acidophilic bacterium Bacillus acidicola (BAamy), which is Ca(2+)-independent and active at acidic pH of native starch, and thus, suits better in starch saccharification process. The CD spectroscopic data analysis revealed that the enzyme has 30% ?-helices, 14.2% ?-sheets, and 55.8% random coils at 60 °C and pH 4.0. Using Bacillus stearothermophilus ?-amylase (BStA) as the template, 3-D structure of rBAamy has been proposed. A complete loss in ?-amylase activity was recorded when the amino acid residues (D231, E261 and D328) were substituted that confirmed their role in catalysis. The CD studies indicated a decrease in the ?-helices content below and beyond the optimum pH and temperature that suggests a critical role of ?-helix in maintaining the structural conformation of the enzyme. Fluorescence-quenching by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) suggested the role of tryptophan in maintaining structural integrity of ?-amylase and that by acrylamide indicated interaction by simple collision process. PMID:23954129

Sharma, Archana; Satyanarayana, T

2013-10-01

336

Beta-amylase in germinating millet seeds.  

PubMed

Beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) was isolated from germinating millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) seeds by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate fractionation, chromatography on DEAE-cellulofine and CM-cellulofine, and preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE. The M(r) of the enzyme was estimated to be 58,000 based on its mobility on SDS-PAGE and gel filtration with TSKgel G4000SW(XL), which showed that it is composed of a single unit. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.62. The enzyme hydrolyzed malto-oligosaccharides more readily as their degree of polymerization increased, this being strongest for malto-oligosaccharides larger than 13 glucose residues and very weakly for maltotriose. Amylose, amylopectin and soluble starch were the most suitable substrates for the enzyme. While the enzyme showed some activity against native starch by itself, starch digestion was accelerated 2.5-fold using alpha-amylase, pullulanase and alpha-glucosidase. This enzyme appears to be very important for the germination of millet seeds. PMID:14561508

Yamasaki, Yoshiki

2003-11-01

337

Alpha-amylase production is induced by sulfuric acid in rice aleurone cells.  

PubMed

The hydrolytic enzyme alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) is produced mainly in aleurone cells of germinating cereals, and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) is essential for its induction. However, in rice (Oryza sativa L.), sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) induces alpha-amylase production in aleurone tissue even in the absence of GA. Here, the pre-treatment of rice aleurone cells with H(2)SO(4) and incubation in water induced alpha-amylase activity, as if the cells had been incubated in GA solution. PMID:17988885

Mitsunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kobayashi, Midori; Fukui, Satoe; Fukuoka, Kayoko; Kawakami, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Junji; Ohshima, Masahiro; Mitsui, Toshiaki

2007-12-01

338

Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis ?-amylase onto reactive polymer films.  

PubMed

Alpha-amylase was covalently immobilized onto maleic anhydride copolymer films preserving activity. The initial activity of the immobilized layers strongly depended on the immobilization solution, and on the physicochemical properties of the copolymer film. Higher enzyme loading (quantified by amino acid analysis using HPLC) and activity (measured by following starch hydrolysis) were attainable onto hydrophilic, highly swelling 3-D poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) copolymer films, while immobilization onto hydrophobic poly(octadecene-alt-maleic anhydride) (POMA) copolymer films resulted in low content enzyme layers and lower activity. No significant activity was lost upon dehydration/re-hydration or storage of enzyme containing PEMA copolymer layers in deionised water for up to 48 h. In contrast, ?-amylase decorated POMA films suffered a significant activity loss under those conditions. The distinct behaviours may be attributed to the different intrinsic physicochemical properties of the copolymer films. The compact, hydrophobic POMA films possibly favours hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic moieties of the protein and the surface, which may result in conformational changes, and consequent loss of activity. Surprisingly, residual activity was found after harsh treatments of active ?-amylase PEMA based layers revealing that immobilization onto the hydrophilic polymer films improved the stability of the enzyme. PMID:21536081

Cordeiro, Ana L; Lenk, Tina; Werner, Carsten

2011-07-20

339

Wheat grain preharvest sprouting and late maturity alpha-amylase.  

PubMed

Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity ?-amylase (LMA) are the two major causes of unacceptably high levels of ?-amylase in ripe wheat grain. High ?-amylase activity in harvested grain results in substantially lower prices for wheat growers and at least in the case of PHS, is associated with adverse effects on the quality of a range of end-products and loss of viability during storage. The high levels of ?-amylase are reflected in low falling number, the internationally accepted measure for grain receival and trade. Given the significant losses that can occur, elimination of these defects remains a major focus for wheat breeding programs in many parts of the world. In addition, the genetic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of PHS and LMA as well as the interactions with environmental factors have attracted a sustained research interest. PHS and LMA are independent, genetically controlled traits that are strongly influenced by the environment, where the effects of particular environmental factors vary substantially depending on the stage of grain development and ripening. This review is a summary and an assessment of results of recent research on these important grain quality defects. PMID:25257145

Mares, Daryl J; Mrva, Kolumbina

2014-12-01

340

Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

2014-01-01

341

TOPS Amylase Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this advanced high school lab, students gain a greater understanding of the activity of enzymes, which are of fundamental importance to many of the chemical reactions that take place in living organisms.

Chris L. Craney (Occidental College;)

2010-06-18

342

Engineering ?-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development.  

PubMed

Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat ?-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known ?-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total ?-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of ?-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of ?-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of ?-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling. PMID:25053646

Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F; Robinson, Hannah M; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Ral, Jean-Philippe

2014-10-01

343

Extracellular Ca(2+) sensing in salivary ductal cells.  

PubMed

Ca(2+) is secreted from the salivary acinar cells as an ionic constituent of primary saliva. Ions such as Na(+) and Cl(-) get reabsorbed whereas primary saliva flows through the salivary ductal system. Although earlier studies have shown that salivary [Ca(2+)] decreases as it flows down the ductal tree into the oral cavity, ductal reabsorption of Ca(2+) remains enigmatic. Here we report a potential role for the G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CSR), in the regulation of Ca(2+) reabsorption by salivary gland ducts. Our data show that CSR is present in the apical region of ductal cells where it is co-localized with transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3). CSR is activated in isolated salivary gland ducts as well as a ductal cell line (SMIE) by altering extracellular [Ca(2+)] or by aromatic amino acid, L-phenylalanine (L-Phe, endogenous component of saliva), as well as neomycin. CSR activation leads to Ca(2+) influx that, in polarized cells grown on a filter support, is initiated in the luminal region. We show that TRPC3 contributes to Ca(2+) entry triggered by CSR activation. Further, stimulation of CSR in SMIE cells enhances the CSR-TRPC3 association as well as surface expression of TRPC3. Together our findings suggest that CSR could serve as a Ca(2+) sensor in the luminal membrane of salivary gland ducts and regulate reabsorption of [Ca(2+)] from the saliva via TRPC3, thus contributing to maintenance of salivary [Ca(2+)]. CSR could therefore be a potentially important protective mechanism against formation of salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis) and infection (sialoadenitis). PMID:22778254

Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C; Swaim, William D; Sarkar, Ankana; Liu, Xibao; Ambudkar, Indu S

2012-08-31

344

Airborne levels of ?-amylase allergens in bakeries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the baking industry the use of enzymes has increased throughout the 1980s. Several studies have reported sensitization and respiratory disorders among bakery workers caused by enzymes in dough improvers. Fungal ?-amylase is the most frequently reported cause of allergy. ?-Amylase allergen exposure levels in the bakery industry, however, have not yet been reported. Objective: The main objective of

Remko Houba; Paula van Run; Gert Doekes; Dick Heederik; Jack Spithoven

1997-01-01

345

The “trouble” with salivary testosterone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of studies, we identify several specific issues that can limit the value of integrating salivary testosterone in biosocial research. Salivary testosterone measurements can be substantially influenced during the process of sample collection, are susceptible to interference effects caused by the leakage of blood (plasma) into saliva, and are sensitive to storage conditions when samples have been archived.

Douglas A Granger; Elizabeth A Shirtcliff; Alan Booth; Katie T Kivlighan; Eve B Schwartz

2004-01-01

346

Salivary mucins in oral mucosal defense.  

