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Sample records for salivary gland carcinoma

  1. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  2. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-07-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  3. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  4. Solid blue dot tumour: minor salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Nadaf, Afreen; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Acinic cell adenocarcinoma (ACC) is a low-grade malignant salivary neoplasm that constitutes approximately 17% of all primary salivary gland malignancies. In the head and neck region, the parotid gland is the predominant site of origin and ACC is usually more frequent in women than men. Previous radiation exposure and familial predisposition are some of the risk factors for ACC. ACCs rarely involve minor salivary glands constituting only 13–17% of all minor salivary gland tumours. Generally, a slowly enlarging mass lesion in the tail of the parotid gland is the most frequent presentation. ACC has a significant tendency to recur, metastasise and may have an aggressive evolution. Therefore, a long-term follow-up is mandatory after treatment. Here we report the case of a woman in her 60s with an ACC in association with the labial minor salivary gland, presenting in the post-treatment period of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:24928927

  5. Minor salivary gland carcinoma: a review of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Haymerle, Georg; Schneider, Sven; Harris, Luke; Häupl, Theresia; Schopper, Christian; Pammer, Johannes; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

    2016-09-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with broad variation in clinical appearance and histopathology. Clinical data of patients with small salivary gland malignancies were collected from the medical records. Tissue microarray was constructed to determine the expression pattern of 24 proteins in 35 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. The choice of markers was based on involvement in neoangiogenesis, cell-to-cell contact, cell-cycle regulation and carcinogenesis. Protein expression data were correlated to patients' clinical data. Overexpression of patched (p = 0.046) and Smo (p = 0.032) was linked to a better overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase π overexpression was linked to prolonged disease-free survival (p = 0.005). Cox-1 (p = 0.035) and VEGFR2 (p = 0.009) were significantly linked to decreased survival for recurrent disease. Bcl-x (84 %), β-catenin (87 %) and Cox-2 (87 %) were significantly overexpressed in minor salivary gland carcinomas. We have shown that Smo resulted in a better overall survival, whereas Gstπ in improved disease-free survival. VEGFR2 was a prognostic factor for survival after recurrence in patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and anti-Wnt-1 antibodies might be a potential therapeutic option in an adjuvant setting or for patients with unresectable tumors of the minor salivary glands. PMID:26498950

  6. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  7. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  8. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in a Minor Salivary Gland in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Sera; Cakur, Binali

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), one of the most common salivary gland malignancies, is rare in children. MEC mainly occurs in the parotid gland, along with minor glands being the second common site, particularly in palate. Clinical, histological, and radiological findings of palatal MEC in a 12-year-old girl are presented with three-year follow-up. Pathologic lesions must be considered in differential diagnoses of intraoral asymptomatic lesions, and their detailed inspection should be taken into consideration. PMID:23970980

  9. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  10. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many types of salivary gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the ... cancer can develop in the salivary glands. Squamous cell carcinoma: This cancer occurs mainly in older men. ...

  11. Mitochondrial Mutations in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Marietta; Smith, Ian M.; Califano, Joseph A.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. Methodology The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. Principal Findings Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77%) carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6%) carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9%) with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) complex. Conclusions/Significance Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication. PMID:20041111

  12. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland carcinomas and literature review

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, HIDEO; OHTA, KOUJI; OKUI, GAKU; SEINO, SAYAKA; HASHIKATA, MIHO; YAMAMOTO, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YOKO; SASAKI, KAZUKI; NARUSE, TAKAKO; RAHMAN, MOHAMMAD ZESHAAN; UETSUKI, RYO; NIMIYA, AKIKO; ONO, SHIGEHIRO; SHIMASUE, HIROSHI; HIGASHIKAWA, KOICHIRO; SUGIYAMA, MASARU; TAKECHI, MASAAKI

    2015-01-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare and exhibit a broad spectrum of phenotypic heterogeneity. The objective of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in patients with salivary gland carcinomas and review the results in light of other reports. We retrospectively reviewed 40 patients with primary salivary gland carcinomas who were diagnosed and treated at our institution between 1991 and 2014. Of the 40 tumors, 19 (47.5%) were mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 11 (27.5%) were adenoid cystic carcinomas, 7 (17.5%) were acinic cell carcinomas, 2 (5.0%) were myoepithelial carcinomas and 1 (2.5%) was a squamous cell carcinoma. Clinically positive lymph nodes were present in 4 patients (10.0%). As regards clinical stage, 15 cases (37.5%) were stage I, 13 (32.5%) were stage II, 1 (2.5%) was stage III and 11 (27.5%) were stage IVA. The majority of the patients (97.5%) were treated with surgery, of whom 25 (62.5%) received surgery alone and 14 (35.0%) underwent surgery in combination with chemotherapy or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The median follow-up time for all the patients was 48 months. The disease-specific survival rate at 5 years was 87.1%. We identified a significant correlation between poor survival rate and histological grade (intermediate/high), tumor size (T3/T4), lymph node metastasis (node-positive) and clinical stage (III/IV) using the Kaplan-Meier method (P<0.05 for each). In addition, the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed that lymph node metastasis and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 18.7 and 15.1, respectively; P=0.023 and 0.037, respectively). Furthermore, tumor size was found to be a predictive factor regarding recurrence in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 8.35; P=0.025). Our results suggest that lymph node metastasis and tumor size are significant prognostic factors for patients with salivary gland carcinomas. PMID:25469295

  13. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  14. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association. PMID:26458630

  15. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Submandibular Salivary Gland with Sialo-Cutaneous Fistula: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sanjiv S.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary glands are rare entities. Most common malignant tumour of submandibular gland is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histological finding of squamous cell carcinoma is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. Metastasis from distant primary squamous malignancy, direct invasion from cutaneous or mucosal squamous carcinoma, squamous component of mucoepidermoid carcinoma or primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary origin are some of the possible causes. Of these, the latter is distinctly uncommon. Primary squamous malignancy is diagnosed only after ruling out other possible explanations. A positive mucin stain in the tumour or synchronous/ metachronous squamous carcinoma elsewhere excludes the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma. Primary squamous carcinoma is seen most commonly in parotid gland and rarely in submandibular gland. We present a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of right submandibular salivary gland in a 45-year old-man. This case is presented for the rare entity of primary squamous cell carcinoma in submandibular salivary gland. PMID:26435997

  16. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Update Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  17. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report

    PubMed Central

    Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature. PMID:26645012

  18. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rettig, Eleni M; Talbot, C Conover; Sausen, Mark; Jones, Sian; Bishop, Justin A; Wood, Laura D; Tokheim, Collin; Niknafs, Noushin; Karchin, Rachel; Fertig, Elana J; Wheelan, Sarah J; Marchionni, Luigi; Considine, Michael; Fakhry, Carole; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Ha, Patrick K; Agrawal, Nishant

    2016-04-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the salivary glands are challenging to understand, treat, and cure. To better understand the genetic alterations underlying the pathogenesis of these tumors, we performed comprehensive genome analyses of 25 fresh-frozen tumors, including whole-genome sequencing and expression and pathway analyses. In addition to the well-describedMYB-NFIBfusion that was found in 11 tumors (44%), we observed five different rearrangements involving theNFIBtranscription factor gene in seven tumors (28%). Taken together,NFIBtranslocations occurred in 15 of 25 samples (60%, 95% CI, 41%-77%). In addition, mRNA expression analysis of 17 tumors revealed overexpression ofNFIBin ACC tumors compared with normal tissues (P= 0.002). There was no difference inNFIBmRNA expression in tumors withNFIBfusions compared with those without. We also report somatic mutations of genes involved in the axonal guidance and Rho family signaling pathways. Finally, we confirm previously described alterations in genes related to chromatin regulation and Notch signaling. Our findings suggest a separate role forNFIBin ACC oncogenesis and highlight important signaling pathways for future functional characterization and potential therapeutic targeting.Cancer Prev Res; 9(4); 265-74. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26862087

  19. Assessment of Salivary Gland Function Using Salivary Scintigraphy in Pre and Post Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Diagnosed Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Badam, Raj Kumar; Suram, Jyotsna; Babu, Dara Balaji Gandhi; Marshal, Rahul; Bontha, Sharath Chandra; Lavanya, Reddy; Kanth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid carcinoma represents less than 1% of all cancers. The first line of treatment for thyroid cancer is partial/total thyroidectomy. High-dose Iodine131 therapy using Iodine radioisotopes is commonly used in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. In this process, the non-thyroidal tissues, such as, salivary gland, stomach and breast tissues also take up radioactive iodine. Salivary gland scintigraphy is widely accepted as a sensitive and valid method for evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction after Radioactive Iodine131 Therapy (RIT). Aim To assess and compare the salivary flow rates, relative uptake and ejection fractions in parotid and submandibular glands just before and one month after Iodine131 therapy. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 24 patients diagnosed with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent partial/total thyroidectomy and were due for radioactive iodine therapy. These patients were divided into two groups based on the lesion based dosimetry (Group A: 60-100Gy; Group B: 100-150Gy). Salivary gland assessment was done by salivary gland scintigraphy before and after RIT. Statistical Analysis The data collected was tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software version16 using paired t-test and individual sample t-test. Results A statistically significant difference in the uptake percent and ejection fraction percent in the parotid and submandibular glands before RIT and one month after RIT was observed in the study. Conclusion We inferred from the study that there was an overall decrease in uptake percent and ejection fraction percent one month post RIT in both parotid and submandibular glands. Also, a statistically significant difference was noted in the uptake and ejection fraction percent between Group A and Group B concluding the fact that the damage is dose related. PMID:26894178

  20. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity

    PubMed Central

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results.

  1. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity.

    PubMed

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-08-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results. PMID:27483184

  2. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity.

    PubMed

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-08-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results. PMID:27131022

  3. MTA1 regulation of ERβ pathway in salivary gland carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-09-04

    Abstracts: Although Metastatic-tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) is differentially expressed in metastatic cancer and coregulates the status and activity of nuclear receptors, its role upon estrogen receptor β (ERβ) – a potent tumor suppressor, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated whether MTA1 regulates the expression and functions of ERβ, an ER isoform predominantly expressed in salivary gland cancer cells. We found that the depletion of the endogenous MTA1 in the HSG and HSY salivary duct carcinoma cell lines enhances the expression of ERβ while MTA1 overexpression augmented the expression of ERβ in salivary duct carcinoma cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown inhibited the proliferations and invasion of HSG and HSY cells. The noted ERβ downregulation by MTA1 overexpression involves the process of proteasomal degradation, as a proteasome inhibitor could block it. In addition, both MTA1 knockdown and ERβ overexpression attenuated the cell migration and inhibited the ERK1/2 signaling in the both cell lines. These findings imply that MTA1 dysregulation in a subset of salivary gland cancer might promote aggressive phenotypes by compromising the tumor suppressor activity of ERβ, and hence, MTA1-ERβ axis might serve a new therapeutic target for the salivary gland cancer. - Highlights: • MTA1 silencing upregulates ERβ expression in salivary gland carcinoma cells. • MTA1 overexpression downregulates ERβ expression via proteasomal degradation. • Upregulation of ERβ expression inhibits cell migration and ERK signaling. • MTA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.

  4. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  5. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  6. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients

    PubMed Central

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm. Key words:Acinic cell carcinoma, ETV6-NTRK3, Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma, secretory breast carcinoma. PMID:25481229

  7. Trastuzumab for Her2/neu-positive metastatic salivary gland carcinoma: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Firwana, Belal; Atassi, Bassel; Hasan, Rim; Hasan, Nour; Sukari, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas metastasize to distant organs in 20% of salivary gland malignancies. Applying immunohistochemistry (IHC) measures, salivary gland tumors showed a wide range of oncogene markers expression, including the human epidermoid receptor 2 (Her2/neu), which could be targeted with monoclonal antibody. Treating salivary gland tumors, which have Her2/neu over-expression, with trastuzumab was reported in a few case reports. We report a 61-year-old Caucasian male, with a history of salivary gland tumor, who presented after 20 years of complete surgical resection with kidney mass. He was treated as primary renal cell carcinoma, unclassified, with nephrectomy and adjuvant clinical trail where he received placebo. Subsequently, he developed multiple hepatic lesions and retroperitoneal mesenteric lymphadenopathy; CT-guided biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with Her2/neu, 3+ by IHC. The patient was treated successfully with trastuzumab with near-complete response. PMID:23826550

  8. Trastuzumab for Her2/neu-positive metastatic salivary gland carcinoma: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Firwana, Belal; Atassi, Bassel; Hasan, Rim; Hasan, Nour; Sukari, Ammar

    2012-07-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas metastasize to distant organs in 20% of salivary gland malignancies. Applying immunohistochemistry (IHC) measures, salivary gland tumors showed a wide range of oncogene markers expression, including the human epidermoid receptor 2 (Her2/neu), which could be targeted with monoclonal antibody. Treating salivary gland tumors, which have Her2/neu over-expression, with trastuzumab was reported in a few case reports. We report a 61-year-old Caucasian male, with a history of salivary gland tumor, who presented after 20 years of complete surgical resection with kidney mass. He was treated as primary renal cell carcinoma, unclassified, with nephrectomy and adjuvant clinical trail where he received placebo. Subsequently, he developed multiple hepatic lesions and retroperitoneal mesenteric lymphadenopathy; CT-guided biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with Her2/neu, 3+ by IHC. The patient was treated successfully with trastuzumab with near-complete response. PMID:23826550

  9. Minor Salivary Gland Changes in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Ragunathan, Yoithapprabhunath Thukanayakanpalayam; Lakshmi, Suman Jhansi; Nallusamy, Jaisanghar; Joseph, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation. Aim The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC. Materials and Methods A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands. Results In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia. Conclusion According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours.

  10. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  11. Long-term outcome of patients treated by radiation therapy alone for salivary gland carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: achen@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Bucci, M. Kara; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Garcia, Joaquin; Eisele, David W.; Fu, Karen K.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To review a single-institution experience with the management of salivary gland cancers treated by radiation alone. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 45 patients with newly diagnosed salivary gland carcinomas were treated with definitive radiation to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 57-74 Gy). Distribution of T-stage was: 24% T1, 18% T2, 31% T3, and 27% T4. Histology was: 14 mucoepidermoid (31%), 10 adenocarcinoma (22%), 8 adenoid cystic (18%), 4 undifferentiated (9%), 4 acinic (9%), 2 malignant mixed (4%), 2 squamous (4%), and 1 salivary duct carcinoma (2%). No patient had clinical or pathologic evidence of lymph node disease. Median follow-up was 101 months (range, 3-285 months). Results: The 5-year and 10-year rate estimates of local control were 70% and 57%, respectively. A Cox proportional hazard model identified T3-4 disease (p = 0.004) and radiation dose lower than 66 Gy (p = 0.001) as independent predictors of local recurrence. The 10-year overall survival and distant metastasis-free rates were 46% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: Radiation therapy alone is a reasonable alternative to surgery in the definitive management of salivary gland cancers and results in long-term survival in a significant proportion of patients. Radiation dose in excess of 66 Gy is recommended.

  12. Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

  13. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain mutations are rare in salivary gland carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Dahse, R; Driemel, O; Schwarz, S; Dahse, J; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Berndt, A; Kosmehl, H

    2009-01-01

    Activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain identify non-small cell lung cancer patients with improved clinical response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Recently, we identified two EGFR mutations in a cohort of 25 salivary gland carcinomas (SGCs) by screening the tumour samples for the both most common hotspot mutations in exons 19 and 21 by allele-specific PCR. Here, we present a comprehensive sequencing analysis of the entire critical EGFR tyrosine kinase domain in 65 SGC of the main histopathological types. We found EGFR mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain to be a rare event in SGCs. No additional mutations other than the two known exon 19 deletions (c.2235_2249del15) in a mucoepidermoid carcinoma and an adenoid cystic carcinoma have been detected. Other putative predictive markers for EGFR-targeted therapy in SGCs might be relevant and should be investigated. PMID:19174819

  15. Prognostic Factors in Myoepithelial Carcinoma of Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Max; Drill, Esther N.; Morris, Luc; West, Lyndsay; Klimstra, David; Gonen, Mithat; Ghossein, Ronald; Katabi, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma (MECA) is an underrecognized rare tumor with a diverse clinical behavior. The histologic features of this tumor are not well characterized, much less its grading, which is controversial. The objective of this study is to provide a better characterization of MECA and its prognostic factors. A total of 48 cases were retrieved from the pathology files. The cases were subjected to a detailed histopathologic, immunohistochemical, statistical, and clinical analysis. Tumors were classified as de novo MECA in 22 cases (46%) and carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CA ex-PA) in 26 cases (54%). Tumor necrosis, high mitotic count (≥6/10 high-power fields), and severe pleomorphism were identified in 38%, 33%, and 21%, respectively. Perineural invasion, vascular invasion, and positive margins were noted in 10%, 12%, and 47%, respectively. Median follow-up was 38 months. Four patients had lymph node metastasis at presentation, 9 developed local recurrences, and 12 had distant metastases with the lung being the most common site (83%). The presence of CA ex-PA, necrosis, and vascular invasion correlated significantly with disease-free survival (P = 0.02, 0.01, 0.03, respectively). No distant recurrence was noted in all 23 patients lacking necrosis in their neoplasms (median follow-up: 44 mo). MECA is a relatively aggressive tumor that is associated with a high rate of distant metastasis (27%). Compared with de novo MECA, CA ex-PA correlates with worse clinical outcome. A grading system based on the presence of tumor necrosis should be used to identify high-grade MECA and predict its clinical behavior. PMID:25970687

  16. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XIE, SHULE; YANG, HONGYU; BREDELL, MARIUS; SHEN, SHIYUE; YANG, HUIJUN; JIN, LONG; ZHANG, SHANSHAN

    2015-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare and aggressive parotid malignancy that most commonly affects males in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Histopathology specimens obtained from SDC patients demonstrate a resemblance to ductal carcinoma of the breast. Therefore, to distinguish SDC from breast ductal carcinoma, several immunohistochemical markers exist that may enable surgeons to make an accurate diagnosis. In this study, the case of a 54-year-old male with salivary duct carcinoma of the right parotid gland is presented. The results of the present case study revealed that the SDC sample was positive for the expression of human epidermal growth factor 2 (Her-2), cytokeratin (CK) 8/CK 18, p63, high molecular weight CK and calponin, and negative for expression of the estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. Based on the result, an ipsilateral selective neck dissection followed by adjuvant post-operative radiation therapy was suitable at the primary treatment stage. At one year of follow-up, the patient was alive and free of recurrence. In advanced cases of SDC, treatment with anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibodies, such as trastuzumab, is recommended. PMID:25435994

  17. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells. PMID:26449187

  18. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  19. [Salivary gland tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Thariat, Juliette; Vedrine, Pierre-Olivier; Orbach, Daniel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Badoual, Cécile; Butori, Catherine; Teissier, Natacha; Toussaint, Bruno; Castillo, Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors in children are rare: they correspond to 8-10% of head and neck pediatric tumors. Clinicians of all disciplines should be aware of this diagnosis in front of non-inflammatory mass of the parotid or in the territory of other salivary glands. In children, 50% of salivary gland tumors are malignant which contrasts with a 10-25% risk in adults. Epithelial tumors are the most common, mucoepidermoïd carcinomas of the parotid in particular. Surgery is the treatment of choice in epithelial tumors. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be indicated in case of unfavorable prognostic factors but must be balanced with the risk of radiation-induced growth defects and secondary cancer. The role of chemotherapy is limited in these tumors, but should be discussed in case of an inoperable or metastatic lesion. PMID:21690035

  20. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  1. The oncofetal protein IMP3 is an indicator of early recurrence and poor outcome in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Elshafey, Mohamed R.; Ahmed, Rehab A.; Mourad, Mohamed I; Gaballah, Essam T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary malignancy of the salivary glands. Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) is an important prognostic factor in some cancers and a tool that differentiates between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. This study aimed to identify a relationship between the expression of IMP3 and the outcome of salivary gland MEC, as well as to differentiate MEC from pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Methods:Tissue specimens from 70 cases of salivary gland MEC, 40 cases of PA, and 10 cases with normal salivary gland were examined immunohistochemically for IMP3. The association among the expression of IMP3, clinicopathological characteristics and patient's survival was assessed. Results:IMP3 was present in 51.4% of MEC but absent in PA and normal salivary gland tissues. IMP3 expression was associated with age > 60 years, submandibular gland tumors, tumor size > 4 cm, high-grade tumors, lymph node metastasis, involvement of surgical margins, perineural invasion, distant metastasis, advanced TNM stage, tumor relapse, and death ( P<0.05). Increased expression of IMP3, tumors of the submandibular gland, and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors of -free survival (DFS). In addition, IMP3 was a strong predictor of overall survival (OS) together with distant metastasis and intermediate and high-grade tumors. Conclusions:IMP3 expression is highly important in evaluating the outcome of MEC. IMP3 can be used to differentiate MEC from PA of salivary glands. PMID:27458536

  2. Microcystic/Reticular Schwannoma Arising in the Submandibular Gland: A Rare Benign Entity that Mimics More Common Salivary Gland Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ryan P; Melamed, Jonathan; Yee-Chang, Melissa; Marcus, Sonya; Givi, Babak; Zamuco, Ronaldo

    2016-09-01

    Microcystic/reticular schwannoma is a recently described variant of schwannoma with a predilection for the gastrointestinal tract, rarely involving the head/neck region. This is the first reported case involving the submandibular gland. We present a case in a 34 year old man with 4.5 cm submandibular mass. Fine needle aspiration suggested a spindle cell lesion. Frozen section evaluation raised the possibility of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Resection showed a well circumscribed mass with a mucoid appearance. Histologic findings include a lobular architecture with fibrous septa, a lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate, and scattered lymphoid aggregates at the periphery. There are two distinct histologic patterns with solid areas of spindle cells and areas of spindle/ovoid cells with a microcystic pattern in a myxoid background. The tumor has a pushing border, with extension into adipose and adjacent parenchyma, without cytologic atypia or necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains are positive for S-100 and CD34, and negative for calponin, mammoglobin, ALK1, p63, ER, GFAP, SMA, desmin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and C-Kit. Mucicarmine stain is negative. Recognition of this benign unusual variant of schwannoma is paramount for appropriate conservative treatment due to the morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with primary salivary gland carcinomas. PMID:26621673

  3. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kini, Yogesh; Desai, Chirag; Mahindra, Uma; Kalburge, Jitendra

    2012-04-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells' invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years. PMID:22919226

  4. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  5. Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts Lead the Invasion of Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells by Creating an Invasive Track

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Jia, Zhuqiang; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Fuyin; Fang, Shimeng; Li, Xiaojie; Li, Wuwei; Yang, Xuesong; Luo, Yong; Lin, Bingcheng; Liu, Tingjiao

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are critical in determining tumor invasion and metastasis. However the role of CAFs in the invasion of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is poorly understood. In this study, we isolated primary CAFs from two ACC patients. ACC-derived CAFs expressed typical CAF biomarkers and showed increased migration and invasion activity. Conditioned medium collected from CAFs significantly promoted ACC cell migration and invasion. Co-culture of CAFs with ACC cells in a microfluidic device further revealed that CAFs localized at the invasion front and ACC cells followed the track behind the CAFs. Interfering of both matrix metalloproteinase and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway inhibited ACC invasion promoted by CAFs. Overall, our study demonstrates that ACC-derived CAFs exhibit the most important defining feature of CAFs by promoting cancer invasion. In addition to secretion of soluble factors, CAFs also lead ACC invasion by creating an invasive track in the ECM. PMID:26954362

  6. Salivary gland emergencies.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Matthew A; Turturro, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    Salivary gland disorders are uncommon in the emergency department setting. Given the vast differential that spans infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and metabolic processes, they can pose a diagnostic challenge even to skilled clinicians. There is a paucity of evidence-based data regarding the management of these disorders with frequent incongruence between specific sources. Although by no means exhaustive or absolute, this article reconciles existing literature and serves as a concise and informative guide to salivary gland disorders encountered by the emergency care practitioner. PMID:23601484

  7. EWSR1 genetic rearrangements in salivary gland tumors: a specific and very common feature of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Akeesha A; LeGallo, Robin D; van Zante, Annemieke; Frierson, Henry F; Mills, Stacey E; Berean, Kenneth W; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Stelow, Edward B

    2013-04-01

    The Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) is translocated in many sarcomas. Recently, its rearrangement has been described in salivary gland hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas (HCCCs) and in a subset of soft tissue myoepitheliomas. This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of salivary gland lesions including classic myoepitheliomas and HCCCs. Using a tissue microarray and whole-mount sections, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on a variety of salivary gland lesions including HCCCs. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 87% of HCCCs (13 of 15); all other salivary gland lesions including classic myoepitheliomas had intact EWSR1. Patients with HCCCs with rearranged EWSR1 included 1 man, 10 women, and 2 of unknown sex. Ages ranged from 35 to 83 years; the tumor size ranged from 0.8 to 5.5 cm, and the involved locations included: palate (2), base of the tongue (2), mandible (2), submandibular gland (2), lip (1), floor of the mouth (1), sublingual gland (1), inner cheek (1), and nasopharynx (1). All HCCCs were composed of sheets and nests of monotonous cells with clear cytoplasm within a hyalinized stroma. All tested cases were immunoreactive with antibodies to p63 and were nonreactive with antibodies to more conventional myoepithelial antigens (e.g., smooth muscle actin and S100 protein). These findings show that the EWSR1 rearrangement is almost a defining feature of HCCCs and also confirm that classic salivary gland myoepitheliomas are distinct from these tumors and do not share a pathogenetic relationship with their soft tissue counterparts. PMID:23426124

  8. The prognostic significance of β-catenin, cyclin D1 and PIN1 in minor salivary gland carcinoma: β-catenin predicts overall survival.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Thurnher, Dietmar; Seemann, Rudolf; Brunner, Markus; Kadletz, Lorenz; Ghanim, Bahil; Aumayr, Klaus; Heiduschka, Gregor; Lill, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinoma is a rare and heterogeneous type of cancer. Molecular prognostic and predictive markers are sparse. The aim of this study was to identify new prognostic and predictive markers in minor salivary gland carcinoma. 50 tissue samples of carcinomas of the minor salivary glands (adenoid cystic carcinoma n = 23, mucoepidermoid carcinoma n = 12, adenocarcinoma n = 10, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma n = 2, salivary duct carcinoma n = 1, clear cell carcinoma n = 1, basal cell carcinoma n = 1) were immunohistochemically stained for β-catenin, cyclin D1 and PIN1. Expression patterns were analyzed and correlated to clinical outcome of 37 patients with complete clinical data. High expression of membranous β-catenin was linked to significantly better overall survival in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (log rank test, χ (2) = 13.3, p = .00397, Bonferroni corrected p = .024). PIN1 and cyclin D1 did not show any significant correlation to patients' clinical outcome. Expression of β-catenin in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands significantly correlates with better overall survival. Hence, evaluation of β-catenin might serve as a clinical prognostic marker. PMID:25801951

  9. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Christou, Andri; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios; Frangos, Savvas; Tamana, Panayiota; Charalambous, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000-10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, p < 0.10, and p < 0.05, resp.). Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p < 0.001). Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p = 0.37), whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p = 0.99). Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions. PMID:27446226

  10. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Frangos, Savvas; Tamana, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, p < 0.10, and p < 0.05, resp.). Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p < 0.001). Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p = 0.37), whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p = 0.99). Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions. PMID:27446226

  11. Genetic alterations in salivary gland cancers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Linda X; Ha, Patrick K

    2016-06-15

    Salivary gland cancers are an incredibly heterogeneous group of tumors that include 24 histologically distinct tumor types. The use of new genetic methods has paved the way for promising advancements in our understanding of the molecular biology underlying each type of tumor. The objective of this review was to highlight common oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and cytogenetic and epigenetic changes associated with the most common tumor types: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, and acinic cell carcinoma. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of each cancer subtype have helped better define and classify these tumors. Further research in salivary gland cancers should focus on determining the key genes involved in the tumorigenesis of each distinct malignancy and identifying individualized chemotherapies directed at these targets. Cancer 2016;122:1822-31. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26928905

  12. Ghrelin immunohistochemistry of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Aydin, S; Ozercan, I H; Dagli, F; Aydin, S; Dogru, O; Celebi, S; Akin, O; Guzel, S P

    2005-01-01

    Ghrelin (G-HH) synthesized in several tissues including salivary and stomach glands stimulates appetite in humans by modulating neuropeptide Y neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Loss of appetite is one of the most important symptoms of stomach cancer. We conducted a study using immunohistochemistry to determine whether salivary glands and stomach cancer tissues produce ghrelin. We determined that negative ghrelin immunohistochemistry discriminates tumors from normal tissues and may therefore further our understanding of the clinically important problem of reduced food intake and anorexia in cancer patients. Radioimmunoassay analyses confirmed that cancer cells do not produce a G-HH peptide, whereas normal cells yield this peptide. PMID:16298902

  13. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Din, Nasir Ud; Fatima, Saira; Kayani, Naila

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumor sharing the histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular profile of secretory carcinoma of breast. We aimed to evaluate the morphologic and histochemical features needed/required for the diagnosis of MASC without adjunct of molecular analysis. Six retrospective cases suspicious for MASC and 5 prospective cases reported as MASC were included in the study. Molecular analysis of ETV6 by fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed at the University of Pittsburg, USA. The ages of the patients ranged from 9 to 60 years (mean, 27.5 years). Histologically, all tumors showed mixed growth patterns including microcystic, macrocystic, papillary, tubular, and solid, papillary the being most common pattern. The tumor cells showed round to oval vesicular nuclei with small nucleoli, and eosinophilic to vacuolated cytoplasm. All cases demonstrated luminal and cytoplasmic mucin on periodic acid-Schiff with and without diastase digestion and alcian blue stain. ETV6 fusion gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization was detected in 10 of 11 tumors. Recurrences occurred in 3 patients, and 1 patient died of disease 5 years after surgery. In conclusion, MASC is a relatively rare salivary gland malignancy exhibiting distinct histologic and histochemical features which can help to differentiate it from other mimics. Histologically, papillary-cystic and microcystic patterns are the main clues to diagnosis. The follicular pattern of acinic cell carcinoma might represent MASC, as 4 cases in our series had this pattern. Two patients in our series were 9 and 9½ years old respectively, which are the youngest ages ever recorded for MASC. PMID:27180060

  14. Acquired von Willebrand's disease associated with epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Chilvers, Geoffrey Spencer; Porter, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This is the first case report of a patient with acquired von Willebrand's disease (AvWD) secondary to epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of the parotid salivary gland. This patient presented to haematology following an abnormal bleeding episode with von Willebrand factor Ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) <5% and VWF:Ag 13%. He was diagnosed with AvWD. At the same time he was found to have a left parotid lump which was excised following a multidisciplinary team meeting. This was histologically reported as an EMC. Following excision, unusually this patient's AvWD did not resolve. Extensive investigation looking for other causes of the AvWD did not reveal any other potential cause; therefore, due to the similar timing of onset of both pathologies it is felt that the AvWD in this case is secondary to the EMC. This case report highlights the presentation, investigation and management of AvWD and parotid lumps as well as discussing proposed pathophysiological mechanisms for AvWD. PMID:25096657

  15. Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. PMID:22807408

  16. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary glands: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Débora Lima; Corrêa, Marcelo Brum; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare tumor, especially in the minor salivary glands. This case report describes a 40-year-old man who presented with an EMC on the palate. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a biphasic structure consisting of duct-lining cuboidal cells in the inner layer and clear myoepithelial cells in the outer layer. The clear cells predominated, and the diagnosis was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining. The inner cuboidal epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratins, whereas the outer cells were positive for S-100 protein and smooth muscle actin. The patient was treated with a wide surgical excision, and no recurrence or metastasis was observed at a 10-year follow-up. A literature review found only 30 well-documented cases of EMC in the intraoral minor salivary glands. PMID:27599278

  17. Inhibition of STAT3 reduces proliferation and invasion in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lin-Lin; Deng, Wei-Wei; Huang, Cong-Fa; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we accessed the expression and correlation of p-STAT3 with Survivin, Cyclin D1, CD147, Slug and Ki67 by immunohistochemical staining of human tissue microarray which contains 72 adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 18 normal salivary gland (NSG) using digital pathological scanner and scoring system. We found that the expression of p-STAT3, Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147 was significantly increased in AdCC as compared with PMA and (or) NSG (p<0.05). While, the level of p-STAT3 and expression of Cyclin D1 and CD147 was not associated with pathological type of human AdCC (p>0.05). Correlation analysis of these proteins revealed that p-STAT3 up-regulates the expression of Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147 (p<0.05). Moreover, the activation of STAT3 was associated with proliferation marker Ki-67 (p<0.05). Selective inhibition of STAT3 by a small molecule S3I-201 significantly reduced human SACC-83 and SACC-LM cells proliferation, migration and invasion with the corresponding decrease in expression of Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147. These findings indicate that high phosphorylation level of STAT3 in AdCC is related to Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147. We suggest that the inhibition of STAT3 may be a novel strategy for neoadjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment of AdCC. PMID:26175943

  18. Inhibition of STAT3 reduces proliferation and invasion in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lin-Lin; Deng, Wei-Wei; Huang, Cong-Fa; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we accessed the expression and correlation of p-STAT3 with Survivin, Cyclin D1, CD147, Slug and Ki67 by immunohistochemical staining of human tissue microarray which contains 72 adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 18 normal salivary gland (NSG) using digital pathological scanner and scoring system. We found that the expression of p-STAT3, Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147 was significantly increased in AdCC as compared with PMA and (or) NSG (p<0.05). While, the level of p-STAT3 and expression of Cyclin D1 and CD147 was not associated with pathological type of human AdCC (p>0.05). Correlation analysis of these proteins revealed that p-STAT3 up-regulates the expression of Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147 (p<0.05). Moreover, the activation of STAT3 was associated with proliferation marker Ki-67 (p<0.05). Selective inhibition of STAT3 by a small molecule S3I-201 significantly reduced human SACC-83 and SACC-LM cells proliferation, migration and invasion with the corresponding decrease in expression of Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147. These findings indicate that high phosphorylation level of STAT3 in AdCC is related to Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147. We suggest that the inhibition of STAT3 may be a novel strategy for neoadjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment of AdCC. PMID:26175943

  19. Local-regional recurrence after surgery without postoperative irradiation for carcinomas of the major salivary glands: Implications for adjuvant therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Granchi, Phillip J.; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, M. Kara; Fu, Karen K.; Eisele, David W. . E-mail: deisele@ohns.ucsf.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To determine factors predictive of local-regional recurrence (LRR) after surgery alone for carcinomas of the major salivary glands in an attempt to evaluate the potential role of postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 207 patients with carcinomas of the major salivary glands were treated with definitive surgery without postoperative radiation therapy. Histology was: 67 mucoepidermoid (32%), 50 adenoid cystic (24%), 34 acinic cell (16%), 23 malignant mixed (11%), 16 adenocarcinoma (8%), 6 oncocytic (3%), 6 myoepithelial (3%), and 5 other (2%). Distribution of pathologic T-stage was: 54 T1 (26%), 83 T2 (40%), 46 T3 (22%), and 24 T4 (12%). Sixty patients (29%) had microscopically positive margins. Median follow-up was 6.1 years (range, 0.5-18.7 years). Results: The 5-year and 10-year estimates of local-regional control were 86% and 74%, respectively. A Cox proportional hazard model identified pathologic lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 4.8; p = 0.001), high histologic grade (HR, 4.2; p = 0.003), positive margins (HR, 2.6; p = 0.03), and T3-4 disease (HR, 2.0; p = 0.04) as independent predictors of LRR. The presence of any one of these factors was associated with 10-year local-regional control rates of 37% to 63%. Conclusion: Lymph node metastasis, high tumor grade, positive margins, and T3-4 stage predict for significant rates of LRR after surgery for carcinomas of the major salivary glands. Postoperative radiation therapy should be considered for patients with these disease characteristics.

  20. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  1. Distant Metastases in Patients with Carcinoma of the Major Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Safina; Bryant, Robert; Palmer, Frank L.; DiLorenzo, Monica; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to show the incidence of distant metastases (DM) in salivary gland cancer as well as the types of histology most commonly associated with it and to identify factors predictive of DM. Methods The study identified 301 patients who underwent surgery for cancer of the major salivary glands at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer center between 1985 and 2009. Clinical, tumor, and treatment characteristics were recorded. Tumors were categorized as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk pathology based on histologic subtype and grade. Factors predictive of distant recurrence-free probability (DRFP) were determined by uni- and multivariable analyses. Results The primary tumor was parotid in 266 patients (88 %), and 96 tumors (32 %) were clinical T3/T4. For 57 patients (18.9 %), DM developed with a 5-year DRFP of 72.7 %. The most common site of metastasis was the lung (50 %). The clinical predictors were male gender, cT4 stage, cN+ stage, and clinical overall stage. The multivariable analysis of clinical variables showed male gender (p = 0.018), cT4 stage (p < 0.001), and cN+ stage (p = 0.004) to be significant. The pathologic predictors were high-risk and high-grade pathology, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, positive margins, pT4 stage, pN+ stage, and overall stage. The multivariable analysis of pathologic variables showed high-grade pathology (p < 0.001), perineural invasion (p = 0.005), and pN+ stage (p = 0.002) to be significant. Conclusions Distant metastases developed in approximately 20 % of the patients with salivary gland cancer. The most common site of metastases was the lung. The significant predictors of DM were cT4, cN+, male gender, high-grade pathology, perineural invasion, and positive nodal disease. PMID:25743328

  2. In Vivo Visualization of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland.

    PubMed

    Lütje, Susanne; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Lauenstein, Thomas; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten D

    2016-06-01

    As the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in the neovasculature of several malignancies, it might serve as a target in oncology. Ga-PSMA PET/CT and PET/MRI were performed in a female who developed pulmonary metastases from an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right sublingual salivary gland after incomplete resection of the primary tumor and radiotherapy. Uptake of Ga-PSMA in tumors was observed, indicating PSMA expression. Moreover, a new cerebral metastasis was detected. Potentially, Ga-PSMA PET might be used for noninvasive assessment of adenoid cystic carcinoma to evaluate whether patients apply for PSMA-based radiotherapy when no further treatment options are available. PMID:27055136

  3. Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

    2010-10-01

    Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ⁄ or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences. PMID:20412448

  4. Poorly differentiated salivary gland carcinoma with prominent squamous metaplasia in a pregnant Wistar Hannover rat.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yuko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Takahashi, Naofumi; Akema, Satoshi; Soma, Katsumi; Ohnuma-Koyama, Aya; Sato, Akira; Kuwahara, Maki; Harada, Takanori

    2016-06-01

    A subcutaneous pale brown-colored mass was observed macroscopically in the ventral neck of a 16-week-old Wistar rat on day 18 of gestation. The mass was well demarcated from the adjacent tissues with partial invasion into connective tissues. Necrosis and hemorrhage were evident throughout the mass. The mass comprised a diffuse sheet and a nest-like structure of epithelial cells with prominent squamous metaplasia. The neoplastic cells tested immunopositive for keratin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and p63. A portion of the neoplastic cells exhibited a similar immunoreaction of prominin-1 to the ductal and acinar cells in normal submandibular and parotid glands. Collectively, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma derived from epithelial/myoepithelial lineages in the submandibular and/or parotid glands. PMID:26782134

  5. Poorly differentiated salivary gland carcinoma with prominent squamous metaplasia in a pregnant Wistar Hannover rat

    PubMed Central

    SHIMADA, Yuko; YOSHIDA, Toshinori; TAKAHASHI, Naofumi; AKEMA, Satoshi; SOMA, Katsumi; OHNUMA-KOYAMA, Aya; SATO, Akira; KUWAHARA, Maki; HARADA, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    A subcutaneous pale brown-colored mass was observed macroscopically in the ventral neck of a 16-week-old Wistar rat on day 18 of gestation. The mass was well demarcated from the adjacent tissues with partial invasion into connective tissues. Necrosis and hemorrhage were evident throughout the mass. The mass comprised a diffuse sheet and a nest-like structure of epithelial cells with prominent squamous metaplasia. The neoplastic cells tested immunopositive for keratin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and p63. A portion of the neoplastic cells exhibited a similar immunoreaction of prominin-1 to the ductal and acinar cells in normal submandibular and parotid glands. Collectively, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma derived from epithelial/myoepithelial lineages in the submandibular and/or parotid glands. PMID:26782134

  6. Patterns of nodal relapse after surgery and postoperative radiation therapy for carcinomas of the major and minor salivary glands: What is the role of elective neck irradiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com; Garcia, Joaquin; Lee, Nancy Y.; Bucci, M. Kara; Eisele, David W.