PubMed

1. Salivary mucins are well recognized as an important factor in the preservation of the health of the oral cavity. These large glycoproteins play a major role in the formation of protective coatings covering tooth enamel and oral mucosa, which act as a dynamic functional barrier capable of modulating the untoward effects of oral environment, and are of significance to the processes occurring within the epithelial perimeter of mucosal defense. 2. Based on macromolecular characteristics, the mucins in saliva fall into high (> 1000 kDa) and low (200-300 kDa) molecular weight forms. The two forms, although differ with respect to bacterial clearance ability, display virtually identical carbohydrate chain make-up, ranging in size from 3 to 16 sugar units. 3. Of the two mucin forms, the low molecular weight form more efficient in bacterial aggregation, predominates in saliva and oral mucosal mucus coat of caries-resistant individuals, while the level of the high molecular weight form is higher in caries-susceptible subjects. The saliva of caries-resistant individuals also exhibits greater activity of protease capable of conversion of the high molecular weight mucin to the low molecular weight form. 4. The bacterial aggregating activity of salivary mucins appears to be associated with sulfomucins rather than sialomucins. While the removal of sialic acid causes only partial loss in mucin aggregating capacity, a complete loss in the bacterial aggregating activity occurs following mucin desulfation. 5. The mucins in oral mucosal mucus coat interact with the epithelial surfaces through specific membrane receptors. This interaction apparently involves the carbohydrate moiety of mucin molecule and may be rendered vulnerable to disruption by opportunistic bacteria colonizing the oral mucosa. 6. Salivary sulfo- and sialomucins actively participate in the modulation of the oral mucosal calcium channel activity through the inhibition of EGF-stimulated channel protein tyrosine phosphorylation. This function of salivary mucins is of paramount importance to mucosal calcium homeostasis. PMID:8842677

Slomiany, B L; Murty, V L; Piotrowski, J; Slomiany, A

1996-07-01

347

[Microbial alpha-amylases: physicochemical properties, substrate specificity and domain structure].  

PubMed

The current literature data on producers, physico-chemical properties and substrate specificity of a-amylases produced by microbes from different taxonomic groups such as bacteria, fungi and yeasts are discussed in the survey. Synthesis of alpha-amylase majority is an inducible process which is stimulated in the presence of starch or products of its hydrolysis. It is possible to increase enzymes activity level by optimization of cultivation conditions of strains-producers. alpha-Amylases, isolated from different sources are distinguished in their physico-chemical properties, particularly in their molecular weights, pH- and thermooptimums, inhibitors and activators. The enzymes hydrolyse soluble starch, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, maltodextrins, alpha- and beta3-cyclodextrins and other carbohydrate substrates. It is well known that alpha-amylases belong to GH-13 family of glycosyl-hydrolases, which contain the catalytic domain A as (beta/alpha)8-barrel. In addition to domain A, alpha-amylases contain two other domains: B and C, which are localized approximately on opposite sides of (beta/alpha)8-barrel. Most of the known alpha-amylases contain calcium ion, which is located on the surface between domains A and B and plays an important role in stability and activity of the enzyme. PMID:24319968

Avdiiuk, K V; Varbanets', L D

2013-01-01

348

Physical activity, job demand–control, perceived stress–energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control,\\u000a perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva\\u000a among white-collar workers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Physical activity during the last week was assessed during work and leisure time by a Danish version of the International

Åse Marie Hansen; Anne Katrine Blangsted; Ernst Albin Hansen; Karen Søgaard; Gisela Sjøgaard

2010-01-01

349

Carrier free co-immobilization of alpha amylase, glucoamylase and pullulanase as combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEAs): a tri-enzyme biocatalyst with one pot starch hydrolytic activity.  

PubMed

A tri-enzyme biocatalyst "combi-CLEAs" with starch hydrolytic activity was prepared from commercially available alpha amylase, glucoamylase and pullulanase preparations by aggregating enzymes with ammonium sulphate followed by cross-linking formed aggregates for 4.5h with 40 mM glutaraldehyde. The effects of precipitant type and cross-linking were studied and the biocatalyst was characterized. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that tri-enzyme biocatalyst was of spherical structure. For one pot starch hydrolytic activity, shift in optimum pH from 6 to 7 and temperature from 65 to 75 °C were observed after co-immobilization of enzymes. After one pot starch hydrolysis reaction in batch mode, 100%, 60% and 40% conversions were obtained with combi-CLEAs, separate CLEAs mixture and free enzyme mixture, respectively. Co-immobilization also enhanced the thermal stability of enzymes. Finally, the catalytic activity of enzymes in combi-CLEAs during one pot starch hydrolysis was well maintained up to five cycles without performance changes. PMID:23999260

Talekar, Sachin; Pandharbale, Amol; Ladole, Mayur; Nadar, Shamraja; Mulla, Mosin; Japhalekar, Kshitija; Pattankude, Kishori; Arage, Devika

2013-11-01

350

Cloning Sequencing and Expression of the Gene Encoding Extracellular a-Amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus and Biochemical Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding the hyperthermophilic extracellular a-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned by activity screening in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a single 460-residue polypeptide chain. The polypeptide contained a 26-residue signal peptide, indicating that this Pyrococcus a-amylase was an extracellular enzyme. Unlike the P. furiosus intracellular a-amylase, this extracellular enzyme showed 45 to 56% similarity and 20 to 35%

Guoqiang Dong; Claire Vieille; Alexei Savchenko; J. Gregory Zeikus

1997-01-01

351

Improved ?-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae after a double deletion of genes involved in carbon catabolite repression.  

PubMed

In filamentous fungi, the expression of secretory glycoside hydrolase encoding genes, such as those for amylases, cellulases, and xylanases, is generally repressed in the presence of glucose. CreA and CreB have been observed to be regulating factors for carbon catabolite repression. In this study, we generated single and double deletion creA and/or creB mutants in Aspergillus oryzae. The ?-amylase activities of each strain were compared under various culture conditions. For the wild-type strain, mRNA levels of ?-amylase were markedly decreased in the later stage of submerged culture under inducing conditions, whereas this reduced expression was not observed for single creA and double creA/creB deletion mutants. In addition, ?-amylase activity of the wild-type strain was reduced in submerged culture containing high concentrations of inducing sugars, whereas all constructed mutants showed higher ?-amylase activities. In particular, the ?-amylase activity of the double deletion mutant in a medium containing 5% starch was >10-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain under the same culture conditions. In solid-state cultures using wheat bran as a substrate, the ?-amylase activities of single creA and double deletion mutants were >2-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. These results suggested that deleting both creA and creB resulted in dramatic improvements in the production of secretory glycoside hydrolases in filamentous fungi. PMID:24213479

Ichinose, Sakurako; Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

2014-01-01

352

Purification of a. beta. -amylase that accumulates in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in starch metabolism. [Arabidopsis thaliana  

SciTech Connect

Amylase activity is elevated 5- to 10-fold in leaves of several different Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in starch metabolism when they are grown under a 12-hour photoperiod. Activity is also increased when plants are grown under higher light intensity. It was previously determined that the elevated activity was an extrachloroplastic {beta}-(exo)amylase. Due to the location of this enzyme outside the chloroplast, its function is not known. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from leaves of both a starchless mutant deficient in plastid phosphoglucomutase and from the wild type using polyethylene glycol fractionation and cyclohexaamylose affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the {beta}-amylase from both sources was 55,000 daltons as determined by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration studies indicated that the enzyme was a monomer. The specific activities of the purified protein from mutant and wild-type sources, their substrate specificities, and K{sub m} for amylopectin were identical. Based on these results it was concluded that the mutant contained an increased level of {beta}-amylase protein. Enzyme neutralization studies using a polyclonal antiserum raised to purified {beta}-amylase showed that in each of two starchless mutants, one starch deficient mutant and one starch overproducing mutant, the elevated amylase activity was due to elevated {beta}-amylase protein.

Monroe, J.D.; Preiss, J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-11-01

353

Cell growth and ?-amylase production characteristics of Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, differential rate of ?-amylase synthesis and production characteristics ofBacillus subtilis DP 1 (isolate from starch materials) in comparison with 10Bacillus strains were examined in batch fermentation. The effect of the carbon and nitrogen source was evaluated with regard to cell\\u000a growth and enzyme production. The pH optimum of enzyme activity was 6.5 and temperature optimum 60°C.

K. Dercová; J. Augustín; D. Kraj?ová

1992-01-01

354

Saliva-microbe interactions and salivary gland dysfunction.  