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of nodal relapses from carcinomas of the salivary glands among patients with clinically negative necks in an attempt to determine the potential utility of elective neck irradiation (ENI). Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 251 patients with clinically N0 carcinomas of the salivary glands were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. None of the patients had undergone previous neck dissection. Histology was: adenoid cystic (84 patients), mucoepidermoid (60 patients), adenocarcinoma (58 patients), acinic cell (21 patients), undifferentiated (11 patients), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (7 patients), squamous cell (7 patients), and salivary duct carcinoma (3 patients); 131 patients (52%) had ENI. Median follow-up was 62 months (range, 3-267 months). Results: The 5- and 10-year actuarial estimates of nodal relapse were 11% and 13%, respectively. The 10-year actuarial rates of nodal failure were 7%, 5%, 12%, and 16%, for patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 disease, respectively (p = 0.11). The use of ENI reduced the 10-year nodal failure rate from 26% to 0% (p = 0.0001). The highest crude rates of nodal relapse among those treated without ENI were found in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (67%), undifferentiated carcinoma (50%), adenocarcinoma (34%), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (29%). There were no nodal failures observed among patients with adenoid cystic or acinic cell histology. Conclusion: ENI effectively prevents nodal relapses and should be used for select patients at high risk for regional failure.

  7. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  8. Salivary gland tumors: a diagnostic dilemma!

    PubMed

    Peravali, Ranjit Kumar; Bhat, H Hari Kishore; Upadya, Varsha H; Agarwal, Anmol; Naag, Sushma

    2015-03-01

    Salivary gland tumors generate considerable interest because of their heterogeneous and variable histology, grade of malignancy, and clinical behavior. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is considered the first diagnostic modality for salivary neoplasms due to its ready availability and ease of performance. However it cannot always be relied upon in isolation, and should be used in conjunction with other investigations like incisional biopsy. We present two cases, which highlight the drawbacks of relying on FNAC alone, which resulted in misdiagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma as pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25848154

  9. Follicular lymphoma of the submandibular salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Shashidara, R.; Prasad, Priyanka R.; Jaishankar; Joseph, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas are neoplastic diseases of lymph nodes. Lymphoma of the salivary gland is rare accounting for less than 5% of lymphomas overall. Furthermore, lymphomas arising in the submandibular gland are reported to comprise 916% of all salivary gland lymphomas. Among lymphomas originating from salivary glands, the ratio of follicular lymphoma is very low. They can also be seen in the lymph nodes of the salivary glands which is an uncommon presentation. Here, we present a case follicular lymphoma which presented as a salivary gland tumour. PMID:25364171

  10. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary duct stones Poor cleanliness in the mouth ( oral hygiene ) Low amounts of water in the body, most ... home to help with recovery include: Practice good oral hygiene. Brush your teeth and floss well at least ...

  11. Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland Harboring HRAS Codon 61 Mutations With Lung Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chou, Yueh-Hung

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report a case involving a 43-year-old man diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma in 2007. At the same time, 2 small lung nodules were incidentally found; however, they presented no indication of growth throughout the follow-up period. However, a 1.5-cm nodule located in the right parotid gland in 2010 gradually increased in size to 2.8 cm by 2012. A parotidectomy revealed an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, characterized by biphasic tubular structures and solid areas presenting myoepithelial overgrowth. Tumor necrosis and regional lymph node invasion were also observed. During clinical follow-up in 2013, a new 1.3-cm nodule was identified in the left lower lobe of the lung, which enlarged to 3 cm by 2014. Wedge resection of the left lung nodules revealed round nodes with well-defined borders. Histologically, these lung tumors predominantly comprised spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells with occasional tubular structures. Numerous cleft-like spaces lined by entrapped TTF-1-immunoreactive pneumocytes were observed inside the nodules. The lung nodules were characterized by a morphology similar to that of the parotid cancer. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with lung metastasis was confirmed by molecular testing, which revealed identical HRAS codon 61 (Q61K) mutations in the primary parotid tumor as well as in the lung metastases. PMID:26675036

  12. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan) synthesized by ACC3, adenoid cystic carcinoma cells of human salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Cheng, J; Toyoshima, K; Oda, K; Saku, T

    1999-02-01

    The biosynthesis of basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), known as perlecan, in ACC3 cells established from a adenoid cystic carcinoma of the human salivary gland was studied using metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation with discriminative antibodies specific for HSPG core protein. Treatment of immunoprecipitated HSPG with HNO2, heparitinase, and chondroitinase ABC revealed that ACC3 cells synthesized HSPG molecules composed of 470-kDa core protein and heparan sulfate but not of chondroitin sulfate. The core protein was shown to contain complex type N-linked oligosaccharides by digestion with N-glycanase and endoglycosidase H. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the mature form of HSPG was formed in the cells in 30 min and released into the medium thereafter. Degradation of HSPG was also found in the chase period of 3 h. In time course experiments, HSPG was found to be synthesized maximally at day 4 after plating, deposited in the cell layer maximally at day 6, and secreted maximally at day 8. This was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, Northern blotting, and in-situ hybridization. The results indicate that ACC3 cells synthesize, secrete and degrade basement membrane type HSPG, which is analogous to those produced by other cell types, and that the biosynthesis and secretion of HSPG in ACC3 cells are strictly regulated by the cell growth, that may be reflected in the characteristic histology of adenoid cystic carcinomas. PMID:9990141

  13. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  14. Clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified/hyalinising clear cell carcinoma of the salivary gland: The current nomenclature, clinical/pathological characteristics and management.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Luca; Nikolarakos, Dimitrios; Keenan, Jonathon; Schaefer, Nathan; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-06-01

    Clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS)/hyalinising clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare entity in salivary gland tumour. The aim of the research is to review the current concepts and characteristics of this carcinoma. The clinical and pathological data of the disease obtained from literature and two original cases were analysed. Overall, 152 cases were reviewed up to the year 2014. The carcinomas were noted often in woman, in the seventh decade of life, located in oral cavity and as early-stages cancers. On pathological examination, they were characterized by tumour cells having clear cell morphology with hyalinised stroma. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the carcinoma is positive for cytokeratin and negative for myoepithelial differentiation. EWSR1-ATF1 fusion is specific for the carcinoma. Also, 9% of the reported cases had local nodal metastasis, with 6 cases demonstrating distant metastases at presentation. On follow-up, 22% of patients had recurrent or with persistent diseases after surgery. The time for the first recurrence could be as long as 24 years. Risk factors for recurrence include advanced stage at diagnosis and metastases at presentation. To conclude, HCCC is a low grade malignancy but have the potential for local metastases, recurrence, distant metastases and cancer-related death. PMID:27150676

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  16. MTA1 Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Mirhadi, Hosein; Torabi-Ardekani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are important parts of human neoplasms. The most common SGT is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common malignant SGTs are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Metastasis-associated genes 1 (MTA1), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is one newly discovered gene which recruits histone deacetylation, causing ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling, and regulating transcription. MTA1 had been shown to be overexpressed in malignant tumors with the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples of salivary gland tumors from the Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 17 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 19 cases of ACC, and 23 cases of normal salivary gland tissues were chosen for immunohistochemical analysis of MTA1. Results: MTA1 expression in the malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in pleomorphic adenoma (P<0.001), and higher in pleomorphic adenoma than the normal salivary glands(P< 0.001). In total, 69.6% of normal salivary gland tissues showed MTA1, but all cases of salivary gland tumors were positive for MTA1. High nuclear expression of MTA1 was detected in 83.3% (30/36) of the malignant salivary gland tumors and 45% (9/20) of pleomorphic adenoma, while low MTA1 expression was seen in all of the normal salivary gland tissues. No statistically significant correlation was found between MTA1 protein expression and any clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA1 was significantly overexpressed in malignant salivary gland neoplasm in comparison to a lower level in benign pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting that MTA1 protein might be involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:26878004

  17. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  18. Salivary gland diseases: infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Delli, Konstantina; Spijkervet, Fred K L; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary duct, an autoimmmune disease or cancer therapy. Infections can occur in all types of salivary glands and are observed at all ages. Sialolithiasis is characterized by the development of calcified structures in the salivary glands, especially in the submandibular gland. Sialoliths are generally attributed to retention of saliva and are usually accompanied by swelling and pain when a salivary stimulus is applied. Mucoceles can be differentiated into mucus extravasation phenomenon or mucus escape reaction, mucus retention cysts and ranulas. They result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissues or from retention of saliva within the duct. PMID:24862601

  19. Identification of methylated genes in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma xenografts using global demethylation and methylation microarray screening

    PubMed Central

    LING, SHIZHANG; RETTIG, ELENI M.; TAN, MARIETTA; CHANG, XIAOFEI; WANG, ZHIMING; BRAIT, MARIANA; BISHOP, JUSTIN A.; FERTIG, ELANA J.; CONSIDINE, MICHAEL; WICK, MICHAEL J.; HA, PATRICK K.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare head and neck malignancy without molecular biomarkers that can be used to predict the chemotherapeutic response or prognosis of ACC. The regulation of gene expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) through DNA promoter methylation may play a role in the carcinogenesis of ACC. To identify differentially methylated genes in ACC, a global demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) was utilized to unmask putative TSG silencing in ACC xenograft models in mice. Fresh xenografts were passaged, implanted in triplicate in mice that were treated with 5-AZA daily for 28 days. These xenografts were then evaluated for genome-wide DNA methylation patterns using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip array. Validation of the 32 candidate genes was performed by bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) in a separate cohort of 6 ACC primary tumors and 6 normal control salivary gland tissues. Hypermethylation was identified in the HCN2 gene promoter in all 6 control tissues, but hypomethylation was found in all 6 ACC tumor tissues. Quantitative validation of HCN2 promoter methylation level in the region detected by BS-seq was performed in a larger cohort of primary tumors (n=32) confirming significant HCN2 hypomethylation in ACCs compared with normal samples (n=10; P=0.04). HCN2 immunohistochemical staining was performed on an ACC tissue microarray. HCN2 staining intensity and H-score, but not percentage of the positively stained cells, were significantly stronger in normal tissues than those of ACC tissues. With our novel screening and sequencing methods, we identified several gene candidates that were methylated. The most significant of these genes, HCN2, was actually hypomethylated in tumors. However, promoter methylation status does not appear to be a major determinant of HCN2 expression in normal and ACC tissues. HCN2 hypomethylation is a biomarker of ACC and may play an important role in the

  20. Salivary Gland Cancers: Biology and Systemic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Mehdi, Syed A; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of tumors with variable pathologic and phenotypic characteristics. The lack of clinical outcomes data and randomized controlled trials pertaining to them makes it difficult to formulate definitive treatment protocols that could help with making decisions regarding choice of therapy. Most studies involving systemic chemotherapy have not shown promising patient outcome results. With recent advances in molecular technology, however, it is now possible to identify specific genetic alterations and biomarkers as possible targets for therapeutic purposes. For example, in mucoepidermoid carcinomas, one of the most common types of malignant salivary gland tumors, a commonly seen genetic translocation [t(11;19)(q21;p13), which involves the CRTC1 and MAML2 genes] has been found to be associated with improved survival, making it a possible prognostic marker. Also, this translocation gives rise to a fusion protein that appears to render tumors highly sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition. However, the results of phase II trials of EGFR inhibitors-as well as other targeted agents--in salivary gland tumors have been disappointing: there has been some disease stabilization but no objective responses. There remains a need for well-designed prospective clinical studies to improve management of these tumors. PMID:26470903

  1. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments. PMID:26323261

  2. Prevalence and associated survival of high-risk HPV-related adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Chen, Chao; Tzamalis, Georgios; Hofmann, Veit M; Keilholz, Ulrich; Hummel, Michael; Albers, Andreas E

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is a rare malignancy, but a frequent subtype in minor and major salivary glands. The molecular alterations or biomarkers that underlie its development and progression as well as therapy outcomes are poorly characterized. The main study goal was to investigate reliable biomarkers and patient-related factors that may have impact on recurrence and long-term survival of SACC. The prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in SACC was determined by HPV-DNA genotyping and p16 immunostaining. Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53 and Ki-67 expression were also evaluated. Twenty-eight (42%) of 67 patients were HPV-DNA positive. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that SACC patients with metastases (P=0.03) had a poor overall survival (OS) and a shorter recurrence-free survival (P<0.001). Positive resection margins significantly predicted shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, non-metastatic disease (P=0.033) and p16 positivity (P=0.005) have shown their prediction value for OS while non-metastatic disease (P=0.002), HPV positivity (P=0.041) and negative resection margin predicted a better recurrence-free survival. The present study documents for the first time the positivity for HPV infection and overexpression of certain markers (p16, Ki-67, EGFR and p53) used in diagnostics in SACC as well as characterizes clinical entities. These factors might be exploited in the future as biomarkers for its prognostic value. Using the clinical and pathological basis for predicting different outcomes could significantly facilitate SACC stratification and potentially directing treatment. PMID:27279281

  3. The Role of Autophagy in Salivary Gland Homeostasis and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, M.; Lin, H.H.; Ann, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process that has been shown to have a role in many cellular processes including the removal of excessive or damaged proteins and protein aggregates. The salivary glands play a critical role in oral health, and their secretory capacity may be critically intertwined with the autophagic process. This review describes the role of autophagy activation in normal salivary gland homeostasis and during the glandular stress responses of therapeutic radiation, ductal ligation, autoimmunity, and salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. PMID:26092378

  4. Surgical Management of Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms of the Palate

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian A.; Burkey, Brian B.; Netterville, James L.; Butcher, R. Brent; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Minor salivary gland tumors are uncommon, accounting for up to 15% of salivary gland neoplasms. We describe our experience with both benign and malignant tumors of the palatal minor salivary glands, focusing on the extent of resection and options for defect reconstruction. Study Design: Retrospective review of medical records. Results: From 1994 to 2002, 37 patients with primary neoplasms originating in the palatal minor salivary glands were treated at a single institution. Patients ranged in age from the second to the seventh decades, with a female preponderance. Twenty-four percent of the lesions were benign. The most common malignant tumor encountered was low grade polymorphous adenocarcinoma, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. The extent of surgical resection was dictated by tumor pathology and evidence of perineural spread, and defects were reconstructed with a variety of techniques. Postoperative complications included velopharyngeal insufficiency, flap fistulization or loss, and trismus. After 1 month to 8 years of follow-up, 1 patient has died with regional and systemic metastases. Conclusions: Neoplasms of the minor salivary glands in the palate may be excised, with limits dictated by tumor histopathology and perineural invasion. Improved functional results may be achieved by immediately reconstructing the defects with rotational flaps, reserving free flaps for more extensive defects of the maxilla and infratemporal fossa. PMID:21603498

  5. Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Colby, T V; Dorfman, R F

    1979-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands are probably more common than has been previously recognized. They must be differentiated from the benign lymphoepithelial lesion, although there may be an association between the two. The entire histologic spectrum of malignant lymphomas found at other sites can be seen in the salivary gland. In this study of 59 patients with lymphoma affecting the salivary gland, a large percentage were found to have disseminated disease. We recommend the same rigorous clinical evaluation and staging procedures as used in patients who present with primary lymph node involvement. PMID:583554

  6. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  7. Aberrant Wnt-1/beta-catenin signaling and WIF-1 deficiency are important events which promote tumor cell invasion and metastasis in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruinan; Geng, Ning; Zhou, Yuqiao; Zhang, Dunfang; Li, Longjiang; Li, Jing; Ji, Ning; Zhou, Min; Chen, Yu; Chen, Qianming

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether Wnt components play a role in carcinogenesis, or the invasion and metastasis of salivary glands, also referred to as adenoid cystic carcinoma (sAdCC). Several sAdCC cell lines with low invasive potential (ACC-2), high metastatic potential (ACC-M), and higher invasive potential (T-ACC-M) were examined to determine whether Wnt components correlate with tumors' invasive and metastatic behavior. Immunohistochemistry was performed in a sAdCC tissue array. ACC-M expressed higher levels of Wnt-1, beta-catenin and lower WIF-1 compared to ACC-2 (P<0.05). T-ACC-M exhibited increased mRNA of Wnt-1 and beta-catenin, and decreased WIF-1 compared to ACC-2 and ACC-M. Immuno-histochemistry showed up-regulation of Wnt-1 and down-regulation of WIF-1 in sAdCC compared with normal salivary glands. Beta-catenin was found in the cytoplasm and nuclei of sAdCC. Dislocation of E-cadherin in sAdCC was observed. These results suggest that sAdCC exhibits diverse expressions of Wnt components. It has an important relationship with the invasive phenotype of these cells. PMID:26405993

  8. Surgery for Malignant Sublingual and Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Malignant sublingual gland neoplasms are rare, early-stage neoplasms presenting as painless non-ulcerated masses in the antero-lateral floor of the mouth. The majority of patients present with advanced disease, with symptoms of pain or anaesthesia of the tongue. Malignant minor salivary gland neoplasms are more common, the majority (>80%) of which present in the oral cavity, most frequently in the palatal area, as painless masses or as obstructive symptoms in the head and neck region. The most frequent pathologies are adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (>85%), with the majority presenting at an advanced stage (III/IV). Wide tumour-free surgical margin excision is the treatment of choice, followed by radiotherapy, after discussion of the multidisciplinary head and neck cancer tumour board. Improvements in survival and quality of life have been achieved since the introduction of endoscopic and robotic surgeries for many minor salivary gland malignancies. PMID:27092950

  9. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-04

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  10. c-Kit Expression is Rate-Limiting for Stem Cell Factor-Mediated Disease Progression in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands12

    PubMed Central

    Phuchareon, Janyaporn; van Zante, Annemieke; Overdevest, Jonathan B.; McCormick, Frank; Eisele, David W.; Tetsu, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands in which c-Kit is overexpressed and activated, although the mechanism for this is as yet unclear. We analyzed 27 sporadic ACC tumor specimens to examine the biologic and clinical significance of c-Kit activation. Mutational analysis revealed expression of wild-type c-Kit in all, eliminating gene mutation as a cause of activation. Because stem cell factor (SCF) is c-Kit's sole ligand, we analyzed its expression in the tumor cells and their environment. Immunohistochemistry revealed its presence in c-Kit–positive tumor cells, suggesting an activation of autocrine signaling. We observed a significant induction of ERK1/2 in the cells. SCF staining was also found in other types of non-cancerous cells adjacent to tumors within salivary glands, including stromal fibroblasts, neutrophils, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelial cells, mucous acinar cells, and intercalated ducts. Quantitative PCR showed that the top quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression distinguished ACCs from normal salivary tissues and was cross-correlated with short-term poor prognosis. Expression levels of SCF and c-Kit were highly correlated in the cases with perineural invasion. These observations suggest that c-Kit is potentially activated by receptor dimerization upon stimulation by SCF in ACC, and that the highest quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression could be a predictor of poor prognosis. Our findings may support an avenue for c-Kit-targeted therapy to improve disease control in ACC patients harboring the top quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression. PMID:25389449

  11. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Carrozzo, M; Pentenero, M; Bertolusso, G; Gandolfo, S

    2006-05-01

    A wide range of non neoplastic disorders can affect the salivary glands, although the more common are: mumps, acute suppurative sialadenitis, Sjögren's syndrome and drug-induced xerostomia. Salivary dysfunction is not a normal consequence of old age, and can be due to systemic diseases, medications or head and neck radiotherapy. Diagnosis of salivary disorders begins with a careful medical history, followed by a cautious examination. While complaints of xerostomia may be indicative of a salivary gland disorder, salivary diseases can present without symptoms. Therefore, routine examination of salivary function must be part of any head, neck, and oral examination. Health-care professionals can play a vital role in identifying patients at risk for developing salivary dysfunction, and should provide appropriate preventive and interventive techniques that will help to preserving a person's health, function, and quality of life. The present work provides an overview of most of the non neoplastic disorders of the salivary glands, in which the general presentation, pathology, and treatments are discussed. PMID:16688102

  12. Indications for Salivary Gland Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, David J; Slevin, Nick J; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-01-01

    There is an established role for post-operative radiotherapy in the treatment of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. For benign disease, the addition of radiotherapy improves local tumour control in cases with incomplete excision, involved surgical margins or multi-focal disease recurrence. After capsule rupture or spillage alone, surveillance should usually be advised. For malignant disease, post-operative radiotherapy is recommended for an advanced tumour stage, high-grade tumour, perineural or lympho-vascular invasion, close or positive resection margins, extra-parotid extension or lymph node involvement. The main benefit is increased loco-regional tumour control, although this may translate into a modest improvement in survival. The possible late side effects of parotid bed irradiation include skin changes, chronic otitis externa, sensorineural hearing loss, osteoradionecrosis and secondary malignancy. Severe complications are rare, but patients should be counselled carefully about the risks. Primary radiotherapy is unlikely to be curative and is reserved to cases in which resection would cause unacceptable functional or cosmetic morbidity or would likely result in subtotal resection (R2) or to patients with distant metastases to gain local tumour control. There are provisional data on the use of charged particle radiotherapy in this setting. Some patients may benefit from synchronous chemotherapy with radiotherapy, but this group is not defined, and data from comparative prospective studies are required before routine clinical use of this treatment. PMID:27093301

  13. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands. PMID:8773904

  14. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  15. Is DOG1 really useful in the diagnosis of salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma? - A DOG1 (clone K9) analysis in fine needle aspiration cell blocks and the review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Canberk, Sule; Onenerk, Mine; Sayman, Elif; Goret, Ceren Canbey; Erkan, Murat; Atasoy, Tugba; Kilicoglu, Gamze Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: DOG1 is a transmembrane protein originally “discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumors,” works as a calcium-activated chloride channel protein. There is a limited number of studies on the potential usage of this antibody in the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors on routine practice in cell blocks. The aim of this study was to search for the usefulness of K9 clone in oncocytic type tumors and review of the literature. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic materials of predominantly oncocytic morphology salivary gland tumors; acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) (n = 8), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 2), pleomorphic adenoma (PA) (n = 22), Warthin tumor (WT) (n = 20), myoepithelioma (ME) (n = 5), benign oncocytoma (BeO) (n = 3), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (n = 7), mammary analog salivary gland carcinoma (n = 2) were immunostained with DOG1 (clone K9) stain. Results: Of the 8 AciCCs, 7 were observed apical-luminal positive staining, demonstrating 1–3 + intensity, and involving 40–70% of the tumor cells. One MEC of 7 (14%), 1 ME of 5 (20%), and 4 PA of 22 (18%) showed weak (1+) cytoplasmic granular staining in 5–10% of the tumor cells. Pure oncocytic neoplasms (WT, BeO) showed no expression with DOG1-K9. Conclusions: FNA is a common tool in the diagnosis and management of salivary gland tumors. DOG1-K9 clone was very useful with a unique staining pattern of apical-luminal positivity in the differential diagnosis of AciCC from other oncocytic salivary gland tumors. PMID:26425134

  16. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  17. Osteoradionecrosis in patients with salivary gland malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, J Rhet; Xu, Li; Sturgis, Erich M.; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Hofstede, Theresa M.; Chambers, Mark S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Fuller, Clifton David; Beadle, Beth; Gunn, G. Brandon; Hutcheson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study was undertaken to evaluate osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in patients with salivary gland malignancies (SGM) after treatment with radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The medical records of 172 patients treated with radiation therapy for SGM during a 12-year period (August 2001 to November 2013) were reviewed. Incidence, time to event, staging and management of ORN were analyzed. RESULTS Of the 172 patients, 7 patients (4%) developed ORN (median latency: 19 months, range: 4–72 months). Of those 7 patients, 4 required major surgery, 1 required hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), one required minor debridement, and one required conservative management. Total prescribed radiation dose varied from 50 Gy (1 case) to 70 Gy (1 case) among those patients who developed ORN, and radiotherapy was delivered postoperatively after osseous resection in 4 of 7 cases. Three of the 7 cases of ORN occurred after traumatic injury to the bone. Of the 7 patients who developed ORN, 3 had SGM of the major glands, 3 had other sites of the oral cavity, and 1 had a sinonasal location. CONCLUSION While the rate of ORN after radiotherapy for SGM was somewhat lower (4%) than previously published data on patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck treated with radiation therapy (8% to 14%), ORN necessitating major surgery remains a rare, but clinically significant, possible late effect of radiotherapy in SGM survivors. Location is very important, with all cases that developed ORN having primary disease arising in the oral cavity. PMID:27208837

  18. [Salivary gland-type lung tumor: An update].

    PubMed

    Gibault, Laure; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    "Salivary gland-type" tumors arising from the bronchi and lung are rare but not exceptional entities. They are mostly represented by malignant entities such as cystic adenoid carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and epithelial/myoepithelial carcinoma. Benign tumors are rare, mainly encompassing pleomorphic adenomas, which are to differentiate from mucous gland adenomas, another entity arising specifically from the peri-bronchial glands. These tumours develop in the proximal bronchi and are not associated with smoke abuse. Their main treatment is surgery. It is important to differentiate them from other broncho-pulmonary tumours as they do not share the same prognosis and therapeutic. This article will review the WHO 2015 classification of these tumours as well as recent updates from the literature to help define diagnosis criteria for these uncommon entities. PMID:26774826

  19. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-10

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  20. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  1. Primary Pulmonary Salivary Gland-type Tumors: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nadja; Weissferdt, Annikka; Kalhor, Neda; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors (SGT) comprise a very small proportion of primary lung neoplasms. The most common tumors among this group are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Contrary to the head and neck region, benign SGT such as pleomorphic adenomas are exceedingly rare in the pulmonary system. More recently, 2 additional SGT, namely hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and salivary duct-like carcinoma were recognized as primary lung tumors expanding the spectrum of SGT that have been described to originate in the tracheobronchial system. Primary pulmonary SGT must be clinically excluded from metastatic salivary gland neoplasms as their morphology is indistinguishable from that of their salivary gland counterparts. Little is known about the clinical behavior and best treatment approach for these unusual tumors. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of primary pulmonary SGT with particular emphasis on morphologic characteristics and latest developments in terms of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques. PMID:26645458

  2. A study on the inhibition of VEGF expression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells via iNOS gene RNAi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ou Yang, Ke-Xiong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Zi-Nan; Zhao, Jian-Jiang

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Using RNAi, we transfected chemically synthesised iNOS siRNA into ACC-M cells (a highly metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line) and detected the change in the gene and protein expression levels of iNOS and VEGF by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. A transwell invasiveness assay was used to examine the changes in invasive ability of ACC-M cells. Cell growth was determined using a CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis and cell-cycle phases were detected by flow cytometry. We found that silencing iNOS down-regulated the expression of VEGF and then inhibited cell growth and invasiveness of SACC cells, while it increased apoptosis. Therefore, we concluded that iNOS can regulate VEGF expression and iNOS may be a therapeutic target. PMID:25065562

  3. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  4. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Białek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  5. Salivary Gland Neoplasms in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J; Eisele, David W

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) in children are uncommon. Epithelial SGNs (ESGNs) comprise the majority (95%), with the remaining being mesenchymal SGNs (MeSGNs). Pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequently encountered benign neoplasm, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent malignant ESGN, and rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent malignant MeSGN. ESGN presents in the second decade, whereas MeSGN presents in the first and second decades. Swelling without pain or neurological signs is the main presentation of both benign and malignant neoplasms. Making an accurate preoperative histological diagnosis is important, so a needle biopsy or a perioperative frozen section is useful when there is doubt about the disease status of the patient; the excised tumour margin is also important. Surgical excision should aim to achieve clear margin excision in benign and malignant ESGNs, minimising the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and maximising the long-term likelihood of patient cure. Benign ESGNs are uncommon, and excision is curative, whereas malignant ESGN and MeSGN should be managed by a multidisciplinary paediatric oncology team. PMID:27093697

  6. Genetic variants in DNA double-strand break repair genes and risk of salivary gland carcinoma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Tang, Hongwei; El-Naggar, Adel K; Wei, Peng; Sturgis, Erich M

    2015-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) repair is the primary defense mechanism against ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Ionizing radiation is the only established risk factor for salivary gland carcinoma (SGC). We hypothesized that genetic variants in DSB repair genes contribute to individual variation in susceptibility to SGC. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study in which we analyzed 415 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 45 DSB repair genes in 352 SGC cases and 598 controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Rs3748522 in RAD52 and rs13180356 in XRCC4 were significantly associated with SGC after Bonferroni adjustment; ORs (95% CIs) for the variant alleles of these SNPs were 1.71 (1.40-2.09, P = 1.70 × 10(-7)) and 0.58 (0.45-0.74, P = 2.00 × 10(-5)) respectively. The genetic effects were modulated by histological subtype. The association of RAD52-rs3748522 with SGC was strongest for mucoepidermoid carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.55-3.15, P = 1.25 × 10(-5), n = 74), and the association of XRCC4-rs13180356 with SGC was strongest for adenoid cystic carcinoma (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.87, P = 6.91 × 10(-3), n = 123). Gene-level association analysis revealed one gene, PRKDC, with a marginally significant association with SGC risk in non-Hispanic whites. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the genetic effect of DSB repair genes on SGC risk. Our results indicate that genetic variants in the DSB repair pathways contribute to inter-individual differences in susceptibility to SGC and show that the impact of genetic variants differs by histological subtype. Independent studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26035306

  7. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 7 Is a Molecular Marker in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: Implications for Clinical Significance12

    PubMed Central

    Phuchareon, Janyaporn; Overdevest, Jonathan B.; McCormick, Frank; Eisele, David W.; van Zante, Annemieke; Tetsu, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands. Its diagnosis is difficult due to overlapping features with other salivary tumors. Gene expression analysis may complement traditional diagnostic methods. We searched gene expression patterns in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and in our tumor and normal samples. The biologic and prognostic potential of the identified genes was analyzed. The GEO data set of primary xenografted ACCs revealed that expression of five genes, engrailed homeobox 1 (EN1), fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), hemoglobin epsilon 1, MYB, and versican (VCAN), was dramatically increased. mRNA expression of EN1, FABP7, MYB, and VCAN distinguished our sporadic ACCs from normal tissues and benign tumors. FABP7 expression appeared to be regulated differently from EN1 and MYB and was crossly correlated with poor prognosis in our ACC cohort. Immunohistochemistry showed that FABP7 protein was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of myoepithelial cells of both tubular and cribriform subtypes. In contrast, in the solid subtype, which is often associated with a lower survival rate, FABP7 protein was uniformly expressed in cancerous cells. One case with cribriform architecture and the highest level of FABP7 mRNA showed strong FABP7 staining in both duct-type epithelial and myoepithelial cells, suggesting that diffuse expression of FABP7 protein might be related to aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. We propose FABP7 as a novel biomarker in ACC. The molecule may be useful in diagnosis and for identifying more effective therapies targeting this protein or upstream molecules that regulate it. PMID:25500088

  8. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the management of salivary gland tumors: an Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Stow, Nicholas; Veivers, David; Poole, Alan

    2004-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 104 cases of salivary gland tumors that were initially assessed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Based on subsequent histopathologic analysis of excised specimens, we found that preoperative FNAB was highly sensitive and specific for both benign and malignant tumors-including the most common, pleomorphic adenomas and squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Despite its possible drawbacks, we conclude that preoperative FNAB is a useful tool in the management of salivary gland tumors. PMID:15008447

  9. Recurrent Fusions in MYB and MYBL1 Define a Common, Transcription Factor-Driven Oncogenic Pathway in Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brayer, Kathryn J.; Frerich, Candace A.; Kang, Huining; Ness, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC), the second most common malignancy of salivary glands, is a rare tumor with bleak prognosis for which therapeutic targets are unavailable. We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze low-quality RNA from archival, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. In addition to detecting the most common ACC translocation, t(6;9) fusing the MYB proto-oncogene to NFIB, we also detected previously unknown t(8;9) and t(8;14) translocations fusing the MYBL1 gene to the NFIB and RAD51B genes, respectively. RNA-seq provided information about gene fusions, alternative RNA splicing and gene expression signatures. Interestingly, tumors with MYB and MYBL1 translocations displayed similar gene expression profiles, and the combined MYB and MYBL1 expression correlated with outcome, suggesting that the related Myb proteins are interchangeable oncogenic drivers in ACC. Our results provide important details about the biology of ACC and illustrate how archival tissue samples can be used for detailed molecular analyses of rare tumors. PMID:26631070

  10. Regulation and formation of the Drosophila salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Andrew, D J

    1998-04-15

    The homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is a master regulator of Drosophila salivary gland formation. Embryos in which Scr function is missing do not form salivary glands, and embryos in which SCR protein is expressed everywhere form extra salivary glands. However, other known proteins, including the homeotic protein Abdominal-B, the unusual zinc finger protein Teashirt, and the secreted signaling molecule Decapentaplegic (a TGF-beta family member), limit the recruitment of SCR-expressing cells to salivary glands. To learn the molecular details of how salivary gland gene expression is controlled and as a first step toward understanding how the SCR transcription factor controls salivary gland morphogenesis, we screened for genes expressed in the developing salivary gland. Among our best candidates for potential direct downstream targets of SCR in the salivary gland are the genes trachealess (trh), dCREB-A, jalapeño, and Semaphorin II (SemaII). Our genetic studies suggest distinct and important roles for each of these genes in salivary gland morphogenesis. Current work includes studying the molecular interactions between SCR and these downstream target genes and asking how target genes coordinate their activities to effect the cell biological changes required to build functional salivary glands. PMID:9599294

  11. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  12. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  13. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  14. Complete agenesis of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Berta, E; Bettega, G; Jouk, P S; Billy, G; Nugues, F; Morand, B

    2013-10-01

    A 4 year-old female patient was treated for persistent right-sided dacryocystitis and xerostomia. MRI was performed to screen for a dry syndrome; which resulted in the diagnosis of agenesis of the parotid and submandibular glands as well as lacrimal duct malformation. An MRI of each parent was normal. The mother's history revealed 4 days of pyrexia during the 8th week of amenorrhea. This was an isolated case, with no family history, characterized by a febrile episode during pregnancy at the period of main salivary gland genesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could be implicated. PMID:23993206

  15. Update in salivary gland cytopathology: Recent molecular advances and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc P; Faquin, William C

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are notorious for their extraordinary diversity and for the morphological overlap that exists between many of these entities. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a well-established role in the evaluation of patients with a salivary gland lesion, helping to guide clinical management. However, salivary gland FNAB has several limitations and does not allow for a specific diagnosis in some cases. For these reasons, salivary gland FNAB is considered one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. Over the last decade, new salivary gland entities have been recognized, enlarging SGT diversity and complexity even more. In addition, a subset of SGT, including common entities such as pleomorphic adenoma and uncommon new entities such as mammary analog secretory carcinoma, have been characterized cytogenetically by the presence of specific translocations. The molecular consequences of these translocations and their potential prognostic and therapeutic values are not yet well characterized. However, these translocations and their resulting fusion oncogenes and oncoproteins can be used as diagnostic clues in salivary gland FNAB material in order to overcome the limitations of cytomorphological evaluation alone. In this review, we focus on SGTs currently known to harbor translocations and fusion genes, including uncommon and recently recognized entities, and discuss their potential application to salivary gland FNAB. PMID:25613003

  16. Salivary gland malignant neoplasms: treatment and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Borthne, A.; Kjellevold, K.; Kaalhus, O.; Vermund, H.

    1986-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of 183 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors treated between 1955 and 1978 is presented. The analysis showed that radiation therapy lowered the recurrence rates after surgery and controlled approximately one-third of the inoperable tumors. A dose-response relationship exists and the data suggest that the radiation dose should not be less than that corresponding to a CRE-value of 1950 reu (70 Gy/7 weeks). Histology, location and clinical stage are important prognostic factors.

  17. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum. PMID:21170719

  18. Quality of Life after Salivary Gland Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wax, Mark K; Talmi, Yoav P

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has been recognized as an important endpoint in addition to disease-related and global survival. It is particularly important for patients with salivary gland neoplastic disease. For patients who are undergoing benign salivary gland tumor surgery, cosmetic and functional outcomes are extremely important, as these patients' psychological well-being and ability to function in society can be severely impacted. The following issues related to surgical treatment are discussed: incision, loss of local tissue sensation, development of Frey's syndrome, facial nerve function, and cosmesis. Improvements in the placement of the incision combined with additional minimally invasive procedures have improved QoL. The ultimate goal of benign parotid neoplastic surgery is complete tumor excision while avoiding cosmetic and functional damage, which includes preservation of the function of the facial nerve and its branches; this is the key to maintaining preoperative levels of QoL. There are many measures available to improve cosmesis that have minimal morbidity and that, when used, can provide significant improvements in patient outcomes. The treatment of malignant salivary gland neoplasms is primarily directed at treating the malignancy. When surgical treatment affects important neighboring structures, such as the lingual or hypoglossal nerves, as in submandibular/sublingual cancer, there is a tremendous effect on QoL if postoperative dysfunction of these structures results. Often, this treatment involves using ancillary surgical procedures, such as neck dissection, or nonsurgical treatment, such as radiation therapy. The effect of such multi-modality treatment on QoL is significant. The treatment of underlying salivary disease is often overshadowed by these adjunctive treatments. PMID:27092786

  19. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  20. Salivary gland calculi – contemporary methods of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartłomiej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

  1. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  2. Salivary Heparanase Level Is a Potential Biomarker to Diagnose and Prognose the Malignant Salivary Gland Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Shengrong; Gong, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Background Upregulation of heparanase has been reported in an increasing number of human cancer tissues. However, the level of salivary heparanase and its clinical significance in patients with salivary gland tumors remain unclear. Methods Salivary heparanase levels in patients with salivary gland tumors were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the clinical significance was evaluated by analyzing the correlations among salivary heparanase levels, clinicopathological parameters, and clinical outcomes. Results The levels of salivary heparanase were significantly higher in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors than in benign tumors and normal controls (P<0.0001). High salivary heparanase levels were positively correlated with increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0235) and poorer tumor node metastasis stage (TNM) (P = 0.0183). Survival analyses revealed that high salivary heparanase levels were associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.0023) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.0025). Conclusions The study shows that salivary heparanase levels, as detected by the ELISAs, can be used to diagnose and provide an accurate prognosis for malignant salivary gland tumors. Salivary heparanase level was an independent predictor in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors. PMID:26569485

  3. SIKVAV, a Laminin α1-Derived Peptide, Interacts with Integrins and Increases Protease Activity of a Human Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cell Line through the ERK 1/2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Vanessa M.; Vilas-Boas, Vanessa F.; Pimenta, Daniel C.; Loureiro, Vania; Juliano, Maria A.; Carvalho, Márcia R.; Pinheiro, João J.V.; Camargo, Antonio C.M.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Hoffman, Matthew P.; Jaeger, Ruy G.

    2007-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a frequently occurring malignant salivary gland neoplasm. We studied the induction of protease activity by the laminin-derived peptide, SIKVAV, in cells (CAC2) derived from this neoplasm. Laminin α1 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 were immunolocalized in adenoid cystic carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. CAC2 cells cultured on SIKVAV showed a dose-dependent increase of MMP9 as detected by zymography and colocalization of α3 and α6 integrins. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of integrin expression in CAC2 cells resulted in decreased adhesion to the peptide. SIKVAV affinity chromatography and immunoblot analysis showed that α3, α6, and β1 integrins were eluted from the SIKVAV column, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry and a solid-phase binding assay. Small interfering RNA experiments also showed that these integrins, through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling, regulate MMP secretion induced by SIKVAV in CAC2 cells. We propose that SIKVAV increases protease activity of a human salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line through α3β1 and α6β1 integrins and the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:17591960

  4. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-09-22

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  5. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K.; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N.; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  6. Interleukin-33 Expression Indicates a Favorable Prognosis in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Rössle, Matthias; Cathomas, Gieri; Bonapace, Laura; Sachs, Melanie; Dehler, Silvia; Storz, Martina; Huber, Gerhard; Moch, Holger; Junt, Tobias; Mertz, Kirsten D

    2016-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) is abundantly expressed in epithelial barrier tissues such as salivary glands. Here, we characterized nuclear IL-33 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and associated it with disease outcome. Most benign salivary gland tumors expressed IL-33, and all Warthin's tumors showed strong and consistent IL-33 expression in the basally oriented cells of their bilayered epithelium. In the malignant group of neoplasms, nuclear IL-33 expression was limited to specific tumor entities-for example, to epithelial-myopepithelial carcinomas (n = 9/11), acinic cell carcinomas (n = 13/27), and oncocytic carcinomas (n = 2/2). IL-33 expression in the combined group of malignant salivary gland neoplasms was significantly associated with favorable histological parameters, lack of metastasis, and longer overall survival, compared with IL-33-negative tumors. We conclude that IL-33 expression is a novel prognostic marker for malignant salivary gland tumors with potential use in clinical diagnostics. PMID:26912475

  7. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The intra oral occlusal radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of salivary stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p<0.001). Results: Salivary gland calcifications were detected in 5 patients. 191 patients had pulp narrowing and 118 patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and salivary stones (p>0.001) and also between pulp stones and salivary gland stones (p>0.001). Conclusions: However, the incidental findings of salivary gland stones on intra oral occlusal radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the condition, but in the present study no significant relationship was found between the presence of pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Key words:Pulp stone, salivary gland stone, periapical radiograph, occlusal radiograph. PMID:25674311

  8. [Salivary duct carcinoma--a clinicopathological analysis of five cases].

    PubMed

    Bień, Stanisław; Sygut, Jacek; Kopczyński, Janusz; Postuła, Sylwia; Ziółkowska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The 5 cases of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC); very rare, but distinct group of highly malignant salivary gland tumor are presented, and difficulties with pathological and clinical diagnosis is discussed. The SDC developed in single cases in parotid salivary gland, submandibular salivary and in mucosa of maxillary sinus, pyriform fossa and oral cavity (check). In 3 cases the second malignant tumor was present--synchronously (SDC + pleomorphic adenoma in parotid gland; SDC + squamous cell carcinoma in hypopharynx) or metachroneously (squamous cell carcinoma of upper lip followed by SDC). In one case the high levels of PSA suggesting of metastases from unknown primary within the prostate gland, or PSA expression related to SDC was observed. The four patients received radical treatment - surgical resection followed by radiotherapy; in one case only palliative treatment was applied, due to patient's poor general condition and high advancement of the primary disease. The observation ranged from 10 to 77 months (average time--31 months). The one patient died 13 months after diagnosis and palliative treatment. The three patients are alive with distant metastases to the lung and bones (77, 38 and 18 months after primary treatment was completed). Only one patient with 10 months observation after treatment is living without symptoms of recurrence or metastases. PMID:17605416

  9. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and molecular study including 2 cases harboring ETV6-X fusion.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yohei; Ishibashi, Kenichiro; Masaki, Ayako; Fujii, Kana; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Kawakita, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Manabu; Miyabe, Satoru; Shimozato, Kazuo; Nagao, Toshitaka; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade carcinoma with morphologic and genetic similarity, including ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, to secretory carcinoma of the breast. ETV6 is frequently involved in other epithelial and nonepithelial tumors, and many fusion partners of ETV6 have been reported. In the present study, 14 Japanese MASC cases were clinicopathologically and molecularly analyzed. The median age of the patients was 39 years, and the male:female ratio was 6:8. All cases showed histopathologic findings compatible with those previously described for MASC and harbored an ETV6 split as visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two cases showed thick fibrous septa and invasive features including vascular or perineural tumor involvement, findings that are rare in MASC. In addition, in these 2 cases, non-NTRK3 genes appeared to fuse with ETV6 (ETV6-X fusion). NTRK1 and NTRK2, both members of the NTRK family, were not involved. Of the 14 MASC cases, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was positive in 6 cases, and the relative expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was variable, ranging from 1 to 5.8. Results of the present study of MASC suggest that (1) ETV6 occasionally fuses with unknown non-NTRK3 genes, (2) ETV6-X cases might have an invasive histology, (3) for molecular diagnosis of MASC, fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect ETV6 splits is the method of choice, and (4) the expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript is considerably variable. These findings provide a novel insight into the oncogenesis, histopathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this newly recognized carcinoma. PMID:25651470

  10. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. PMID:27602340

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  12. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Accessory Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Das, Somdipto; Nayak, Umanath K; Buggavetti, Rahul; Sekhar, Shobana

    2016-05-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary gland tissue separated from the main gland at a variable distance. This gland is histologically similar to the main gland, but has a higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the main gland. Regarding the various malignant neoplasms, studies have shown higher incidences of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with less than 2% being adenoid cystic carcinoma. We present a case of swelling in the midcheek region that, after clinical examination, was diagnosed as a case of neoplasm of the accessory parotid gland. On the basis of auxiliary investigations including intraoperative frozen section, it was concluded that it was adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade I, and after wide surgical resection, the tumor was removed without undergoing superficial parotidectomy. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and was followed for 14 months without any recurrence or substantial facial asymmetry. PMID:26851989

  13. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions. PMID:23090800

  14. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vandana; Wadhwan, Vijay; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Preeti; Reddy, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists. PMID:26097365

  15. Biomaterials-based strategies for salivary gland tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Fowler, Eric W; Hao, Ying; Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Harrington, Daniel A; Witt, Robert L; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-04-01

    The salivary gland is a complex, secretory tissue that produces saliva and maintains oral homeostasis. Radiation induced salivary gland atrophy, manifested as "dry mouth" or xerostomia, poses a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering recently has emerged as an alternative, long-term treatment strategy for xerostomia. In this review, we summarize recent efforts towards the development of functional and implantable salivary glands utilizing designed polymeric substrates or synthetic matrices/scaffolds. Although the in vitro engineering of a complex implantable salivary gland is technically challenging, opportunities exist for multidisciplinary teams to assemble implantable and secretory tissue modules by combining stem/progenitor cells found in the adult glands with biomimetic and cell-instructive materials. PMID:26878077

  16. Maspin as a Tumour Suppressor in Salivary Gland Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Sheirawan, Mohammad Kinan; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Alenzi, Faris; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a protein that belongs to serin protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the expression of maspin in salivary gland tumours. A literature search was done using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface. Statistical analysis was not done because only seven studies were available in literature, the collected data were different and the results could not be compared. Expression of maspin was down regulated in more aggressive salivary gland tumours. Maspin may function as a tumour suppressor in salivary gland tumours. PMID:25654053

  17. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

    2012-08-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  18. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland masses in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Michelow, Pam; Dezube, Bruce J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-08-01

    Salivary gland disease is an important manifestation of HIV-infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytologic findings of salivary gland fine needle aspiration (FNA) in South African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A retrospective review was performed on confirmed HIV-positive patients who underwent FNA of various body sites, including salivary glands, over a 5-year period. There were 495 (14.1%) salivary gland FNAs out of a total of 3,501 HIV-positive patients. This included 260 (52.5%) parotid, 226 (45.7%) submandibular, 2 (0.4%) sublingual, and 7 (1.4%) specimens labeled as a salivary gland aspirate, exact site not provided. Patients were of average age 34 years (range 9 months to 63 years) with a female: male ratio of 1:0.6. There were 37 (7.5%) inadequate FNAs and 22 (4.4%) that contained normal gland constituents only. Most diagnoses were benign and comprised 168 (33.9%) reactive lymphadenopathy, 115 (23.2%) benign lymphoepithelial cysts, 62 (12.5%) mycobacterial infections, and 52 (10.5%) abscesses, of which 10 had associated mycobacterial infections. Neoplasms accounted for 31 (6.7%) diagnoses including 11 pleomorphic adenomas, 13 lymphoma, 3 Kaposi sarcoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 metastatic carcinoma, and 1 rhabdomyosarcoma. There were four epidermoid inclusion cysts, three non-specific sialadenitis, one mucocele, and one spindle cell lesion not able to be further characterized. FNA is a useful procedure to evaluate salivary gland lesions in an HIV-infected population, allowing prompt management to be undertaken and obviating the need for surgery in many instances, an important consideration in an underfunded public health care system. PMID:22807383

  19. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands. PMID:27347918

  20. Breast- and salivary gland-derived adenoid cystic carcinomas: potential post-transcriptional divergencies. A pilot study based on miRNA expression profiling of four cases and review of the potential relevance of the findings.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Orsolya; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Spisák, Sándor; Szilágyi, Anna; Lippai, Norbert; Székely, Borbála; Szász, A Marcell; Kulka, Janina

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant tumor of the salivary glands but identical tumors can also arise from the breast. Despite their similar histomorphological appearance the salivary gland- and the breast-derived forms differ in their clinical features: while ACC of the salivary glands (sACC) have an aggressive clinical course, the breast-derived form (bACC) shows a very favourable clinical outcome. To date no exact molecular alterations have yet been identified which would explain the diverse clinical features of the ACCs of different origin. In our pilot experiment we investigated the post-transcriptional features of ACC cases by performing microRNA-profiling on 2-2 bACC and sACC tissues and on 1-1 normal breast and salivary gland tissue. By comparing the microRNA-profiles of the investigated samples we identified microRNAs which were expressed differently in bACC and sACC cases according to their normal controls: 7 microRNAs were overexpressed in sACC cases and downexpressed in bACC tumors (let-7b, let-7c, miR-17, miR-20a, miR-24, miR-195, miR-768-3) while 9 microRNAs were downexpressed in sACC cases and overexpressed in bACC tissues (let-7e, miR-23b, miR-27b, miR-193b, miR-320a, miR-320c, miR-768-5p, miR-1280 and miR-1826) relative to their controls. We also identified 8 microRNAs which were only expressed in sACCs and one microRNA (miR-1234) which was only absent in sACC cases. By target predictor online databases potential targets of the these microRNAs were detected to identify genes that may play central role in the diverse clinical outcome of bACC and sACC cases. PMID:25240490

  1. Gingival salivary gland choristoma. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Moskow, B S; Baden, E

    1986-08-01

    A unique example of a gingival salivary gland choristoma together with a gingival cyst is described in a human autopsy specimen of periodontal tissues. A choristoma is a tumor-like growth which is derived from primordial cells which have been displaced from their original tissue or organ. Only 6 other examples of the gingival salivary gland choristoma have been described in the world literature. PMID:3463576

  2. SOX10 is a novel marker of acinus and intercalated duct differentiation in salivary gland tumors: a clue to the histogenesis for tumor diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, Rie; Mori, Taisuke; Shibata, Shinsuke; Tsuta, Koji; Maeshima, Akiko M; Akazawa, Chihiro; Watabe, Yukio; Honda, Kazufumi; Yamada, Tesshi; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Asai, Masao; Okano, Hideyuki; Kanai, Yae; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-08-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively rare and morphologically diverse and heterogeneous tumors; therefore, histogenesis-based tumor markers are sorely needed to aid in diagnosing and determining the cell type of origin. SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) protein is a transcription factor known to be crucial in the specification of the neural crest and maintenance of Schwann cells and melanocytes. In addition, positive expression has also been implicated in the major salivary gland. Here, we examined SOX10 expression in various salivary gland tumors to correlate this expression with myoepithelial markers. Overall, 76 malignant and 14 benign tumors were examined. SOX10 expression clearly delineated two distinct subtypes of human salivary gland tumors; acinic cell carcinomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, myoepithelial carcinomas, and pleomorphic adenomas, including the pleomorphic adenoma component of carcinoma, were SOX10 positive, while salivary duct carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, an oncocytic carcinoma, Oncocytomas, and Warthin tumors were SOX10 negative. Also, SOX10 was expressed in solid-type or non-specific morphology salivary gland tumors, but was not expressed in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. In normal human salivary gland tissue, SOX10 expression was specific to the nuclei of acini and both luminal and abluminal cells of intercalated ducts but not in other sites. Moreover, the murine model suggested that SOX10 continued to be expressed from the developmental stage to adulthood in the acinar and both luminal and abluminal intercalated ducts in the major salivary gland. Thus, SOX10 is a novel marker for diagnosing and understanding the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors. PMID:23558573

  3. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  4. Molecular signature of salivary gland tumors: potential use as diagnostic and prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Sena Filho, Marcondes; Altemani, Albina; Speight, Paul M; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a highly heterogeneous group of lesions with diverse microscopic appearances and variable clinical behavior. The use of clinical and histological parameters to predict patient prognosis and survival rates has been of limited utility, and the search for new biomarkers that could not only aid in a better understanding of their pathogenesis but also be reliable auxiliaries for prognostic determination and useful diagnostic tools has been performed in the last decades with very exciting results. Hence, gene rearrangements such as CRTC1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinomas have shown excellent specificity, and more than that, it has been strongly correlated with low-grade tumors and consequently with an increased survival rate and better prognosis of patients affected by neoplasms carrying this translocation. Moreover, MYB-NFIB and EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusions were shown to be specifically found in cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas and hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas, respectively, in the context of salivary gland tumors, becoming reliable diagnostic tools for these entities and potential therapeutic targets for future therapeutic protocols. Finally, the identification of ETV6-NTRK3 in cases previously diagnosed as uncommon acinic cell carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified led to the characterization of a completely new and now widely accepted entity, including, therefore, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in the list of well-recognized salivary gland carcinomas. Thus, further molecular investigations of salivary gland tumors are warranted, and the recognition of other genetic abnormalities can lead to the acknowledgment of new entities and the acquirement of reliable biomarkers. PMID:25990369

  5. NUT Carcinoma of the Sublingual Gland.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, S; French, C A; Josiassen, M; Hahn, C H; Kiss, K

    2016-09-01

    NUT carcinoma (NC) is a recently described, rare and extremely aggressive cancer primarily located to supradiaphragmatic structures and affecting young individuals. NC is characterized by translocations involving the NUT gene on 15q14 with the most common translocation partner gene being BRD4 on 19p13, resulting in the t(15;19)(q14;p13) karyotype. NC is poorly differentiated and is likely to be overlooked and misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) when immunohistochemical evaluation of NUT protein expression is omitted. Previously, NC has been found in the parotid and submandibular glands and we present the first case in the sublingual gland arising in a 40-year-old woman. We discuss the diagnostic considerations for poorly differentiated carcinomas of the salivary glands and advocate the inclusion of NUT immunohistochemistry in this setting. Not only does the NC diagnosis confer a grave prognosis when treated as SCC as illustrated by the present case, but is important for the inclusion of patients in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:26586234

  6. Primary salivary duct carcinoma of the lung, mucin-rich variant.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Grimes, Brandon S; Xian, Rena R; Lee, Jay M; Barjaktarevic, Igor; Xu, Haodong

    2016-01-01

    Primary salivary gland-type lung cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the seromucinous glands of the respiratory tract. Histopathologically, they are identical to salivary gland neoplasms of the head and neck. While mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are overwhelmingly the most common subtypes found in the lung, reports of uncommon subtypes can be found in the literature. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman with primary lung salivary duct carcinoma, mucin-rich variant--an exceedingly rare subtype of an already rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm. One case of primary lung salivary duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature; however, the mucin-rich variant has never been described in the lung. Furthermore, the tumor in our case bears a rare BRAF G464V mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a BRAF G464V mutation detected in a salivary duct carcinoma or any other salivary-type neoplasm. PMID:26527521

  7. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  8. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eilsbruch, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than ≈20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than ≈25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk. PMID:20171519

  9. Metastasising pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma presenting as synchronous pulmonary and hepatic metastases

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Foul, Ahmad K; Madi, Mohammed; Bury, Danielle; Merritt, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Pleomorphic salivary adenomas (PAs) are the commonest benign tumours of glandular origin in the head and neck. Occasionally PAs undergo malignant transformation to carcinoma-ex-PA and can metastasise. More rarely they metastasise without malignant transformation of the primary tumour. We present a case of a benign pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma, presenting 7 years later with multiple liver metastases and a synchronous pulmonary metastasis. Histological analysis of the lung and liver lesions confirmed a diagnosis of metastasising pleomorphic adenoma (MPA). The lung lesion was fully excised, but the multifocal nature of the liver lesions rendered them inoperable. The patient is being managed conservatively and to date has no local recurrence of the primary salivary gland tumour or any further metastases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of MPA with simultaneous metastasis to both lungs and liver, and also the first to describe multiple liver metastases. PMID:24907217

  10. Immunohistochemichal Assessment of the CrkII Proto-oncogene Expression in Common Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors and Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Askari, Mitra; Darabi, Masoud; Jahanzad, Esa; Mostakhdemian Hosseini, Zahra; Musavi Chavoshi, Marjan; Darabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Various morphologies are seen in different salivary gland tumorsor within an individual tumor, and the lesions show divers biological behaviors. Experimental results support the hypothesis that increased CrkII proto-oncogene is associated with cytokine-induced tumor initiation and progression by altering cell motility signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the CrkII expression in common malignant salivary gland tumors and pleomorphic ade-noma. Materials and methods. Immunohistochemical analysis of CrkII expression was performed on paraffin blocks of 64 car-cinomas of salivary glands, 10 pleomorphic adenomas, and 10 normal salivary glands. Biopsies were subjected to immu-nostaining with EnVision detection system using monoclonal anti-CrkII. Evaluation of immunoreactivity of CrkII was based on the immunoreaction intensity and percentage of stained tumor cells which were scored semi-quantitatively on a scale with four grades 0 to 3. Kruskal-wallis test and additional Mann-Whitney statistical test were used for analysis of CrkII expression levels. Results. Increased expression of CrkII was seen (P=0.005) in malignant tumors including: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, but CrkII expression in acinic cell carcinoma was weak. CrkII expression in pleomorphic adenoma was weak or negative. A weak staining was sparsely seen in normal acinar serous cell. Conclusion. Increased expression of CrkII and its higher intensity of staining in tumors with more aggressive biologic behavior in carcinomas of salivary gland is consistent with a role for this proto-oncogene in salivary gland tumorigenesis and cancer progression. PMID:25973151

  11. Clock Genes Show Circadian Rhythms in Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Seon, Y.J.; McHugh, J.; Papagerakis, S.; Papagerakis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by “clock” transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were performed to show circadian mRNA and protein expression and localization of key clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Per2), ion and aqua channel genes (Ae2a, Car2, and Aqp5), and salivary gland markers. Clock gene mRNAs and clock proteins were found differentially expressed in the serous acini and duct cells of all major salivary glands. The expression levels of clock genes and Aqp5 showed regular oscillatory patterns under both light/dark and complete-dark conditions. Bmla1 overexpression resulted in increased Aqp5 expression levels. Analysis of our data suggests that salivary glands have a peripheral clock mechanism that functions both in normal light/dark conditions and in the absence of light. This finding may increase our understanding of the control mechanisms of salivary content and flow. PMID:22699207

  12. Systems analysis of salivary gland development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Melinda; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Musselmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a crucial developmental process in which vertebrate organs generate extensive epithelial surface area while retaining a compact size. In the vertebrate submandibular salivary gland, branching morphogenesis is crucial for generation of the large surface area necessary to produce sufficient saliva. However, in many salivary gland diseases, saliva-producing acinar cells are destroyed, resulting in dry mouth and secondary health conditions. Systems-based approaches can provide insights into understanding salivary gland development, function, and disease. The traditional approach to understanding these processes is identification of molecular signals using reductionist approaches; we review current progress with such methods in understanding salivary gland development. Taking a more global approach, multiple groups are currently profiling the transcriptome, the proteome, and other “omes” in both developing mouse tissues and in human patient samples. Computational methods have been successful in deciphering large data sets, and mathematical models are starting to make predictions regarding the contribution of molecules to the physical processes of morphogenesis and of cellular function. A challenge for the future will be to establish comprehensive, publicly accessible salivary gland databases spanning the full range of genes and proteins; plans are underway to provide these resources to researchers in centralized repositories. The greatest challenge for the future will be to develop realistic models that integrate multiple types of data to both describe and predict embryonic development and human disease. PMID:20890964

  13. Reirradiation of recurrent salivary gland malignancies with fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Karam, Sana D; Snider, James W; Wang, Hongkun; Wooster, Margaux; Lominska, Christopher; Deeken, John; Newkirk, Kenneth; Davidson, Bruce; Harter, K William

    2012-06-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review a single-institution experience with the reirradiation of recurrent salivary gland tumors using fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (SBRT). METHODS: Between 2003 and 2011, 18 patients diagnosed with recurrent, previously irradiated, salivary gland carcinomas were treated with SBRT reirradiation. Median age was 68 for all patients with most tumors being of major salivary gland origin. Most patients did not undergo surgical resection, and among those that did, all had positive margins. Only seven patients received chemotherapy, and the median SBRT dose was 30 Gy given in five fractions with a median cumulative dose of 91.1 Gy. RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LRC) were 11.5, 3.5, and 5.5 months, respectively. The 2-year OS, PFS, and LRC rates were 39%, 24%, and 53%, respectively. Statistical analysis identified presence of gross disease and interval to reirradiation as negative predictors of survival outcomes on both univariate and multivariate analyses (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, tumor volume was a negative predictor of survival outcomes (p < 0.05). Long-term toxicity analysis revealed four patients in the reirradiated group with soft tissue necrosis, which correlated with the cumulative dose (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that SBRT is a reasonable treatment option for reirradiation of salivary gland tumors, but further studies are warranted. PMID:23440688

  14. Cimetidine induces apoptosis of human salivary gland tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Masakatsu; Tanaka, Shin; Suzuki, Seiji; Kusama, Kaoru; Kaneko, Tadayoshi; Sakashita, Hideaki

    2007-03-01

    It has been reported that cimetidine, a histamine type-2 receptor (H2R) antagonist, inhibits the growth of glandular tumors such as colorectal cancer. However, its effects against salivary gland tumors are still unknown. We demonstrated previously that human salivary gland tumor (HSG) cells spontaneously express the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and also that HSG cell proliferation could be controlled via a homophilic (NCAM-NCAM) binding mechanism and that NCAM may be associated with perineural invasion by malignant salivary gland tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of cimetidine via the expression of NCAM on tumor growth and perineural/neural invasion in salivary gland tumor cells. Expression of both NCAM mRNA and protein was found to decrease in a dose-dependent manner upon treatment with cimetidine for 24 h. The MTT assay and confocal laser microscopy clearly showed that HSG cells underwent apoptosis after treatment with cimetidine. Activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9 was observed in HSG cells after cimetidine treatment, thus confirming that the apoptosis was induced by the activated caspases. Apaf-1 activity was also detected in HSG cells in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with cimetidine. We also found that the cimetidine-mediated down-regulation of NCAM expression in HSG cells did not occur via blocking of the histamine receptor, even though H2R expression was observed on HSG cells, as two other H2R antagonists, famotidine and ranitidine, did not show similar effects. We demonstrated for the first time that cimetidine can induce significant apoptosis of salivary gland tumor cells, which express NCAM, at least in part by down-regulation of NCAM expression on the cells. These findings suggest that the growth, development and perineural/neural invasion of salivary gland tumor cells can be blocked by cimetidine administration through down-regulation of NCAM expression, as well as induction of apoptosis. PMID:17273750

  15. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  16. Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A.; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E−6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses

  17. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands. PMID:24675464

  18. Is salivary gland function altered in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity-insulin resistance?

    PubMed

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-04-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity-insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed. PMID:26774185

  19. Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

  20. Combined salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suspected of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Enokida, Tomohiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Kuno, Hirofumi; Mukaigawa, Takashi; Tahara, Makoto; Sakuraba, Minoru; Hayashi, Ryuichi

    2016-08-01

    A 76-year-old Japanese woman had noticed an asymptomatic and palpable mass in her left parotid gland region for 20 years. The tumor had showed rapid growth during the last two months. Therefore, the tumor was clinically suspected of being a malignant tumor and was surgically resected. A histopathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of two different histopathological neoplastic components accompanied by hyalinized fibrosis at the center of the tumor. The two-neoplastic components were squamous cell carcinoma and salivary duct carcinoma. The tumor was suspected to be a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma after considering the clinical course and the histopathological findings, such as hyalinized fibrosis at the center of the tumor. There was no evidence of recurrence at 30 months after the surgical resection. PMID:27435055

  1. Salivary Gland. Photon beam and particle radiotherapy: Present and future.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Ester; Iacovelli, Nicola Alessandro; Bonora, Maria; Cavallo, Anna; Fossati, Piero

    2016-09-01

    Salivary gland cancers (SGCs) are rare diseases and their treatment depends upon histology, stage and site of origin. Radical surgery is the mainstay of treatment but radiotherapy (RT) plays a key role in both the postoperative and the inoperable setting, as well as in recurrent disease. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, a wide retrospective literature suggests postoperative RT (PORT) in patients with high risk pathological features. SGCs, and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) in particular, are known to be radio-resistant tumors and should therefore respond well to particle beam therapy. Recently, excellent outcome has been reported with radical carbon ion RT (CIRT) in particular for ACC. Both modern photon- and hadron-based treatments are effective and are characterized by a favourable toxicity profile. But it is not clear whether one modality is superior to the other for disease control, due to the differences in patients' selection, techniques, fractionation schedules and outcome measurements among clinical experiences. In this paper, we review the role of photon and particle RT for malignant SGCs, discussing the difference between modalities in terms of biological and technical characteristics. RT dose and target volumes for different histologies (ACC versus non-ACC) have also been taken into consideration. PMID:27394087

  2. Multifocal canalicular adenoma of the minor labial salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Samar, María Elena; Avila, Rodolfo Esteban; Fonseca, Ismael Bernardo; Anderson, William; Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon benign neoplasia of salivary glands which is clinically difficult to recognise. Despite having an excellent prognosis, the histological diagnosis and clinical management of this entity can be troublesome. While the main differential diagnosis to consider is basal cell adenoma (BCA), similar histological patterns and multifocality have been observed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), both locally-aggressive malignancies which require radically different treatment to CA. An emphasis has been placed on the value of immunohistochemistry in avoiding diagnostic and surgical errors. CA is positive for AE1/AE3, CD117 and S-100 protein, and negative for p63, α-SMA, Ki 67 and vimentin. Here we discuss the case of a 61-year-old female with CA in her right upper lip, showing multifocal growth histologically. The differential diagnosis with other adenomas is discussed in addition to the role of immunohistochemical studies that can confirm the clinical and surgical findings. PMID:25550873

  3. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    PubMed Central

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  4. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands - an update.

    PubMed

    Zajkowski, Piotr; Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  5. An Androgen Receptor-positive Carcinoma of the Lacrimal Drainage System Resembling Salivary Duct Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Siavash; Lambiase, Alessandro; Brennan, Peter A; Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz

    2016-09-01

    Carcinomas of the lacrimal drainage apparatus are rare and due to their aggressive behavior, they usually require extensive surgical treatment. We report a unique case of a 60-year-old man presenting with proptosis found to have a mass in the lacrimal drainage system on magnetic resonance imaging. Histology revealed a high-grade carcinoma with morphologic features of salivary gland duct carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed an extensive positive staining to androgen receptor. This is the first report of salivary gland-like duct carcinoma of the lacrimal drainage apparatus. Androgen receptor should be included in the immunohistochemical panel for the diagnostic work-up of lacrimal drainage system carcinomas, which resemble salivary gland duct carcinoma. This finding could have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26766124

  6. Role of FNAC in the Preoperative Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions

    PubMed Central

    D’souza, Clement R S; Khosla, Charu; George, Lovely; Katte, Namitha Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Background: The characteristic cytologic features of the common salivary gland lesions have been well-delineated in literature. However, there also exist cytologic pitfalls and overlapping features that make an accurate diagnosis difficult in few cases. The present study was designed to compare the cytologic findings of salivary gland lesions with the histologic diagnoses, in order to assess the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC, with an emphasis on discordant cases. Materials and Methods: Patients with suspected salivary gland enlargements, who were referred for FNAC, were included in this study, which was done over a 3 year period in a medical college hospital. FNAC was performed by using the standard procedure. Smears were stained by using Papanicolaou’s and MGG stains. Cytologic diagnosis was compared with histopathologic diagnosis wherever it was available. Results: Eighty eight patients with salivary gland swellings were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 82 years, with the M:F ratio being 1.6:1. Out of 88 cases, 68 had swellings in parotid gland, 19 had them in submandibular gland and one had them in hard palate. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest neoplasm which was seen in our study. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was the only malignant lesion seen in our study. One each of Warthin’s tumour (WT) and MEC were overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed respectively, the reason being squamous metaplasia in WT and subtle nature of malignant cells in low-grade MEC. Conclusion: WT and MEC can pose problems in cytologicdiagnosis. Sampling errors and interpretational errors can lead todiscordant diagnoses. PMID:25386436

  7. Apoptosis in Early Salivary Gland Duct Morphogenesis and Lumen Formation.

    PubMed

    Teshima, T H N; Wells, K L; Lourenço, S V; Tucker, A S

    2016-03-01

    Salivary glands are essential for the maintenance of oral health by providing lubrication and antimicrobial protection to the mucosal and tooth surfaces. Saliva is modified and delivered to the oral cavity by a complex multifunctional ductal system. During development, these ducts form as solid tubes, which undergo cavitation to create lumens. Apoptosis has been suggested to play a role in this cavitation process along with changes in cell polarity. Here, we show that apoptosis occurs from the very earliest stages of mouse salivary gland development, much earlier than previously reported. Apoptotic cells were observed in the center of the first epithelial stalk at early-stage embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) according to both TUNEL staining and cleaved caspase 3 immunofluorescence. The presumptive lumen space was highlighted by the colocalization of a predictive lumen marker, cytokeratin 7. At E14.5, as lumens start to form throughout the glands, apoptotic expression decreased while cytokeratin 7 remained positive. In vitro inhibition of all caspases in E12.5 and E13.5 salivary glands resulted in wider ducts, as compared with the controls, and a defect in lumen formation. In contrast, no such defect in lumen formation was observed at E14.5. Our data indicate that apoptosis is involved during early stages of gland formation (E12.5 onward) and appears important for shaping the forming ducts. PMID:26628486

  8. Cystadenocarcinoma of the salivary glands with potential lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mukaigawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Shinozaki, Takeshi; Tomioka, Toshifumi; Fujii, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Cystadenocarcinoma derived from the salivary gland in the head and neck region is an extremely rare malignancy. Therefore, the clinicopathological characteristics is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics, and present a total of four patients who were treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital East during the period between 1995 and 2012. The patients were all male, with ages ranging from 47 to 74 years old. The primary sites were the parotid glands, submandibular gland and minor salivary gland of the tongue. Within the follow-up period from 19 to 54 months, lymph node metastases were observed in three of the four patients. However, all the patients were salvaged by additional resection, including neck dissection, and remain alive to date without distant metastases. Cystadenocarcinoma is classified as a low-grade histological subtype of salivary gland tumors. Although the tumor has the potential to produce lymph node metastases, as shown in our patients, it is generally an indolent tumor with a good prognosis as compared with high-grade subtypes. This study suggests that a long-term follow up paying close attention to lymph node metastases is necessary for cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:26441367

  9. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  10. Characteristic Formation of Hyaluronan-Cartilage Link Protein-Proteoglycan Complex in Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Hiroko; Nishikado, Akira; Hayasaki, Hana; Isogai, Zenzo; Yoneda, Masahiko; Kawata, Ryo; Hirose, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) and its binding molecules, cartilage link protein (LP) and proteoglycan (PG), are structural components of the hydrated extracellular matrix. Because these molecules play important roles in the tumor microenvironment, we examined the distribution of HA, LP, versican, and aggrecan in salivary gland tumors using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, including double staining. LP was present in pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) tissues, and aggrecan was absent in the malignant tumors that we investigated. LP colocalized with both HA and aggrecan in the chondromyxoid matrix of PA, suggesting the presence of a HA-LP-aggrecan complex. Furthermore, the HA-LP-versican complex could be observed in the pseudocystic space of the cribriform structures in ACC. The characteristic HA-LP-PG complex in PA and ACC might play a role in the behavior of tumors, and immunohistochemical analysis of these molecules could represent a diagnostic adjunct for salivary gland tumors. PMID:26067139

  11. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands. PMID:26155966

  12. Two Ligands Signal Through the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF Receptor to Ensure Proper Salivary Gland Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Katherine E.; Schnittke, Nikolai; Beckendorf, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The Drosophila embryonic salivary gland is a migrating tissue that undergoes a stereotypic pattern of migration into the embryo. We demonstrate that the migratory path of the salivary gland requires the PDGF/VEGF pathway. The PDGF/VEGF receptor, Pvr, is strongly expressed in the salivary glands, and Pvr mutations cause abnormal ventral curving of the glands, suggesting that Pvr is involved in gland migration. Although the Pvr ligands, Pvf1 and Pvf2, have distinct expression patterns in the Drosophila embryo, mutations for either one of the ligands result in salivary gland migration defects similar to those seen in embryos that lack Pvr. Rescue experiments indicate that the PDGF/VEGF pathway functions autonomously in the salivary gland. The results of this study demonstrate that the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF pathway is essential for proper positioning of the salivary glands. PMID:17462868

  13. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J H; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P

    2016-03-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) stem/progenitor cells and demonstrate at the single cell level in vitro self-renewal and differentiation into multilineage organoids. We also show in vivo functionality, long-term engraftment, and functional restoration in a xenotransplantation model. Indeed, transplanted human salisphere-derived cells restored saliva production and greatly improved the regenerative potential of irradiated SGs. Further selection for c-Kit expression enriched for cells with enhanced regenerative potencies. Interestingly, interaction of transplanted cells with the recipient SG may also be involved in functional recovery. Thus, we show for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia. PMID:26887347

  14. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liping; Yang, Xi; Chen, Jiayan; Ge, Xiaolin; Qin, Qin; Zhu, Hongcheng; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Xinchen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM) in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR) (Group I), SIM + sham IR (Group II), IR + solvent (Group III), and IR + SIM (Group IV). SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week) was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome), and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. PMID:27471375

  15. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera -Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. Results There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). Conclusions The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Key words:Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia. PMID:26535097

  16. Different Wnt signals act through the Frizzled and RYK receptors during Drosophila salivary gland migration.

    PubMed

    Harris, Katherine E; Beckendorf, Steven K

    2007-06-01

    Guided cell migration is necessary for the proper function and development of many tissues, one of which is the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland. Here we show that two distinct Wnt signaling pathways regulate salivary gland migration. Early in migration, the salivary gland responds to a WNT4-Frizzled signal for proper positioning within the embryo. Disruption of this signal, through mutations in Wnt4, frizzled or frizzled 2, results in misguided salivary glands that curve ventrally. Furthermore, disruption of downstream components of the canonical Wnt pathway, such as dishevelled or Tcf, also results in ventrally curved salivary glands. Analysis of a second Wnt signal, which acts through the atypical Wnt receptor Derailed, indicates a requirement for Wnt5 signaling late in salivary gland migration. WNT5 is expressed in the central nervous system and acts as a repulsive signal, needed to keep the migrating salivary gland on course. The receptor for WNT5, Derailed, is expressed in the actively migrating tip of the salivary glands. In embryos mutant for derailed or Wnt5, salivary gland migration is disrupted; the tip of the gland migrates abnormally toward the central nervous system. Our results suggest that both the Wnt4-frizzled pathway and a separate Wnt5-derailed pathway are needed for proper salivary gland migration. PMID:17507403

  17. Bortezomib Followed by the Addition of Doxorubicin at Disease Progression in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (Cancer) of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  18. Evaluation of p27 Expression in Salivary Gland Neoplasms; A Step Forward in Unveiling the Role of p27

    PubMed Central

    Malgaonkar, Nikhil I.; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Kharma, MY; Al-Maweri, SA; Alaizari, NA; Altamimi, MA.; Darwish, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Salivary gland neoplasms are not uncommon lesions that are seen in the head and neck region. The role of cell cycle regulators as well as that of oncogenes remains unexplored in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. Aim Present study was conducted to evaluate the expression of p27 in the three common salivary gland neoplasms. Materials and Methods A total of 34 cases (19 pleomorphic adenoma, 8 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 7 adenoid cystic carcinoma) were included. The sections were subjected to p27 staining and rated for the expression. Results Of the total 52.6% of pleomorphic adenoma cases, 25% of mucoepidermoid carcinoma cases and only 14.2% of adenoid cystic carcinoma cases showed strong expression suggesting variable p27 expression in both malignant neoplasms. Normal salivary gland tissue was stained as a positive control for the evaluation. Conclusion The results of the study suggest an important role for p27 in pathogenesis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma as well as adenoid cystic carcinoma while its role in pathogenesis of pleomorphic adenoma remains questionable keeping in view the strong expression of p27 in the same.

  19. Salivary glands: a new player in phosphorus metabolism.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Santoro, Giuseppe; Muraca, Ugo; Davis, Paul A; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders and dietary phosphate limitation in addition to dialysis, only 50% of dialysis patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. The identification of other approaches for serum phosphorus reduction is therefore necessary. We have approached this issue by taking into account the relationships between serum phosphate, kidney function, and saliva. Saliva was chosen because the anatomy and/or physiology of acini, the secretive units of salivary glands, shares similarities with that of the renal tubules. Salivary fluid contains electrolytes including phosphate that, when related with the amount of salivary secretion per day, raises the interest in identifying another possible approach for phosphorus removal in uremic patients. This article reports studies from our laboratory in the last 3 to 4 years, which have demonstrated a hyperphosphoric salivary content in patients with chronic renal failure and those with end-stage renal disease under chronic dialysis that, in patients with chronic renal failure, linearly correlates with serum phosphate in patients with chronic renal failure and negatively with GFR. The ingestion of the saliva and later its absorption in the intestinal tract starts a vicious circle between salivary phosphate secretion and fasting phosphate absorption, thereby worsening hyperphosphatemia. Therefore, salivary phosphate binding could be a useful approach to serum phosphate level reduction in dialysis patients. The reduction of salivary phosphate with the salivary phosphate binder, chitosan-loaded chewing gum, chewed during fasting periods, as an add-on to phosphate binders could lead to a better control of hyperphosphatemia, as demonstrated in our study, which confirms the importance of this approach. PMID:21195917

  20. Salivary Gland Pathology in Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Campos, Joana; Hillen, Maarten R; Barone, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) can be considered a systemic autoimmune disease with a strong organ bias. The involvement of the exocrine glands is prevalent and drives the pathognomonic manifestations of dryness that define the sicca syndrome. The salivary glands also represent the hub of pSS pathology. Elements belonging to both innate and acquired immune responses have been described at this site that contribute to disease establishment and progression. The interaction between those elements and their relative contributions to the clinical manifestations and lymphoma progression largely remain to be addressed. PMID:27431349

  1. Kuttner tumour: an unusual cause of enlargement of a minor salivary gland in the lip.

    PubMed

    Paul, R; Shekar, K; Singh, M

    2010-03-01

    Kuttner tumour is benign, chronic, sclerosing sialadenitis that usually occurs in the submandibular gland and is regarded as a salivary gland neoplasm because of its clinical features. We describe a tumour arising from a minor salivary gland of the upper lip. To our knowledge, there are only two previously reported cases. PMID:19926183

  2. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Stroobants, Sigrid; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.