PubMed

Adequate salivary secretion is crucial to both oral and general health, since it provides a complex milieu for support of the microbial populations of the mouth, while at the same time containing antimicrobial products that help control these microbial populations. This paper summarizes several aspects of salivary component function, gland secretion mechanisms, and immunopathogenesis as related to oral health and disease. Salivary components mediate microbial attachment to oral surfaces, and also interact with planktonic microbial surfaces to facilitate agglutination and elimination of pathogens from the oral cavity. Adhesive interactions are often mediated by lectin-like bacterial proteins that bind to glycan motifs on salivary glycoproteins. An important salivary antimicrobial protein is histatin 5 (Hst 5), which shows potent and selective antifungal activity and also susceptibility to proteolytic degradation. Coupling of Hst 5 with the carrier molecule spermidine significantly enhanced killing of C. albicans and resistance to proteolytic degradation, compared with the parent peptide. Loss of salivary secretion may be caused by disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome (SS) or ectodermal dysplasia, or may be a side-effect of radiation therapy. Two new approaches to the treatment of salivary gland dysfunction include the use of resolvins and the creation of differentiated acinar structures to construct an artificial salivary gland. B-cells contribute to the pathogenesis of SS by releasing cytokines and autoantibodies and by influencing T-cell differentiation. CXCL13, a potent B-cell chemokine associated with autoimmune diseases, is elevated locally and systemically in SS and may represent a novel biomarker or therapeutic target in the management and treatment of SS. PMID:24736699

Baker, O J; Edgerton, M; Kramer, J M; Ruhl, S

2014-05-01

355

Environmental and Genetic Contributors to Salivary Testosterone Levels in Infants  

PubMed Central

Transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins) between 2.70 and 4.80?months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ±5?kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF) analysis. We report an association between 5?min APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modeling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, an SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190). RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants. PMID:25400620

Xia, Kai; Yu, Yang; Ahn, Mihye; Zhu, Hongtu; Zou, Fei; Gilmore, John H.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.

2014-01-01

356

Arabidopsis thaliana AMY3 is a unique redox-regulated chloroplastic ?-amylase.  

PubMed

?-Amylases are glucan hydrolases that cleave ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch. In vascular plants, ?-amylases can be classified into three subfamilies. Arabidopsis has one member of each subfamily. Among them, only AtAMY3 is localized in the chloroplast. We expressed and purified AtAMY3 from Escherichia coli and carried out a biochemical characterization of the protein to find factors that regulate its activity. Recombinant AtAMY3 was active toward both insoluble starch granules and soluble substrates, with a strong preference for ?-limit dextrin over amylopectin. Activity was shown to be dependent on a conserved aspartic acid residue (Asp(666)), identified as the catalytic nucleophile in other plant ?-amylases such as the barley AMY1. AtAMY3 released small linear and branched glucans from Arabidopsis starch granules, and the proportion of branched glucans increased after the predigestion of starch with a ?-amylase. Optimal rates of starch digestion in vitro was achieved when both AtAMY3 and ?-amylase activities were present, suggesting that the two enzymes work synergistically at the granule surface. We also found that AtAMY3 has unique properties among other characterized plant ?-amylases, with a pH optimum of 7.5-8, appropriate for activity in the chloroplast stroma. AtAMY3 is also redox-regulated, and the inactive oxidized form of AtAMY3 could be reactivated by reduced thioredoxins. Site-directed mutagenesis combined with mass spectrometry analysis showed that a disulfide bridge between Cys(499) and Cys(587) is central to this regulation. This work provides new insights into how ?-amylase activity may be regulated in the chloroplast. PMID:24089528

Seung, David; Thalmann, Matthias; Sparla, Francesca; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lee, Sang Kyu; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Svensson, Birte; Zeeman, Samuel C; Santelia, Diana

2013-11-22

357

Arabidopsis thaliana AMY3 Is a Unique Redox-regulated Chloroplastic ?-Amylase*  

PubMed Central

?-Amylases are glucan hydrolases that cleave ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch. In vascular plants, ?-amylases can be classified into three subfamilies. Arabidopsis has one member of each subfamily. Among them, only AtAMY3 is localized in the chloroplast. We expressed and purified AtAMY3 from Escherichia coli and carried out a biochemical characterization of the protein to find factors that regulate its activity. Recombinant AtAMY3 was active toward both insoluble starch granules and soluble substrates, with a strong preference for ?-limit dextrin over amylopectin. Activity was shown to be dependent on a conserved aspartic acid residue (Asp666), identified as the catalytic nucleophile in other plant ?-amylases such as the barley AMY1. AtAMY3 released small linear and branched glucans from Arabidopsis starch granules, and the proportion of branched glucans increased after the predigestion of starch with a ?-amylase. Optimal rates of starch digestion in vitro was achieved when both AtAMY3 and ?-amylase activities were present, suggesting that the two enzymes work synergistically at the granule surface. We also found that AtAMY3 has unique properties among other characterized plant ?-amylases, with a pH optimum of 7.5–8, appropriate for activity in the chloroplast stroma. AtAMY3 is also redox-regulated, and the inactive oxidized form of AtAMY3 could be reactivated by reduced thioredoxins. Site-directed mutagenesis combined with mass spectrometry analysis showed that a disulfide bridge between Cys499 and Cys587 is central to this regulation. This work provides new insights into how ?-amylase activity may be regulated in the chloroplast. PMID:24089528

Seung, David; Thalmann, Matthias; Sparla, Francesca; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lee, Sang Kyu; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Svensson, Birte; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Santelia, Diana

2013-01-01

358

Purification and characterization of a thermostable ?-amylase produced by the fungus Paecilomyces variotii.  

PubMed

An ?-amylase produced by Paecilomyces variotii was purified by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography, followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and electroelution. The ?-amylase showed a molecular mass of 75 kDa (SDS-PAGE) and pI value of 4.5. Temperature and pH optima were 60°C and 4.0, respectively. The enzyme was stable for 1 h at 55°C, showing a t?? of 53 min at 60°C. Starch protected the enzyme against thermal inactivation. The ?-amylase was more stable in alkaline pH. It was activated mainly by calcium and cobalt, and it presented as a glycoprotein with 23% carbohydrate content. The enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed starch and, to a lower extent, amylose and amylopectin. The K(m) of ?-amylase on Reagen® and Sigma® starches were 4.3 and 6.2 mg/mL, respectively. The products of starch hydrolysis analyzed by TLC were oligosaccharides such as maltose and maltotriose. The partial amino acid sequence of the enzyme presented similarity to ?-amylases from Bacillus sp. These results confirmed that the studied enzyme was an ?-amylase ((1?4)-?-glucan glucanohydrolase). PMID:20850111

Michelin, Michele; Silva, Tony M; Benassi, Vivian M; Peixoto-Nogueira, Simone C; Moraes, Luiz Alberto B; Leão, Juliana M; Jorge, João A; Terenzi, Héctor F; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M

2010-11-01

359

Cloning and expression of an alpha-amylase encoding gene from the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Thermococcus hydrothermalis and biochemical characterisation of the recombinant enzyme.  

PubMed

An alpha-amylase encoding gene from the extremely thermophilic Archaea Thermococcus hydrothermalis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded alpha-amylase possesses molecular characteristics specific to the Archaea, especially from Pyrococcus species, with biochemical characteristics of the alpha-amylases from Thermococcus. The gene is 1374 bp long and encodes a protein of 457 amino acids composed of a 22 amino acid putative signal peptide and a 435 amino acid mature protein (calculated molecular mass 49236 Da). The T. hydrothermalis recombinant alpha-amylase is optimally active at 75-85 degrees C and at pH 5.0-5.5. PMID:10779714

Lévêque, E; Haye, B; Belarbi, A

2000-05-01

360

Human Salivary Alpha-Amylase (EC.3.2.1.1) Activity and Periodic Acid and Schiff Reactive (PAS) Staining: A Useful Tool to Study Polysaccharides at an Undergraduate Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health science education is presently in discussion throughout Europe due to the Bologna Declaration. Teaching basic sciences such as biochemistry in a health sciences context, namely in allied heath education, can be a challenging task since the students of preclinical health sciences are not often convinced that basic sciences are clinically…

Fernandes, Ruben; Correia, Rossana; Fonte, Rosalia; Prudencio, Cristina

2006-01-01

361

Purification and characterization of the extracellular. alpha. -amylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824  

SciTech Connect

The extracellular {alpha}-amylase (1,4-{alpha}-D-glucanglucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.1) from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography (Mono Q) and gel filtration (Superose 12). The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 4.7 and a molecular weight of 84,000, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was a monomeric protein, the 19-amino-acid N terminus of which displayed 42% homology with the Bacillus subtilis saccharifying {alpha}-amylase. The amino acid composition of the enzyme showed a high number of acidic and hydrophobic residues and only one cysteine residue per mole. The activity of the {alpha}-amylase was not stimulated by calcium ions (or other metal ions) or inhibited by EDTA, although the enzyme contained seven calcium atoms per molecule. {alpha}-Amylase activity on soluble starch was optimal at pH 5.6 and 45{degree}C. The {alpha}-amylase was stable at an acidic pH but very sensitive to thermal inactivation. It hydrolyzed soluble starch, with a K{sub m} of 3.6 g {center dot} liter{sup {minus}1} and a K{sub cat} of 122 mol of reducing sugars {center dot} s{sup {minus}1} {center dot} mol{sup {minus}1}. The {alpha}-amylase showed greater activity with high-molecular-weight substrates than with low-molecular-weight maltooligosaccharides, hydrolyzed glycogen and pullulan slowly, but did not hydrolyze dextran or cyclodextrins. The major end products of maltohexaose degradation were glucose, maltose, and maltotriose; maltotetraose and maltopentaose were formed as intermediate products. Twenty seven percent of the glucoamylase activity generally detected in the culture supernatant of C. acetobutylicum can be attributed to the {alpha}-amylase.

Paquet, V.; Croux, C.; Goma, G.; Soucaille, P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unite Associee, Toulouse (France))

1991-01-01

362

Salivary gland pathology as a new finding in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

PubMed

In our clinical experience, individuals with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) present with more complaints of oral dryness and higher caries activity than seen in the general population. A literature review identified no reports of salivary gland pathology and glandular dysfunction associated with TCS. Twenty-one Norwegian individuals with TCS underwent ultrasound examinations and salivary secretion tests of the submandibular and parotid glands. Intraglandular architecture patterns were analyzed and subsequently classified as either normal, dysplastic, or aplastic. The results were compared with salivary secretion rates and subjective reports of oral dryness. Ultrasound examination revealed pathological appearance of the salivary glands in approximately half (48%) of the individuals, with dysplasia identified in six (29%) participants and aplasia in four (19%). Almost all participants had co-existing low salivary secretion rates. A few individuals had low salivary secretion rates despite normal appearance of the salivary gland tissue on ultrasound examination. Subjective experience of oral dryness did not correlate significantly with low salivary secretion rates. We conclude that mild to severe salivary gland pathology and dysfunction can be associated with TCS. Further investigation is needed to clarify this association. PMID:22585367

Østerhus, Ingvild N; Skogedal, Nina; Akre, Harriet; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Nordgarden, Hilde; Åsten, Pamela

2012-06-01

363

Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nor, Jacques E.

2013-01-01

364

Membrane stretch and salivary glands - facts and theories.  

PubMed

Cell shape in salivary glands is affected by mechanical forces. In the acini and ducts cell shape is modified by the contractions of the myoepithelial cells in both the secretory and ductal portions of the glands. At the organ level shape changes are due to muscle contraction during mastication, food intake and speech. All these factors may cause some degree of stretching of salivary cell membranes. Recent studies suggest that physical forces influence signal transduction, gene expression, secretory function, cell differentiation and proliferation. Here we overview membrane stretch-activated cellular events. Evidence from a variety of tissues suggests that mechanical forces may alter the properties of acinar cells leading to cytoskeletal reorganisation, changes in ion fluxes, modulation of secretory activity and subsequent release of transmitters such as ATP. Transmitters released from acinar cells may modulate the secretory activity of salivary tissue, and interact with classical regulatory pathways. PMID:10414860

Zelles, T; Boros, I; Varga, G

1999-05-01

365

Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women.  

PubMed

A growing body of research has revealed that social evaluative stressors trigger biological and psychological responses that in chronic forms have been linked to aging and disease. Recent research suggests that self-compassion may protect the self from typical defensive responses to evaluation. We investigated whether brief training in self-compassion moderated biopsychological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in women. Compared to attention (placebo) and no-training control conditions, brief self-compassion training diminished sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase), cardiac parasympathetic, and subjective anxiety responses, though not HPA-axis (salivary cortisol) responses to the TSST. Self-compassion training also led to greater self-compassion under threat relative to the control groups. In that social stress pervades modern life, self-compassion represents a promising approach to diminishing its potentially negative psychological and biological effects. PMID:24636501

Arch, Joanna J; Brown, Kirk Warren; Dean, Derek J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kimberley D; Laudenslager, Mark L

2014-04-01

366

Crystal structure of a compact ?-amylase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans.  

PubMed

A truncated form of an ?-amylase, GTA, from thermophilic Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5 was biochemically and structurally characterized. The recombinant GTA, which lacked both the N- and C-terminal transmembrane regions, functioned optimally at 70°C and pH 6.0. While enzyme activity was not enhanced by the addition of CaCl2, GTA's thermostability was significantly improved in the presence of CaCl2. The structure, in complex with an acarbose-derived pseudo-hexasaccharide, consists of the typical three domains and binds one Ca(2+) ion. This Ca(2+) ion was strongly bound and not chelated by EDTA. A predicted second Ca(2+)-binding site, however, was disordered. With limited subsites, two novel substrate-binding residues, Y147 and Y182, may help increase substrate affinity. No distinct starch-binding domain is present, although two regions rich in aromatic residues have been observed. GTA, with a smaller domain B and several shorter loops compared to other ?-amylases, has one of the most compact ?-amylase folds that may contribute greatly to its tight Ca(2+) binding and thermostability. PMID:23683704

Mok, Sook-Chen; Teh, Aik-Hong; Saito, Jennifer A; Najimudin, Nazalan; Alam, Maqsudul

2013-06-10

367

Purification and characterization of midgut ?-amylase in a predatory bug,Andralus spinidens.  

PubMed

?-Amylases are widespread enzymes that catalyze endohydrolysis of long ?-1,4-glucan chains such as starch and glycogen. The highest amylolytic activity was found in 5th instar nymphs and midgut of the predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens F. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The ?-amylase was purified following a three-step procedure. The purified ?-amylase had a specific activity of 13.46 U/mg protein, recovery of 4.21, purification fold of 13.87, and molecular weight of 21.3 kDa. The enzyme had optimal pH and temperature of 7 and 45°C, respectively. Na+, Mn+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ significantly decreased activity of the purified ?-amylase, but some concentrations of K+, Ca2+, and Cu2+ had the opposite effect. EDTA, EGTA, and DTC significantly decreased enzymatic activity, showing the presence of metal ions in the catalytic site of the enzyme. Kinetic parameters of the purified ?-amylase showed a Km of 3.71% in starch and 4.96% for glycogen, suggesting that the enzyme had a higher affinity for starch. PMID:25373212

Sorkhabi-Abdolmaleki, Sahar; Zibaee, Arash; Hoda, Hassan; FazeliDinan, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

368

Purification and Characterization of Midgut ?-Amylase in a Predatory Bug, Andralus spinidens  

PubMed Central

?-Amylases are widespread enzymes that catalyze endohydrolysis of long ?-1,4-glucan chains such as starch and glycogen. The highest amylolytic activity was found in 5th instar nymphs and midgut of the predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens F. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The ?-amylase was purified following a three-step procedure. The purified ?-amylase had a specific activity of 13.46 U/mg protein, recovery of 4.21, purification fold of 13.87, and molecular weight of 21.3 kDa. The enzyme had optimal pH and temperature of 7 and 45°C, respectively. Na+, Mn+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ significantly decreased activity of the purified ?-amylase, but some concentrations of K+, Ca2+, and Cu2+ had the opposite effect. EDTA, EGTA, and DTC significantly decreased enzymatic activity, showing the presence of metal ions in the catalytic site of the enzyme. Kinetic parameters of the purified ?-amylase showed a Km of 3.71% in starch and 4.96% for glycogen, suggesting that the enzyme had a higher affinity for starch. PMID:25373212

Sorkhabi-Abdolmaleki, Sahar; Zibaee, Arash; Hoda, Hassan; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

369

Catalytically-inactive ?-amylase BAM4 required for starch breakdown in Arabidopsis leaves is a starch-binding-protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the four chloroplast ?-amylase (BAM) proteins identified in Arabidopsis, BAM3 and BAM4 were previously shown to play the major roles in leaf starch breakdown, although BAM4 apparently lacks key active site residues and ?-amylase activity. Here we tested multiple BAM4 proteins with different N-terminal sequences with a range of glucan substrates and assay methods, but detected no ?-1,4-glucan hydrolase

Jing Li; Perigio Francisco; Wenxu Zhou; Christoph Edner; Martin Steup; Gerhard Ritte; Charles S. Bond; Steven M. Smith

2009-01-01

370

Development of a solid-state fermentation process for production of an alpha amylase with potentially interesting properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca-independency with potential activity and stability at low pH are among the most interesting characteristics of ?-amylase in starch industry. In this attempt the synergetic effect of low pH on activity of crude Ca-independent ?-amylase isolated from a native Bacillus sp. KR-8104 in solid-state fermentation (SSF) was studied using wheat bran (WB) as a substrate. The effects of different parameters

Maryam Hashemi; Seyed Hadi Razavi; Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati; Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi; Khosro Khajeh; Mohammad Safari

2010-01-01

371

Ligase-independent cloning of amylase gene from a local Bacillus subtilis isolate and biochemical characterization of the purified enzyme.  