  3. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  4. Clinicopathological characteristics of tumours of the intraoral minor salivary glands in 170 Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Aline Corrêa; Santos Netto, Juliana de Noronha; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Santos, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu dos; Cabral, Márcia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    Tumours of the minor salivary glands are relatively uncommon, and publications from around the world normally include tumours of both the minor and major salivary glands, making it difficult to assess their prevalence and distribution. Our aim was to evaluate retrospectively the clinicopathological features of a series of tumours of the intraoral minor salivary glands from two universities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to compare the data with those from other epidemiological studies. A total of 170 such tumours were diagnosed from 1942 to 2012, and were selected from two university departments of oral pathology. Eighty-nine of the tumours were benign (52%). Pleomorphic adenoma (n=75) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=23) were the most common benign (44%) and malignant tumours (14%), respectively. There were 104 female patients (61%) and both benign and malignant tumours affected more women than men. Significantly more tumours were in the palate (n=95, 56%; p=0.001). We conclude that these tumours had features similar to those from other studies from North and Latin America, but differ from the results presented from Asia. Further studies should be designed to highlight possible geographical and population-specific characteristics of these tumours. PMID:26644326

  5. Aging and secretory reserve capacity of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, E M; Ship, J A

    2003-10-01

    A loss of acinar cells occurs with aging, while salivary production remains age-stable in healthy adults. It is hypothesized that a secretory reserve exists to preserve function despite a loss of acinar cells in normal aging. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was to determine age-related differences in salivary response to an anti-sialogogue (glycopyrrolate). Thirty-six healthy subjects (18 young--20-38 yrs; 18 older--60-77 yrs) received 4.0 microg/kg i.v. glycopyrrolate. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples and xerostomia questionnaire responses were collected. Variables calculated for each subject were: times to initial and maximum suppression and xerostomic complaint; time to recovery; and durations of suppression and complaint. Salivary function was more adversely affected in older persons. There were no consistent age-associated questionnaire response differences. These findings suggest that salivary gland output is more adversely affected by an anti-sialogogue in healthy older vs. younger adults, supporting the secretory reserve hypothesis of salivary function. PMID:14514768

  6. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions. PMID:26676198

  7. Are gingival and periodontal conditions related to salivary gland flow rates in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Crow, H C; Ship, J A

    1995-11-01

    Some have suggested that gingival and periodontal health is related to salivary gland function; however, there are few data to support this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if correlations existed between major salivary gland flow rates and gingival and periodontal conditions in people of different ages. The results suggest that there is no consistent relationship between major salivary gland flow rates and gingival and periodontal conditions in healthy people. PMID:7499648

  8. Calcium signalling in salivary gland physiology and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-06-01

    Studies over the past four decades have established that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in control of salivary gland function and have led to identification of the critical components of this process. The major ion transport mechanisms and ion channels that are involved in fluid secretion have also been established. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in [Ca(2+) ]i triggered by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 )-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3 receptor (IP3 R). IP3 Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of the [Ca(2+) ]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+) ]i and fluid secretion and is mediated by the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) mechanism. Orai1, TRPC1, TRPC3 and STIM1 have been identified as critical components of SOCE in these cells. Cells finely tune the generation and amplification of [Ca(2+) ]i signals for regulation of cell function. An important emerging area is the concept that unregulated [Ca(2+) ]i signals in cells can directly cause cell damage, dysfunction and disease. Alternatively, aberrant [Ca(2+) ]i signals can also amplify and increase the rates of cell damage. Such defects in Ca(2+) signalling have been described in salivary glands in conjunction with radiation-induced loss of salivary gland function as well as in the salivary defects associated with the autoimmune exocrinopathy Sjögren's syndrome. Such defects have been associated with altered function or expression of key Ca(2+) signalling components, such as STIM proteins and TRP channels. These studies offer new avenues for examining the mechanisms underlying the disease and development of novel clinical targets and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26592972

  9. Dynamic relationship of the epithelium and mesenchyme during salivary gland initiation: the role of Fgf10

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kirsty L.; Gaete, Marcia; Matalova, Eva; Deutsch, Danny; Rice, David; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Salivary glands provide an excellent model for the study of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. We have looked at the interactions involved in the early initiation and development of murine salivary glands using classic recombination experiments and knockout mice. We show that salivary gland epithelium, at thickening and initial bud stages, is able to direct salivary gland development in non-gland pharyngeal arch mesenchyme at early stages. The early salivary gland epithelium is therefore able to induce gland development in non-gland tissue. This ability later shifts to the mesenchyme, with non-gland epithelium, such as from the limb bud, able to form a branching gland when combined with pseudoglandular stage gland mesenchyme. This shift appears to involve Fgf signalling, with signals from the epithelium inducing Fgf10 in the mesenchyme. Fgf10 then signals back to the epithelium to direct gland down-growth and bud development. These experiments highlight the importance of epithelial–mesenchymal signalling in gland initiation, controlling where, when and how many salivary glands form. PMID:24167707

  10. Dynamic relationship of the epithelium and mesenchyme during salivary gland initiation: the role of Fgf10.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kirsty L; Gaete, Marcia; Matalova, Eva; Deutsch, Danny; Rice, David; Tucker, Abigail S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary glands provide an excellent model for the study of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. We have looked at the interactions involved in the early initiation and development of murine salivary glands using classic recombination experiments and knockout mice. We show that salivary gland epithelium, at thickening and initial bud stages, is able to direct salivary gland development in non-gland pharyngeal arch mesenchyme at early stages. The early salivary gland epithelium is therefore able to induce gland development in non-gland tissue. This ability later shifts to the mesenchyme, with non-gland epithelium, such as from the limb bud, able to form a branching gland when combined with pseudoglandular stage gland mesenchyme. This shift appears to involve Fgf signalling, with signals from the epithelium inducing Fgf10 in the mesenchyme. Fgf10 then signals back to the epithelium to direct gland down-growth and bud development. These experiments highlight the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal signalling in gland initiation, controlling where, when and how many salivary glands form. PMID:24167707

  11. Retinoic acid regulates embryonic development of mammalian submandibular salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Wright, Diana M; Buenger, Deanna E; Abashev, Timur M; Lindeman, Robert P; Ding, Jixiang; Sandell, Lisa L

    2015-11-01

    Organogenesis is orchestrated by cell and tissue interactions mediated by molecular signals. Identification of relevant signals, and the tissues that generate and receive them, are important goals of developmental research. Here, we demonstrate that Retinoic Acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule important for morphogenesis of mammalian submandibular salivary glands (SMG). By examining late stage RA deficient embryos of Rdh10 mutant mice we show that SMG development requires RA in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we find that active RA signaling occurs in SMG tissues, arising earlier than any other known marker of SMG development and persisting throughout gland morphogenesis. At the initial bud stage of development, we find RA production occurs in SMG mesenchyme, while RA signaling occurs in epithelium. We also demonstrate active RA signaling occurs in glands cultured ex vivo, and treatment with an inhibitor of RA signaling blocks growth and branching. Together these data identify RA signaling as a direct regulator of SMG organogenesis. PMID:26278034

  12. Physiological role of aquaporin 5 in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Regarding the 13 known mammalian aquaporins (AQPs), their functions in their expressing tissues, effects of their mutation/polymorphisms in humans, and effects of knockout of their genes are summarized in this review article. The roles of AQP5, an exocrine gland-type water channel, in the salivary gland under normal and pathophysiological conditions are reviewed in detail. First, the involvement of AQP5 in water secretion from acinar cells was demonstrated by measuring volume changes of acini/acinar cells, as well as activation energy (E a) in transepithelial water movement by NMR spectrometry, and a functional linkage between AQP5 and TRPV4 was suggested. Next, involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system on the AQP5 levels in the acinar cells of the submandibular and that of a β-adrenergic agonist on those in the parotid gland are described. That is, chorda tympani denervation induces autophagy of the submandibular gland, causing AQP5 degradation/metabolism, whereas isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic agonist, causes first an increase then decrease in AQP5 levels in the parotid gland, which action is coupled with the secretory-restoration cycle of amylase-containing secretory granules. The PG also responded to endotoxin, a lipopolysaccharide that activates NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Elevated NF-κB and AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun) form a complex that can bind to the NF-κB-responsive element on the AQP5 promoter and thus potentially downregulate AQP5 transcription. Salivary gland pathologies and conditions involving AQP5 and possible treatments are described as well. PMID:26537593

  13. Salivary Gland Tumors Treated With Adjuvant Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, Jonathan D.; Sher, David J.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Balboni, Tracy A.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the recent single-institution experience of patients with salivary gland tumors who had undergone adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 35 salivary gland carcinoma patients treated primarily at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2005 and 2010 with surgery and adjuvant IMRT. The primary endpoints were local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival. The secondary endpoints were acute and chronic toxicity. The median follow-up was 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.2-2.8) among the surviving patients. Results: The histologic types included adenoid cystic carcinoma in 15 (43%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 6 (17%), adenocarcinoma in 3 (9%), acinic cell carcinoma in 3 (9%), and other in 8 (23%). The primary sites were the parotid gland in 17 (49%), submandibular glands in 6 (17%), tongue in 4 (11%), palate in 4 (11%), and other in 4 (11%). The median radiation dose was 66 Gy, and 22 patients (63%) received CRT. The most common chemotherapy regimen was carboplatin and paclitaxel (n = 14, 64%). A trend was seen for patients undergoing CRT to have more adverse prognostic factors, including Stage T3-T4 disease (CRT, n = 12, 55% vs. n = 4, 31%, p = .29), nodal positivity (CRT, n = 8, 36% vs. n = 1, 8%, p = .10), and positive margins (n = 13, 59% vs. n = 5, 38%, p = .30). One patient who had undergone CRT developed an in-field recurrence, resulting in an overall actuarial 3-year local control rate of 92%. Five patients (14%) developed distant metastases (1 who had undergone IMRT only and 4 who had undergone CRT). Acute Grade 3 mucositis, esophagitis, and dermatitis occurred in 8%, 8%, and 8% (1 each) of IMRT patients and in 18%, 5%, and 14% (4, 1, and 3 patients) of the CRT group, respectively. No acute Grade 4 toxicity occurred. The most common late toxicity was Grade 1 xerostomia (n = 8, 23%). Conclusions: Treatment of

  14. Expression of LC3, LAMP2, KEAP1 and NRF2 in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong-Fa; Deng, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (SACC) is a tumor characterized by inevitable local progression and terminal hematogenous metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the expression of LC3, LAMP2, KEAP1 and NRF2 in SACC. Human salivary gland tissue microarray which contains 74 SACC, 12 pleomorphic adenoma and 18 normal salivary gland specimens. High expression of LC3, LAMP2, KEAP1 and NRF2 were found in SACC patients, and LC3, LAMP2, KEAP1 and NRF2 expression were significantly higher in SACC than as compared with pleomorphic adenoma and (or) normal salivary gland. The expression of NRF2 was correlated with pathological type of human SACC (P < 0.05). Moreover, the high-expression of KEAP1 had significant correlations with LC3 (P < 0.001, R = 0.3195), and LAMP2 (P < 0.001, R = 0.3346) and NRF2 (P < 0.05, R = 0.2246) by using the Pearson correlation coefficient test. Our findings demonstrated that up-regulation of LC3, LAMP2, KEAP1 and NRF2 were associated with carcinogenesis and progression of SACC patients, suggesting that they may be useful molecular targets in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. PMID:26350055

  15. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Floor of the Mouth – A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Nandan, S.R.K.; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keerthi

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most commonly occurring malignant salivary gland neoplasm, and contributes 2.8%–15% of all salivary gland tumours. More than half of these cases involve the major salivary glands, primarily the parotid glands and minor salivary glands. Sublingual salivary glands neoplasms are very rare and constitute 0.5% and 1% of all epithelial salivary tumours and approximately 1.5% of the major salivary glands carcinomas. Here we describe a case report of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the floor of the mouth in a 70-year-old female patient that was mimicking like a ranula clinically. PMID:26813873

  16. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Floor of the Mouth - A Rarity.

    PubMed

    Maloth, Aruna Kumari; Nandan, S R K; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keerthi

    2015-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most commonly occurring malignant salivary gland neoplasm, and contributes 2.8%-15% of all salivary gland tumours. More than half of these cases involve the major salivary glands, primarily the parotid glands and minor salivary glands. Sublingual salivary glands neoplasms are very rare and constitute 0.5% and 1% of all epithelial salivary tumours and approximately 1.5% of the major salivary glands carcinomas. Here we describe a case report of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the floor of the mouth in a 70-year-old female patient that was mimicking like a ranula clinically. PMID:26813873

  17. Multiscale Feature Analysis of Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baydil, Banu; Daley, William P.; Larsen, Melinda; Yener, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Pattern formation in developing tissues involves dynamic spatio-temporal changes in cellular organization and subsequent evolution of functional adult structures. Branching morphogenesis is a developmental mechanism by which patterns are generated in many developing organs, which is controlled by underlying molecular pathways. Understanding the relationship between molecular signaling, cellular behavior and resulting morphological change requires quantification and categorization of the cellular behavior. In this study, tissue-level and cellular changes in developing salivary gland in response to disruption of ROCK-mediated signaling by are modeled by building cell-graphs to compute mathematical features capturing structural properties at multiple scales. These features were used to generate multiscale cell-graph signatures of untreated and ROCK signaling disrupted salivary gland organ explants. From confocal images of mouse submandibular salivary gland organ explants in which epithelial and mesenchymal nuclei were marked, a multiscale feature set capturing global structural properties, local structural properties, spectral, and morphological properties of the tissues was derived. Six feature selection algorithms and multiway modeling of the data was performed to identify distinct subsets of cell graph features that can uniquely classify and differentiate between different cell populations. Multiscale cell-graph analysis was most effective in classification of the tissue state. Cellular and tissue organization, as defined by a multiscale subset of cell-graph features, are both quantitatively distinct in epithelial and mesenchymal cell types both in the presence and absence of ROCK inhibitors. Whereas tensor analysis demonstrate that epithelial tissue was affected the most by inhibition of ROCK signaling, significant multiscale changes in mesenchymal tissue organization were identified with this analysis that were not identified in previous biological studies. We

  18. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wijffels, Karien; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Lok, Jasper; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm{sup -2} (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  19. [Rare giant salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma on the neck].

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongling; Li, Qinghuai

    2013-12-01

    The patient has found his neck mass for more than 30 years, and the neck mass has slowly growed into giant tumor. Five days ago, the neck giant mass suddenly burst, hemorrhage and overflow liquid. The giant mass with irregular in shape, surface uneven, skin highly tension and superficial venous engorgement, was seen in left lateral neck. CT scan demonstrates a mixture of solid, cystic and lobulated mass shadow within subcutaneous fat spaces of left lateral neck. Postoperative pathological examination proved that it is salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:24620671

  20. Vasoconstriction induced by salivary gland extracts from ixodid ticks.

    PubMed

    Pekáriková, Danica; Rajská, Petra; Kazimírová, Mária; Pecháňová, Olga; Takáč, Peter; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2015-12-01

    In their quest for blood, most haematophagous parasites secrete vasodilators in their saliva to counter the host haemostatic response of vasoconstriction. Surprisingly, salivary gland extracts from adult female Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks induced constriction in a rat femoral artery model; males induced vasoconstriction or vasodilation depending on the time of feeding. Based on comparative HPLC fractionation, the active compounds inducing vasoconstriction do not appear to be prostaglandins (which ticks normally use as vasodilators). Vasoconstriction may be unique to ixodid ticks, helping them control blood flow during their prolonged blood-feeding of up to 10 days or more. PMID:26432295

  1. Apophysomyces elegans causing acute otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis involving salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Marak, R S K; Singh, Jagdeep

    2007-08-01

    Zygomycosis is an invasive, life threatening fungal infection that usually affects immunocompromised hosts. In the head and neck region, rhino-orbito-cerebral zygomycosis is more common than the cervicofacial variety. We report the first case of otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans involving the salivary glands, an uncommon site of infection. The case began after a trivial trauma in a diabetic patient and despite surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B therapy, the patient died due to extensive involvement and metabolic/hemodynamic complications. PMID:17654273

  2. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  3. [The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in suspected neoplastic salivary gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Schoengen, A; Binder, T; Krause, H R; Stussak, G; Zeelen, U

    1995-04-01

    Imaging offers little support in the management of salivary gland masses suggestive of a neoplastic lesion. There are also contraindications for a surgical biopsy in many cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not yet widely recognized as a diagnostic tool. To date, 206 FNAC were carried out from 1986 through 1993 on 181 consecutive patients and were reviewed in the present study. Histological confirmation was possible in 174 tests, while 32 were confirmed on clinical follow-up. In sum, 192 samples were sufficient for interpretation, 10 were questionable by our standards and 4 were non-diagnostic. One hundred-seventy-one samples were true-negative, 27 true-positive, 4 false-negative and 4 false-positive. Sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity 97.7%. Out of 141 primary diagnostic procedures in which a final histologic diagnosis was available, FNAC was able to determine histogenesis in 113/124 benign lesions and 9/17 malignant masses. These included 65/67 pleomorphic adenomas and 21/22 adenolymphomas. In 8 cases a diagnosis of "adenoma" was made. Difficulties in interpretation were found in lesions that were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and, in part, adenoid cystic carcinomas. No complications occurred. Provided that there was sufficient experience in performing the aspiration technique and in cytologic interpretation, FNAC was found to be a quick, reliable, low-cost, easy-to-perform method with low risk in the management of nearly all benign and most malignant salivary gland lesions. PMID:7790235

  4. Sclerosing Polycystic Adenosis: A Rare Tumor of the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Christopher G; Fong, Justin B; Axelsson, Karen L; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Case Presentation: A 74-year-old woman presented to the Head and Neck Surgery clinic with a 4-year history of a slowly growing, painful, left-sided neck mass in the tail of the parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration suggested well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Discussion and Results: The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy and super-selective neck dissection (level 2). Pathology revealed a tumor consistent with sclerosing polycystic adenosis. Conclusion: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis is a rare inflammatory process that causes fibrocystic changes in the salivary gland. Apocrine-like metaplasia and epithelial atypia are common pathologic features. To our knowledge, a total of 51 cases have been described in the English-language literature. PMID:27043832

  5. Characterization of the myoepithelial cells in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Julio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Bats constitute one of the most numerous mammalian species. Bats have a wide range of dietary habits and include carnivorous, haematophagous, insectivorous, frugivorous and nectivorous species. The salivary glands of these species have been of particular research interest due to their structural variability among chiropterans with different types of diets. Myoepithelial cells (MECs), which support and facilitate the expulsion of saliva from the secretory portions of salivary glands, are very important for their function; however, this cell type has not been extensively studied in the salivary glands of bats. In this study, we characterized the MECs in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis. Herein, we describe the morphology of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of A. jamaicensis at the light- and electro-microscopic level and the distribution of MECs in these glands, as defined by their expression of smooth-muscle markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (SMAα) and desmin, and of epithelial cell markers, such as KRT14. We found that the anatomical locations of the major salivary glands in this bat species are similar to those of humans, except that the bat sublingual gland appears to be unique, extending to join the contralateral homologous gland. Morphologically, the parotid gland has the characteristics of a mixed-secretory gland, whereas the submandibular and sublingual glands were identified as mucous-secretory glands. MECs positive for SMAα, KRT14 and desmin were found in all of the structural components of the three glands, except in their excretory ducts. Desmin is expressed at a lower level in the parotid gland than in the other glands. Our results suggest that the major salivary glands of A. jamaicensis, although anatomically and structurally similar to those of humans, play different physiological roles that can be attributed to the dietary habits of this species. PMID:27168421

  6. [Toxicity and tetramine contents of salivary glands from carnivorous gastropods].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yoko; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    Salivary glands from 29 species of marine carnivorous gastropods in nine families were examined for lethal activity against mice and tetramine content. Mouse lethality was assayed by intravenous injection of buffer extracts into mice, and was detected in 14 species. Heat-stability tests confirmed that toxins in four species were thermolabile, while those in eight species were thermostable. Based on the tetramine contents determined by the colorimetric method using methanolic extracts, the thermostable toxins in seven species (Neptunea eulimatalamellosa, N. vinosa, N. arthritica, N. bulbacea, N. intersculpta f. pribiloffensis, N. intersculpta f. frater pilsbry and Hemifusus tuba) were considered to be tetramine contained at high levels (more than 900 micrograms/g salivary gland), but that in one species (Buccinum opisthoplectum) appeared to be a low-molecular-weight compound differing from tetramine. It is interesting that one (Hemifusus tuba) of the seven species containing high amounts of tetramine belongs to the family Melongenidae, although the other six Neptunea species are members of the family Buccinidae, as expected from previous studies. PMID:12635343

  7. Dendritic cell tumor in a salivary gland lymph node: a rare differential diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cell tumors are extremely rare neoplasms arising from antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. We report a case of a 69-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history who presented with a 2-months history of a gradually enlarging painless, firm, mobile, 2 × 2-cm swelling at the caudal pole of the left parotid gland without systemic symptoms. Histologically, the tumor consisted of a spindle cell proliferation in an intraparotideal lymph node. Based on the histopathologic, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic findings, a dendritic cell tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS) in an intraparotideal lymph node was diagnosed. The patient underwent complete tumor resection, and is currently free of disease, 2 years after surgery. These extremely rare tumors must be distinguished from other more common tumors in the salivary glands. Awareness that dendritic cell tumors may occur in this localization, careful histologic evaluation and ancillary immunohistochemical and electron microscopical analyses should allow for recognition of this entity. PMID:21961558

  8. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jennifer L.; Grundmann, Oliver; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine{sup 18}) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo.

  9. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C.; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3–4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12–22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  10. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3-4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12-22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  11. Mucocele of the anterior lingual salivary glands (glands of Blandin and Nuhn): report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, P B; Savage, N W; Young, W G

    2000-10-01

    The anterior lingual salivary glands (glands of Blandin and Nuhn) are mixed mucous and serous glands that are embedded within the musculature of the anterior tongue ventrum. Five cases of mucocele of the glands of Blandin and Nuhn are presented. These mucoceles on the anterior tongue ventrum were exophytic and resembled pyogenic granulomata, polyps, or squamous papillomata. In 2 cases, the onset of the mucocele was associated with trauma to the anterior tongue. All cases were mucus extravasation phenomena. A history of trauma and recovery of mucus with fine needle aspiration are helpful in the clinical diagnosis of mucocele of the glands of Blandin and Nuhn, as are the following characteristics of the mucocele: rapid onset, increase and reduction in size, bluish color, and fluid-filled consistency. During surgery, the glands that are deep in the tongue musculature are commonly left behind, resulting in persistence of the lesion. Careful clinical evaluation of these lesions and preoperative awareness of the surgical anatomy of the glands of Blandin and Nuhn may minimize the need for repeated surgical procedures. PMID:11027386

  12. A Prognostic Index for Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Shane; Yu, James B.; Ross, Douglas A.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Decker, Roy H.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Large studies examining the clinical and pathological factors associated with nodal metastasis in minor salivary gland cancer are lacking in the literature. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 2,667 minor salivary gland cancers with known lymph node status from 1988 to 2004. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the use of neck dissection, the use of external beam radiation therapy, and the presence of cervical lymph node metastases. Results: Four hundred twenty-six (16.0%) patients had neck nodal involvement. Factors associated with neck nodal involvement on univariate analysis included increasing age, male sex, increasing tumor size, high tumor grade, T3-T4 stage, adenocarcinoma or mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and pharyngeal site of primary malignancy. On multivariate analysis, four statistically significant factors were identified, including male sex, T3-T4 stage, pharyngeal site of primary malignancy, and high-grade adenocarcinoma or high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) of patients with lymph node involvement for those with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 of these prognostic factors were 0.02 (0.01-0.03), 0.09 (0.07-0.11), 0.17 (0.14-0.21), 0.41 (0.33-0.49), and 0.70 (0.54-0.85), respectively. Grade was a significant predictor of metastasis for adenocarcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma but not for adenoid cystic carcinoma. Conclusions: A prognostic index using the four clinicopathological factors listed here can effectively differentiate patients into risk groups of nodal metastasis. The precision of this index is subject to the limitations of SEER data and should be validated in further clinical studies.

  13. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of submandibular gland metastatic to great toes: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Oana C; Paul, Doru; Chen, Sheng; Kraus, Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the salivary glands, with higher frequency in the submandibular gland, a prolonged clinical course, and poor long-term survival. It tends to metastasize to lungs, bone, liver, brain, and rarely to skin. Comprehensive skin examination and appropriate follow-up is recommended, since cutaneous metastasis represents disease progression, requiring management and prognosis adjustment. PMID:27525094

  14. An In Vitro Culture System for Long-Term Expansion of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Salivary Gland Cells: Role of TGF-β1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial and Mesenchymal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Buranaphatthana, Worakanya; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Hays, Aislinn L.; Reyes, Morayma

    2013-01-01

    Despite a pivotal role in salivary gland development, homeostasis, and disease, the role of salivary gland mesenchyme is not well understood. In this study, we used the Col1a1-GFP mouse model to characterize the salivary gland mesenchyme in vitro and in vivo. The Col1a1-GFP transgene was exclusively expressed in the salivary gland mesenchyme. Ex vivo culture of mixed salivary gland cells in DMEM plus serum medium allowed long-term expansion of salivary gland epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The role of TGF-β1 in salivary gland development and disease is complex. Therefore, we used this in vitro culture system to study the effects of TGF-β1 on salivary gland cell differentiation. TGF-β1 induced the expression of collagen, and inhibited the formation of acini-like structures in close proximity to mesenchymal cells, which adapted a fibroblastic phenotype. In contrast, TGF-βR1 inhibition increased acini genes and fibroblast growth factors (Fgf-7 and Fgf-10), decreased collagen and induced formation of larger, mature acini-like structures. Thus, inhibition of TGF-β signaling may be beneficial for salivary gland differentiation; however, due to differential effects of TGF-β1 in salivary gland epithelial versus mesenchymal cells, selective inhibition is desirable. In conclusion, this mixed salivary gland cell culture system can be used to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and the effects of differentiating inducers and inhibitors. PMID:23841093

  15. Prevention of irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by rapamycin in swine parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhao; Pang, Baoxing; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Wu, Xiaoshan; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Gutkind, J Silvio; Wang, Songlin

    2016-04-12

    Radiotherapy is commonly used in patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, usually resulting in irreversible salivary hypofunction. Currently management of radiation damage to salivary glands still remains a great challenge. Recent studies show that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) occurs in salivary gland lesions, making it possible to apply mTOR inhibitor for treatment. Our results indicate inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin significantly alleviated irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by restoring 46% salivary flow rate and protecting histological structures in swine. Furthermore, rapamycin protected human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) from irradiation-induced cell depletion and loss of cell proliferation capacity. These findings lay the foundation for a new clinical application of rapamycin to prevent irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:26958808

  16. Prevention of irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by rapamycin in swine parotid glands

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhao; Pang, Baoxing; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Wu, Xiaoshan; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Silvio Gutkind, J; Wang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly used in patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, usually resulting in irreversible salivary hypofunction. Currently management of radiation damage to salivary glands still remains a great challenge. Recent studies show that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) occurs in salivary gland lesions, making it possible to apply mTOR inhibitor for treatment. Our results indicate inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin significantly alleviated irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by restoring 46% salivary flow rate and protecting histological structures in swine. Furthermore, rapamycin protected human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) from irradiation-induced cell depletion and loss of cell proliferation capacity. These findings lay the foundation for a new clinical application of rapamycin to prevent irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:26958808

  17. Salivary gland accumulation of meta-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Intense uptake of m-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been observed in the salivary glands of patients undergoing scintigraphy for the location of suspected pheochromocytomas. This uptake of radioativity was not due to free I-131 derived from the I-131 MIBG but rather to uptake of I-131 MIBG by sympathetic neuronal elements in the salivary glands. In keeping with this, administration of tricycle antidepressants reversibly blocked salivary uptake of I-131 MIBG. Furthermore, I-131 MIBG uptake was markedly diminished by the ipsilateral salivary glands in a patient with Horner's syndrome, and was bilaterally diminished in a patient with severe idiopathic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The salivary gland uptake of I-131 MIBG may provide a means for the study of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and thus for the study of generalized disorders of autonomic innervation.

  18. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  19. Minor Salivary Gland Tumours of Upper Aerodigestive Tract: A Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Wyszyńska-Pawelec, Grażyna; Gontarz, Michał; Zapała, Jan; Szuta, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study of 56 patients with minor salivary gland tumours (MSGTs) of the upper aerodigestive tract is to present demographic features, distribution of tumours as well as methods and results of treatment performed in our institution over a 10-year period. Of 221 patients with salivary gland tumours, 56 patients with MSGT were selected. There were 36 female and 20 male patients aged from 8 to 81 years. Male-to-female ratio was 1 : 2 in the group of benign MSGT and 1 : 1.7 in the group of malignant tumours. The palate was the most frequent site of MSGT (45.6%), followed by buccal mucosa (19.3%). Of all MSGTs 63.2% were malignant, and 36.8% were benign. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common neoplasm (31.6%), followed by pleomorphic adenoma (29.8%). Surgery was the method of choice in the treatment of patients with MSGT. Postoperative defects were reconstructed by prosthetic obturators, local flaps, and free radial forearm flap. Relative survival for patients with malignant MSGT was 88% at three years and 71.5% at five years. MSGTs are more frequent in females and predominantly affect the palate. Malignant MSGTs are more common than benign. PMID:22675346

  20. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Knaś, M.; Daniszewska, I.; Klimiuk, A.; Kołodziej, U.; Waszkiel, D.; Ładny, J. R.; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions. PMID:27478848

  1. Human herpes virus 6 and endogenous biotin in salivary glands.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M; Sviland, L; Taylor, C E; Peiris, M; McCarthy, A L; Pearson, A D; Malcolm, A J

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To detect the presence of human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) and endogenous biotin in paraffin wax embedded and frozen salivary glands. METHODS: Two stage indirect and streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase techniques were used to visualise the antigens. RESULTS: HHV6 could not be shown in any of the tissues. However, considerable endogenous biotin antigenicity was detected in the glandular elements of the paraffin wax embedded material. CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained with avidin-biotin detection systems should be interpreted with caution, especially when glandular epithelium is being stained. This may apply to both immunoperoxidase and in situ hybridisation techniques. The use of an anti-biotin antibody as a standard control should be considered. Images PMID:1328329

  2. [Application of water jet ERBEJET 2 in salivary glands surgery].

    PubMed

    Gasiński, Mateusz; Modrzejewski, Maciej; Cenda, Paweł; Nazim-Zygadło, Elzbieta; Kozok, Andrzej; Dobosz, Paweł

    2009-09-01

    Anatomical location of salivary glands requires from surgeon high precision during the operation in this site. Waterjet is one of the modern tools which allows to perform "minimal invasive" operating procedure. This tool helps to separate pathological structures from healthy tissue with a stream of high pressure saline pumped to the operating area via special designed applicators. Stream of fluid is generated by double piston pummp under 1 to 80 bar pressure that can be regulated. This allows to precise remove tumors, spare nerves and vessels in glandular tissue and minimize use of electrocoagulation. Waterjet is a modern tool that can help to improve the safety of patients and comfort of surgeon's work. PMID:20564900

  3. Advances in Diagnosis and Management of Salivary Gland Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Dale H.

    1984-01-01

    Salivary glands may be involved in a wide variety of diseases, which may be broadly grouped into (1) inflammatory, (2) noninflammatory, nonneoplastic and (3) neoplastic categories. Most inflammatory and noninflammatory, nonneoplastic diseases should be managed conservatively and symptomatically. The common exceptions are first-arch branchialcleft cysts and calculi. Neoplastic lesions always require resection if that is feasible. For benign tumors, simple excision with a cuff of normal tissue around it will usually suffice. The prevailing trend for treatment of malignant neoplasms is conservatism. No longer is the facial nerve routinely sacrificed. The resection done is dictated by the tumor size and the facial nerve is spared unless directly invaded. Postoperative radiation therapy is increasingly used. PMID:6328773

  4. Aberrant Activation of the RANK Signaling Receptor Induces Murine Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Allison P.; Dougall, William C.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Lydon, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike cancers of related exocrine tissues such as the mammary and prostate gland, diagnosis and treatment of aggressive salivary gland malignancies have not markedly advanced in decades. Effective clinical management of malignant salivary gland cancers is undercut by our limited knowledge concerning the key molecular signals that underpin the etiopathogenesis of this rare and heterogeneous head and neck cancer. Without knowledge of the critical signals that drive salivary gland tumorigenesis, tumor vulnerabilities cannot be exploited that allow for targeted molecular therapies. This knowledge insufficiency is further exacerbated by a paucity of preclinical mouse models (as compared to other cancer fields) with which to both study salivary gland pathobiology and test novel intervention strategies. Using a mouse transgenic approach, we demonstrate that deregulation of the Receptor Activator of NFkB Ligand (RANKL)/RANK signaling axis results in rapid tumor development in all three major salivary glands. In line with its established role in other exocrine gland cancers (i.e., breast cancer), the RANKL/RANK signaling axis elicits an aggressive salivary gland tumor phenotype both at the histologic and molecular level. Despite the ability of this cytokine signaling axis to drive advanced stage disease within a short latency period, early blockade of RANKL/RANK signaling markedly attenuates the development of malignant salivary gland neoplasms. Together, our findings have uncovered a tumorigenic role for RANKL/RANK in the salivary gland and suggest that targeting this pathway may represent a novel therapeutic intervention approach in the prevention and/or treatment of this understudied head and neck cancer. PMID:26061636

  5. Histochemical study of magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) minor salivary glands during postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Samar, M E; Avila, R E; De Fabro, S P; Porfirio, V; Esteban, F J; Pedrosa, J A; Peinado, M A

    1999-02-01

    The histological and histochemical features of the minor salivary glands during postnatal development have been generally associated with the type of food ingested. However, recent studies support the fact that these salivary glands develop independently of the diet; in fact, minor salivary glands have similar morphological and histochemical characteristics in adult individuals of species with different diet regimens. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the developmental morphology of the penguin minor salivary glands and to contrast them with minor salivary glands of other species. The tongue, palatine, and mouth cavity (bottom) minor salivary glands of newborn, 1- to 20-day-old, and adult magellanic penguins were studied with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, alcian blue, toluidine blue, and lectin histochemistry. Minor salivary glands were present at all ages, although they were only moderately developed in animals less than 15 days old. After this age, glands were abundant in all age groups; in addition, cells from the glandular epithelium were functionally mature and secreted mucins. Nevertheless, in newborn to 15-day-old penguins, mucins were located only at the apical cytoplasm of mucous cells. In all ages, mucous cells displayed periodic acid-Schiff-positive, alcianophilic, and metachromatic reactions; among mucous cells, other orthochromatic cells appeared interspersed. From 15 days on, histochemical reactions became more intense until adulthood, and the cytoplasm of secretory cells was filled with glycoproteins and sulfomucins. Moreover, lectins bound to different oligosaccharides in mucous cells, depending on the stage of maturation of the glands. In conclusion, penguin minor salivary glands are already present at birth, and show progressive and quantitative increases in mucous secretion during postnatal development. These changes are necessary not only for nutrient ingestion, but also for nonimmune protection of the buccal cavity

  6. Molecular Characterization of Tick Salivary Gland Glutaminyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven W.; Browning, Rebecca E.; Chao, Chien-Chung; Bateman, Robert C.; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamate. This post-translational modification extends the half-life of peptides and, in some cases, is essential in binding to their cognate receptor. Due to its potential role in the post-translational modification of tick neuropeptides, we report the molecular, biochemical and physiological characterization of salivary gland QC during the prolonged blood-feeding of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the gulf-coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). QC sequences from I. scapularis and A. maculatum showed a high degree of amino acid identity to each other and other arthropods and residues critical for zinc-binding/catalysis (D159, E202, and H330) or intermediate stabilization (E201, W207, D248, D305, F325, and W329) are conserved. Analysis of QC transcriptional gene expression kinetics depicts an upregulation during the blood-meal of adult female ticks prior to fast feeding phases in both I. scapularis and A. maculatum suggesting a functional link with blood meal uptake. QC enzymatic activity was detected in saliva and extracts of tick salivary glands and midguts. Recombinant QC was shown to be catalytically active. Furthermore, knockdown of QC-transcript by RNA interference resulted in lower enzymatic activity, and small, unviable egg masses in both studied tick species as well as lower engorged tick weights for I. scapularis. These results suggest that the post-translational modification of neurotransmitters and other bioactive peptides by QC is critical to oviposition and potentially other physiological processes. Moreover, these data suggest that tick-specific QC-modified neurotransmitters/hormones or other relevant parts of this system could potentially be used as novel physiological targets for tick control. PMID:23770496

  7. Autocrine/paracrine dopamine in the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Koči, Juraj; Simo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-03-01

    Dopamine (DA) is known to be the most potent activator of tick salivary secretion, which is an essential component of successful tick feeding. We examined the quantitative changes of catecholamines using a method coupling high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). We also investigated the levels of catecholamines conjugated to other molecules utilising appropriate methods to hydrolyse the conjugates. Three different biological samples, salivary glands, synganglia, ovaries and haemolymph were compared, and the largest quantity of DA was detected in salivary gland extracts (up to ∼100pg/tick), supporting the hypothesis that autocrine/paracrine dopamine activates salivary secretion. Quantitative changes of catecholamines in the salivary glands over the entire blood feeding duration were examined. The amount of dopamine in the salivary glands increased until the day 5 of feeding, at which the rapid engorgement phase began. We also detected a small but significant amount of norepinephrine in the salivary glands. Interestingly, saliva collected after induction of salivary secretion by the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine contained a large amount of DA sulphate with a trace amount of DA, suggesting a potential biological role of DA sulphate in tick saliva. PMID:24503219

  8. An Imaging Panorama of Salivary Gland Lesions as seen on High Resolution Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gandage, Siddappa Gurubalappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Lesions of salivary gland are quite common. Clinical examination alone is not able to differentiate between them and pinpoint the exact cause. It would definitely benefit the patient as well as the doctor if they could get an idea of the exact type of lesion affecting the salivary gland. Hence, this retrospective study was undertaken to demonstrate how high resolution ultrasound imaging (HRUSG) can be useful in evaluation of salivary gland lesions. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, imaging findings in patients who underwent HRUSG of salivary glands in the past five years were compiled. Analysis of the imaging findings and clinico-pathological correlation was then performed in this descriptive study. Results: Out of the 87 patients referred for HRUSG of salivary glands in the last five years, characteristic findings were found in 53 patients. HRUSG diagnosis of Acute Inflammation was made in 19 cases, Chronic Inflammation in 13 cases and Primary Neoplastic Lesions in 11 cases, Metastatic deposits in 3 cases and Salivary Calculus in 7 cases. No obvious abnormality was seen in rest of the 34 patients. HRUSG was found to be 93.33 % sensitive and 98.07% specific for diagnosing neoplastic lesions in salivary glands. Conclusion: Patients with salivary gland pathologies may present either with clinically assessable symptoms or just with cosmetic deformities due to bulge in the salivary gland. Clinical examination alone cannot pinpoint the etiology. Sonography can satisfactorily enable visualization of the abnormality noninvasively. It not only confirms the presence or absence of pathology but also enables image guided tissue retrieval for final pathological diagnosis. PMID:25478426