PubMed

Five hundred ninety-seven bacterial isolates from Turkish hot spring water sources were screened for their ability to produce extracellular ?-amylase. Among them, a high enzyme-producing Bacillus subtilis isolate, A28, was selected, and its ?-amylase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli by a ligase-independent method. ?-Amylase from the recombinant strain was purified to homogeneity by Q-Sepharose anion exchange and Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration chromatographies. The final yield of the enzyme was about 22.5 % of the initial activity, with a 16.4-fold increase in specific activity compared with the culture lysate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 70 °C and 6.0, respectively. The enzyme was highly active at acidic-neutral pH range of 4.5-7.0. The amy28 ?-amylase retained 100 % of its activity after incubation at 50 °C for 90 min. Co(+2), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Ni(+2), and Zn(+2) caused significant inhibition in enzyme activity, which was not affected by Na(+), Mg(2+), Li(+), and Ba(2+). The activity was inhibited about 70 % upon treatment of the enzyme with 10 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. However, Ca(2+) ions known as high temperature stabilizer for other amylases did not stimulate the activity of the enzyme. Due to pH stability and thermostability of the recombinant amylase, this enzyme may be suitable in starch processing, brewing, and food industries. PMID:23832859

Tuzlakoglu Ozturk, Merve; Akbulut, Nagihan; Issever Ozturk, Saliha; Gumusel, Fusun

2013-09-01

372

Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland  

PubMed Central

Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

Fowell, C; MacBean, A

2012-01-01

373

Improvement of thermal stability of a mutagenised ?-amylase by manipulation of the calcium-binding site.  

PubMed

Site-directed mutagenesis of an ?-amylase isolated from Bacillus megaterium WHO has been performed to evaluate the roles of the calcium binding site residues in enzyme thermostability. The strategy used was to replace residues in the hypothetical calcium binding loops of B. megaterium WHO ?-amylase (BMW-amylase) by equivalent positions at Halothermothrix orenii ?-amylase (AmyA) as a thermophilic amylase by QuikChange site directed mutagenesis. Asn-75, Ser-76, and His-77 were mutated in the second calcium binding site which resulted in an increase in thermostability. All mutants retained their hydrolytic activity although their kcat parameter decreased in compare to the wild type and in the presence of calcium ions. In S76P and H77E, the Km for starch decreases while overall activity (kcat/Km) was increased. In the presence of calcium, conversion of His-77 to Glu resulted in a 4-fold enhancement in enzyme half life and a 9°C upward shift in T50, which was observed in compare to the wild type. Further analysis suggested the H77E mutant as the most stable which increased the affinity of the enzyme for calcium ion and its optimum temperature was 5°C higher than the wild type. PMID:24315644

Ghollasi, Marzieh; Ghanbari-Safari, Maryam; Khajeh, Khosro

2013-12-10

374

Production and biochemical characterization of a high maltotetraose (G4) producing amylase from Pseudomonas stutzeri AS22.  

PubMed

Amylase production and biochemical characterization of the crude enzyme preparation from Pseudomonas stutzeri AS22 were evaluated. The highest ?-amylase production was achieved after 24 hours of incubation in a culture medium containing 10 g/L potato starch and 5 g/L yeast extract, with initial pH 8.0 at 30°C under continuous agitation at 200 rpm. The optimum temperature and pH for the crude ? -amylase activity were 60°C and 8.0, respectively. The effect of different salts was evaluated and it was found that both ? -amylase production and activity were Ca(2+)-dependent. The amylolytic preparation was found to catalyze exceptionally the formation of very high levels of maltotetraose from starch (98%, w/w) in the complete absence of glucose since the initial stages of starch hydrolysis (15 min) and hence would have a potential application in the manufacturing of maltotetraose syrups. PMID:24963472

Maalej, Hana; Ben Ayed, Hanen; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Nasri, Moncef; Hmidet, Noomen

2014-01-01

375

Salivary gland calculi - contemporary methods of imaging  

PubMed Central

Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartlomiej; Golebiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzynski, Michal

2010-01-01

376

Bioassay-guided separation of an alpha-amylase inhibitor anthocyanin from Vaccinium arctostaphylos berries.  

PubMed

Vaccinium arctostaphylos is a traditional medicinal plant in Iran used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In our search for antidiabetic compounds from natural sources, we found that the extract obtained from V. arctostaphylos berries showed an inhibitory effect on pancreatic alpha-amylase in vitro [IC50 = 1.91 (1.89-1.94) mg/mL]. The activity-guided purification of the extract led to the isolation of malvidin-3-O-beta-glucoside as an a-amylase inhibitor. The compound demonstrated a dose-dependent enzyme inihibitory activity [IC50 = 0.329 (0.316-0.342) mM]. PMID:21138057

Nickavar, Bahman; Amin, Gholamreza

2010-01-01

377

Raw Starch Degrading Amylase Production by Various Fungal Cultures Grown on Cassava Waste  

PubMed Central

The solid waste of sago industry using cassava was fermented by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Rhizopus stolonifer in solid state fermentation. Cassava waste contained 52 per cent starch and 2.9 per cent protein by dry weight. The amylase activity was maintained at a high level and the highest amylase activity was observed on the 8th day in R. stolonifer mediated fermentation. R. stolonifer was more efficient than Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus in bioconverting cassava waste into fungal protein (90.24 mg/g) by saccharifying 70% starch and releasing 44.5% reducing sugars in eight days of solid state fermentation. PMID:24039485

Balaji, P.; Eyini, M.

2006-01-01

378

Alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition is differentially modulated by fucoidan obtained from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is a water-soluble, negatively charged, biologically active polysaccharide found in great abundance in brown marine algae. However, the inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase by fucoidan derived from two algal species (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) harvested at different periods (accounting for seasonal and yearly variations) has never been investigated. It was found that fucoidans inhibited ?-glucosidase differently, depending on the algal species from which it was extracted and the algae's season of harvest. Fucoidan extracted from A. nodosum was a more potent inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, with an IC50 ranging from 0.013 to 0.047 mg/mL, than the inhibition by fucoidan extracted from F. vesiculosus (IC50=0.049 mg/mL). In contrast, fucoidan extracted from F. vesiculosus did not inhibit ?-amylase activity, while fucoidan from A. nodosum decreased ?-amylase activity by 7-100% at 5 mg/mL depending upon the algae harvest period. An IC50 of 0.12-4.64 mg/mL for fucoidan from A. nodosum was found for the ?-amylase inhibition. The ability of fucoidan to inhibit ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase thus varies according to the algae species and harvest period. A. nodosum is more suitable than F. vesiculosus as a source of fucoidan to inhibit ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities. Their potential benefits towards Type 2 diabetes management should be further investigated. PMID:24388677

Kim, Kyung-Tae; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Turgeon, Sylvie L

2014-02-01

379

Sugars act as signal molecules and osmotica to regulate the expression of ?-amylase genes and metabolic activities in germinating cereal grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular mechanisms that initiate and control the metabolic activities of seed germination are largely unknown. Sugars may play important roles in regulating such metabolic activities in addition to providing an essential carbon source for the growth of young seedlings and maintaining turgor pressure for the expansion of tissues during germination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the physiological role

Su-May Yu; Yi-Ching Lee; Su-Chiung Fang; Ming-Tsair Chan; Soon-Far Hwa; Li-Fei Liu

1996-01-01

380

Amylases of the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus : Their purification, properties, action on starch and response to heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginous strain IISc 91, secreted one form each of ?-amylase and glucoamylase during growth.\\u000a Both enzymes were purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography and obtained in mg quantities.\\u000a ?-Amylase was considered to be a dimeric protein of ? 42 kDa and contained 5% (by mass) carbohydrate. It was maximally active\\u000a at pH 5.6 and

Ravi S. Mishra; Ramesh Maheshwari

1996-01-01

381

Identification of Regulatory Factors for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Salivary Epithelial Cells in a Co-Culture System  

PubMed Central

Patients with Sjögren’s syndrome or head and neck cancer patients who have undergone radiation therapy suffer from severe dry mouth (xerostomia) due to salivary exocrine cell death. Regeneration of the salivary glands requires a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms by which stem cells differentiate into exocrine cells. In our study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with primary salivary epithelial cells from C57BL/6 mice. Co-cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells clearly resembled salivary epithelial cells, as confirmed by strong expression of salivary gland epithelial cell-specific markers, such as alpha-amylase, muscarinic type 3 receptor, aquaporin-5, and cytokeratin 19. To identify regulatory factors involved in this differentiation, transdifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells were analyzed temporarily by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis, which detected 58 protein spots (>1.5 fold change, p<0.05) that were further categorized into 12 temporal expression patterns. Of those proteins only induced in differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, ankryin-repeat-domain-containing-protein 56, high-mobility-group-protein 20B, and transcription factor E2a were selected as putative regulatory factors for mesenchymal stem cell transdifferentiation based on putative roles in salivary gland development. Induction of these molecules was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blotting on separate sets of co-cultured mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify differentially expressed proteins that are implicated in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into salivary gland epithelial cells. Further investigation to elucidate regulatory roles of these three transcription factors in mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming will provide a critical foundation for a novel cell-based regenerative therapy for patients with xerostomia. PMID:25402494

Park, Yun-Jong; Koh, Jin; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Chen, Sixue; Cha, Seunghee

2014-01-01

382

Cooking effects on oxalate, phytate, trypsin and ?-amylase inhibitors of wild yam tubers of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild yams (Dioscorea spp.) are widely consumed and hold important place in the diet of local people of Nepal. The objective of this work was to investigate on the effect of different domestic cooking methods on antinutrients, such as oxalate (Ox), phytate (Phy), trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and ?-amylase enzyme inhibitor activity (AIA), contents in these wild tubers. Four yam

Megh Raj Bhandari; Jun Kawabata

2006-01-01

383

Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold  

SciTech Connect

A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production.