  9. Glycoinositolphospholipids from Trypanosomatids Subvert Nitric Oxide Production in Rhodnius prolixus Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Silva-Cardoso, Lívia; Senna, Raquel; Silveira, Alan Barbosa; Jablonka, Willy; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Machado, Ednildo Alcantara; Lima, Luize G.; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Nussenzveig, Roberto Henrique; Folly, Evelize; Romeiro, Alexandre; Vanbeselaere, Jorick; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Previato, José Osvaldo; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Atella, Georgia Correa; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-sucking bug vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli. T. cruzi is transmitted by vector feces deposited close to the wound produced by insect mouthparts, whereas T. rangeli invades salivary glands and is inoculated into the host skin. Bug saliva contains a set of nitric oxide-binding proteins, called nitrophorins, which deliver NO to host vessels and ensure vasodilation and blood feeding. NO is generated by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) present in the epithelium of bug salivary glands. Thus, T. rangeli is in close contact with NO while in the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show by immunohistochemical, biochemical and molecular techniques that inositolphosphate-containing glycolipids from trypanosomatids downregulate NO synthesis in the salivary glands of R. prolixus. Injecting insects with T. rangeli-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tr GIPL) or T. cruzi-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tc GIPL) specifically decreased NO production. Salivary gland treatment with Tc GIPL blocks NO production without greatly affecting NOS mRNA levels. NOS protein is virtually absent from either Tr GIPL- or Tc GIPL-treated salivary glands. Evaluation of NO synthesis by using a fluorescent NO probe showed that T. rangeli-infected or Tc GIPL-treated glands do not show extensive labeling. The same effect is readily obtained by treatment of salivary glands with the classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (SO). This suggests that parasite GIPLs induce the inhibition of a salivary gland PTP. GIPLs specifically suppressed NO production and did not affect other anti-hemostatic properties of saliva, such as the anti-clotting and anti-platelet activities. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these data suggest that trypanosomatids have overcome NO generation using their surface GIPLs. Therefore, these molecules ensure parasite survival and may ultimately enhance parasite transmission

  10. Polymicrobial infection alter inflammatory microRNA in rat salivary glands during periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Gautam; Gauna, Adrienne; Chukkapalli, Sasanka; Velsko, Irina; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya; Cha, Seunghee

    2016-04-01

    Periodontal disease initiated by subgingival pathogens is linked with diminished secretion of saliva, and implies pathogenic bacteria dissemination to or affects secondary sites such as the salivary glands. MicroRNAs activated in response to bacteria may modulate immune responses against pathogens. Therefore, Sprague-Dawley rats were infected by oral lavage consisting of polymicrobial inocula, namely Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, or sham-infected for 12 weeks (n = 6). We quantified inflammatory miRNA expression levels of miRNA-132, miR-146a, and miR-155 at secondary sites to the primary infection of the gingiva, including submandibular salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and pancreas. The presence of bacteria was detected in situ at secondary sites. Infected rat gingiva showed increased relative expression of miR-155. In contrast, miRNA-155 expression was decreased in submandibular salivary glands, along with positive identification of P. gingivalis in 2/6 and T. denticola in 1/6 rat salivary glands. Furthermore, miRNA-132 and miRNA-146a were significantly decreased in the pancreas of infected rats. This study is the first to show primary periodontal infections can alter miRNA profiles in secondary sites such as the salivary gland and pancreas. Whether these alterations contribute to pathologies of salivary glands in Sjögren's syndrome or of pancreas in diabetes warrants further investigation. PMID:26481834

  11. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of major salivary gland tumors: A study with histological and clinical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Archana; Geethamani, V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neoplastic lesions of salivary glands present an interesting subject because of their histologic diversification. Complex features exhibited by them have aroused considerable speculations concerning their histogenesis and continues to hold the interest of clinicians and pathologists. Major salivary glands are superficial and have easy accessibility for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). These glands are generally not subjected to incisional or core needle biopsy, because of the possible risks of fistula formation and tumor seedling. FNAC diagnosis of major salivary gland neoplasms aids in proper planning of required surgery and avoidance of the same in cases of non-neoplastic lesions. Materials and Methods: Cytological features of major salivary gland tumors diagnosed on FNAC were studied over a period of one and a half years. Cytological and architectural patterns in smears were compared with histopathological features in cases where the specimens were available with a note on the age, sex and presenting complaints. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to find the significance of study parameters. Chi-square/Fisher Exact was used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more groups. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 114 salivary gland FNACs were done, 75 patients were clinically suspected to be neoplasms. The peak incidence was in the third to fourth decade of life with a female preponderance. Parotid was the most commonly affected gland (80%) with pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (10.7%) being the most common benign and malignant tumors respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 97.6%. Warthins tumor was misdiagnosed and was associated with a strong smoking history. Conclusion: Salivary gland neoplasms constitute a small but significant percentage of head and neck tumors. FNAC is inexpensive, quick, and aids in the

  12. Global Transcriptome and Sequenome Analysis of Formalin-Fixed Salivary Epithelial–Myoepithelial Carcinoma Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Isabel; Bell, Achim; Wani, Khalida; Bell, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Diverse microarray and sequencing technologies have been widely used to characterize molecular changes in malignant epithelial cells in salivary neoplasms. Such gene expression studies to identify markers and targets in tumor cells are, however, compromised by the cellular heterogeneity of these tumors and by the difficulties to accrue matching controls representing normal salivary glands. Seventeen samples of primary salivary epithelial–myoepithelial carcinoma along with tissue from six normal major salivary glands were microdissected from paraffin-embedded tissue. Pools of RNA from highly enriched preparations of these cell types were subjected to expression profiling using a whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing experiment. In parallel, extracted genomic DNA was used for the 50 gene hotspot panel sequenome. KRAS mutations in three patients (18%), NRAS mutations in one patient (6%), but no HRAS, MET, PIK3CA, or BRAF mutations. Using strict and conservative criteria, 220 differentially expressed transcripts were found, with 36% up- and 64% downregulated. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI Entrez Gene, and computationally analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis program. From these significantly changed expressions, the analysis identified 26 cancer-related transcripts and 16 transcripts related to mitochondrial dysfunction overlapping with three cancer-related genes. These 220 differentially expressed genes including micro-RNAs provide here a sufficiently large set to specifically define epithelial–myoepithelial carcinoma and to identify novel and potentially important targets for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of this cancer. PMID:25546727

  13. Salivary gland necrosis in dogs: a retrospective study of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, H; Berry, W L

    1998-03-01

    Salivary gland necrosis has been described in dogs and is characterised by enlarged, hard, painful salivary glands, retching and vomiting or regurgitation. The cause has yet to be determined. A retrospective study of 19 dogs with the same clinical signs was undertaken for breed, age, gender, history and presenting signs, diagnostic evaluations and findings, treatment and outcome. An underlying association was identified in 16 of the 19 dogs. This included Spirocerca lupi infestation (seven dogs), megaoesophagus (three dogs) and oesophagitis, oesophageal diverticulum, giardiasis and suspected autoimmune sialadenitis. Almost all associated lesions involved the oesophagus. Where the associated disease was successfully treated, the salivary glands returned to normal and all clinical signs resolved. It is hypothesised that an afferent vagal reflex may be involved, and that the mechanism of disease is similar to the neural pathogenesis suggested for hypertrophic osteopathy; in this instance, the efferent targets are the salivary glands rather than the limbs. PMID:9551379

  14. Surgical excision of the parotid salivary gland for treatment of a traumatic mucocele in a dog.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Kathleen M; Hardie, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    A 3 yr old spayed female mixed-breed German shepherd dog was presented with a right facial swelling that developed after fighting with another dog. A parotid salivary mucocele was diagnosed via physical examination, fine-needle aspirate, and sialography of the parotid and mandibular salivary glands. Surgical excision of the right parotid salivary gland and duct was performed along with drainage of the mucocele. Neither intraoperative nor postoperative complications occurred, and follow-up examination 4 mo later revealed no evidence of recurrence. Case outcome was considered excellent. Sialography was useful for confirming the parotid gland as the source of the mucocele. Surgical excision of the parotid salivary gland is technically challenging, but an effective treatment option for traumatic mucoceles in the dog. PMID:24659723

  15. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Limesand, Kirsten H.; Avila, Jennifer L.; Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver; Klein, Rob R.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

  16. Retroductal Submandibular Gland Instillation and Localized Fractionated Irradiation in a Rat Model of Salivary Hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Zheng, Changyu; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2016-01-01

    Normal tissues that lie within the portals of radiation are inadvertently damaged. Salivary glands are often injured during head and neck radiotherapy. Irreparable cell damage results in a chronic loss of salivary function that impairs basic oral activities, and increases the risk of oral infections and dental caries. Salivary hypofunction and its complications gravely impact a patient's comfort. Current symptomatic management of the condition is ineffective, and newer therapies to assuage the condition are needed. Salivary glands are exocrine glands, which expel their secretions into the mouth via excretory ducts. Cannulation of these ducts provides direct access to the glands. Retroductal delivery of a contrast agent to major salivary glands is a routine out-patient procedure for diagnostic imaging. Using a similar procedure, localized treatment of the glands is feasible. However, performing this technique in preclinical studies with small animals poses unique challenges. In this study we describe the technique of retroductal administration in rat submandibular glands, a procedure that was refined in Dr. Bruce Baum's laboratory (NIH)(1), and lay out a procedure for local gland irradiation. PMID:27168158

  17. Expression of Autophagy and Reactive Oxygen Species-Related Proteins in Lacrimal Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ja Seung; Kim, Ji Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the difference of expression of autophagy and reactive oxygen species (ROS) related proteins in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of lacrimal gland in comparison with ACC of salivary gland. Materials and Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from patients pathologically diagnosed as lacrimal gland ACC (n=11) and salivary gland ACC (n=64) were used. Immunochemistry was used to measure expression of autophagy related proteins [beclin-1, light chain (LC) 3A, LC3B, p62, and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3)] and ROS related proteins [catalase, thioredoxinreductase, glutathione S-transferasepi (GSTpi), thioredoxin interacting protein, and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)]. The prognostic factors related to disease-free and overall survival (OS) in lacrimal gland ACC by log-rank tests, were determined. Results GSTpi in stromal cells was more highly expressed in lacrimal gland ACC (p=0.006), however, MnSOD in epithelial cells was expressed more in salivary gland ACC (p=0.046). LC3B positivity and BNIP3 positivity in epithelial component were associated with shorter disease-free survival (both p=0.002), and LC3A positivity in stromal component was the factor related to shorter OS (p=0.005). Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate the expression of autophagy and ROS related proteins in lacrimal gland ACC in comparison with the salivary gland ACC, which would provide a basis for further study of autophagy and ROS mechanism as novel therapeutic targets in lacrimal gland ACC. PMID:26847304

  18. [Antihomotoxic therapy in patients with inflammatory and dystrophic salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, V V; Zorian, E V; Krasnikova, T V

    2012-01-01

    Traumeel S was used as monotherapy for salivary glands inflammatory and dystrophic disorders. The study showed the drug to be especially efficient by exacerbation of the recurrent disease but the results were poor by indolent disease and on the latter stages of dystrophic disorder. Traumel S may be recommended to be used in combined therapy for salivary glands inflammatory and dystrophic disorders treatment. PMID:23011333

  19. Minimally Invasive Techniques for the Treatment of Benign Salivary Gland Obstruction: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jackie E.

    2002-10-15

    This paper reviews the literature published on minimally invasive techniques developed to treat benign salivary gland obstruction. Techniques reported include extracorporeal and intracorporeal salivary gland lithotripsy, endoscopy and radiologically guided techniques for the extraction of calculi and dilatation of duct strictures. These techniques are described, their advantages and disadvantages discussed and their success rates compared. Recommendations are made on the most appropriate application of each technique.

  20. Rigid swelling of sublingual caruncle area due to the salivary gland duct obstruction by a sialolith.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Martins, Gustavo; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; Costa, José Ronaldo Vieira da; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2014-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the presence of calculus within the ductal system of a salivary gland. Among the diagnostic methods are inspection, palpation, checking the amount of saliva secreted and the identification of a sialolith. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old female patient with edema of the submandibular area and a bulging sublingual caruncle due to a calculus that obstructed the salivary gland ostium. PMID:25387506

  1. Rigid swelling of sublingual caruncle area due to the salivary gland duct obstruction by a sialolith*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Martins, Gustavo; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; da Costa, José Ronaldo Vieira; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2014-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the presence of calculus within the ductal system of a salivary gland. Among the diagnostic methods are inspection, palpation, checking the amount of saliva secreted and the identification of a sialolith. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old female patient with edema of the submandibular area and a bulging sublingual caruncle due to a calculus that obstructed the salivary gland ostium. PMID:25387506

  2. Salivary gland uptake of 67Ga-citrate following radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Bekerman, C; Hoffer, P B

    1976-08-01

    Radiogallium uptake in the salivary glands is strongly correlated with prior therapeutic radiation which includes the cervical region. Fifteen of 17 patients with increased salivary gland uptake had such a history. An easily identified characteristic pattern of symmetric localization of 67Ga occurs in the parotid and submandibular regions in these patients. This pattern must not be mistaken for recurrent tumor in the cervical region. PMID:932810

  3. Current cell models for bioengineering a salivary gland: a mini-review of emerging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J; Manzella, K; Baker, OJ

    2013-01-01

    Saliva plays a major role in maintaining oral health. Patients afflicted with a decrease in saliva secretion (symptomatically, xerostomia) exhibit difficulty in chewing and swallowing foods, tooth decay, periodontal disease, and microbial infections. Despite recent improvements in treating xerostomia (e.g., saliva stimulants, saliva substitutes, and gene therapy), there is a need of more scientific advancements that can be clinically applied toward restoration of compromised salivary gland function. Here we provide a summary of the current salivary cell models that have been used to advance restorative treatments via development of an artificial salivary gland. These models represent initial steps toward clinical and translational research, to facilitate creation of clinically safe salivary glands. Further studies in salivary cell lines and primary cells are necessary to improve survival rates, cell differentiation, and secretory function. Additionally, the characterization of salivary progenitor and stem cell markers are necessary. Although these models are not fully characterized, their improvement may lead to the construction of an artificial salivary gland that is in high demand for improving the quality of life of many patients suffering from salivary secretory dysfunction. PMID:22805753

  4. Label-Retaining Cells in the Adult Murine Salivary Glands Possess Characteristics of Adult Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chibly, Alejandro M.; Querin, Lauren; Harris, Zoey; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs) in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:25238060

  5. Morphology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of the spittlebug Lepyronia coleopterata (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Haiying; Zhang, Yalin; Wei, Cong

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the salivary glands in Lepyronia coleopterata (L.), and found that the salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal and accessory glands. Each principal gland contains an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe. Three types of acini (I, II, III) are observed in the anterior lobe, whereas the posterior lobe contains only one type of acini (IV). Rhabdus emerges from the middle portion of the acini III and IV. The oval-shaped accessory gland connects with the principal gland via a long duct. The long duct consists of a slightly coiled basal segment and a highly convoluted distal segment, with the terminal end of the latter constricted and connected with the accessory gland. A slightly convoluted transparent tube connects with the accessory gland at the former's distal end. The accessory gland, accessory salivary duct and the accessory salivary tube are observed for the first time in spittlebugs. Ultrastructurally, each type of acinus is made up of one type of secretory cells, but the rhabdus comprises two types of cells. Secretory granules in different type of cells are different in size, shape and electron density, which indicate either different materials are synthesized or these materials undergo a process of maturation. The rhabdus is empty in structure and contains several channels, with the lumen filled with abundant fine granular materials. Fine dark granules existed in the periphery of some secretory granules are probably virus particles. Microorganisms are observed in the cells of the acini I, III and rhabdus. PMID:24694223

  6. Gastric metastasis from salivary duct carcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Takeno, Shinsuke; Nimura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu; Sueta, Takayuki; Maki, Kenji; Kayashima, Yoshiyuki; Shiwaku, Hironari; Kato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present a very rare case of gastric metastasis mimicking primary gastric cancer in a patient who had undergone surgery for salivary duct carcinoma. Presentation of case A 67-year-old man had been diagnosed as having right parotid cancer and had undergone a right parotidectomy and lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was salivary duct carcinoma. One year after the surgery, a positron emission tomography–computed tomography scan using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) revealed an abnormal uptake of FDG in the left cervical, mediastinal, paraaortic, and cardiac lymph nodes; stomach; and pancreas. On gastroduodenoscopy, there was a huge, easily bleeding ulcer mimicking primary gastric cancer at the upper body of the stomach. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the primary gastric cancer and the metastatic tumor using gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Because of the uncontrollable bleeding from the gastric cancer, we performed an emergency palliative total gastrectomy. On histological examination, the gastric lesion was found to be metastatic carcinoma originating from the salivary duct carcinoma. Discussion In the presented case, we could not diagnose the gastric metastasis originating from the salivary duct carcinoma even by endoscopic biopsy. This is because the histological appearance of salivary duct carcinoma is similar to that of high-grade adenocarcinoma, thus, resembling primary gastric cancer. Conclusion When we perform endoscopic examination of patients with malignant neoplasias, a possibility of metastatic gastric cancer should be taken into consideration. PMID:27085106

  7. Major salivary gland flow rates in young and old, generally healthy African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E; Ship, J A

    1995-02-01

    Saliva is essential to maintain and preserve oral health. Previous studies of primarily white populations demonstrated that salivary gland flow rates are age-stable in healthy adults, but there are little data on African Americans of different ages. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between age, gender, and race in unstimulated and stimulated parotid and submandibular salivary gland flow rates and to evaluate subjective responses to questions regarding salivary dysfunction. Sixty generally healthy, middle socioeconomic class African Americans and whites between the ages of 20 to 40 and 60 to 80 years were evaluated. The results indicate, in general, that objective and subjective measurements of major salivary gland flow rates are independent of age, gender, and race. Further studies are required using larger populations. These results suggest that signs and symptoms of dry mouth in the elderly regardless of race or gender should not be considered a normal sequela of aging. PMID:7897685

  8. Be ready at any time: postprandial synthesis of salivary proteins in salivary gland cells of the haematophagous leech Hirudo verbana.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2016-04-15

    Sanguivorous leeches are ectoparasites having access to body fluids of potential hosts only infrequently. During feeding, salivary proteins are released from unicellular salivary glands into the wound. These substances, among them anti-coagulants, anti-inflammatory or anti-microbial agents, allow these animals proper feeding and long-term storage of host blood in their crops for several months. Using histological, protein biochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated whether synthesis of salivary proteins and refilling of salivary gland cells occur immediately after feeding or later when stored nutrients in the crop are getting scarce. The results of the histological analyses showed that gland cell area was significantly smaller right after feeding when compared with those in unfed animals. This parameter recovered quickly and reached the control level at 1 week after feeding. 2D gel electrophoresis and analysis of the abundance of individual proteins in extracts of leech tissues revealed that a subset of proteins that had been present in extracts of unfed animals virtually disappeared during feeding, but re-appeared within 1 week of feeding (most probably secretory proteins) while another subset did not change during the experimental period (most probably housekeeping proteins). Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of hirudin cDNA prepared from leech RNA samples revealed that the amount of hirudin transcripts increased immediately after feeding, peaked at 5 days after feeding and declined to control values thereafter. Our results indicate that bloodsucking leeches synthesize salivary proteins and refill their salivary gland cell reservoirs within a week of a blood meal to be prepared for another feeding opportunity. PMID:27103675

  9. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:25680367

  10. Reduced salivary gland size and increased presence of epithelial progenitor cells in DLK1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gallastegui, P; Luzuriaga, J; Aurrekoetxea, M; Baladrón, V; Ruiz-Hidalgo, M J; García-Ramírez, J J; Laborda, J; Unda, F; Ibarretxe, G

    2016-06-01

    DLK1 (PREF1, pG2, or FA1) is a transmembrane and secreted protein containing epidermal growth factor-like repeats. Dlk1 expression is abundant in many tissues during embryonic and fetal development and is believed to play an important role in the regulation of tissue differentiation and fetal growth. After birth, Dlk1 expression is abolished in most tissues but is possibly reactivated to regulate stem cell activation and responses to injury. We have recently reported that DLK1 regulates many aspects of salivary gland organogenesis. Here, we have extended our studies of the salivary gland phenotype of Dlk1 knock-out mice. We have observed that salivary glands are smaller and weigh significantly less in both Dlk1 knock-out males and females compared with gender and age-matched wild-type mice and regardless of the natural sexual dimorphism in rodent salivary glands. This reduced size correlates with a reduced capacity of Dlk1-deficient mice to secrete saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine. However, histological and ultrastructural analyses of both adult and developing salivary gland tissues have revealed no defects in Dlk1 ((-/-)) mice, indicating that genetic compensation accounts for the relatively mild salivary phenotype in these animals. Finally, despite their lack of severe anomalies, we have found that salivary glands from Dlk1-deficient mice present a higher amount of CK14-positive epithelial progenitors at various developmental stages, suggesting a role for DLK1 in the regulation of salivary epithelial stem cell balance. PMID:26711912

  11. Recurrent right sublingual ranula, concomitant with ipsilateral submandibular salivary gland aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Albsoul, Nader M.; obeidat, Fatima O.; Altaher, Raed N.; Jubouri, Shams A.; Hadidy, Azmy M.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oral ranula is a retention cyst that arises from the salivary gland with recurrence rate of up to 25% after complete excision of ranula and up to 2% in case of complete excision of ranula and sublingual gland. Major salivary gland aplasia is a rare finding that is usually associated with other developmental anomalies. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a 15-year-old female patient presented with recurrent intraoral cystic swelling that was documented to be sublingual ranula. CT scan revealed also the absence of right submandibular salivary gland with persistence of its Whartons duct. This combination has never been reported previously. DISCUSSION The combination of recurrent sublingual ranula associated with aplasia of ipsilateral submandibular salivary gland and persistence of Whartons duct has never been reported before in the literature, a finding that may provide the base for future research. CONCLUSION Further research may prove similar associations between oral ranula and salivary gland aplasia, which may have clinical implications on diagnostic and management plan decisions. PMID:23291329

  12. Clinical Management of Salivary Gland Hypofunction and Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients: Successes and Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.; Limesand, Kirsten H.; Jensen, Siri Beier; Fox, Philip C.; Elting, Linda S.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Coppes, Robert P.; Reyland, Mary E.

    2010-11-15

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy.

  13. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    SciTech Connect

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan; Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo; Schrott, Lisa; Caldito, Gloria

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  14. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  15. Ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography of mandibular salivary gland adenocarcinoma in two dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lenoci, D.; Ricciardi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the salivary glands are rare in dogs, with adenocarcinoma being the most represented. Parotid and mandibular glands are most commonly affected in dogs. Because of local invasivity and high metastatic potential, preoperative imaging evaluation of mandibular region and tumoral staging is essential along with biopsy sampling. The present manuscript describes the ultrasound and computed tomographic imaging findings of mandibular gland adenocarcinoma in two dogs and discusses their clinical utility. PMID:26753133

  16. Identification of Stem Cells in the Secretory Complex of Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kwak, M; Alston, N; Ghazizadeh, S

    2016-07-01

    Salivary glands have an essential secretory function for maintaining oral and overall health. The epithelial compartment of the gland is composed of several highly specialized cell types that cooperate to secrete and deliver saliva to the oral cavity. The mouse submandibular gland has been used as a model for major salivary glands in human. The secretory complex in this model is composed of 2 secretory compartments, including acini and granular ducts connected by intercalated ducts. Contractile myoepithelial cells surround the secretory complex to facilitate salivary flow. Whether differentiated cells in the secretory complex are maintained by self-duplication or contribution from stem cells has remained an open question. Here, in analyzing the expression of basal cytokeratin (K) 14 in the secretory complex, we discovered a subset of K14(+) ductal cells in the intercalated ducts of the adult gland. These cells are distinct from the K14-expressing basal/myoepithelial cells, proliferate at a significantly higher rate than any other epithelial cell type in the gland, and reside in a spatially defined domain within the intercalated duct. Using inducible genetic lineage tracing, we show that K14(+) ductal cells represent a long-lived yet cycling population of stem cells that are established during development and contribute to the formation and maintenance of the granular ducts throughout life. Our data provide direct evidence for the existence of stem cells contributing to homeostasis of salivary glands, as well as new insights into glandular pathobiology. PMID:26936214

  17. c-fos oncogene underexpression in salivary gland tumors as measured by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Birek, C.; Lui, E.; Dardick, I.

    1993-01-01

    Tissue from 35 salivary gland tumors and 14 normal salivary glands was analyzed by in situ hybridization and computer-assisted morphometry for the expression of the c-fos oncogene. The normal salivary gland tissues were found to express c-fos focally, mainly in the acinar secretory cells. The majority of the cells in the normal tissues showed a high level of expression (47.74 +/- 5.31% of cells had 46 to 60 grains per cell and another 45.79 +/- 2.18% showed > 60 grains per cell). All the tumors examined exhibited a relatively low, uniform distribution of c-fos expression. For example, in the poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, 96.83 +/- 04% of the cells were found to have < 15 grains per cell. A general linear model for multivariate analysis showed a significant difference between the various tumor types and the normal salivary gland tissues (P = 0.0001). These data support the hypothesis that salivary gland tumors belong to a group of epithelial neoplasias in which the loss of cellular differentiation is linked with underexpression of the c-fos oncogene. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8456948

  18. Comparison of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Mihashi, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Akihiko; Kage, Masayoshi; Kojiro, Masamichi; Nakashima, Tadashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Sakamoto, Kikuo; Chiziwa, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 115 patients with salivary gland epithelial tumors who had undergone preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary glands and had been diagnosed by postoperative histopathological examination. We compared the findings of preoperative FNAC with their histopathological types in salivary gland tumors, and discuss the results and problems. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of preoperative FNAC of salivary glands were 98.2%, 88.2%, and 100%, respectively. The percentage of inadequate specimens was 6.1%. The rates of agreement in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor, and basal cell adenoma were 96%, 92.9%, and 55.5%, respectively. The rate of agreement of histopathological types in the malignant tumors was 30%. We realized again not only that the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative FNAC for salivary gland tumors was high, but also that it was a safe, easy-to-perform, clinically very useful diagnostic procedure. However, this study exposed several problems which are the inadequate sampling rate and the difficulty in diagnosing malignant tumors. We have been making efforts to take appropriate specimens by writing comments on the cytological report indicating a re-examination, or by the presence of the clinical laboratory technician at the FNAC procedure. We consider it necessary to adequately re-aspirate the solid portion after cyst fluid aspiration, or to re-perform FNAC at a later date, and to improve the diagnostic accuracy by further experience with more patients. PMID:17043392

  19. Detection of clonally expanded salivary gland lymphocytes in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Freimark, B; Fantozzi, R; Bone, R; Bordin, G; Fox, R

    1989-07-01

    Recurrent swelling of the parotid and submandibular salivary glands occurs in some patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Using Southern blot methods, we analyzed immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor (TCAR) gene rearrangements in DNA obtained from salivary gland lymphocytes of 9 SS patients. Based on histologic appearance of the biopsy specimens, these patients were diagnosed as having myoepithelial sialadenitis. We found oligoclonal rearrangements of the kappa gene (4 patients) and lambda gene (1 patient), and oligoclonal rearrangement of the TCAR beta chain in 2 additional SS patients. Patients with Ig gene rearrangements did not show rearrangements of their TCAR gene, nor did patients with TCAR rearrangements exhibit Ig rearrangements. The observed oligoclonal rearrangements probably derive from 5-10% of the salivary gland B cells or T cells. Three of these SS patients developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 2-8 years after the initial biopsy. Our results suggest that minor populations of B cells or T cells may clonally expand in the salivary gland tissues of SS patients with pseudolymphoma, and that such lymphocyte expansions may be controlled by the endogenous immune response and/or medications. However, continued lymphoproliferation in these salivary gland tissues may eventually lead to emergence of a neoplastic clone that escapes immunologic control and develops into a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as a result of a multistep process. PMID:2546568

  20. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nikpay, Ali; Nabian, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle. Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2) respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Finally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA. Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, engorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3%) and increased duration of feeding, preoviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%). All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation. Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B.) annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control. PMID:27308287

  1. Ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Rhodnius prolixus salivary glands: modulation by carbohydrates and Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Suzete A O; Fonseca de Souza, André L; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Dick, Claudia F; dos Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2008-05-01

    The salivary glands of insect's vectors are target organs to study the vectors-pathogens interactions. Rhodnius prolixus an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi can also transmit Trypanosoma rangeli by bite. In the present study we have investigated ecto-phosphatase activity on the surface of R. prolixus salivary glands. Ecto-phosphatases are able to hydrolyze phosphorylated substrates in the extracellular medium. We characterized these ecto-enzyme activities on the salivary glands external surface and employed it to investigate R. prolixus-T. rangeli interaction. Salivary glands present a low level of hydrolytic activity (4.30+/-0.35 nmol p-nitrophenol (p-NP)xh(-1)xgland pair(-1)). The salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity was not affected by pH variation; and it was insensitive to alkaline inhibitor levamisole and inhibited approximately 50% by inorganic phosphate (Pi). MgCl2, CaCl2 and SrCl2 enhanced significantly the ecto-phosphatase activity detected on the surface of salivary glands. The ecto-phosphatase from salivary glands surface efficiently releases phosphate groups from different phosphorylated amino acids, giving a higher rate of phosphate release when phospho-tyrosine is used as a substrate. This ecto-phosphatase activity was inhibited by carbohydrates as d-galactose and d-mannose. Living short epimastigotes of T. rangeli inhibited salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity at 75%, while boiled parasites did not. Living long epimastigote forms induced a lower, but significant inhibitory effect on the salivary glands phosphatase activity. Interestingly, boiled long epimastigote forms did not loose the ability to modulate salivary glands phosphatase activity. Taken together, these data suggest a possible role for ecto-phosphatase on the R. prolixus salivary glands-T. rangeli interaction. PMID:18407240

  2. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  3. Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. )

    1991-02-01

    Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

  4. Salivary gland morphology, tissue tropism and the progression of tospovirus infection in Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Ullman, Diane E; Whitfield, Anna E

    2016-06-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by thrips in a propagative manner; however, progression of virus infection in the insect is not fully understood. The goal of this work was to study the morphology and infection of thrips salivary glands. The primary salivary glands (PSG) are complex, with three distinct regions that may have unique functions. Analysis of TSWV progression in thrips revealed the presence of viral proteins in the foregut, midgut, ligaments, tubular salivary glands (TSG), and efferent duct and filament structures connecting the TSG and PSG of first and second instar larvae. The primary site of virus infection shifted from the midgut and TSG in the larvae to the PSG in adults, suggesting that tissue tropism changes with insect development. TSG infection was detected in advance of PSG infection. These findings support the hypothesis that the TSG are involved in trafficking of TSWV to the PSG. PMID:26999025

  5. An unusual complication associated with hard palate mucosal grafts: presumed minor salivary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, C R; Jordan, D R; Brownstein, S; Li, S

    1998-07-01

    Hard palate grafts are commonly used in eyelid reconstructive procedures as a replacement for posterior lamellar defects. Four patients are presented with an unusual complication after placement of a hard palate graft: presumed minor salivary gland secretion. They were experiencing stringy mucous discharge over the graft and along the eyelids, causing visual blurring. Removal of the graft in one patient and cryotherapy to the grafts in the others (presumably causing atrophy of the minor salivary gland tissue found within the grafts) allowed resolution of symptoms. The authors propose the application of cryotherapy to the graft surface to atrophy the salivary glands, prevent any further production of mucus, and return the tear film to a more normal consistency. Alternatively, surgical removal of the grafts can be performed. To our knowledge, this complication (saliva-like mucoid discharge) has not been previously reported. PMID:9700733

  6. Solitary fibrous tumor of the salivary gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, YINGWEN; ZHENG, JIN; ZHU, QINGQIANG; XIA, WEI; BHAGAT, SANTOSH KUMAR

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare soft-tissue tumors of mesenchymal origin. Occasionally, these lesions have been indicated to associate with the salivary glands. Through the analysis of magnetic resonance imaging sequences, the present study reports a case of a solitary salivary gland lesion, demonstrating a well-circumscribed, soft-tissue tumor with marked signal changes and homogenous enhancement. SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis when a solid mass exhibiting hypointensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images has been detected in the salivary gland. Due to the potentially malignant nature of SFTs, it is necessary for radiologists to improve their understanding of such lesions. PMID:26870303

  7. Sonography: the leading diagnostic tool for diseases of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Zengel, P; Schrötzlmair, F; Reichel, C; Paprottka, P; Clevert, D A

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasound examination is the imaging procedure with the best predictive diagnostic capability for the salivary glands. Due to the salivary glands' relatively superficial anatomical location, clear boundary from surrounding tissue and comparatively typical echogenicity, therefore sonography is ideal for diagnosis. In addition, the technical advances in recent years, including higher resolution, color Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, and tissue harmonic have lead to an improvement in diagnostic accuracy of sonography further resulting in an expansion of the range of indications. Sonography allows detection of obstructive salivary gland diseases such as stenosis or sialolithiasis, as well as sialadenosis such as Sjögren syndrome. Ultrasound examination alone is sufficient to diagnose benign tumors. However, in the case of malignant tumors, computer tomography or MRI may be also required, especially to determine the question of infiltration of the skull base. PMID:23768886

  8. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Song, In Hye; Song, Joon Seon; Sung, Chang Ohk; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected. PMID:26148740

  9. Identification of Rickettsia felis in the Salivary Glands of Cat Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Pornwiroon, Walairat; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Foil, Lane D.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Rickettsia felis, a flea-associated rickettsial pathogen, has been identified in many tissues, including the digestive and reproductive tissues, within the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. We utilized transmission electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to identify R. felis in the salivary glands of fed fleas and further define the distribution of R. felis within the arthropod host. We identified Rickettsia-like organisms in salivary glands using electron microscopy. Sequence analysis of portions of the Rickettsia genus-specific 17-kDa antigen gene and R. felis plasmid confirmed the morphological identification of R. felis in cat flea salivary glands. This is the first report of R. felis in tissues critical for horizontal transmission of rickettsiae. Key Words: Cat flea—Ctenocephalides felis—Rickettsia felis. PMID:18399779

  10. The Salivary Glands of Adult Female Varroa Destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an Ectoparasite of the Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000, an ectoparasite of honey bees, causes huge economic losses to apiculture annually. Its role as a vector of diseases is thought to involve the salivary glands as the terminal organs of transmission. The salivary glands are paired, oval, non-acinar organs...

  11. Pharmacological Activation of the EDA/EDAR Signaling Pathway Restores Salivary Gland Function following Radiation-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Grace; Headon, Denis; Harris, Zoey I.; Huttner, Kenneth; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR) signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1) normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage. PMID:25409170

  12. Pharmacological activation of the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway restores salivary gland function following radiation-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Hill, Grace; Headon, Denis; Harris, Zoey I; Huttner, Kenneth; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR) signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1) normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage. PMID:25409170

  13. Comprehensive annotation of the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus from Ethiopian tsetse flies: a proteogenomics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) can establish a chronic covert asymptomatic infection and an acute overt symptomatic infection in its tsetse fly host (Diptera: Glossinidae). Expression of the disease symptoms, the salivary gland hypertrophy sy...

  14. Human Prominin-1 (CD133) Is Detected in Both Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Salivary Gland Diseases and Released into Saliva in a Ubiquitinated Form

    PubMed Central

    Karbanová, Jana; Laco, Jan; Marzesco, Anne-Marie; Janich, Peggy; Voborníková, Magda; Mokrý, Jaroslav; Fargeas, Christine A.; Huttner, Wieland B.; Corbeil, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is physiologically expressed at the apical membranes of secretory (serous and mucous) and duct cells of major salivary glands. We investigated its expression in various human salivary gland lesions using two distinct anti-prominin-1 monoclonal antibodies (80B258 and AC133) applied on paraffin-embedded sections and characterized its occurrence in saliva. The 80B258 epitope was extensively expressed in adenoid cystic carcinoma, in lesser extent in acinic cell carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma, and rarely in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The 80B258 immunoreactivity was predominately detected at the apical membrane of tumor cells showing acinar or intercalated duct cell differentiation, which lined duct- or cyst-like structures, and in luminal secretions. It was observed on the whole cell membrane in non-luminal structures present in the vicinity of thin-walled blood vessels and hemorrhagic areas in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Of note, AC133 labeled only a subset of 80B258–positive structures. In peritumoral salivary gland tissues as well as in obstructive sialadenitis, an up-regulation of prominin-1 (both 80B258 and AC133 immunoreactivities) was observed in intercalated duct cells. In most tissues, prominin-1 was partially co-expressed with two cancer markers: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and mucin-1 (MUC1). Differential centrifugation of saliva followed by immunoblotting indicated that all three markers were released in association with small membrane vesicles. Immuno-isolated prominin-1–positive vesicles contained CEA and MUC1, but also exosome-related proteins CD63, flotillin-1, flotillin-2 and the adaptor protein syntenin-1. The latter protein was shown to interact with prominin-1 as demonstrated by its co-immunoisolation. A fraction of saliva-associated prominin-1 appeared to be ubiquitinated. Collectively, our findings bring new insights into the biochemistry and trafficking of prominin-1 as well as its immunohistochemical profile in certain

  15. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  16. [The salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis Girard, 1857 (Serpentes, Colubridae). A morphological, morphometric and histological study].