Kalayanamitr, A.; Bhumiratana, A.; Flegel, T.W.; Glinsukon, T.; Shinmyo, A.

1987-08-01

384

?-amylase from starchless seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum and its localization in germinating seeds.  

PubMed

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds do not contain starch as carbohydrate reserve. Synthesis of starch is initiated after germination. A ?-amylase from ungerminated fenugreek seeds was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 210 fold with specific activity of 732.59 units/mg. Mr of the denatured enzyme as determined from SDS-PAGE was 58 kD while that of native enzyme calculated from size exclusion chromatography was 56 kD. Furthermore, its identity was confirmed to be ?-amylase from MALDI-TOF analysis. The optimum pH and temperature was found to be 5.0 and 50°C, respectively. Starch was hydrolyzed at highest rate and enzyme showed a Km of 1.58 mg/mL with it. Antibodies against purified Fenugreek ?-amylase were generated in rabbits. These antibodies were used for localization of enzyme in the cotyledon during different stages of germination using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Fenugreek ?-amylase was found to be the major starch degrading enzyme depending on the high amount of enzyme present as compared to ?-amylase and also its localization at the periphery of amyloplasts. A new finding in terms of its association with protophloem was observed. Thus, this enzyme appears to be important for germination of seeds. PMID:24551136

Srivastava, Garima; Kayastha, Arvind M

2014-01-01

385

Structure of a novel ?-amylase AmyB from Thermotoga neapolitana that produces maltose from the nonreducing end of polysaccharides.  

PubMed

An intracellular ?-amylase, AmyB, has been cloned from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana. AmyB belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 13 and liberates maltose from diverse substrates, including starch, amylose, amylopectin and glycogen. The final product of AmyB is similar to that of typical maltogenic amylases, but AmyB cleaves maltose units from the nonreducing end, which is a unique property of this ?-amylase. In this study, the crystal structure of AmyB from T. neapolitana has been determined at 2.4?Å resolution, revealing that the monomeric AmyB comprises domains A, B and C like other ?-amylases, but with structural variations. In the structure, a wider active site and a putative extra sugar-binding site at the top of the active site were found. Subsequent biochemical results suggest that the extra sugar-binding site is suitable for recognizing the nonreducing end of the substrates, explaining the unique activity of this enzyme. These findings provide a structural basis for the ability of an ?-amylase that has the common ?-amylase structure to show a diverse substrate specificity. PMID:23519419

Jun, So-Young; Kim, Jin-Sik; Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Cha, Jaeho; Ha, Nam-Chul

2013-03-01

386

Properties and gene structure of the Thermotoga maritima alpha-amylase AmyA, a putative lipoprotein of a hyperthermophilic bacterium.  

PubMed Central

Thermotoga maritima MSB8 has a chromosomal alpha-amylase gene, designated amyA, that is predicted to code for a 553-amino-acid preprotein with significant amino acid sequence similarity to the 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of the same strain and to alpha-amylase primary structures of other organisms. Upstream of the amylase gene, a divergently oriented open reading frame which can be translated into a polypeptide with similarity to the maltose-binding protein MalE of Escherichia coli was found. The T. maritima alpha-amylase appears to be the first known example of a lipoprotein alpha-amylase. This is in agreement with observations pointing to the membrane localization of this enzyme in T. maritima. Following the signal peptide, a 25-residue putative linker sequence rich in serine and threonine was found. The amylase gene was expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. The molecular mass of the recombinant enzyme was estimated at 61 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis (63 kDa by gel permeation chromatography). In a 10-min assay at the optimum pH of 7.0, the optimum temperature of amylase activity was 85 to 90 degrees C. Like the alpha-amylases of many other organisms, the activity of the T. maritima alpha-amylase was dependent on Ca2+. The final products of hydrolysis of soluble starch and amylose were mainly glucose and maltose. The extraordinarily high specific activity of the T. maritima alpha-amylase (about 5.6 x 10(3) U/mg of protein at 80 degrees C, pH 7, with amylose as the substrate) together with its extreme thermal stability makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications in the starch processing industry. PMID:9006052

Liebl, W; Stemplinger, I; Ruile, P

1997-01-01

387

Local entropy difference upon a substrate binding of a psychrophilic ?-amylase and a mesophilic homologue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychrophilic ?-amylase from the antarctic bacterium pseudoalteromonashaloplanktis (AHA) and its mesophilic homologue, porcine pancreatic ?-amylase (PPA) are theoretically investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We carried out 240-ns MD simulations for four systems, AHA and PPA with/without the bound substrate, and examined protein conformational entropy changes upon the substrate binding. We developed an analysis that decomposes the entropy changes into contributions of individual amino acids, and successfully identified protein regions responsible for the entropy changes. The results provide a molecular insight into the structural flexibilities of those enzymes related to the temperature dependences of the enzymatic activity.

Kosugi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Shigehiko

2011-01-01

388

Effect of extracellular magnesium on nerve-mediated and acetylcholine-evoked in vitro amylase release in rat parotid gland tissue.  

PubMed

In this study the effects of changes in extracellular magnesium ([Mg(2+)](o)) and calcium ([Ca(2+)](o)) concentrations on basal and on nerve-mediated and acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked in vitro amylase release and calcium mobilization were investigated in rat parotid gland tissue. In the presence of a normal (2.56 mM) [Ca(2+)](o), both zero (0 mM) and an elevated (10 mM) [Mg(2+)](o) significantly attenuated basal and ACh-evoked amylase release compared to the response obtained in normal (1.1 mM) [Mg(2+)](o). During electrical field stimulation (EFS) of parotid tissues, only elevated [Mg(2+)](o) reduced amylase release. In a Ca(2+)-free medium, both basal and ACh-evoked amylase output were markedly reduced compared to the responses obtained under similar conditions in normal [Ca(2+)](o). Again, the ACh-induced amylase release in a Ca(2+)-free solution was larger in normal [Mg(2+)](o) than when the [Mg(2+)](o) was either zero or was elevated to 10 mM. Perturbation of [Mg(2+)](o) had no significant effect on basal intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in parotid acinar cells loaded with the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator fura-2. Both zero Mg(2+) and an elevated [Mg(2+)](o) significantly reduced the ACh-induced rise in the peak and the plateau phase of the Ca(2+) transient that was seen in normal [Mg(2+)](o). In parotid acinar cells loaded with the fluorescent Mg(2+) indicator magfura-2, ACh elicited a gradual decrease in intracellular free Mg(2+) concentration ([Mg(2+)](i)) to below the basal level. The results indicate that both hypo- and hypermagnesaemia may reduce both basal and ACh-evoked amylase secretion from the salivary gland. As far as the ACh-evoked response is concerned, the effect may be exerted by a decrease in cellular Ca(2+) transport. PMID:12089599

Yago, M D; Mata, A D; Mañas, M; Singh, J

2002-05-01

389

Adsorption of ?-amylase onto poly(acrylamide/maleic acid) hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(acrylamide/maleic acid) [P(AAm/MA)] hydrogels were prepared by irradiating the ternary mixtures of AAm/MA and water by ? rays at ambient temperature. The influence of the MA on the adsorption of ?-amylase, optimum working conditions and storage stability of enzyme were investigated. The adsorption capacity of hydrogels were found to increase from 0.40 to 0.71 mg ?-amylase/g dry gel with increasing amount of MA in the gel system. Maximum enzyme activities were observed at lower pH values and higher temperatures for adsorbed enzyme compared with free enzyme. Kinetic parameters were calculated as 2.51 g/dm 3 for Km and 1.67×10 -3 g/dm 3 min for Vmax for free enzyme and in the range of 12.3-12.9 g/dm 3 for Km and 1.63×10 -3-1.96×10 -3 g/dm 3 min for Vmax depending on the amount of MA in the hydrogel. While, the enzymatic activity of free enzyme was completely lost after 20 days, adsorbed enzyme retained 47-59% of its original activity after 20 days, depending on the amount of MA in the hydrogels.