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Contrera, M G; da Costa, J R; Petenusci, S O; Lima-Verde, J S

    1982-01-01

    Morphological, morphometrical and histochemical studies of the cell types in the salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis have been performed. It is concluded: 1) the acini of supra, infralabial and premaxillary glands are formed by mucous and mucoserous cells; the Duvernoy's gland by seromucous cells; 2) mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid; mucoserous cells show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals; seromucous cells of Duvernoy's gland show neutral mucosubstance and protein radicals. The acinar area, height of tubule and duct cells, and nuclear volume of acinar, tubule and duct cells were evaluated morphometrically. PMID:7181506

  17. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Sumitani, Megumi; Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  18. A pathological study of the salivary glands of rabid dogs in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    BOONSRIROJ, Hassadin; MANALO, Daria Llenaresas; KIMITSUKI, Kazunori; SHIMATSU, Taichi; SHIWA, Nozomi; SHINOZAKI, Harumi; TAKAHASHI, Yurika; TANAKA, Naoto; INOUE, Satoshi; PARK, Chun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus. While the salivary glands are important as exit and propagation sites for the rabies virus, the mechanisms of rabies excretion remain unclear. Here, we investigated the histopathology of the salivary glands of rabid dogs and analyzed the mechanism of excretion into the oral cavity. Mandibular and parotid glands of 22 rabid dogs and three control dogs were used. Mild to moderate non-suppurative sialadenitis was observed in the mandibular glands of 19 of the 22 dogs, characterized by loss of acinar epithelium and infiltration by lymphoplasmacytic cells. Viral antigens were detected in the mucous acinar epithelium, ganglion neurons and myoepithelium. Acinar epithelium and lymphocytes were positive for anti-caspase-3 antibodies and TUNEL staining. In contrast, no notable findings were observed in the ductal epithelial cells and serous demilune. In the parotid gland, the acinar cells, myoepithelium and ductal epithelium all tested negative. These findings confirmed the path through which the rabies virus descends along the facial nerve after proliferation in the brain to reach the ganglion neurons of the mandibular gland, subsequently traveling to the acinar epithelium via the salivary gland myoepithelium. Furthermore, the observation that nerve endings passing through the myoepithelium were absent from the ductal system suggested that viral proliferation and cytotoxicity could not occur there, ensuring that secretions containing the virus are efficiently excreted into the oral cavity. PMID:26278996

  19. A pathological study of the salivary glands of rabid dogs in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Manalo, Daria Llenaresas; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Shimatsu, Taichi; Shiwa, Nozomi; Shinozaki, Harumi; Takahashi, Yurika; Tanaka, Naoto; Inoue, Satoshi; Park, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus. While the salivary glands are important as exit and propagation sites for the rabies virus, the mechanisms of rabies excretion remain unclear. Here, we investigated the histopathology of the salivary glands of rabid dogs and analyzed the mechanism of excretion into the oral cavity. Mandibular and parotid glands of 22 rabid dogs and three control dogs were used. Mild to moderate non-suppurative sialadenitis was observed in the mandibular glands of 19 of the 22 dogs, characterized by loss of acinar epithelium and infiltration by lymphoplasmacytic cells. Viral antigens were detected in the mucous acinar epithelium, ganglion neurons and myoepithelium. Acinar epithelium and lymphocytes were positive for anti-caspase-3 antibodies and TUNEL staining. In contrast, no notable findings were observed in the ductal epithelial cells and serous demilune. In the parotid gland, the acinar cells, myoepithelium and ductal epithelium all tested negative. These findings confirmed the path through which the rabies virus descends along the facial nerve after proliferation in the brain to reach the ganglion neurons of the mandibular gland, subsequently traveling to the acinar epithelium via the salivary gland myoepithelium. Furthermore, the observation that nerve endings passing through the myoepithelium were absent from the ductal system suggested that viral proliferation and cytotoxicity could not occur there, ensuring that secretions containing the virus are efficiently excreted into the oral cavity. PMID:26278996

  20. Gene Delivery in salivary glands: from the bench to the clinic

    PubMed Central

    Samuni, Yuval; Baum, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo gene delivery has long been seen as providing opportunities for the development of novel treatments for disorders refractory to existing therapies. Over the last two decades, salivary glands have proven to be a useful, if somewhat unconventional, target tissue for studying several potential clinical applications of therapeutic gene delivery. Herein, we follow the progress, address some problems and assess the outlook for clinical applications of salivary gland gene delivery. Our experience with these tissues provides a roadmap for the process of moving an idea from the laboratory bench to patients. PMID:21763423

  1. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult. PMID:23798840

  2. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  3. Cell-Specific Cre Strains For Genetic Manipulation in Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Eri O.; Aure, Marit H.; Xie, Xiaoling; Myal, Yvonne; Gan, Lin; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    The secretory acinar cells of the salivary gland are essential for saliva secretion, but are also the cell type preferentially lost following radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. The source of replacement acinar cells is currently a matter of debate. There is evidence for the presence of adult stem cells located within specific ductal regions of the salivary glands, but our laboratory recently demonstrated that differentiated acinar cells are maintained without significant stem cell contribution. To enable further investigation of salivary gland cell lineages and their origins, we generated three cell-specific Cre driver mouse strains. For genetic manipulation in acinar cells, an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER) was targeted to the prolactin-induced protein (Pip) gene locus. Targeting of the Dcpp1 gene, encoding demilune cell and parotid protein, labels intercalated duct cells, a putative site of salivary gland stem cells, and serous demilune cells of the sublingual gland. Duct cell-specific Cre expression was attempted by targeting the inducible Cre to the Tcfcp2l1 gene locus. Using the R26Tomato Red reporter mouse, we demonstrate that these strains direct inducible, cell-specific expression. Genetic tracing of acinar cells using PipGCE supports the recent finding that differentiated acinar cells clonally expand. Moreover, tracing of intercalated duct cells expressing DcppGCE confirms evidence of duct cell proliferation, but further analysis is required to establish that renewal of secretory acinar cells is dependent on stem cells within these ducts. PMID:26751783

  4. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  5. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  6. Serotonergic Innervation of the Salivary Glands and Central Nervous System of Adult Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae), and the Impact of the Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV) on the Host

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Laura; Stoffolano, John G.; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Using a serotonin antibody and confocal microscopy, this study reports for the first time direct serotonergic innervation of the muscle sheath covering the secretory region of the salivary glands of adult tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen. Reports to date, however, note that up until this finding, dipteran species previously studied lack a muscle sheath covering of the secretory region of the salivary glands. Direct innervation of the salivary gland muscle sheath of tsetse would facilitate rapid deployment of saliva into the host, thus delaying a host response. Our results also suggest that the neuronal and abnormal pattern seen in viral infected glands by the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV) is due to a compensatory increased branching of the neurons of the salivary glands, which is associated with the increased size of the salivary glands in viral infected flies. This study shows for the first time serotonin in the cell bodies of the brain and thoracico-abdominal ganglion in adult tsetse, G. pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae). A hypothesis is proposed as to whether innervation of the muscle sheath covering of the secretory region of the salivary glands is present in brachyceran compared with nematoceran dipterans; and, a plea is made that more research is needed to develop a blood feeding model, similar to that in the blow flies, for elucidating the various mechanisms involved in production and deployment of saliva. PMID:26798144

  7. Serotonergic Innervation of the Salivary Glands and Central Nervous System of Adult Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae), and the Impact of the Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV) on the Host.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Laura; Stoffolano, John G; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Using a serotonin antibody and confocal microscopy, this study reports for the first time direct serotonergic innervation of the muscle sheath covering the secretory region of the salivary glands of adult tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen. Reports to date, however, note that up until this finding, dipteran species previously studied lack a muscle sheath covering of the secretory region of the salivary glands. Direct innervation of the salivary gland muscle sheath of tsetse would facilitate rapid deployment of saliva into the host, thus delaying a host response. Our results also suggest that the neuronal and abnormal pattern seen in viral infected glands by the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV) is due to a compensatory increased branching of the neurons of the salivary glands, which is associated with the increased size of the salivary glands in viral infected flies. This study shows for the first time serotonin in the cell bodies of the brain and thoracico-abdominal ganglion in adult tsetse, G. pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae). A hypothesis is proposed as to whether innervation of the muscle sheath covering of the secretory region of the salivary glands is present in brachyceran compared with nematoceran dipterans; and, a plea is made that more research is needed to develop a blood feeding model, similar to that in the blow flies, for elucidating the various mechanisms involved in production and deployment of saliva. PMID:26798144

  8. Sparing the region of the salivary gland containing stem cells preserves saliva production after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Luijk, Peter; Pringle, Sarah; Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali V.; Faber, Hette; Hovan, Allan; Baanstra, Mirjam; van der Laan, Hans P.; Kierkels, Roel G. J.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Witjes, Max J.; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wu, Jonn; Coppes, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Each year, 500,000 patients are treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, resulting in relatively high survival rates. However, in 40% of patients, quality of life is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequent xerostomia (dry mouth). New radiation treatment technologies enable sparing of parts of the salivary glands. We have determined the parts of the major salivary gland, the parotid gland, that need to be spared to ensure that the gland continues to produce saliva after irradiation treatment. In mice, rats, and humans, we showed that stem and progenitor cells reside in the region of the parotid gland containing the major ducts. We demonstrated in rats that inclusion of the ducts in the radiation field led to loss of regenerative capacity, resulting in long-term gland dysfunction with reduced saliva production. Then we showed in a cohort of patients with head and neck cancer that the radiation dose to the region of the salivary gland containing the stem/progenitor cells predicted the function of the salivary glands one year after radiotherapy. Finally, we showed that this region of the salivary gland could be spared during radiotherapy, thus reducing the risk of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. PMID:26378247

  9. The presence in salivary secretions of Glossina morsitans of stages of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei other than those occurring in the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Otieno, L H

    1978-01-01

    Using the bat wing membrane technique to study salivary secretions of Glossina morsitans infected with Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei, it was shown that flies extrude infected salivary secretions as early as day six after an infective blood meal. The non-salivary-gland stages of T. (T.) brucei were extruded intermittently and flies infected with such trypanosomes were not all destined to develop metacyclic infections. Once the salivary glands were involved, the trypanosomes appeared in the secretions each time the flies were tested. Some of the flies with gut infections, but no demonstrable salivary gland involvement, transmitted T. brucei to mice and it is suggested that these infections were intiated by some of the proventricular trypanosomes secreted with saliva. PMID:569915

  10. A Prospective Study of Salivary Gland Function in Lymphoma Patients Receiving Head and Neck Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Neesha A.; Killion, Leah; Hickey, Gail; Silver, Barbara; Martin, Chrystalla; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the radiation dose-response relationship on salivary dysfunction and quality of life (QOL) over time in patients with lymphoma receiving radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck (H and N). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective study on salivary-gland function in lymphoma patients receiving RT to the H and N. Fifteen patients were enrolled on the study. Dose-volume histograms and mean doses to the salivary glands were generated. Radiation-related toxicities and H and N-specific QOL were assessed before treatment and at prespecified time points posttreatment. Factors predicting a decrement in QOL were explored using Fisher's exact test. Results: During RT, 47% of patients experienced Grade >= 2 acute toxicity of the salivary gland, mucous membrane, or both. QOL scores improved over time, but up to one third of patients continued to have persistent oral symptoms at 2 years. At 6 months, a mean dose to at least one of the parotids of > 31 Gy was significantly associated with persistent dry mouth (100% vs. 17%, p = 0.02) and sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04); a mean dose of > 11 Gy to the minor salivary glands was significantly associated with persistent sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04), although the difference was no longer significant at 1 year. Conclusions: Limiting the mean parotid dose to <= 31 Gy and mean minor salivary gland dose to <= 11 Gy in lymphoma patients treated to the H and N may help reduce the risk of subacute xerostomia.

  11. Salivary gland cell differentiation and organization on micropatterned PLGA nanofiber craters

    PubMed Central

    Soscia, David A.; Sequeira, Sharon J.; Schramm, Robert A.; Jayarathanam, Kavitha; Cantara, Shraddha I.; Larsen, Melinda; Castracane, James

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an artificial salivary gland as a long-term remedy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction, a leading cause of chronic xerostomia (dry mouth). Current salivary gland tissue engineering approaches are limited in that they either lack sufficient physical cues and surface area needed to facilitate epithelial cell differentiation, or they fail to provide a mechanism for assembling an interconnected branched network of cells. We have developed highly-ordered arrays of curved hemispherical “craters” in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using wafer-level integrated circuit (IC) fabrication processes, and lined them with electrospun poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanofibers, designed to mimic the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo architecture of the basement membrane surrounding spherical acini of salivary gland epithelial cells. These micropatterned scaffolds provide a method for engineering increased surface area and were additionally investigated for their ability to promote cell polarization. Two immortalized salivary gland cell lines (SIMS, ductal and Par-C10, acinar) were cultured on fibrous crater arrays of various radii and compared with those grown on flat PLGA nanofiber substrates, and in 3-D Matrigel. It was found that by increasing crater curvature, the average height of the cell monolayer of SIMS cells and to a lesser extent, Par-C10 cells, increased to a maximum similar to that seen in cells grown in 3-D Matrigel. Increasing curvature resulted in higher expression levels of tight junction protein occludin in both cell lines, but did not induce a change in expression of adherens junction protein Ecadherin. Additionally, increasing curvature promoted polarity of both cell lines, as a greater apical localization of occludin was seen in cells on substrates of higher curvature. Lastly, substrate curvature increased expression of the water channel protein aquaporin-5 (Aqp-5) in Par-C10 cells, suggesting that curved nanofiber

  12. [STUDYING OF MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLANDS AFTER GASTRIC RESECTION IN EXPERIMENT].

    PubMed

    Usenko, A Yu; Kosenko, K; Savitskaya, I M

    2016-03-01

    The impact of gastric resection on the submandibular salivary gland (SSG) state, using histological and histochemical methods of investigation in experiment, was studied up. A relative mass of a SSG after gastric resection conduction have had reduced, and the accompanying changes in stroma were revealed with the gland's secretion enhancement. Essential dystrophic changes in the SSG parenchyma and stroma after gastric resection conduction may cause a pronounced disorders of their function. PMID:27514096

  13. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T.; Vissink, A. |; `s-Gravenmade, E.J.

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Tissue-specific expression in the salivary glands of transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, T R; Brandt, J; Larsen, H J; Larsen, B B; Poulsen, K; Ingerslev, J; Din, N; Hjorth, J P

    1992-01-01

    Using a DNA construct, named Lama, derived from the murine parotid secretory protein (PSP) gene, we have obtained salivary gland specific gene expression in transgenic mice. Lama is a PSP minigene and allows analysis of the PSP gene 5' regulatory region by transgenesis. We show here that the regulatory region included in Lama with 4.6 kb of 5' flanking sequence is sufficient to direct expression specifically to the salivary glands. The expression level in the parotid gland is only about one percent of the PSP mRNA level, while that of the sublingual gland is near the PSP mRNA level. This suggests significant differences in the PSP gene regulation in the two glands. In addition, Lama is a secretory expression vector in which cDNAs or genomic fragments can be inserted. We demonstrate that the Lama construct can direct the expression of a heterologous cDNA encoding the C-terminal peptide of human factor VIII to salivary glands and that the corresponding peptide is secreted into saliva. Images PMID:1594444

  15. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Hongling; Liang, Xue; Zhang, Min; Wang, Renke; Peng, Guang; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals. PMID:25860481

  16. Investigation of Salivary Function and Oral Microbiota of Radiation Caries-Free People with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Hongling; Liang, Xue; Zhang, Min; Wang, Renke; Peng, Guang; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals. PMID:25860481

  17. Central moxonidine on salivary gland blood flow and cardiovascular responses to pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Thiago Santos; Takakura, Ana Carolina Thomaz; Colombari, Eduardo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Renzi, Antonio; Menani, José Vanderlei

    2003-10-17

    Peripheral treatment with the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine induces intense salivation that is inhibited by central injections of the alpha2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist moxonidine. Salivary gland blood flow controlled by sympathetic and parasympathetic systems may affect salivation. We investigated the changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and in the vascular resistance in the submandibular/sublingual gland (SSG) artery, superior mesenteric (SM) artery and low abdominal aorta (hindlimb) in rats treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) pilocarpine alone or combined with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) moxonidine. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannula implanted into lateral ventricle (LV) and anesthetized with urethane were used. Pilocarpine (4 micromol/kg of body weight) i.p. reduced SSG vascular resistance (-50+/-13% vs. vehicle: 5+/-3%). Pilocarpine i.p. also increased mesenteric vascular resistance (15+/-5% vs. vehicle: 2+/-3%) and MAP (16+/-3 mmHg, vs. vehicle: 2+/-3 mmHg). Moxonidine (20 nmol) i.c.v. increased SSG vascular resistance (88+/-12% vs. vehicle: 7+/-4%). When injected 15 min following i.c.v. moxonidine, pilocarpine i.p. produced no change on SSG vascular resistance. Pilocarpine-induced pressor responses and increase in mesenteric vascular resistance were not modified by i.c.v. moxonidine. The treatments produced no change in heart rate (HR) and hindlimb vascular resistance. The results show that (1) i.p. pilocarpine increases mesenteric vascular resistance and MAP and reduces salivary gland vascular resistance and (2) central moxonidine increases salivary gland vascular resistance and impairs pilocarpine-induced salivary gland vasodilatation. Therefore, the increase in salivary gland vascular resistance may play a role in the anti-salivatory response to central moxonidine. PMID:14499959

  18. Comparison of p63 and p40 (ΔNp63) as Basal, Squamoid, and Myoepithelial Markers in Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Owosho, Adepitan A; Aguilar, Cristina E; Seethala, Raja R

    2016-08-01

    p40 is selective for ΔNp63 isoforms and appears to be more specific for squamous differentiation than p63. Its performance as a basal/myoepithelial marker in salivary gland tumors has only rarely been addressed in the literature. We thus compared the performance of p63 and p40 (ΔNp63) immunohistochemical stain as markers of basal, squamoid, and myoepithelial differentiation in 105 salivary gland tumors selected from our archives. The neoplasms were categorized according to their presumed phenotype as ductoacinar (n=45), biphasic (dual ductal and myoepithelial/basal differentiation, n=44), purely myoepithelial (n=5), and excretory duct phenotype (n=11). Only nuclear staining for p63 and p40 was considered positive. Distribution of staining was scored as: 0 (no staining), 1+ (1% to 25%), 2+ (26% to 50%), 3+ (51% to 75%), and 4+ (76% to 100%). Intensity was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. p63 and p40 highlighted the basal and myoepithelial cells in normal salivary gland tissue as well as basal/myoepithelial/squamoid elements in biphasic tumors, purely myoepithelial tumors, and excretory duct type tumors (4+ with strong staining for p63, and moderate staining for p40). All ductal tumors were negative for p40. However, 13/13 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma/cribriform adenocarcinomas of salivary gland, 7/9 canalicular adenomas, and 3/5 mammary analog secretory carcinomas showed some degree of p63 staining. Thus, we confirm that p40 is a more specific basal/myoepithelial/squamoid marker than p63 in salivary gland tumors. A subset of ductal tumors show a discordant p63+/p40- immunoprofile that can be a pitfall if not recognized, but may also help distinguish these tumors from truly biphasic tumors and myoepithelial tumors. PMID:26230372

  19. IL-22 regulation of functional gene expression in salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Tegan N; Carcamo, Wendy C; Wanchoo, Arun; Sharma, Ashok; Gulec, Afife; Berg, Kathleen M; Stewart, Carol M; Nguyen, Cuong Q

    2016-03-01

    TH17 cells and their associated signature cytokines, IL-17 and IL-22, are highly elevated in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSjS). The levels of IL-22 present in sera showed significant correlations with many disease parameters, specifically hyposalivation, anti-SSB, anti-SSA/SSB, hypergammaglobulinemia and rheumatoid factor. The present study aims to examine the biological function of IL-22 on human salivary glands. To accomplish the goal, microarray analysis using the HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip was utilized to determine the biological function of IL-22. Differential expression analyses were conducted using the LIMMA package from the Bioconductor project. MTT assay, flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to identify the function of IL-22 on human salivary gland cells. Results indicate an extensive effect of IL-22 on many major molecular functions including activation of antimicrobial genes and downregulation of immune-associated pathways. Functional studies performed in-vitro using human salivary gland cells treated with IL-22 indicated a direct effect of IL-22 on cell cycling, specifically reducing cellular proliferation at the G2-M phase by activation of STAT3. These results suggest the important role of IL-22 in the salivary gland function. The present study suggests that IL-22 might be involved in regulating inflammation and controlling the cell proliferation in SjS. PMID:26981401

  20. Proteomic profiling of salivary gland after nonviral gene transfer mediated by conventional plasmids and minicircles

    PubMed Central

    Geguchadze, Ramaz; Wang, Zhimin; Zourelias, Lee; Perez-Riveros, Paola; Edwards, Paul C; Machen, Laurie; Passineau, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared gene transfer efficiency and host response to ultrasound-assisted, nonviral gene transfer with a conventional plasmid and a minicircle vector in the submandibular salivary glands of mice. Initially, we looked at gene transfer efficiency with equimolar amounts of the plasmid and minicircle vectors, corroborating an earlier report showing that minicircle is more efficient in the context of a physical method of gene transfer. We then sought to characterize the physiological response of the salivary gland to exogenous gene transfer using global proteomic profiling. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that sonoporation alone, without a gene transfer vector present, had virtually no effect on the salivary gland proteome. However, when a plasmid vector was used, we observed profound perturbations of the salivary gland proteome that compared in magnitude to that seen in a previous report after high doses of adeno-associated virus. Finally, we found that gene transfer with a minicircle induces only minor proteomic alterations that were similar to sonoporation alone. Using mass spectrometry, we assigned protein IDs to 218 gel spots that differed between plasmid and minicircle. Bioinformatic analysis of these proteins demonstrated convergence on 68 known protein interaction pathways, most notably those associated with innate immunity, cellular stress, and morphogenesis. PMID:25414909

  1. What can transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models teach us about salivary gland physiology?

    PubMed

    Melvin, J E; Nguyen, H V; Evans, R L; Shull, G E

    2000-12-01

    Thousands of genetically modified mice have been developed since the first reports of stable expression of recombinant DNA in this species nearly 20 years ago. This mammalian model system has revolutionized the study of whole-animal, organ, and cell physiology. Transgenic and gene-targeted mice have been widely used to characterize salivary-gland-specific expression and to identify genes associated with tumorigenesis. Moreover, several of these mouse lines have proved to be useful models of salivary gland disease related to impaired immunology, i.e., Sjögren's syndrome, and disease states associated with pathogens. Despite the availability of genetically modified mice, few investigators have taken advantage of this resource to better their understanding of salivary gland function as it relates to the production of saliva. In this article, we describe the methods used to generate transgenic and gene-targeted mice and provide an overview of the advantages of and potential difficulties with these models. Finally, using these mouse models, we discuss the advances made in our understanding of the salivary gland secretion process. PMID:11842924

  2. Genome sequence of a proteus mirabilis strain isolated from the salivary glands of larval lucilia sericata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We announced a draft genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain derived from Lucilia sericata salivary glands. This strain is demonstrated to attract and induce oviposition by L. sericata, a common blow fly important to medicine, agriculture, and forensics. The genome will help to dissect inter...

  3. Genome Sequence of a Proteus mirabilis Strain Isolated from the Salivary Glands of Larval Lucilia sericata

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Shuhua; Crippen, Tawni L.; Visi, David K.; Benbow, M. Eric; Allen, Michael S.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Sze, Sing-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    We announce a draft genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain derived from Lucilia sericata salivary glands. This strain is demonstrated to attract and induce oviposition by L. sericata, a common blow fly important to medicine, agriculture, and forensics. The genome sequence will help dissect interkingdom communication between the species. PMID:27469950

  4. COMPARATIVE SALIVARY GLAND TRANSCRIPTOMICS OF THREE GALL MIDGE PESTS OF CEREAL CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many gall midge species are important economic pests of crop plants. Among the most importantare the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, and theorange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana. The salivary glands of these insects arethe source of the che...

  5. Surgical treatment of dry eye syndrome: conjunctival graft of the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Güerrissi, Jorge Orlando; Belmonte, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficient tear substitutes, many patients with dry eye syndrome experience severe corneal injuries and a subsequent loss of vision. Surgical techniques using mayor salivary glands to provide a substitute for tears have been reported; with this technique the drainage of saliva goes into the conjunctival fornix, permitting corneal and conjunctival humidification. The authors describe a new surgical approach in which minor salivary glands are autotransplanted into the conjunctival fornix by means of a graft of the intraoral mucosa-transporting salivary glands. This approach was used in a 56-year-old woman with a 2-year history of refractory and pharmacologically untreatable dry eye syndrome caused by Sjögren's syndrome. The right eye had more severe corneal and conjunctival lesions than did the contralateral one, so the treatment was planned in the right eye only. A weekly follow-up during the first 6 months confirmed the significant improvement of dry eye symptoms in the surgically treated eye. Three months after surgery, a biopsy was performed in the minor salivary gland graft, and the histologic findings revealed the presence of glandular acinus, duct with mucin content, and lymphocyte infiltration. The significant improvement obtained in this patient suggests that the secretion from the grafted salivary minor glands was better in promoting homeostasis of the ocular surface than are artificial tears. This may be explained by: (1) The lacrimal and salivary secretions contain biologically active constituents that may protect from infection and promote normal growth epithelium; (2) The secreted mucin is thought to coat the epithelial surface, reducing the high surface tension of the eye wetted by aqueous tears; (3) The thick secretions of the minor gland might act in reducing the evaporation of the underlying tear layer and form a hydrophobic barrier along the lid margin that can retain the lid margin tear string and prevent its flow onto

  6. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of Salivary Glands: Molecular Analysis of 25 ETV6 Gene Rearranged Tumors With Lack of Detection of Classical ETV6-NTRK3 Fusion Transcript by Standard RT-PCR: Report of 4 Cases Harboring ETV6-X Gene Fusion.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Vanecek, Tomas; Simpson, Roderick H W; Laco, Jan; Majewska, Hanna; Baneckova, Martina; Steiner, Petr; Michal, Michal

    2016-01-01

    ETV6 gene abnormalities are well described in tumor pathology. Many fusion partners of ETV6 have been reported in a variety of epithelial and hematological malignancies. In salivary gland tumor pathology, however, the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation is specific for mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), and has not been documented in any other salivary tumor type. The present study comprised a clinical and molecular analysis of 25 cases morphologically and immunohistochemically typical of MASC. They all also displayed the ETV6 rearrangement as visualized by fluorescent in situ hybridization but lacked the classical ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript by standard reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In 4 cases, the classical fusion transcript was found by more sensitive, nested reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Five other cases harbored atypical fusion transcripts as detected by both standard and nested reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, fluorescent in situ hybridization with an NTRK3 break-apart probe was also performed; rearrangement of NTRK3 gene was detected in 16 of 25 cases. In 3 other cases, the tissue was not analyzable, and in 2 further cases analysis could not be performed because of a lack of appropriate tissue material. Finally, in the 4 remaining cases whose profile was NTRK3 split-negative and ETV6 split-positive, unknown (non-NTRK) genes appeared to fuse with ETV6 (ETV6-X fusion). In looking for possible fusion partners, analysis of rearrangement of other kinase genes known to fuse with ETV6 was also performed, but without positive results. Although numbers were small, correlating the clinico-pathologic features of the 4 ETV6-X fusion tumors and 5 MASC cases with atypical fusion transcripts raises the possibility of that they may behave more aggressively. PMID:26492182

  7. A focused salivary gland infection with attenuated MCMV: an animal model with prevention of pathology associated with systemic MCMV infection.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Mark J; Kasman, Laura; Grewal, Jasvir; Bruorton, Mary E; Werner, Phil; London, Lucille; London, Steven D

    2007-06-01

    While the salivary gland has been recognized as an important effector site of the common mucosal immune system, a useful model for studying anti-viral salivary gland immune responses in vivo and for exploring the role of the salivary gland within the common mucosal system has been lacking. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that displays a strong tropism for the salivary gland and produces significant morbidity in susceptible mice when introduced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation. This study tested the hypothesis that MCMV morbidity and pathology could be reduced by injecting the virus directly the submandibular salivary gland (intraglandular (i.g.)), using either in vivo derived MCMV or the less virulent, tissue-culture-derived MCMV (tcMCMV). Peak salivary gland viral titers were completely unaffected by infection route (i.p vs. i.g.) after inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV. However, i.g. tcMCMV inoculation reduced viremia in all systemic tissues tested compared to i.p. inoculation. Furthermore, systemic organ pathology observed in the liver and spleen after i.p. inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV was completely eliminated by i.g. inoculation with tcMCMV. Cellular infiltrates in the salivary glands, after i.p. or i.g. inoculation were composed of both B and T cells, indicating the potential for a local immune response to occur in the salivary gland. These results demonstrate that a focused MCMV infection of the salivary gland without systemic organ pathology is possible using i.g. delivery of tcMCMV. PMID:17320076

  8. Possible etiology of calculi formation in salivary glands: biophysical analysis of calculus.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Ichinose, Shizuko; Kimijima, Yutaka; Amagasa, Teruo

    2005-09-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the common diseases of the salivary glands. It was speculated that, in the process of calculi formation, degenerative substances are emitted by saliva and calcification then occurs around these substances, and finally calculi are formed. However, the exact mechanism of the formation of calculi is still unclear. In this study, we identify some possible etiologies of calculi formation in salivary glands through biophysical analysis. Calculi from 13 patients with submandibular sialolithiasis were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalyzer, and electron diffraction. Transmission electron microscopic observation of calculi was performed in the submandibular gland (n = 13). In 3 of the 13 cases, a number of mitochondria-like structures and lysosomes were found near calcified materials. Scanning electron microscopic examination of these materials revealed that there were lamellar and concentric structures and that the degree of calcification was different among the calculi. X-ray microanalysis disclosed the component elements in the calculi to be Ca, P, S, Na, etc., and the main constituents were Ca and P. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was 1.60-1.89. Analysis of the area including mitochondria-like structures, lysosomes, and the fibrous structures by electron diffraction revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite and calcified materials. It is speculated that mitochondria and lysosomal bodies from the ductal system of the submandibular gland are an etiological source for calcification in the salivary gland. PMID:16170467

  9. Clonal proliferation of multipotent stem/progenitor cells in the neonatal and adult salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Teruki; Takao, Tukasa; Fujita, Kiyohide; Taniguchi, Hideki . E-mail: rtanigu@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp

    2006-02-10

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells are thought to be present in intercalated ductal cells, but the fact is unclear. In this study, we sought to clarify if stem/progenitor cells are present in submandibular glands using colony assay, which is one of the stem cell assay methods. Using a low-density culture of submandibular gland cells of neonatal rats, we developed a novel culture system that promotes single cell colony formation. Average doubling time for the colony-forming cells was 24.7 (SD = {+-}7.02) h, indicating high proliferative potency. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were added to the medium, the number of clonal colonies increased greater than those cultured without growth factors (13.2 {+-} 4.18 vs. 4.5 {+-} 1.73). The RT-PCR and immunostaining demonstrated expressing acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell lineage markers. This study demonstrated the presence of the salivary gland stem/progenitor cells that are highly proliferative and multipotent in salivary glands.

  10. A closer look at strategies for preserving salivary gland function after radiotherapy in the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Galvão-Moreira, Leonardo Victor; Santana, Thalita; da Cruz, Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira

    2016-09-01

    Radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands remains a major complication of using radiation therapy to treat head and neck cancer, and it has led a wide range of research attempting to resolve the problem. From this perspective, we sought to briefly discuss relevant and timely approaches aimed at protecting or regenerating irradiated salivary glands, thereby preventing the development of salivary hypofunction or rescuing the functional properties of damaged glands. Such findings include molecular, cell, tissue, organ, and drug-based therapies. PMID:27469284

  11. Association of serum electrolytes and smoking with salivary gland stone formation.

    PubMed

    Yiu, A J; Kalejaiye, A; Amdur, R L; Todd Hesham, H N; Bandyopadhyay, B C

    2016-06-01

    To further define potential factors that may contribute to stone formation in salivary glands (sialolithiasis), a retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with sialolithiasis between March 1, 1998 and February 29, 2012. Information on salivary gland stone number, location and size, medical history, medications, and serum electrolyte levels were collected. Associations between electrolyte levels and stone characteristics (such as stone number and size) were examined. Fifty-nine patients were identified; their median age was 58 years (range 25-89 years) and most were male (95%). Salivary stones were most commonly located in the submandibular glands (83%). Thirty-five patients (59%) had a smoking history, with 16 (27%) reported as current smokers. There was a significant association between current smoker status and stone size (mean largest stone size 12.4±8.8mm vs. 7.5±4.8mm in current smokers vs. non-smokers; P=0.03). Serum sodium levels (r=0.32, P=0.014) and serum potassium levels (r=0.31, P=0.017) showed significant positive correlations with stone size. While the aetiology of sialolithiasis remains unclear, smoking (which can contribute to reduced saliva flow) and higher serum sodium levels (which can reflect volume depletion) are associated with larger salivary stones. PMID:26969301

  12. Connexin 43 Is Necessary for Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis and FGF10-induced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Aya; Futagi, Masaharu; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Kan; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Arakaki, Makiko; Hino, Ryoko; Sugawara, Yu; Ishikawa, Momoko; Naruse, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Kanako; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell interaction via the gap junction regulates cell growth and differentiation, leading to formation of organs of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of connexin43 in salivary gland development, we analyzed its expression in developing submandibular glands (SMGs). Connexin43 (Cx43) was found to be expressed in salivary gland epithelium. In ex vivo organ cultures of SMGs, addition of the gap junctional inhibitors 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) and oleamide inhibited SMG branching morphogenesis, suggesting that gap junctional communication contributes to salivary gland development. In Cx43(-/-) salivary glands, submandibular and sublingual gland size was reduced as compared with those from heterozygotes. The expression of Pdgfa, Pdgfb, Fgf7, and Fgf10, which induced branching of SMGs in Cx43(-/-) samples, were not changed as compared with those from heterozygotes. Furthermore, the blocking peptide for the hemichannel and gap junction channel showed inhibition of terminal bud branching. FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis, while it did not rescue the Cx43(-/-) phenotype, thus Cx43 may regulate FGF10 signaling during salivary gland development. FGF10 is expressed in salivary gland mesenchyme and regulates epithelial proliferation, and was shown to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelial cells, while ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HSY cells was dramatically inhibited by 18α-GA, a Cx43 peptide or siRNA. On the other hand, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB separately induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in primary cultured salivary mesenchymal cells regardless of the presence of 18α-GA. Together, our results suggest that Cx43 regulates FGF10-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelium but not in mesenchyme during the process of SMG branching morphogenesis. PMID:26565022

  13. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Ramaraju; Gantala, Ramlal; Aitha, Harisha; Gotoor, Srikanth Goud

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours comprise almost 5% of head and neck malignancies. Minor salivary gland tumours account for 10–15% of all salivary gland neoplasms and are usually malignant. The second most common minor salivary gland tumour (12–40% globally) is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is more frequent in females, occurs in the fifth decade of life and is usually found in the parotid gland. However, the palate is a frequent site when it occurs in the minor glands. We report a case of a high-grade variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the right retromolar trigone of a 21-year man which was treated with wide excision of the tumour with a 1.5 cm margin. Reconstruction was done with a buccal fat pad posteriorly with a pedicled lateral tongue flap. Temporal stripping and right coronoidectomy was carried out in case of post-surgical wound contraction. The patient is currently under periodic review. PMID:25085946

  14. Differential salivary gland transcript expression profile in Ixodes scapularis nymphs upon feeding or flavivirus infection

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Kristin L.; Mitzel, Dana N.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Myers, Timothy G.; Godinez, Alvaro; Wolfinbarger, James B.; Best, Sonja M.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    2011-01-01

    Ixodid ticks are vectors of human diseases such as Lyme disease, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and tick-borne encephalitis. These diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and are transmitted to humans during tick feeding. The tick-host-pathogen interface is a complex environment where host responses are modulated by the molecules in tick saliva to enable the acquisition of a blood meal. Disruption of host responses at the site of the tick bite may also provide an advantage for pathogens to survive and replicate. Thus, the molecules in tick saliva not only aid the tick in securing a nutrient-rich blood meal, but can also enhance the transmission and acquisition of pathogens. To investigate the effect of feeding and flavivirus infection on the salivary gland transcript expression profile in ticks, a first-generation microarray was developed using ESTs from a cDNA library derived from Ixodes scapularis salivary glands. When the salivary gland transcript profile in ticks feeding over the course of 3 days was compared to that in unfed ticks, a dramatic increase in transcripts related to metabolism was observed. Specifically, 578 transcripts were up-regulated compared to 151 down-regulated transcripts in fed ticks. When specific time points post attachment were analyzed, a temporal pattern of gene expression was observed. When Langat virus-infected ticks were compared to mock-infected ticks, transcript expression changes were observed at all 3 days of feeding. Differentially regulated transcripts include putative secreted proteins, lipocalins, Kunitz domain-containing proteins, anti-microbial peptides, and transcripts of unknown function. These studies identify salivary gland transcripts that are differentially regulated during feeding or in the context of flavivirus infection in Ixodes scapularis nymphs, a medically important disease vector. Further analysis of these transcripts may identify salivary factors that affect the transmission or replication of

  15. MyD88 Deficiency Alters Expression of Antimicrobial Factors in Mouse Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Into, Takeshi; Takigawa, Toshiya; Niida, Shumpei; Shibata, Ken-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    The surfaces of oral mucosa are protected from infections by antimicrobial proteins and natural immunoglobulins that are constantly secreted in saliva, serving as principal innate immune defense in the oral cavity. MyD88 is an important adaptor protein for signal transduction downstream of Toll-like receptors and TACI, receptors for regulation of innate immunity and B cell responses, respectively. Although MyD88-mediated signaling has a regulatory role in the intestinal mucosal immunity, its specific role in the oral cavity has remained elusive. In the present study, we assessed the influence of MyD88 deficiency on the oral innate defense, particularly the expression of antimicrobial proteins in salivary glands and production of salivary basal immunoglobulins, in mice. Microarray analysis of the whole tissues of submandibular glands revealed that the expression of several genes encoding salivary antimicrobial proteins, such as secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), S100A8, and lactotransferrin, was reduced due to MyD88 deficiency. Histologically, SLPI-expressing acinar cells were evidently decreased in the glands from MyD88 deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that B cell populations, including B-1 cells and IgA+ plasma cells, residing in submandibular glands were increased by MyD88 deficiency. The level of salivary anti-phosphorylcholine IgA was elevated in MyD88 deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. Thus, this study provides a detailed description of the effect of MyD88 deficiency on expression of several salivary antimicrobial factors in mice, illustrating the role for MyD88-mediated signaling in the innate immune defense in the oral cavity. PMID:25415419

  16. Differential salivary gland transcript expression profile in Ixodes scapularis nymphs upon feeding or flavivirus infection.

    PubMed

    McNally, Kristin L; Mitzel, Dana N; Anderson, Jennifer M; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Myers, Timothy G; Godinez, Alvaro; Wolfinbarger, James B; Best, Sonja M; Bloom, Marshall E

    2012-02-01

    Ixodid ticks are vectors of human diseases such as Lyme disease, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and tick-borne encephalitis. These diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and are transmitted to humans during tick feeding. The tick-host-pathogen interface is a complex environment where host responses are modulated by the molecules in tick saliva to enable the acquisition of a blood meal. Disruption of host responses at the site of the tick bite may also provide an advantage for pathogens to survive and replicate. Thus, the molecules in tick saliva not only aid the tick in securing a nutrient-rich blood meal, but can also enhance the transmission and acquisition of pathogens. To investigate the effect of feeding and flavivirus infection on the salivary gland transcript expression profile in ticks, a first-generation microarray was developed using ESTs from a cDNA library derived from Ixodes scapularis salivary glands. When the salivary gland transcript profile in ticks feeding over the course of 3 days was compared to that in unfed ticks, a dramatic increase in transcripts related to metabolism was observed. Specifically, 578 transcripts were up-regulated compared to 151 down-regulated transcripts in response to feeding. When specific time points post attachment were analyzed, a temporal pattern of gene expression was observed. When Langat virus-infected ticks were compared to mock-infected ticks, transcript expression changes were observed at all 3 days of feeding. Differentially regulated transcripts include putative secreted proteins, lipocalins, Kunitz domain-containing proteins, anti-microbial peptides, and transcripts of unknown function. These studies identify salivary gland transcripts that are differentially regulated during feeding or in the context of flavivirus infection in Ixodes scapularis nymphs, a medically important disease vector. Further analysis of these transcripts may identify salivary factors that affect the transmission or

  17. The salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis pseudopunctipennis*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Kitzmiller, J. B.; Chowdaiah, B. N.

    1965-01-01

    The authors present a salivary chromosome map of Anopheles p. pseudopunctipennis, an important malaria vector in the Americas. The salivary chromosomes appear as a short metacentric X and two metacentric autosomes. The arms of chromosome 2 are of almost equal length, but the right arm of chromosome 3 is almost twice as long as the left. The metacentric X is the first to be described in the subgenus Anopheles. The banding patterns of the autosomes show many similarities to those of the North American maculipennis complex and to those of the Central American A. vestitipennis and A. neomaculipalpus. Three chromosomal aberrations, one in the X and two in the right arm of chromosome 3, occur commonly in several different populations. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:5295407

  18. Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3− Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and HCO3− secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3− secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3− secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3− secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl− and secrete HCO3−. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl− and secretes HCO3− and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3− secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl− and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl− secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl− and secretes K+ and HCO3−. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3− secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions. PMID:22298651

  19. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Samer George; Benedek, Geza Attila; Su Yuxiong; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Klinger, Matthias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Meller, Birgit; Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk; Sieg, Peter

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  20. Iodine deficiency induces a VEGF-dependent microvascular response in salivary glands and in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Jessica; Derradji, Hanane; Craps, Julie; Sonveaux, Pierre; Colin, Ides M; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Despite efforts to optimize iodine supply in iodine deficient countries, iodine deficiency (ID) remains a global problem worldwide. Activation of the local microvasculature by ID in the thyroid gland aims at improving the local supply of iodide. For this purpose, the thyrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that acts on adjacent capillaries, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/Hypoxia Inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway. Beside the thyroid, other organs including salivary glands and the stomach do express the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and are able to take iodide up, potentially rendering them sensitive to ID. To verify this hypothesis, ID-induced effects on the local microvasculature were studied in salivary glands and in the stomach. ID was induced by feeding young mice with an iodide-deficient diet and NIS inhibitor perchlorate in the drinking water. In salivary glands, ID induced a transient increase in HIF-1α protein expression accompanied by a transient, VEGF-dependent increase in blood flow. In the gastric mucosa, ID transiently increased VEGF expression in the mucin-secreting epithelium and in ghrelin-secreting endocrine cells. These observations suggest that microvascular changes in response to ID occur in NIS-expressing tissues other than the thyroid. NIS expressing cells could be viewed as iodide sensors that respond to ID by inducing vascular changes, probably to optimize iodide bioavailability at regional or systemic levels. PMID:26838679

  1. Salivary duct stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. ... 83. Jackson NM, Mitchell JL, Walvekar RR. Inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  2. Induction and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells from human buccal fat pads into salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Miyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira; Mataga, Izumi

    2016-07-01

    Atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland because of aging or disease leads to hyposalivation that affects patient quality of life by causing dry mouth, deterioration of mastication/deglutition, and poor oral hygiene status. Current therapy for atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland in clinical practice focuses on symptom relief using drugs and artificial saliva; therefore, there is still a need to develop new therapies. To investigate potential novel therapeutic targets, we induced the differentiation of salivary gland cells by co-culturing human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from buccal fat pads (hBFP-ASCs) with human salivary-gland-derived fibroblasts (hSG-fibros). We examined their potential for transplantation and tissue neogenesis. Following the culture of hBFP-ASCs and hSG-fibros, differentiated cells were transplanted into the submandibular glands of SCID mice, and their degree of differentiation in tissues was determined. We also examined their potential for functional tissue reconstitution using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Co-cultured cells expressed salivary-glandrelated markers and generated new tissues following transplantation in vivo. Moreover, cell reconstituted glandular structures in the 3D culture system. In conclusion, coculture of hSG-fibros with hBFP-ASCs led to successful differentiation into salivary gland cells that could be transplanted to generate new tissues. PMID:26842556

  3. The introduction of sialendoscopy has significantly contributed to a decreased number of excised salivary glands in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Lykke, Eva; Wagner, Niels; Nielsen, Troels; Waersted, Stian; Arndal, Helge

    2016-08-01

    Excision has been the treatment of choice in benign non-tumorous obstructive disorders of the major salivary glands, when symptoms persisted in spite of conservative measures. Unfortunately surgical resection has been associated with a relatively high rate of adverse effects. To meet the need for a less invasive treatment modality for benign obstructive non-tumorous disorders (i.e., salivary stones or stenosis), sialendoscopy has been developed and implemented in several countries here among Denmark. This study is a 13-year retrospective registry-based study using The Danish National Patient Register. ICD-10 codes used for non-tumorous obstructive disease of the salivary glands were identified and used to extract patients potentially eligible for sialendoscopy in order to compare sialendoscopic surgery and extirpations of salivary glands. In 2012 sialendoscopy accounted for almost 20 % of all surgical interventions on the major salivary glands due to benign non-tumorous disease. Nationally and regionally the total number of resected major salivary glands due to benign obstructive disease also decreased significantly during the study period. A positive outcome, like the ones described here, will inspire further development and dissemination of gland preserving techniques, to great benefit for the patients. PMID:26308523

  4. Analysis of somatic and salivary gland antigens of third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato; Elia, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-04-01

    Larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) infect nasal and sinus cavities of horses, causing a nasal myiasis characterized by severe respiratory distress. Presently, the diagnosis of horse nasal botfly relies on the observation of clinical signs, on the post mortem retrieval of larvae or on molecular assays performed using pharyngeal swabs. The present study was carried out to characterize larval somatic proteins and salivary glands of Rhinoestrus spp. in a preliminary assessment towards the immunodiagnosis of equine rhinoestrosis. Out of the 212 necropsied horses 13 were positive for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. larvae. The analysis of the sera from the infected animals by Western blotting assay showed the presence of a specific host humoral immune response against Rhinoestrus spp. larvae and proved that the salivary glands are the major immunogens in horse nasal botflies. PMID:19948170

  5. Virus isolation from saliva and salivary glands of cattle naturally infected with paralytic rabies.

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Larghi, O P; Russo, R G

    2001-02-16

    The infectivity of saliva, salivary and mammary glands, muscle, lung, kidney and liver of 87 cattle infected with paralytic rabies (positive viral isolation from brains) was studied. Fifty percent dilutions of saliva and tissue samples were inoculated intracerebrally into 10- to 15-day-old mice. Viral isolation in mice was confirmed by direct rabies fluorescent-antibody test and the antigenic variant of the isolates characterized by monoclonal antibodies. Rabies virus was isolated from 4.6% of salivary glands and from 1.6% of saliva samples. The rest of the peripheral tissues were negative. Cerebral and peripheral isolates belonged to vampire-bat antigenic variants. These results indicate that cattle infected by vampire bats may be a source of infection for man. The infection risk would depend on the type of contact between rabid cattle and man. PMID:11182465

  6. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and no production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeanette V; Mejia, J Santiago; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J; Titus, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate. PMID:16968936

  7. Disseminated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as bilateral salivary gland enlargement: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sattur, Atul P.; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.; Thakur, Arpita Rai

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) constitutes a group of malignancies those arises from cellular components of lymphoid or extranodal tissues. The head and neck is the most common area for the presentation of these lymphoproliferative disorders. Primary involvement of salivary glands is uncommon. This report described a case of a 73-year-old female patient who presented with involvement of both nodal and extranodal sites, with predominant involvement of salivary glands. The tumor staging worked up along with imaging, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings were discussed. Computed tomographic images showed the involvement of Waldeyer's ring, larynx, orbit, and spleen. This report described imaging and prognostic tumor markers in diagnosing, treatment planning, and prognosis. PMID:23525854

  8. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising in salivary glands: A clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Guraya, Sahejmeet S; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Primary salivary gland peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are uncommon. This study is a retrospective, clinicopathologic review of 9 cases of PNST (5 neurofibromas, 3 schwannomas and 1 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)) arising from the salivary glands, encountered between 1990 and 2015. All patients with neurofibromas were male (ages 1-62 years) and had a single parotid lesion of which 2 were diffuse, 2 plexiform and one mixed diffuse/plexiform. Four had a history of neurofibromatosis I. Four of 5 presented with symptoms related to mass effect including facial swelling, facial drooping, and dysphagia. All underwent de-bulking surgery and recurred due to continued growth. Of the 3 patients with schwannomas, 1 was male and 2 were female (ages 19, 44 and 56 years). One tumor each arose in the sublingual, submandibular, and parotid glands. Two of 3 presented with soreness and swelling local to the affected gland, especially while chewing. There was no recurrence of these tumors after resection. An MPNST in a male presented as a tender mass in the patient's left parotid; the tumor was resected. There was no evidence of tumor elsewhere in the body. The tumor did not recur in 12 years of follow-up. The most common tumor type in the current series was neurofibroma; most arose in the background of neurofibromatosis type I and all of which recurred after initial subtotal resection. Most PNST arose in the parotid gland. PMID:27402223

  9. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    May, A.J.; Chatzeli, L.; Proctor, G.B.; Tucker, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.

  10. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Meghan E; Giannico, Giovanna A; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors. PMID:27429817

  11. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kapp, Meghan E.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors. PMID:27429817

  12. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)-Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Boonsriwong, Worachote; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Sukontason, Kom

    2012-01-01

    The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly. PMID:22666549

  13. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Boonsriwong, Worachote; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Vogtsberger, Roy C.; Sukontason, Kom

    2012-01-01

    The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly. PMID:22666549

  14. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  15. Seasonal and Physiological Variations of Phlebotomus papatasi Salivary Gland Antigens in Central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini-Vasoukolaei, Nasibeh; Mahmoudi, Ahmad-Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Mirhendi, Hossein; Emami, Shaghayegh; Saeidi, Zahra; Idali, Farah; Jafari, Reza; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sand fly saliva helps parasite establishment and induce immune responses in vertebrate hosts. In the current study, we investigated the modulation of Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigen expression by seasonal and biological factors. Methods: Sand flies were grouped according to physiological stages such as unfed, fed, semi-gravid, gravid, parous, nulliparous, infected or non-infected with Leishmania major and based on the season in which they were collected. Salivary gland antigens (SGAs) were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and the antibody response against SGAs in Rhombomys opimus was determined by ELISA and Western blot. Results: The highest protein content was found in the salivary glands of unfed sand flies. The saliva content was higher in parous compared to nulliparous, in summer compared to spring, and in Leishmania-infected compared to non-infected flies. The salivary gland lysate (SGL) electrophoretic pattern variations were observed among sand flies with various physiological stages particularly from 4–9 protein bands of 14–70 kDa. The SGL of unfed and gravid flies had extra protein bands compared to fed and semi-gravid sand flies. There was missing protein bands in SGL of parous compared to nulliparous; and in summer compared to spring collected flies. Rhombomys opimus serum reacted strongly with an antigenic band of around 28 kDa in the SGL of all sand fly groups. Conclusion: Certain biological and environmental characteristics of wild populations of vector sand flies affect the protein content and antigenicity of saliva. This might have an important implication in the design of vector-based vaccines. PMID:27047970

  16. Salivary gland extracts of partially fed Dermacentor reticulatus ticks decrease natural killer cell activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kubes, M; Fuchsberger, N; Labuda, M; Zuffová, E; Nuttall, P A

    1994-01-01

    The salivary glands and saliva of ticks (Arachnida, Acari, Ixodida) play a vital role in blood feeding, including manipulation of the host's immune response to tick infestation. Furthermore, a diverse number of tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva. A factor synthesized in the salivary glands of feeding ticks potentiates the transmission of certain tick-borne viruses. We show that salivary gland extracts (SGE) derived from Dermacentor reticulatus female ticks fed for 6 days on laboratory mice (SGED6) induced a decrease in the natural killer (NK) activity of effector cells obtained from 16 healthy blood donors. The decreased activity ranged from 14 to 69% of NK activity observed with the respective untreated effector cells. Such a decrease was not observed after treatment of effector cells with SGE from unfed ticks. Ten-fold dilution of SGED6 significantly reduced the capacity to decrease NK activity and a further 10-fold dilution almost eliminated the effect. After addition of IFN-alpha 2, the SGED6-induced decrease in NK activity was restored to activity levels approaching those of untreated cells. The apparent reversibility of the inhibition indicates that the effect of SGED6 on NK activity was not due to cytotoxicity. The results demonstrate the presence of a factor(s) in the salivary gland products of feeding D. reticulatus female ticks that influences human NK activity in vitro. These data suggest a possible mechanism by which tick SGE potentiates the transmission of some tick-borne viruses through suppression of NK activity. PMID:8045588

  17. Abnormal changes in both mandibular salivary glands in a dog: Non-mineral radiopaque sialoliths

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyun-Jung; Chung, Dai Jung; Lee, A-Jin; Chung, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Eom, Ki-Dong; Do, Sun Hee; Kim, Hwi-Yool

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old Maltese dog was presented with a firm mass on the left side of his neck. Physical examination confirmed a firm mass in the left and a submandibular swelling in the right cervical region. Sialolithiasis and associated sialocele in both mandibular salivary glands were suspected and bilateral sialoadenectomy was performed. The stones were identified as non-mineral sialoliths. PMID:26483575

  18. Abnormal changes in both mandibular salivary glands in a dog: Non-mineral radiopaque sialoliths.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyun-Jung; Chung, Dai Jung; Lee, A-Jin; Chung, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Eom, Ki-Dong; Do, Sun Hee; Kim, Hwi-Yool

    2015-10-01

    A 10-year-old Maltese dog was presented with a firm mass on the left side of his neck. Physical examination confirmed a firm mass in the left and a submandibular swelling in the right cervical region. Sialolithiasis and associated sialocele in both mandibular salivary glands were suspected and bilateral sialoadenectomy was performed. The stones were identified as non-mineral sialoliths. PMID:26483575

  19. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: a systematic review of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Villa, A; Wolff, A; Narayana, N; Dawes, C; Aframian, D J; Lynge Pedersen, A M; Vissink, A; Aliko, A; Sia, Y W; Joshi, R K; McGowan, R; Jensen, S B; Kerr, A R; Ekström, J; Proctor, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform a systematic review of the pathogenesis of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD). Review of the identified papers was based on the standards regarding the methodology for systematic reviews set forth by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine IV and the PRISMA statement. Eligible papers were assessed for both the degree and strength of relevance to the pathogenesis of MISGD as well as on the appropriateness of the study design and sample size. A total of 99 papers were retained for the final analysis. MISGD in human studies was generally reported as xerostomia (the sensation of oral dryness) without measurements of salivary secretion rate. Medications may act on the central nervous system (CNS) and/or at the neuroglandular junction on muscarinic, α-and β-adrenergic receptors and certain peptidergic receptors. The types of medications that were most commonly implicated for inducing salivary gland dysfunction were those acting on the nervous, cardiovascular, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and alimentary systems. Although many medications may affect the salivary flow rate and composition, most of the studies considered only xerostomia. Thus, further human studies are necessary to improve our understanding of the association between MISGD and the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:26602059

  20. BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implications for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, Liesl K.; Madden, Vicki; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2009-11-25

    Background: In this study, it was determined that BKV is shed in saliva and an in vitro model system was developed whereby BKV can productively infect both submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary gland cell lines. Results: BKV was detected in oral fluids using quantitative real-time PCR (QRTPCR). BKV infection was determined using quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The infectivity of BKV was inhibited by pre-incubation of the virus with gangliosides that saturated the major capsid protein, VP1, halting receptor mediated BKV entry into salivary gland cells. Examination of infected cultures by transmission electron microscopy revealed 45-50 nm BK virions clearly visible within the cells. Subsequent to infection, encapsidated BK virus was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion: We thus demonstrated that BKV was detected in oral fluids and that BK infection and replication occur in vitro in salivary gland cells. These data collectively suggest the potential for BKV oral route of transmission and oral pathogenesis.

  1. Modulation of T and B cell proliferative responses by factors present in rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pockley, A G; Montgomery, P C

    1991-12-01

    Rat salivary gland culture supernatants (SGSN) were shown to inhibit the proliferation of rat spleen cells induced by the mitogens concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and S. typhimurium mitogen (STM). The responses of B cells were more markedly inhibited than the responses of T cells. Factors contained in SGSN which had a molecular weight smaller than 3500 inhibited all responses, whereas factors greater than 3500 only inhibited responses induced by PWM, LPS or STM. Factors present in SGSN also inhibited the proliferation of two B cell hybridoma cell lines, as well as the IL-2-responsive cell line CTLL-2 and the IL-4-responsive cell line CT.4S. However, SGSN factors having a molecular weight greater than 3500 did not inhibit CTLL-2 proliferation. These data indicate that rat salivary glands contain factors which differentially regulate T and B cell proliferative responses in vitro and which may modulate localized immune responses in the salivary gland in vivo. PMID:1757118

  2. Vacuole dynamics in the salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster during prepupal development.

    PubMed

    Farkaš, Robert; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Mentelová, Lucia; Mahmood, Silvia; Ďatková, Zuzana; Beňo, Milan; Pečeňová, Ludmila; Raška, Otakar; Šmigová, Jana; Chase, Bruce A; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M

    2015-01-01

    A central function of the Drosophila salivary glands (SGs), historically known for their polytene chromosomes, is to produce and then release during pupariation the secretory glue used to affix a newly formed puparium to a substrate. This essential event in the life history of Drosophila is regulated by the steroid hormone ecdysone in the late-larval period. Ecdysone triggers a cascade of sequential gene activation that leads to glue secretion and initiates the developmentally-regulated programmed cell death (PCD) of the larval salivary glands, which culminates 16 h after puparium formation (APF). We demonstrate here that, even after the larval salivary glands have completed what is perceived to be one of their major biological functions--glue secretion during pupariation--they remain dynamic and physiologically active up until the execution phase of PCD. We have used specific metabolic inhibitors and genetic tools, including mutations or transgenes for shi, Rab5, Rab11, vha55, vha68-2, vha36-1, syx1A, syx4, and Vps35 to characterize the dramatic series of cellular changes occurring in the SG cells between pupariation and 7-8 h APF. Early in the prepupal period, they are remarkably active in endocytosis, forming acidic vacuoles. Midway through the prepupal period, there is abundant late endosomal trafficking and vacuole growth, which is followed later by vacuole neutralization and disappearance via membrane consolidation. This work provides new insights into the function of Drosophila SGs during the early- to mid-prepupal period. PMID:25611296

  3. Genes transcribed in the salivary glands of female Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks infected with Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Nene, Vishvanath; Lee, Dan; Kang'a, Simon; Skilton, Robert; Shah, Trushar; de Villiers, Etienne; Mwaura, Stephen; Taylor, David; Quackenbush, John; Bishop, Richard

    2004-10-01

    We describe the generation of an auto-annotated index of genes that are expressed in the salivary glands of four-day fed female adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. A total of 9162 EST sequences were derived from an uninfected tick cDNA library and 9844 ESTs were from a cDNA library from ticks infected with Theileria parva, which develop in type III salivary gland acini. There were no major differences between abundantly expressed ESTs from the two cDNA libraries, although there was evidence for an up-regulation in the expression of some glycine-rich proteins in infected salivary glands. Gene ontology terms were also assigned to sequences in the index and those with potential enzyme function were linked to the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database, allowing reconstruction of metabolic pathways. Several genes code for previously characterized tick proteins such as receptors for myokinin or ecdysteroid and an immunosuppressive protein. cDNAs coding for homologs of heme-lipoproteins which are major components of tick hemolymph were identified by searching the database with published N-terminal peptide sequence data derived from biochemically purified Boophilus microplus proteins. The EST data will be a useful resource for construction of microarrays to probe vector biology, vector-host and vector-pathogen interactions and to underpin gene identification via proteomics approaches. PMID:15475305

  4. Homeostasis of the apical plasma membrane during regulated exocytosis in the salivary glands of live rodents

    PubMed Central

    Masedunskas, Andrius; Sramkova, Monika; Weigert, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    In exocrine organs such as the salivary glands, fluids and proteins are secreted into ductal structures by distinct mechanisms that are tightly coupled. In the acinar cells, the major secretory units of the salivary glands, fluids are secreted into the acinar canaliculi through paracellular and intracellular transport, whereas proteins are stored in large granules that undergo exocytosis and fuse with the apical plasma membranes releasing their content into the canaliculi. Both secretory processes elicit a remodeling of the apical plasma membrane that has not been fully addressed in in vitro or ex vivo models. Recently, we have studied regulated exocytosis in the salivary glands of live rodents, focusing on the role that actin and myosin plays in this process. We observed that during exocytosis both secretory granules and canaliculi are subjected to the hydrostatic pressure generated by fluid secretion. Furthermore, the absorption of the membranes of the secretory granules contributes to the expansion and deformation of the canaliculi. Here we suggest that the homeostasis of the apical plasma membranes during exocytosis is maintained by various strategies that include: (1) membrane retrieval via compensatory endocytosis, (2) increase of the surface area via membrane folds and (3) recruitment of a functional actomyosin complex. Our observations underscore the important relationship between tissue architecture and cellular response, and highlight the potential of investigating biological processes in vivo by using intravital microscopy. PMID:22754613

  5. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Farkaš, Robert; Ďatková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Beňo, Milan; Sass, Miklós; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Kováčik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal β-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  6. Documentation of postmortem changes in salivary gland architecture and staining characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Swati; Chaudhary, Minal; Gawande, Madhuri; Gupta, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Context: Estimation of time passed since death continues to be a major problem for the forensic pathologist and its determination plays an important and vital role in medico-legal cases. The histological studies on various tissues after death have been mostly confined to single organ or tissue by individual workers at different atmospheric conditions. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the best rehydrating solution for dehydrated tissues in postmortem examination. Settings and Design: This study was specific to salivary gland tissues and certain pattern of changes were determined during postmortem time intervals using hematoxylin and eosin stain and special stains like mucicarmine and alcian blue. Materials and Methods: The study was divided into two groups. (1) Group A: Normal tissue samples (twenty normal salivary gland tissue samples left without fixation for varying periods of time). (2) Group B: Control group (twenty normal salivary gland tissue samples immediately fixed in formalin). The three different rehydrating agents used in this study were glycerol, normal saline and modified Ruffer solution. Statistical Analysis Used: Not required. Results: Modified Ruffer solution is the best when compared to glycerol and normal saline for rehydration of dehydrated tissues. Conclusions: Thus in our study we conclude that the tissue which had been dehydrated at the crime scene for a fairly long period showed better rehydration with modified Ruffer solution and yield good cellular and nuclear details. PMID:27555735

  7. [Mansonella perstans isolated on aspiration puncture of a salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Mateu, Lourdes; Sopena, Nieves; Giménez, Montserrat; Valerio, Lluís

    2008-03-01

    Chronic parasitosis due to nematode worms (filariae) in tissue are very common in tropical ecosystems; their larvae (microfilariae) have been isolated in lymph vessels, skin, and blood. The case reported here is of a Nigerian patient suffering severe renal failure and admitted owing to the presence of a right submandibular gland abscess. In the FNAP, the presence of a Mansonella perstans microfilaria was identified. Post-surgery examination of pathology samples from the gland reported an acute inflammatory infiltrate including abundant eosinophils and microfilariae. There are some reports in the literature of haematic or lymphatic microfilariae, especially in epithelial or glandular tissues, and, as in this case, in inflammatory or malignant conditions. Both ivermectin and mebendazol are used for treatment; the scant pathogenicity of the genus Mansonella should, however, lead to an individualized decision. PMID:18364209

  8. Hyaluronidase activity in the salivary glands of tabanid flies.

    PubMed

    Volfova, Vera; Tothova, Viktorie; Volf, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Tabanids are haematophagous insects that act as biological and mechanical vectors of various diseases, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. The saliva of these insects contains strong anticoagulant and vasodilatory activities as well as immunoregulatory peptides. Here we demonstrate pronounced hyaluronidase (hyase) activity in ten tabanid species of the genera Chrysops, Haematopota, Hybomitra and Tabanus. Compared to other haematophagous insects, the ability of tabanid hyases to hydrolyze hyaluronic acid (HA) is extremely high, for example the enzyme activity of Hybomitra muehlfeldi was found to be 32-fold higher than the salivary hyase activity of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. Hyases of all ten tabanid species tested also cleaved chondroitin sulfate A, another glycosaminoglycan present in the extracellular matrix of vertebrates. The pH optimum of the enzyme activity was measured in eight tabanid species; the hyase of Haemopota pluvialis was the only one with optimum at pH 4.0, while in the other seven species the activity optimum was at 5.0. SDS PAGE zymography showed the monomeric character of the enzymes in all tabanid species tested. Under non-reducing conditions the activities were visible as single bands with estimated MW between 35 and 52 kDa. The very high hyaluronidase activity in tabanid saliva might be related to their aggressive biting behavior as well as to their high efficiency as mechanical vectors. As they are supposedly involved in the enlargement of feeding hematomas, hyases might contribute to the mechanical transmission of pathogens. Pathogens present in vector mouthparts are co-inoculated into the vertebrate host together with saliva and may benefit from increased tissue permeability and the immunomodulatory activity of the salivary hyase. PMID:27045753

  9. Development of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels for Salivary Gland Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shubin, Andrew D.; Felong, Timothy J.; Graunke, Dean; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    More than 40,000 patients are diagnosed with head and neck cancers annually in the United States with the vast majority receiving radiation therapy. Salivary glands are irreparably damaged by radiation therapy resulting in xerostomia, which severely affects patient quality of life. Cell-based therapies have shown some promise in mouse models of radiation-induced xerostomia, but they suffer from insufficient and inconsistent gland regeneration and accompanying secretory function. To aid in the development of regenerative therapies, poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were investigated for the encapsulation of primary submandibular gland (SMG) cells for tissue engineering applications. Different methods of hydrogel formation and cell preparation were examined to identify cytocompatible encapsulation conditions for SMG cells. Cell viability was much higher after thiol-ene polymerizations compared with conventional methacrylate polymerizations due to reduced membrane peroxidation and intracellular reactive oxygen species formation. In addition, the formation of multicellular microspheres before encapsulation maximized cell–cell contacts and increased viability of SMG cells over 14-day culture periods. Thiol-ene hydrogel-encapsulated microspheres also promoted SMG proliferation. Lineage tracing was employed to determine the cellular composition of hydrogel-encapsulated microspheres using markers for acinar (Mist1) and duct (Keratin5) cells. Our findings indicate that both acinar and duct cell phenotypes are present throughout the 14 day culture period. However, the acinar:duct cell ratios are reduced over time, likely due to duct cell proliferation. Altogether, permissive encapsulation methods for primary SMG cells have been identified that promote cell viability, proliferation, and maintenance of differentiated salivary gland cell phenotypes, which allows for translation of this approach for salivary gland tissue engineering applications. PMID:25762214

  10. Ultrastructural study of the salivary glands of the sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854) (Euhemiptera: Cercopidae).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2006-01-01

    Spittlebugs are insects that suck sap from plants and regurgitate saliva containing toxic enzymes into the leaves. As a consequence, the conductive channels are blocked resulting in dry leaves, thus giving a burned aspect to the plantation. This work performed ultrastructural analyses of the salivary glands of the sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata, since these organs produce the enzymes that are injected into the plants, thus being responsible for the economic losses in the production of sugarcane. Three kinds of secretory cells are found in principal gland, forming the lobules I-IV. The main differences among these cells relate to size, morphology and electron density of the secretory vesicles. The accessory glands contain different secretory vesicles to those in the principal gland. Muscular cells are found around the entire gland. The different secretory vesicles found in both principal and accessory glands indicate that the gland produces different substances or that the secretion in the interior of cells passes through a maturation process. PMID:16171997

  11. Radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine and the adrenergic neurons of salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.C.; Wieland, D.M.; Jaques, S. Jr.; Sherman, P.; Fisher, S.; Mallette, S.; Meyers, L.; Mangner, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The handling of radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) by salivary glands was evaluated. In the submaxillary glands of rats, the uptake of 125I-MIBG was decreased after 1) nerve injury induced by 6-hydroxydopamine, 2) inhibition of the uptake-1 pathway by desmethylimipramine, and 3) surgical denervation. However, the reduction in 125I-MIGB uptake was less than that of 3H-norepinephrine (3H-NE) and of the endogenous content of NE in the glands. Yet, the sympathomimetic phenylpropanolamine displaced about the same fraction of 125I-MIBG as 3H-NE. These results suggest that 40% or more of 125I-MIBG resides in extraneuronal sites but that at least 30% and possibly more lies in the adrenergic nerve terminals. Fasting and feeding rats produced changes in the rates of disappearance of 125I-MIBG and 3H-NE from the submaxillary gland that were different, and the rates of loss of 125I-MIBG cannot be used as an index of adrenergic nerve activity. In man, the concentrations of 123I-MIBG in the salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland, are readily visible and measureable. Imipramine reduced the uptake of 123I-MIBG into parotid glands little or not at all; some of the 123I-MIBG may enter neurons via an imipramine-insensitive pathway, but a substantial fraction probably arrives in intraneuronal locations. Thus, phenylpropanolamine displaced over 50% of the parotid pool of 123I-MIBG. However, in only the most severe case of generalized autonomic neuropathy was the uptake of 123I-MIBG reduced.

  12. Optimal timing of MR sialography by use of a simple method of stimulating the salivary gland: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Minami, Shuhei; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takemura, Akihiro; Takei, Yoshiki; Arakawa, Suguru; Yoshizawa, Yusuke; Matsuura, Yukihiro; Kawahara, Kazuhiro

    2008-07-01

    The present study was performed for determining the optimal timing of MR sialography by use of the Japanese pickled plum (umeboshi) for promoting secretion by the salivary glands. MR sialography was performed in four healthy male volunteers. The four volunteers were examined before and 10 min after stimulation with umeboshi. On the next examination, three volunteers were examined before and after umeboshi stimulation every 1 min up to 5 min to allow assessment of the temporal changes in duct visualization. Dilatation of the salivary gland ducts and improvement of the visualization of the ducts were obtained after stimulation with umeboshi. The difference in the dilatation of the parotid duct was statistically significant. In the temporal study, the salivary gland ducts were shown to be dilated at 2 min after stimulation. As a result, 2 min after stimulation is the optimal timing for MR sialography by use of umeboshi as a stimulator of salivary secretion. PMID:20821149

  13. Alkaline phosphatase activity in salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus and R. prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, A P M; Alevi, K C C; Anhê, A C B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase was also detected in the nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix, suggesting an association with the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins and the mechanisms of cell cycle and DNA replication, respectively. This study highlights the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the salivary gland of R. prolixus and R. neglectus and emphasizes its importance in secretory activity. Secretory activity is directly involved in hematophagy and, consequently, in development during metamorphosis. The observed presence of alkaline phosphatase suggests its involvement in the production of saliva allowing feeding of these insects that are important vectors of Chagas disease. PMID:27525888

  14. The physiology of salivary secretion.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Gordon B

    2016-02-01

    Saliva in the mouth is a biofluid produced mainly by three pairs of major salivary glands--the submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands--along with secretions from many minor submucosal salivary glands. Salivary gland secretion is a nerve-mediated reflex and the volume of saliva secreted is dependent on the intensity and type of taste and on chemosensory, masticatory or tactile stimulation. Long periods of low (resting or unstimulated) flow are broken by short periods of high flow, which is stimulated by taste and mastication. The nerve-mediated salivary reflex is modulated by nerve signals from other centers in the central nervous system, which is most obvious as hyposalivation at times of anxiety. An example of other neurohormonal influences on the salivary reflex is the circadian rhythm, which affects salivary flow and ionic composition. Cholinergic parasympathetic and adrenergic sympathetic autonomic nerves evoke salivary secretion, signaling through muscarinic M3 and adrenoceptors on salivary acinar cells and leading to secretion of fluid and salivary proteins. Saliva gland acinar cells are chloride and sodium secreting, and the isotonic fluid produced is rendered hypotonic by salivary gland duct cells as it flows to the mouth. The major proteins present in saliva are secreted by salivary glands, creating viscoelasticity and enabling the coating of oral surfaces with saliva. Salivary films are essential for maintaining oral health and regulating the oral microbiome. Saliva in the mouth contains a range of validated and potential disease biomarkers derived from epithelial cells, neutrophils, the microbiome, gingival crevicular fluid and serum. For example, cortisol levels are used in the assessment of stress, matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 appear to be promising markers of caries and periodontal disease, and a panel of mRNA and proteins has been proposed as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which components enter

  15. Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Promote Formation of the Ex Vivo Niche for Salivary Gland Epithelial Cell Growth, Matrix Formation, and Retention of Differentiated Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin-Xian; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Lin, Alan L.; Wang, Hanzhou; Pilia, Marcello; Ong, Joo L.; Dean, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction often results from a number of causes, including the use of various medications, radiation for head and neck tumors, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and aging. Since treatments for this condition are lacking and adult salivary glands have little regenerative capacity, there is a need for cell-based therapies to restore salivary gland function. Development of these treatment strategies requires the establishment of a system that is capable of replicating the salivary gland cell “niche” to support the proliferation and differentiation of salivary gland progenitor cells. In this study, a culture system using three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds (SFS) and primary salivary gland epithelial cells (pSGECs) from rat submandibular (SM) gland and parotid gland (PG) was established and characterized. pSGECs grown on SFS, but not tissue culture plastic (TCP), formed aggregates of cells with morphological features resembling secretory acini. High levels of amylase were released into the media by both cell types after extended periods in culture on SFS. Remarkably, cultures of PG-derived cells on SFS, but not SM cells, responded to isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, with increased enzyme release. This behavior mimics that of the salivary glands in vivo. Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) formed by pSGECs in culture on SFS contained type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. These results demonstrate that pSGECs grown on SFS, but not TCP, retain important functional and structural features of differentiated salivary glands and produce an ECM that mimics the native salivary gland cell niche. These results demonstrate that SFS has potential as a scaffold for creating the salivary gland cell niche in vitro and may provide an approach for inducing multipotent stem cells to provide therapeutically meaningful numbers of salivary gland progenitor cells for regenerating these tissues in patients. PMID:25625623

  16. Radiation-Induced Loss of Salivary Gland Function Is Driven by Cellular Senescence and Prevented by IL6 Modulation.

    PubMed

    Marmary, Yitzhak; Adar, Revital; Gaska, Svetlana; Wygoda, Annette; Maly, Alexander; Cohen, Jonathan; Eliashar, Ron; Mizrachi, Lina; Orfaig-Geva, Carmit; Baum, Bruce J; Rose-John, Stefan; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H

    2016-03-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated by radiation commonly suffer from a devastating side effect known as dry-mouth syndrome, which results from the irreversible loss of salivary gland function via mechanisms that are not completely understood. In this study, we used a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction to investigate the outcomes of DNA damage in the head and neck region. We demonstrate that the loss of salivary function was closely accompanied by cellular senescence, as evidenced by a persistent DNA damage response (γH2AX and 53BP1) and the expression of senescence-associated markers (SA-βgal, p19ARF, and DcR2) and secretory phenotype (SASP) factors (PAI-1 and IL6). Notably, profound apoptosis or necrosis was not observed in irradiated regions. Signs of cellular senescence were also apparent in irradiated salivary glands surgically resected from human patients who underwent radiotherapy. Importantly, using IL6 knockout mice, we found that sustained expression of IL6 in the salivary gland long after initiation of radiation-induced DNA damage was required for both senescence and hypofunction. Additionally, we demonstrate that IL6 pretreatment prevented both senescence and salivary gland hypofunction via a mechanism involving enhanced DNA damage repair. Collectively, these results indicate that cellular senescence is a fundamental mechanism driving radiation-induced damage in the salivary gland and suggest that IL6 pretreatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to preserve salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:26759233

  17. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Proteomes of Two Glossina Species that Exhibit Differential Hytrosavirus Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Kariithi, Henry M.; İnce, İkbal Agah; Boeren, Sjef; Murungi, Edwin K.; Meki, Irene K.; Otieno, Everlyne A.; Nyanjom, Steven R. G.; van Oers, Monique M.; Vlak, Just M.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) is a dsDNA virus exclusively pathogenic to tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae). The 190 kb GpSGHV genome contains 160 open reading frames and encodes more than 60 confirmed proteins. The asymptomatic GpSGHV infection in flies can convert to symptomatic infection that is characterized by overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). Flies with SGH show reduced general fitness and reproductive dysfunction. Although the occurrence of SGH is an exception rather than the rule, G. pallidipes is thought to be the most susceptible to expression of overt SGH symptoms compared to other Glossina species that are largely asymptomatic. Although Glossina salivary glands (SGs) play an essential role in GpSGHV transmission, the functions of the salivary components during the virus infection are poorly understood. In this study, we used mass spectrometry to study SG proteomes of G. pallidipes and G. m. morsitans, two Glossina model species that exhibit differential GpSGHV pathologies (high and low incidence of SGH, respectively). A total of 540 host proteins were identified, of which 23 and 9 proteins were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, in G. pallidipes compared to G. m. morsitans. Whereas 58 GpSGHV proteins were detected in G. pallidipes F1 progenies, only 5 viral proteins were detected in G. m. morsitans. Unlike in G. pallidipes, qPCR assay did not show any significant increase in virus titers in G. m. morsitans F1 progenies, confirming that G. m. morsitans is less susceptible to GpSGHV infection and replication compared to G. pallidipes. Based on our results, we speculate that in the case of G. pallidipes, GpSGHV employs a repertoire of host intracellular signaling pathways for successful infection. In the case of G. m. morsitans, antiviral responses appeared to be dominant. These results are useful for designing additional tools to investigate the Glossina-GpSGHV interactions

  18. The role of postoperative radiation therapy in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, M. Kara; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Eisele, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of postoperative radiation therapy on the clinical course of patients with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 63 patients were treated with definitive surgery for carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. Forty patients (63%) received postoperative radiation therapy to a median dose of 60 Gy (range, 45-71 Gy). Adenocarcinoma (29 patients), salivary duct carcinoma (16 patients), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (9 patients) were the most common malignant subtypes. Pathologic T -stage was: 16% T1, 33% T2, 32% T3, and 19% T4. Twenty-one patients (33%) had microscopically positive margins and 39 (62%) had perineural invasion. Median follow-up was 50 months (range, 2-96 months). Results: The use of postoperative therapy significantly improved 5-year local control from 49% to 75% (p = 0.005) and was associated with an improvement in survival among patients without evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (p = 0.01). A Cox proportional hazard model identified pathologic involvement of cervical lymph nodes as an independent predictor of overall survival. Overall survival was 16% for patients with pathologic N-positive disease compared with 67% for those whose lymph node status was negative or unknown (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Surgery followed by postoperative radiation should be considered the standard of care for patients with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  19. Bone marrow-derived cells rescue salivary gland function in mice with head and neck irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Yoshinori; Liu, Younan; Khalili, Saeed; Maria, Ola M.; Xia, Dengsheng; Key, Sharon; Cotrim, Ana P.; Mezey, Eva; Tran, Simon D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands (SGs), which is accompanied by a loss of fluid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. While there are currently no adequate conventional treatments for this condition, cell-based therapies are receiving increasing attention to regenerate SGs. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can differentiate into salivary epithelial cells and restore SG function in head and neck irradiated mice. BMDCs from male mice were transplanted into the tail-vein of 18 Gy-irradiated female mice. Salivary output was increased in mice that received BMDCs transplantation at week 8 and 24 post-irradiation. At 24 weeks after irradiation (IR), harvested SGs (submandibular and parotid glands) of BMDC-treated mice had greater weights than those of non-treated mice. Histological analysis shows that SGs of treated mice demonstrated an increased level of tissue regenerative activity such as blood vessel formation and cell proliferation, while apoptotic activity was increased in non-transplanted mice. The expression of stem cell markers (Sca-1 or c-kit) was detected in BMDC-treated SGs. Finally, we detected an increased ratio of acinar-cell area and approximately 9% of Y-chromosome-positive (donor-derived) salivary epithelial cells in BMDC-treated mice. We propose here that cell therapy using BMDCs can rescue the functional damage of irradiated SGs by direct differentiation of donor BMDCs into salivary epithelial cells. PMID:20933096

  20. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  1. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6–NTRK3 fusion

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Tuttle, R Michael; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    ETV6–NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47–72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6–NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated

  2. Shear Wave Elastography: A New Noninvasive Tool to Assess the Intensity of Fibrosis of Irradiated Salivary Glands in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kałużny, Jarosław; Kopeć, Tomasz; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Stangierski, Adam; Gurgul, Edyta; Ruchała, Marek; Milecki, Piotr; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess salivary gland parenchyma by means of sonoelastography in patients irradiated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The studied group consisted of 52 patients after radiotherapy (RT) and 54 healthy volunteers. All of the former were treated for advanced larynx (40), oropharynx (9), or maxilla (3) squamous cancers and suffered from chronic dryness. Ultrasonography (US) and elastography (ES) were performed, as well as an assessment of the amount of saliva and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) scale. There was a statistical difference between ES values in the RT group and in the controls for parotid glands (41.7 kPa versus 26.03 kPa, P = 0.0018) and for submandibular glands (37.6 kPa versus 22.4 kPa; P = 0.005). There was a significant correlation between the CTCAE scores and objective saliva amount (P = 0.0005), and the median amount of saliva in the examined group was lower than in the reference group (1.86 g versus 2.75 g, P = 0.0006). In conclusion sonoelastography adds a new parameter to ultrasonography in “one touch examination” and may be a useful tool for major salivary gland evaluation during the radiotherapy course and follow-up period. PMID:25202703