Tümtürk, H.; Çaykara, T.; ?en, M.; Güven, O.

1999-08-01

390

?-amylase Variation in Wild Barley Accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphisms of ?-amylase among 19 species (27 taxa, 337 accessions) of wild barley, including Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (174 accessions), H. bulbosum (33), H. murinum (81), H. marinum (28), H. brachyantherum (4), H. jubatum (2), H. chilense (2) and H. roshevitzii (2) were studied using both isoelectric focusing (IEF) and thermostability analysis. Wide genetic variations were found. In general, the

Wensheng Zhang; Takafumi Kaneko; Kazuyoshi Takeda

2004-01-01

391

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

Limesand, Kirsten H., E-mail: limesank@u.arizona.ed [Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Avila, Jennifer L. [Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver [Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Klein, Rob R. [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2010-10-01

392

Kinetic Analysis of Amylase Using Quantitative Benedict's and Iodine Starch Reagents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative analysis of carbohydrates is a fundamental analytical tool used in many aspects of biology and chemistry. We have adapted a technique developed by Mathews et al. using an inexpensive scanner and open-source image analysis software to quantify amylase activity using both the breakdown of starch and the appearance of glucose. Breakdown…

Cochran, Beverly; Lunday, Deborah; Miskevich, Frank

2008-01-01

393

Relationship of sequence and structure to specificity in the ?-amylase family of enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolases and transferases that constitute the ?-amylase family are multidomain proteins, but each has a catalytic domain in the form of a (?\\/?)8-barrel, with the active site being at the C-terminal end of the barrel ?-strands. Although the enzymes are believed to share the same catalytic acids and a common mechanism of action, they have been assigned to three

E. Ann MacGregor; Štefan Jane?ek; Birte Svensson

2001-01-01

394

The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); `s-Gravenmade, E.J. [Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

1995-02-01

395

PURIFICATION AND CLONING OF THE SALIVARY PEROXIDASE\\/CATECHOL OXIDASE OF THE MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ALBIMANUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary homogenates of the adult female mosquito Anopheles albimanus have been shown previously to contain a vasodilatory activity associated with a catechol oxidase\\/peroxidase activity. We have now purified the salivary peroxidase using high-performance liquid chromatography. The pure enzyme is able to relax rabbit aortic rings pre-constricted with norepinephrine. The peroxidase has a relative molecular mass of 66 907 as estimated

JOSÉ M. C. RIBEIRO; JESUS G. VALENZUELA

396

Gene cloning and characterization of an ?-amylase from Alteromonas macleodii B7 for Enteromorpha polysaccharide degradation.  

PubMed

Enteromorpha polysaccharides (EP) extracted from green algae have displayed a wide variety of biological activities. However, their high molecular weight leads to a high viscosity and low solubility, and therefore, greatly restrains their application. To solve this problem, bacteria from the surface of Enteromorpha were screened, and an Alteromonas macleodii strain B7 was found to be able to decrease the molecular weight of EP in culture media. Proteins harvested from the supernatant of the A. macleodii B7 culture were subjected to native gel electrophoresis, and a band corresponding to the Enteromorpha polysaccharide lyase (EPL) was detected by activity staining. The enzyme identity was subsequently confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry as the putative ?-amylase reported in A. macleodii ATCC 27126. The amylase gene (amySTU) from A. macleodii B7 was cloned into Escherichia coli, resulting in highlevel expression of the recombinant enzyme with EP-degrading activity. AmySTU was found to be cold-adapted; however, its optimal enzyme activity was detected at 40°C. The ?-amylase was highly stable over a broad pH range (5.5-10) with the optimal pH at 7.5-8.0. The highest enzyme activity was detected when NaCl concentration was 2%, which dropped by 50% when the NaCl concentration was increased to 16%, showing an excellent nature of halotolerance. Furthermore, the amylase activity was not significantly affected by tested surfactants or the presence of some organic solvents. Therefore, the A. macleodii strain B7 and its ?-amylase can be useful in lowering EP molecular weight and in starch processing. PMID:24262656

Han, Xuefeng; Lin, Bokun; Ru, Ganji; Zhang, Zhibiao; Liu, Yan; Hu, Zhong

2014-02-28

397

The role of salivary lipocalins in blood feeding by Rhodnius prolixus  

PubMed Central

In order to overcome host mechanisms that prevent blood loss, the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus has evolved a complex salivary secretion containing dozens of different proteins. A number of these have been characterized and found to have roles in inhibiting various hemostatic or inflammatory systems. Interestingly, many of these biologically active salivary proteins belong to the lipocalin protein family. A proliferation of lipocalin genes has occurred via gene duplication and subsequent divergence. Functional genomic, proteomic and functional studies have been performed to probe the role of salivary lipocalins in blood feeding. In the course of these investigations, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, antiinflammatory and vasodilatory molecules have been described. PMID:15660358

Andersen, John F.; Gudderra, Nanda P.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.

2010-01-01

398

?-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits ?-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest  

PubMed Central

Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an ?-amylase inhibitor gene (?-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the ?-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (?-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the ?-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against ?-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum ?-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the ?-AI1 protein against H. hampei ?-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee. PMID:20565807

2010-01-01

399

Facial Vibrotactile Stimulation Activates the Parasympathetic Nervous System: Study of Salivary Secretion, Heart Rate, Pupillary Reflex, and Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Activity  

PubMed Central

We previously found that the greatest salivation response in healthy human subjects is produced by facial vibrotactile stimulation of 89?Hz frequency with 1.9??m amplitude (89?Hz-S), as reported by Hiraba et al. (2012, 20011, and 2008). We assessed relationships between the blood flow to brain via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the frontal cortex and autonomic parameters. We used the heart rate (HRV: heart rate variability analysis in RR intervals), pupil reflex, and salivation as parameters, but the interrelation between each parameter and fNIRS measures remains unknown. We were to investigate the relationship in response to established paradigms using simultaneously each parameter-fNIRS recording in healthy human subjects. Analysis of fNIRS was examined by a comparison of various values between before and after various stimuli (89?Hz-S, 114?Hz-S, listen to classic music, and “Ahh” vocalization). We confirmed that vibrotactile stimulation (89?Hz) of the parotid glands led to the greatest salivation, greatest increase in heart rate variability, and the most constricted pupils. Furthermore, there were almost no detectable differences between fNIRS during 89?Hz-S and fNIRS during listening to classical music of fans. Thus, vibrotactile stimulation of 89?Hz seems to evoke parasympathetic activity. PMID:24511550

Hiraba, Hisao; Inoue, Motoharu; Gora, Kanako; Sato, Takako; Nishimura, Satoshi; Yamaoka, Masaru; Kumakura, Ayano; Ono, Shinya; Wakasa, Hirotugu; Nakayama, Enri; Abe, Kimiko; Ueda, Koichiro

2014-01-01

400

Facial vibrotactile stimulation activates the parasympathetic nervous system: study of salivary secretion, heart rate, pupillary reflex, and functional near-infrared spectroscopy activity.  

PubMed

We previously found that the greatest salivation response in healthy human subjects is produced by facial vibrotactile stimulation of 89 Hz frequency with 1.9 ? m amplitude (89 Hz-S), as reported by Hiraba et al. (2012, 20011, and 2008). We assessed relationships between the blood flow to brain via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the frontal cortex and autonomic parameters. We used the heart rate (HRV: heart rate variability analysis in RR intervals), pupil reflex, and salivation as parameters, but the interrelation between each parameter and fNIRS measures remains unknown. We were to investigate the relationship in response to established paradigms using simultaneously each parameter-fNIRS recording in healthy human subjects. Analysis of fNIRS was examined by a comparison of various values between before and after various stimuli (89 Hz-S, 114 Hz-S, listen to classic music, and "Ahh" vocalization). We confirmed that vibrotactile stimulation (89 Hz) of the parotid glands led to the greatest salivation, greatest increase in heart rate variability, and the most constricted pupils. Furthermore, there were almost no detectable differences between fNIRS during 89 Hz-S and fNIRS during listening to classical music of fans. Thus, vibrotactile stimulation of 89 Hz seems to evoke parasympathetic activity. PMID:24511550

Hiraba, Hisao; Inoue, Motoharu; Gora, Kanako; Sato, Takako; Nishimura, Satoshi; Yamaoka, Masaru; Kumakura, Ayano; Ono, Shinya; Wakasa, Hirotugu; Nakayama, Enri; Abe, Kimiko; Ueda, Koichiro

2014-01-01

401

Arginine Metabolism in the Salivary Glands of Protein-Deficient Rats and Its Potential Association with the Oral Microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary glands and their secretions play key roles in the prevention of dental diseases. The antibacterial and physicochemical properties of saliva are compromised in chronic malnutrition. The present study has examined the possibility that some malnutrition-induced changes in salivary gland function are potentially capable of promoting growth and metabolic activities of pathogenic oral microorganisms. Compared to well-fed controls, rats fed

C. O. Enwonwu; F. Ilupeju; R. C. Warren

1994-01-01

402

In-vitro ? amylase and glycosidase inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of antiasthmatic drug - Shirishadi.  

PubMed

Asthma and diabetes have strong relationship; both are cause and effect of each other. Oxidative stress due to bronchial asthma may cause insulin resistance whereas lack of proper insulin can cause defective smooth muscle relaxant. There is no single medicine available that can manage both diseases, rather the mainstay treatment of bronchial asthma causes hyperglycemia. Keeping this problem in focus, in this study the hypoglycemic effect of an indigenous antiasthmatic Ayurvedic drug Shirishadi was evaluated. Pancreatic alpha amylase and glucosidase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the level of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. For evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of drug, in-vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzyme inhibition was calculated. Ethanolic extract of compound showed 76.40% + 0.88% reduction in alpha amylase activity and 63.85% + 0.36% in alpha glucosidase activity with IC50 0.68 mg/ml and 2.89 mg/ml, respectively. This study suggests that the ethanolic extract of Shirishadi polyherbal compound effectively acts as alpha amylase and glucosidase inhibitor leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence acts as antiasthmatic as well as hypoglycemic drug. PMID:24350051

Kajaria, Divya; Ranjana; Tripathi, Jyotishankar; Tripathi, Yamini Bhushan; Tiwari, Srikant

2013-10-01

403

Postmortem serum levels of amylase and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) as markers of systemic tissue damage in forensic autopsy.  

PubMed

Serum amylase (AMY) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) are routine clinical markers for investigating pancreatic and hepatobiliary disorders, respectively, but are also increased in systemic deterioration following critical trauma and diseases. The present study investigated the postmortem levels in bilateral cardiac blood of medicolegal autopsy cases without decomposition (n=163), excluding those with pancreatic or hepatic injury, or preexisting pathologies, as well as prolonged death cases, to evaluate the changes due to systemic deterioration in the death process after fatal insults with special regard to intoxication, hyperthermia (heatstroke) and hypothermia (cold exposure). Serum AMY and GGT levels were virtually independent of postmortem interval. Serum AMY level was mostly higher than the clinical reference range, predominantly including salivary fractions, but was usually below 1000U/L except for fatal intoxication, which showed significant increases of total AMY as well as salivary and pancreatic fractions in bilateral cardiac blood. Serum levels of salivary and pancreatic AMY fractions showed tendencies to be related to pancreatic subcapsular and interstitial bleeding, respectively, which were relatively frequent and evident in mechanical asphyxiation, intoxication and hyperthermia (heatstroke). Serum GGT was often elevated (mostly below 300U/L) in cases other than hypothermia (cold exposure). These findings suggest postmortem serum AMY and GGT as indicators of the severity of systemic organ damage in death processes, especially in intoxication; however, elevated serum AMY and GGT levels over 1000 and 300U/L might indicate significant pancreatic and hepatobiliary pathologies, respectively, except for an elevated serum AMY level in intoxication. PMID:23165248

Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kawamoto, Osamu; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Bao-Li; Maeda, Hitoshi

2013-03-01

404

Cloning and expression of Lipomyces starkeyi alpha-amylase in Escherichia coli and determination of some of its properties.  

PubMed

The Lipomyces starkeyi alpha-amylase (LSA) gene encoding soluble starch-degrading alpha-amylase was cloned and characterized from a derepressed and partially constitutive mutant for both dextranase and amylase activities. The nucleotide (nt) sequence of the cDNA fragment reveals an open reading frame of 1944 bp encoding a 619 amino acid (aa) mature protein (LSA) with a calculated molecular weight of 68.709 kDa that was estimated to be about 73 kDa, including His tag (4 kDa) based on SDS-PAGE (10% acrylamide gel), activity staining, and the Western blotting, using anti-amylase-Ab. LSA had a sequence similar to other alpha-amylases in four conserved regions of the alpha-amylase family: (I) (287)DIVVNH(292), (II) (372)GLRIDTVKH(380), (III) (399)GEVFD(403), (IV) (462)FLENQD(467). Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis showed one intron of 60 nucleotides in the genomic lsa at positions between 966 and 967 of cDNA. The cloned LSA amylase showed a maximum activity at pH 6 and optimum temperature of 40 (o)C, with greater than 90% stability between pH 5 and pH 8 for 16 h. It was inhibited by Cu(2+) and stimulated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Enzyme activity was not affected by 1 mM EGTA but was inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. LSA did not hydrolyze maltodextrins of G2 to G4, yet formed G2+G3 from G5, G2+G4 or G3+G3 from G6, and G3+G4 from G7. LSA did not hydrolyze soluble starch in the present of 2% (w/v) of acarbose. Kinetics of LSA was carried out by using starch as a substrate and the inhibition type of acarbose was the mixed non-competitive type (ki = 3.4 microM). PMID:15043869

Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Jin Ha; Kim, Doman; Day, Donal F; Robyt, John F; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Moon, Tae-Wha

2004-04-01

405

Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone  

SciTech Connect

Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

1985-08-26

406

Genetic Regulation of Tissue-Specific Expression of Amylase Structural Genes in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster were screened for spatial variations in adult midgut alpha -amylase (1,4-alpha -D-glucan glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) expression. No strain-specific differences were found anteriorly, but three patterns of activity were discerned in the posterior midgut: A, activity throughout most of the region; B, activity in the anterior part of the region; and C, little or no activity.

Irene Abraham; Winifred W. Doane

1978-01-01

407

Schultheiss Chewing gum and salivary hormones 1 Running head: CHEWING GUM AND SALIVARY HORMONES  

E-print Network

Schultheiss Chewing gum and salivary hormones 1 Running head: CHEWING GUM AND SALIVARY HORMONES Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations Chewing gum and salivary hormones 2 Abstract Sugarless chewing gum is a frequently used stimulant

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

408

Salivary diagnostics: a brief review.  

PubMed

Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R

2014-01-01

409

Salivary Diagnostics: A Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R.

2014-01-01

410

Escherichia coli signal peptidase recognizes and cleaves the signal sequence of ?-amylase originating from Bacillus licheniformis.  

PubMed

The gene encoding the ?-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned, with and without the native signal sequence, and expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in the production of the recombinant protein in the cytoplasm as insoluble but enzymatically active aggregates. Expression with a low concentration of the inducer at low temperature resulted in the production of the recombinant protein in soluble form in a significantly higher amount. The protein produced with signal sequence was exported to the extracellular medium, whereas there was no export of the protein produced from the gene without the signal sequence. Similarly, the ?-amylase activity in the culture medium increased with time after induction in case of the protein produced with signal sequence. Molecular mass determinations by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified recombinant ?-amylase from the extracellular medium revealed that the native signal peptide was cleaved by E. coli signal peptidase between Ala28 and Ala29. It seems possible that the signal peptide of ?-amylase from B. licheniformis can be used for the secretion of other recombinant proteins produced using the E. coli expression system. PMID:24228886

Malik, B; Rashid, N; Ahmad, N; Akhtar, M

2013-08-01

411

Identification of c-kit gene mutations in primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CD117 (KIT) protein is overexpressed in many human neoplasms including adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands. To evaluate the function of c-kit-activating mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland, we studied 14 cases (13 primary, 1 cervical lymph node metastasis) from our institution. KIT protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Mutational analyses of

Lizette Vila; Hongyan Liu; Samer Z Al-Quran; Dominique P Coco; Hui-Jia Dong; Chen Liu

2009-01-01

412

21 CFR 184.1012 - ?-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus...as GRAS § 184.1012 ?-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (a) ?-Amylase enzyme preparation is obtained from...

2010-04-01

413

Barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor. I. Isolation and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein inhibitor of endogenous ?-amylase 2 has been isolated from germinated barley by glycogen precipitation followed\\u000a by cation-exchange chromatography. Preliminary kinetic analysis showed a mixed type mechanism of inhibition with an apparent\\u000a Ki of 4×10?8M. The inhibitor formed well-defined complexes with b