  3. Defects and rescue of the minor salivary glands in Eda pathway mutants.

    PubMed

    Wells, K L; Mou, C; Headon, D J; Tucker, A S

    2011-01-15

    Despite their importance to oral health, the mechanisms of minor salivary gland (SG) development are largely unexplored. Here we present in vivo and in vitro analyses of developing minor SGs in wild type and mutant mice. Eda, Shh and Fgf signalling pathway genes are expressed in these glands from an early stage of development. Developing minor SGs are absent in Eda pathway mutant embryos, and these mice exhibit a dysplastic circumvallate papilla with disrupted Shh expression. Supplementation of Eda pathway mutant minor SG explants with recombinant EDA rescues minor SG induction. Supplementation with Fgf8 or Shh, previously reported targets of Eda signalling, leads to induction of gland like structures in a few cases, but these fail to develop into minor SGs. PMID:20969842

  4. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland with rare metastasis to the sternum in a 52-year-old male

    PubMed Central

    Alshammari, Abdullah; Eldeib, Omar Jamal; Eldeib, Ahmed Jamal; Saleh, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor, described as being one of the most biologically destructive tumors of the head and neck. It is the most common malignancy that affects the minor salivary glands. Lung and bones are the most common regions of ACC distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, herein, we report the first ever case of latent isolated sternal metastasis from ACC in a 52-year-old gentleman, who was diagnosed to have ACC of the submandibular gland, excised 10 years ago. PMID:26933463

  5. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Gland Arising de novo in the Parapharyngeal Space- A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Laturiya, Rahul; Kasim, Jendi Shoeb; Jankar, Ajit Suryakant; Mohiuddin, Syed Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumours are rare. Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest salivary gland tumour that is found in this space. This tumour may arise in the deep lobe of parotid gland and extend into the parapharyngeal space or may arise de novo from the aberrant minor salivary glands in parapharyngeal space. The latter entity is an extremely rare finding. CT scan and fine-needle aspiration cytology form the important diagnostic tools in case of these tumours. Surgery is the mainstay for the treatment of these tumours. The strategic location and also the extension of these tumours may at times demand to alter the surgical procedure for their excision. This article presents a case of a 27-year-old female, who presented with a mass in the right submandibular region that was excised successfully using transcervical approach in conjunction with transoral approach without mandibulotomy. The biopsy report suggested it to be "pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland". PMID:27135010

  6. A comparative study of salivary secretion by parotid and mandibular glands of anaesthetized Capra hircus: effect of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Castellano, C; Moreno, M; Raggi, L A; Martinez de Victoria, E; Mataix, F J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of basal secretion and the effect of the infusion of pilocarpine on the flow and composition of saliva in the parotid and mandibular glands of the anaesthetized lactating goat. In the parotid gland there was a basal flow (1.6 +/- 0.29 microliter/min) which was not present in the mandibular gland. There is a statistically significant dose-effect relationship between pilocarpine and salivary flow in both glands. Salival composition and its variation with respect to the flow of saliva did not conform to either of the two glands to an exclusive monogastric or ruminant model. PMID:2879688

  7. Redistribution of Gαs in Mouse Salivary Glands Following β-Adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Arthur R.; Elder, Kareen O.; Norris, Rachael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Signaling via β-adrenergic receptors activates heterotrimeric G-proteins, which dissociate into α and βγ subunits. In salivary glands, the α subunit of Gs stimulates adenylate cyclase, increasing cyclic AMP levels and promoting exocytosis. The goals of this study were to determine Gαs localization in salivary glands and whether it undergoes redistribution upon activation. Methods Mouse parotid and submandibular (SMG) glands were fixed with paraformaldehyde and prepared for immunofluorescence labeling with anti-Gαs. Results In unstimulated parotid and SMG acinar cells, Gαs was localized mainly to basolateral membranes. Some parotid acinar cells also exhibited cytoplasmic fluorescence. Isoproterenol (IPR) stimulation resulted in decreased membrane fluorescence and increased cytoplasmic fluorescence, which appeared relatively uniform by 30 min. Beginning about 2 hr after IPR, cytoplasmic fluorescence decreased and membrane fluorescence increased, approaching unstimulated levels in SMG acini by 4 hr. Some parotid acini exhibited cytoplasmic fluorescence up to 8 hr after IPR. The IPR-induced redistribution of Gαs was prevented (SMG) or reduced (parotid) by prior injection of propranolol. Striated duct cells of unstimulated mice exhibited general cytoplasmic fluorescence, which was unchanged after IPR. Conclusions Gαs is localized to basolateral membranes of unstimulated salivary acinar cells. Activation of Gαs causes its release from the cell membrane and movement into the cytoplasm. Reassociation of Gαs with the membrane begins about 2 hr after stimulation in the SMG, but complete reassociation takes several hours in the parotid gland. The presence of Gαs in striated duct cells suggests a role in signal transduction of secretion and/or electrolyte transport processes. PMID:25748393

  8. Physical, Chemical, and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Damage to Salivary Glands in a Model of Intoxication with Aluminium Citrate

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Natacha M. M.; Correa, Russell S.; Júnior, Ismael S. M.; Figueiredo, Adilson J. R.; Vilhena, Kelly F. B.; Farias-Junior, Paulo M. A.; Teixeira, Francisco B.; Ferreira, Nayana M. M.; Pereira-Júnior, João B.; Dantas, Kelly das Graças F.; da Silva, Marcia C. F.; Silva-Junior, Ademir F.; Alves-Junior, Sergio de M.; Pinheiro, João de Jesus V.; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in a model of chronic intoxication with aluminum citrate in rats. Aluminum deposits were observed in the parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cytokeratin-18 revealed a decreased expression in the parotid gland with no changes in the submandibular gland. A decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the myoepithelial cells of both glands. The expression of metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II), a group of metal-binding proteins, which are useful indicators for detecting physiological responses to metal exposure, was higher in both glands. In conclusion, we have shown that at a certain time and quantity of dosage, aluminum citrate promotes aluminum deposition in the parotid and submandibular glands, leads to an increased expression of MT-I/II in both the glands, damages the cytoskeleton of the myoepithelial cells in both glands, and damages the cytoskeleton of the acinar/ductal cells of the parotid glands, with the submandibular glands showing resistance to the toxicity of the latter. PMID:25464135

  9. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  10. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma. The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement. The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma. This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement. PMID:27149501

  11. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement. PMID:27149501

  12. Targeted Expression of GLI1 in the Salivary Glands Results in an Altered Differentiation Program and Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi, Marie; Kolterud, Åsa; Nilsson, Mats; Toftgård, Rune; Rozell, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is a regulator of salivary gland morphogenesis, but its role in postnatal glands has only recently begun to be addressed. To examine the effects of deregulated Hh signaling in the salivary gland, we expressed the Hh effector protein GLI1, in salivary epithelial cells using both cytokeratin 5 and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) transgenic systems. Ectopic pathway activation resulted in restrained acinar differentiation, formation of cystic lesions, and prominent appearance of ductal structures. Moreover, induced expression of GLI1 aids the formation of hyperplastic lesions, which closely resemble GLI1-induced changes in murine skin and mammary glands, suggesting that GLI1 targets cells with similar characteristics in different tissues. Furthermore, GLI1-expressing salivary epithelial cells are actively dividing, and GLI1-induced lesions are proliferative, an incident accompanied by enhanced expression of the Hh target genes, cyclin D1, and Snail. GLI1-induced salivary lesions regress after transgene withdrawal and become histologically normalized. Taken together, our data reveal the ability of GLI1 to modulate salivary acinar differentiation and to promote proliferation of ductal epithelial cells. PMID:21933656

  13. Localization of sodium pump sites in cat salivary glands.

    PubMed Central

    Bundgaard, M; Møller, M; Poulsen, J H

    1977-01-01

    1. Cat submandibular glands were perfused with Locke solution containing [3H]ouabain. In some experiments additional medium was given by retrograde intraductal injection. 2. [3H]ouabain binding sites were localized by light microscopical autoradiography and the findings compared with the electron micrographs. 3. The cells of the striated ducts were heavily labelled with [3H]ouabain, predominantly in the contraluminal parts. 4. At the acinar level moderate amounts of [3H]ouabain were found in relation to the plasma membranes of the demilunar cells. The central acinar cells were found to be virtually devoid of [3H]ouabain. 5. Electron microscopy revealed that the demilunar cells possessed long, tortuous intercellular spaces separated from the secretory canaliculi by junctional complexes. In contrast, the membranes between adjacent central acinar cells were fairly straight. 6. It is concluded that the striated ducts play a dominant role in the ductal reabsorption of sodium, and that the transport is probably mediated by a (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase. The findings on the acinar level are in agreement with the view that the primary saliva is formed predominantly by the demilunar cells. The role of a (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase in this process is unclear. Images A B A B Plate 3 PMID:146078

  14. Distinctive Patterns of CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Alterations in Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jo, Vickie Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland basaloid neoplasms are diagnostically challenging. Limited publications report that some basal cell adenomas harbor CTNNB1 mutations, and nuclear β-catenin expression is prevalent. We evaluated β-catenin expression in basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas in comparison with salivary tumors in the differential diagnosis and performed targeted genetic analysis on a subset of cases. β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole sections from 73 tumors. Nuclear staining was scored semiquantitatively by extent and intensity. DNA was extracted from 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (5 basal cell adenomas, 1 basal cell adenocarcinoma) for next-generation sequencing. Nuclear β-catenin staining was present in 18/22 (82%) basal cell adenomas; most were diffuse and strong and predominant in the basal component. Two of 3 basal cell adenocarcinomas were positive (1 moderate focal; 1 moderate multifocal). All adenoid cystic carcinomas (0/20) and pleomorphic adenomas (0/20) were negative; 2/8 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas showed focal nuclear staining. Most β-catenin-negative tumors showed diffuse membranous staining in the absence of nuclear staining. Four of 5 basal cell adenomas had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations, all c.104T>C (p.I35T). Basal cell adenocarcinoma showed a more complex genomic profile, with activating mutations in PIK3CA, biallelic inactivation of NFKBIA, focal CYLD deletion, and without CTNNB1 mutation despite focal β-catenin expression. Nuclear β-catenin expression has moderate sensitivity (82%) for basal cell adenoma but high specificity (96%) in comparison with its morphologic mimics. CTNNB1 mutation was confirmed in most basal cell adenomas tested, and findings in basal cell adenocarcinoma suggest possible tumorigenic mechanisms, including alterations in PI3K and NF-κB pathways and transcriptional regulation. PMID:27259009

  15. MicroRNA Expression Profiles as Biomarkers of Minor Salivary Gland Inflammation and Dysfunction in Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alevizos, Ilias; Alexander, Stefanie; Turner, R. James; Illei, Gabor G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA reflect physiologic and pathologic processes and may be used as biomarkers of concurrent pathophysiologic events in complex settings such as autoimmune diseases. We generated microRNA microarray profiles from the minor salivary glands of control subjects without Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and patients with SS who had low-grade or high-grade inflammation and impaired or normal saliva production, to identify microRNA patterns specific to salivary gland inflammation or dysfunction. Methods MicroRNA expression profiles were generated by Agilent microRNA arrays. We developed a novel method for data normalization by identifying housekeeping microRNA. MicroRNA profiles were compared by unsupervised mathematical methods to test how well they distinguish between control subjects and various subsets of patients with SS. Several bioinformatics methods were used to predict the messenger RNA targets of the differentially expressed microRNA. Results MicroRNA expression patterns accurately distinguished salivary glands from control subjects and patients with SS who had low-degree or high-degree inflammation. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we validated 2 microRNA as markers of inflammation in an independent cohort. Comparing microRNA from patients with preserved or low salivary flow identified a set of differentially expressed microRNA, most of which were up-regulated in the group with decreased salivary gland function, suggesting that the targets of microRNA may have a protective effect on epithelial cells. The predicted biologic targets of microRNA associated with inflammation or salivary gland dysfunction identified both overlapping and distinct biologic pathways and processes. Conclusion Distinct microRNA expression patterns are associated with salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in patients with SS, and microRNA represent a novel group of potential biomarkers. PMID:21280008

  16. Distinct properties of proteases and nucleases in the gut, salivary gland and saliva of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula

    PubMed Central

    Lomate, Purushottam R.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2016-01-01

    Stink bugs negatively impact numerous plant species of agricultural and horticultural importance. While efforts to develop effective control measures are underway, the unique digestive physiology of these pests presents a significant hurdle for either protein- or nucleotide-based management options. Here we report the comparative biochemical and proteomic characterization of proteases and nucleases from the gut, salivary gland and saliva of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula. The pH optimum for protease activity was acidic (5 to 6) in the gut with the primary proteases being cysteine proteases, and alkaline (8 to 9) in the saliva and salivary gland with the primary proteases being serine proteases. The serine proteases in saliva differ biochemically from trypsin and chymotrypsin, and the cathepsins in the gut and saliva showed distinct properties in inhibitor assays. Nuclease activity (DNase, RNase, dsRNase) was concentrated in the salivary gland and saliva with negligible activity in the gut. The most abundant proteins of the gut (530) and salivary gland (631) identified by proteomic analysis included four gut proteases along with eight proteases and one nuclease from the salivary gland. Understanding of N. viridula digestive physiology will facilitate the design of new strategies for management of this significant pest. PMID:27282882

  17. Distinct properties of proteases and nucleases in the gut, salivary gland and saliva of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula.

    PubMed

    Lomate, Purushottam R; Bonning, Bryony C

    2016-01-01

    Stink bugs negatively impact numerous plant species of agricultural and horticultural importance. While efforts to develop effective control measures are underway, the unique digestive physiology of these pests presents a significant hurdle for either protein- or nucleotide-based management options. Here we report the comparative biochemical and proteomic characterization of proteases and nucleases from the gut, salivary gland and saliva of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula. The pH optimum for protease activity was acidic (5 to 6) in the gut with the primary proteases being cysteine proteases, and alkaline (8 to 9) in the saliva and salivary gland with the primary proteases being serine proteases. The serine proteases in saliva differ biochemically from trypsin and chymotrypsin, and the cathepsins in the gut and saliva showed distinct properties in inhibitor assays. Nuclease activity (DNase, RNase, dsRNase) was concentrated in the salivary gland and saliva with negligible activity in the gut. The most abundant proteins of the gut (530) and salivary gland (631) identified by proteomic analysis included four gut proteases along with eight proteases and one nuclease from the salivary gland. Understanding of N. viridula digestive physiology will facilitate the design of new strategies for management of this significant pest. PMID:27282882

  18. Plasmacytoid myoepithelioma of minor salivary glands: report of case with emphasis in the immunohistochemical findings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Myoepithelioma is a rare benign tumor of the salivary glands and is usually seen in the parotid gland and the minor salivary glands. It was once considered to be a type of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), but myoepitheliomas are today believed to be relatively aggressive tumors. Myoepitheliomas are most common in young adults between the ages of 30 and 50 and there are very few cases reported in individuals less than 18 years of age. We report a case of myoepithelioma located in the hard palate in a 15-year-old Brazilian male. The tumor was composed of plasmacytoid myoepithelial cells. An analysis of the immunohistochemical profile of the tumor cells showed positivity for vimentin, S-100 protein, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), but not for smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and cytokeratin 14 (CK14). We report this case because of the rarity of this tumor, especially in adolescents. We also discuss the histological parameters of the differential diagnosis of this tumor as well as its immunohistochemical profile. PMID:22152025

  19. Polyethylenimine-mediated expression of transgenes in the acinar cells of rats salivary glands in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Wigand, Timothy; Aye, Myo-Pale'; Shitara, Akiko; Weigert, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Non viral-mediated transfection of plasmid DNA provides a fast and reliable way to express various transgenes in selected cell populations in live animals. Here, we show an improvement of a previously published method that is based on injecting plasmid DNA into the ductal system of the salivary glands in live rats. Specifically, using complexes between plasmid DNA and polyethyleneimine (PEI) we show that the expression of the transgenes is directed selectively to the salivary acinar cells. PEI does not affect the ability of cells to undergo regulated exocytosis, which was one of the main drawbacks of the previous methods. Moreover PEI does not affect the proper localization and targeting of transfected proteins, as shown for the apical plasma membrane water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5). Overall, this approach, coupled with the use of intravital microscopy, permits to conduct localization and functional studies under physiological conditions, in a rapid, reliable, and affordable fashion. PMID:25621283

  20. [Salivary glands secretory activity in patients with terminal chronic renal insufficiency on programmed dialysis].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, V V; Vavilova, T P; Osokin, M V; Pushkina, A V

    2006-01-01

    Saliva secretion speed and some biochemical mixed saliva characteristics were studied in patients with a terminal stage of chronic renal insufficiency. There was reduction of salivary function by more than 2 times and an increase of urea and creatinine concentrations in mixed saliva before the dialysis start. In case of higher urea content in saliva the speed of salivation was the highest that could evidence for an adequate response of the salivary glands to toxic action of nitrogen metabolism end products. The function restoration after hemodialysis took place not in all the patients. Amino acid catabolism product concentration in mixed saliva fell after hemodialysis and correlated directly with the amount of urea and creatinine in blood plasma. It took place also in "urea ricochet" when its content in blood increased sharply 1 hour after hemodialysis due to urea washout from the tissues. PMID:17159840

  1. Secretion and fluid transport mechanisms in the mammary gland: comparisons with the exocrine pancreas and the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    McManaman, James L; Reyland, Mary E; Thrower, Edwin C

    2006-10-01

    Milk is a complex fluid composed of proteins, sugars, lipids and minerals, in addition to a wide variety of bioactive molecules including vitamins, trace elements and growth factors. The composition of these components reflects the integrated activities of distinct synthetic, secretion and transport processes found in mammary epithelial cells, and mirrors the differing nutritional and developmental requirements of mammalian neonates. Five general pathways have been described for secretion of milk components. With the exception of lipids, which are secreted a unique pathway, milk components are thought to be secreted by adaptations of pathways found in other secretory organs. However little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that constitute these pathways or the physiological mechanisms by which they are regulated. Comparisons of current secretion and transport models in the mammary gland, exocrine pancreas and salivary gland indicate that significant differences exist between the mammary gland and other exocrine organs in how proteins and lipids are packaged and secreted, and how fluid is transported. PMID:17136613

  2. Expression of Neuropilin-2 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma: its implication in tumor progression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yu; Wang, Rong; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Jia, Jun; Sun, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Xin-Ming

    2010-12-15

    Neuropilin-2(Nrp2), which is a nontyrosine kinase transmembrane glycoprotein, can promote angiogenesis and is a poor prognostic factor in some human cancers. In the present study, to explore the expression and potential function of Nrp2 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC), immunohistochemistry was used to examine the Nrp2 expression in 50 SACCs and 20 normal salivary gland tissues nearby SACCs. The result showed that immunoreactivity for Nrp2 was detected in 47 of 50 SACCs, and its expression level had significant correlations with microvessel density, tumor size, TMN clinical stage, vascular invasion, and metastasis (P<0.05) of SACCs. In addition, inhibition of Nrp2 function by the receptor-ligand interaction-blocking antibody decreased cell migration, invasion, and angiogenic promotion without influences on the cell proliferation of Acc-3 cells. Taken together, the expression of Nrp2 protein is significantly correlated with tumor progression and angiogenesis in SACCs. These results suggest that Nrp2 may be a potential therapeutic target for SACCs. PMID:20851535

  3. Ultrastructural changes in the sublingual salivary gland of prenatal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. D.; Singh, Opinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate ultrastructural changes in the development of sublingual salivary gland of buffalo during prenatal life. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sublingual salivary gland of 36 buffalo fetuses ranging from 13.2 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (88th day) to full term. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: The cells lining the terminal tubules were undifferentiated with poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles but lacked secretory granules (SGs) at 13.2 cm CVRL (88th day). The SGs appeared first in the form of membrane-bound secretory vesicles with homogeneous electron-dense as well as electron-lucent contents at 21.2 cm CVRL (122nd day); however, mucous acinar cells contained electron-lucent granules, while serous secretory cells as well as serous demilunes showed electron-dense granules at 34 cm CVRL (150th day) of prenatal life. At 53.5 cm CVRL (194th day), both mucous and serous acini were differentiated by the density of SGs. Conclusion: The cytoplasm of acinar cells was filled with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi profiles in mid and late fetal age groups. The SGs were increased in number during the late fetal age group. The myoepithelial cells (MECs) were located at the base of the acinar cells as well as intercalated and striated ducts and were stellate in shape. The ultrastructure of MEC revealed a parallel stream of myofilaments in the cytoplasm and its processes. The mucous cells were predominantly present in the sublingual salivary gland and were pyramidal in shape. PMID:27057120

  4. Midgut and salivary gland transcriptomes of the arbovirus vector Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, C L; Vandyke, K A; Letchworth, G J; Drolet, B S; Hanekamp, T; Wilson, W C

    2005-04-01

    Numerous Culicoides spp. are important vectors of livestock or human disease pathogens. Transcriptome information from midguts and salivary glands of adult female Culicoides sonorensis provides new insight into vector biology. Of 1719 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from adult serum-fed female midguts harvested within 5 h of feeding, twenty-eight clusters of serine proteases were derived. Four clusters encode putative iron binding proteins (FER1, FERL, PXDL1, PXDL2), and two clusters encode metalloendopeptidases (MDP6C, MDP6D) that probably function in bloodmeal catabolism. In addition, a diverse variety of housekeeping cDNAs were identified. Selected midgut protease transcripts were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR): TRY1_115 and MDP6C mRNAs were induced in adult female midguts upon feeding, whereas TRY1_156 and CHYM1 were abundant in midguts both before and immediately after feeding. Of 708 salivary gland ESTs analysed, clusters representing two new classes of protein families were identified: a new class of D7 proteins and a new class of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors. Additional cDNAs representing putative immunomodulatory proteins were also identified: 5' nucleotidases, antigen 5-related proteins, a hyaluronidase, a platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, mucins and several immune response cDNAs. Analysis by q-PCR showed that all D7 and Kunitz domain transcripts tested were highly enriched in female heads compared with other tissues and were generally absent from males. The mRNAs of two additional protease inhibitors, TFPI1 and TFPI2, were detected in salivary glands of paraffin-embedded females by in situ hybridization. PMID:15796745

  5. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Tara A. van de; Lomax, Antony J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Hug, Eugen B.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality

  6. Follicular lymphoma in the palate with clinical appearance similar to salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marina de Deus Moura; Artico, Gabriela; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Alves, Fabio Abreu

    2010-09-01

    Intraoral presentation of follicular lymphoma is rare, and only three cases in the palate have been reported to date. The present case report describes an uncommon case of follicular lymphoma affecting the palate. The clinical aspect was similar to salivary gland neoplasm, and an incisional biopsy was important to establish the correct diagnosis and consequently to plan the treatment. Also discussed is the differential diagnosis among follicular lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and follicular lymphoid hyperplasia with regard to the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features. PMID:20657855

  7. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Gland Arising de novo in the Parapharyngeal Space- A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Jendi Shoeb; Jankar, Ajit Suryakant; Mohiuddin, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumours are rare. Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest salivary gland tumour that is found in this space. This tumour may arise in the deep lobe of parotid gland and extend into the parapharyngeal space or may arise de novo from the aberrant minor salivary glands in parapharyngeal space. The latter entity is an extremely rare finding. CT scan and fine-needle aspiration cytology form the important diagnostic tools in case of these tumours. Surgery is the mainstay for the treatment of these tumours. The strategic location and also the extension of these tumours may at times demand to alter the surgical procedure for their excision. This article presents a case of a 27-year-old female, who presented with a mass in the right submandibular region that was excised successfully using transcervical approach in conjunction with transoral approach without mandibulotomy. The biopsy report suggested it to be “pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland”. PMID:27135010

  8. MOLECULAR CLONING OF TRYPSIN-LIKE CDNAS AND COMPARISON OF PROTEINASE ACTIVITIES IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS AND GUT OF THE TARNISHED PLANT BUG LYGUS LINEOLARIS (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using specific proteinase inhibitors, we demonstrated that serine proteinases in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, are major proteinases in both salivary glands and gut tissues. Gut proteinases were less sensitive to inhibition than proteinases from the salivary glands. Up to 80% azocaseina...

  9. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  10. An unusual case of exclusive liver metastases from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland: a role for surgery? Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Genoveffa; Sagnotta, Andrea; Muroni, Mirko; Cacchi, Claudio; D'Amato, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare tumor of the salivary glands, accounting for approximately 5%-10% of all salivary gland tumors. An important feature of ACCs is the long clinical course with a high rate of distant metastases, with an incidence of more than 40% for ACC of submandibular glands. The preferential sites of metastases are the lung and bone, followed by the brain and liver. Most liver metastases are derived from nonparotid ACCs, and the presentation is often related to local recurrence or metastases to other organs. We herein report the case of a patient with liver metastases treated by a hepatectomy, which occurred 18 months after the primary resection of an ACC of the submandibular gland. We furthermore review the literature concerning the management of these tumors. PMID:21431502

  11. Lipomatous salivary gland tumors: a series of 31 cases spanning their morphologic spectrum with emphasis on sialolipoma and oncocytic lipoadenoma.

    PubMed

    Agaimy, Abbas; Ihrler, Stephan; Märkl, Bruno; Lell, Michael; Zenk, Johannes; Hartmann, Arndt; Michal, Michal; Skalova, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Lipomatous neoplasms of the salivary glands are rare. Their wide histologic spectrum has not been sufficiently studied. We collected 31 fat-containing salivary gland lesions excluding pleomorphic adenoma and myoepithelioma with lipometaplasia. There were 19 male and 12 female patients aged 7 to 89 years (mean, 53 y). Tumors originated in the parotid (n=29) and the submandibular (n=2) gland. On the basis of the proportion and distribution of adipose tissue and the epithelial type, tumors could be categorized into 3 main groups: ordinary lipoma (n=20) identical to soft tissue lipoma but located within the salivary gland, oncocytic lipoadenoma (n=6) composed predominantly of oncocytes with variable fatty component, nononcocytic sialolipoma (n=4) composed of lobular fatty tissue (≥70%) with evenly distributed normal salivary tissue recapitulating the composition of normal salivary glands and microcystic lipoadenoma (n=1) composed of cystic ducts admixed with adipose tissue. The mean tumor size was 3.3, 3.8, and 2.9 cm for lipoma, oncocytic lipoadenoma, and nononcocytic sialolipoma, respectively. Associated diseases included Madelung disease with bilateral atypical lipomatous tumors of the neck and bilateral parotid lipoma (1), oncocytic lipoadenoma after irradiation for sinonasal adenocarcinoma (1), and periparotideal lipoma excised years before oncocytic lipoadenoma (1) and nononcocytic sialolipoma (1). No recurrence was recorded at a mean follow-up of 72 months (range, 6 to 184 mo). Sebaceous islands were seen in 5/6 oncocytic lipoadenomas and in 2/4 sialolipomas. Periductal inflammation/fibrosis was common in sialolipoma and oncocytic lipoadenoma. This study demonstrates the wide morphologic spectrum of fatty salivary gland lesions. Oncocytic lipoadenoma is an epithelial-predominant tumor that is distinct from the fat-dominated nononcocytic sialolipoma, but the 2 types seem to merge in some cases. PMID:23232852

  12. AQP and the control of fluid transport in a salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Murakami, M; Murdiastuti, K; Hosoi, K; Hill, A E

    2006-03-01

    Experiments were performed with the perfused rat submandibular gland in vitro to investigate the nature of the coupling between transported salt and water by varying the osmolarity of the source bath and observing the changes in secretory volume flow. Glands were submitted to hypertonic step changes by changing the saline perfusate to one containing different levels of sucrose. The flow rate responded by falling to a lower value, establishing a new steady-state flow. The rate changes did not correspond to those expected from a system in which fluid production is due to simple osmotic equilibration, but were much larger. The changes were fitted to a model in which fluid production is largely paracellular, the rate of which is controlled by an osmosensor system in the basal membrane. The same experiments were done with glands from rats that had been bred to have very low levels of AQP5 (the principal aquaporin of the salivary acinar cell) in which little AQP5 is expressed at the basal membrane. In these rats, salivary secretion rates after hypertonic challenges were small and best modelled by simple osmotic equilibration. In rats which had intermediate AQP5 levels the changes in flow rate were similar to those of normal rats although their AQP5 levels were reduced.Finally, perfused normal glands were subject to retrograde ductal injection of salines containing different levels of Hg(2+) ions (0, 10 and 100 microM: ) which would act as inhibitors of AQP5 at the apical acinar membrane. The overall flow rates were progressively diminished with rising Hg(2+) concentration, but after hypertonic challenge the changes in flow rates were unchanged and similar to those of normal rats. All these results are difficult to explain by a cellular osmotic model but can be explained by a model in which paracellular flow is controlled by an osmosensor (presumably AQP5) present on the basal membrane. PMID:16868676

  13. Effect of Leflunomide, Cidofovir and Ciprofloxacin on Replication of BKPyV in a Salivary Gland In Vitro Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, Liesl K; Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a known kidney tropic virus that has been detected at high levels in HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), one of the most important AIDS associated oral lesions. BKPyV has been detected in HIV-SGD patient saliva and replicates in salivary gland cells in vitro. BKPyV antivirals are currently in wide use to guard against BKPyV mediated organ rejection in kidney transplant recipients. The goal of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of three such antiviral agents, ciprofloxacin, cidofovir, and leflunomide in BKPyV infected salivary gland cells. Human salivary gland cells, and Vero cells, were infected with BKPyV, treated with antiviral drugs and assessed for BKPyV gene expression and viral replication for up to 5 days post infection. The kinetics of BKPyV replication were different in salivary gland cells compared to kidney cells. Ciprofloxacin and cidofovir had minimal effect on metabolic activity and host cell DNA replication, however, cell toxicity was detected at the protein level with leflunomide treatment. Ciprofloxacin decreased BKV T Ag and VP1 mRNA expression by at least 50% in both cell types, and decreased T Ag protein expression at days 3 and 4 post infection. A 2.5 – 4 log decrease in intracellular DNA replication and a 2 – 3 log decrease in progeny release were detected with ciprofloxacin treatment. Cidofovir and leflunomide also inhibited BKPyV gene expression and DNA replication. The three drugs diminished progeny release by 30–90% and 2 – 6 fold decreases in infectious virus were detected post drug treatment by fluorescence focus assay. Additionally, three clinical BKPyV isolates were assessed for their responses to these agents in vitro. Cidofovir and leflunomide, but not ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in statistically significant inhibition of BKPyV progeny release from salivary gland cells infected with HIV-SGD BKPyV isolates. All three drugs decreased progeny release from cells

  14. [Oxidative stress development in the tissues of salivary glands of rats in conditions of monosodium glutamate-induced obesity].

    PubMed

    Hordiienko, L P; Berehova, T V; Neporada, K S; Falalieieva, T M

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of damage of salivary glands under obesity are an insufficiently studied problem of modem medicine. On experimental model of obesity induced by monosodium glutamate, free-radical processes and antioxidant defense system were studied in the tissues of salivary glands of rats. Under experimental obesity induced by monosodium glutamate there is a significant increase of the content of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances and a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Thus, it indicates to the misbalance of prooxidant and antioxidant systems and the development of oxidative stress. PMID:25335241

  15. [Forensic medical diagnostics of chronic alcoholic intoxication based on histological changes in the soft tissues of oral cavity and salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dolzhanskiĭ, O V; Mamsurova, T S; Chertovskikh, A A

    2011-01-01

    Histological studies of oral cavity mucosa and salivary glands in subjects with chronic alcoholic intoxication revealed changes at the surface of the tongue and in the glandular tissues. Specific features of chronic alcoholic intoxication include acinar and ductal hyperplasia, reduction of the adipose tissue mass in salivary gland stroma, predominance of T-lymphocytes in hard palate minor salivary glands and B-lymphocytes in the stroma of labial minor salivary gland, the absence of plasma cells in the stroma of hard palate minor salivary glands and labial mucosa. Leukoplakia, dysplasia, and hyperplasia of the basal epithelial layer of oral cavity mucosa are considered to be the signs of long-term (over 12 months) alcohol consumption. PMID:21866840

  16. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands has a high risk of progression when the tumor invades more than 2.5 mm beyond the capsule of the residual pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rito, Miguel; Fonseca, Isabel

    2016-03-01

    Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CPA) is subclassified based on the extent of penetration of the malignant component beyond the fibrous capsule of the pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma (PA). These subclasses are considered to be prognostically significant since the non-invasive/minimally invasive groups have an excellent outcome. Nevertheless, there is no consensus as to the cutoff value to distinguish between minimal and wide invasion, even though the 2005 WHO classification defines 1.5 mm as cutoff. The objective of this study is to evaluate a consecutive series of CPA, in order to establish what the effect is of the extent of extra-capsular invasion on prognosis. Fifty-eight cases of CPA were reviewed to obtain demographic and pathological information. Extent of invasion was measured. Eleven cases were non-invasive, 9 had ≤1.5 mm invasion, and for the remainder, the depth of invasion ranged between 2.5 and >10 mm. Distant metastases or death did not occur in the first two groups. In the group with ≥2.5 mm invasion, 15 patients had progressive disease and 9 of them died. The minimum extent of invasion associated with tumor progression and death was 2.5 mm. Two histologically non-invasive carcinomas had regional lymph node metastasis. CPA with ≤1.5 mm depth of invasion has good prognosis. Nevertheless, the lymph node metastases found in two cases of this group question the concept that intracapsular/minimally invasive CPA has a prognosis similar to that of PA. The minimum extent of invasion associated with death was 2.5 mm, which is at variance with findings in other recent series. Thirteen cases with depth of invasion exceeding 2.5 mm did well, confirming that additional factors should be considered in the clinical management of these patients. PMID:26638158

  17. Synergistic effect of nanosecond pulsed electric field combined with low-dose of pingyangmycin on salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Guo, Jinsong; Wu, Shan; Su, Bo; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Jie; Zhang, Jue

    2014-05-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in salivary glands. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) combined with pingyangmycin (PYM) on salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC), ACC high metastatic cell line (SACC-LM) and low metastatic cell line (SACC‑83) were tested by CCK-8 assay, cell clonogenic assay, flow cytometry and Transwell assay. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression was tested by western blotting to verify the synergistic mechanism of nsPEF and PYM. The results showed that nsPEF inhibited the cell proliferation of both cell lines, and the inhibitory effect was strongly associated with time and electrical field strength. Moreover, PYM combined with nsPEF may enhance the suppression effect significantly, even at a very low dose (0.01 µg/ml). The synergistic effects may contribute to the downregulation of EMMPRIN expression resulting from the application of nsPEF. For SACC, nsPEF combined with chemotherapy agents may be a valuable strategy not only to improve the treatment effect and prognosis, but also to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy. PMID:24604118

  18. Salivary gland MALT lymphoma associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in a patient with Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, M; Miyajima, S; Okada, N

    2000-07-01

    We report a case of salivary gland MALT lymphoma in Sjögren's syndrome associated with localized H. pylori infection. A 76-year-old woman had a history of bilateral cheek masses for two years. Histologically, the parotid glands were invaded by numerous centrocyte-like cells to form lymphoepithelial lesions. The tumor cells showed immunohistological differentiation into B cells. Southern blotting demonstrated immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. These results indicated that the tumors were MALT lymphoma. H. pylori, as assessed by the urease test (CLO test; BML Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), was positive in the tumor specimen. After wide local excision of the tumors followed by radio therapy and oral administration of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor, no evidence of recurrence was found during the 24-months of follow up. H. pylori infection in the salivary gland is rare, although the source of infection and transmission of H. pylori organisms has been thought to be the oral cavity. We discussed the association between H. pylori infection and salivary gland MALT lymphoma. The microorganism may play a role as an additional antigenic stimulus for the development of salivary gland MALT lymphoma as well as for the development of gastric MALT lymphoma. This means that H. pylori can play a role in lymphoma progression as booster of B cell lymphoproliferation. PMID:10935342

  19. Salivary gland branching morphogenesis: a quantitative systems analysis of the Eda/Edar/NFκB paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Michael; Phair, Robert D; Lapidot, Smadar A; Jaskoll, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Background Ectodysplasin-A appears to be a critical component of branching morphogenesis. Mutations in mouse Eda or human EDA are associated with absent or hypoplastic sweat glands, sebaceous glands, lacrimal glands, salivary glands (SMGs), mammary glands and/or nipples, and mucous glands of the bronchial, esophageal and colonic mucosa. In this study, we utilized EdaTa (Tabby) mutant mice to investigate how a marked reduction in functional Eda propagates with time through a defined genetic subcircuit and to test the proposition that canonical NFκB signaling is sufficient to account for the differential expression of developmentally regulated genes in the context of Eda polymorphism. Results The quantitative systems analyses do not support the stated hypothesis. For most NFκB-regulated genes, the observed time course of gene expression is nearly unchanged in Tabby (EdaTa) as compared to wildtype mice, as is NFκB itself. Importantly, a subset of genes is dramatically differentially expressed in Tabby (Edar, Fgf8, Shh, Egf, Tgfa, Egfr), strongly suggesting the existence of an alternative Eda-mediated transcriptional pathway pivotal for SMG ontogeny. Experimental and in silico investigations have identified C/EBPα as a promising candidate. Conclusion In Tabby SMGs, upregulation of the Egf/Tgfα/Egfr pathway appears to mitigate the potentially severe abnormal phenotype predicted by the downregulation of Fgf8 and Shh. Others have suggested that the buffering of the phenotypic outcome that is coincident with variant Eda signaling could be a common mechanism that permits viable and diverse phenotypes, normal and abnormal. Our results support this proposition. Further, if branching epithelia use variations of a canonical developmental program, our results are likely applicable to understanding the phenotypes of other branching organs affected by Eda (EDA) mutation. PMID:19500387

  20. Salivary gland oncocytes in African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) mimicking cytomegalic inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Brunnert, S R; Hensley, G T; Citino, S B; Herron, A J; Altman, N H

    1991-07-01

    The salivary glands from three African hedgehogs contained multiple foci of cytomegalic cells, which occasionally had a mild to moderate infiltrate of lymphocytes at the periphery. The cytomegalic cells were 35 to 40 microns in diameter with abundant acidophilic granular to hyalin cytoplasm. The nuclei were enlarged with clumped marginalized chromatin and a large, (6 to 8 microns in diameter) central, brightly eosinophilic nucleolus that had the appearance of an inclusion body by light microscopy. Histochemically most of the cytomegalic cells contained cytoplasmic metachromatic granules with Feyrter's thionine inclusion stain. Scattered cells at the periphery of the cytomegalic foci contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive cytoplasmic granules. Ultrastructurally the cytomegalic cells contained numerous tightly-packed, often bizarre, enlarged mitochondria that completely filled the cytoplasm. The nucleus consisted of a dense central core of chromatin associated with the nucleolus and the remaining chromatin was clumped and marginalized. Nuclear and cytoplasmic virions consistent with cytomegalovirus were not present. Histochemical stains of the nucleus for heavy metals were negative. The ultrastructural and histochemical findings of the cytomegalic cells were consistent with oncocytes. Previous reports in the literature of similar cells in the salivary glands of insectivores appear to have been erroneously described as cytomegalovirus infections. PMID:1655834

  1. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  2. Incomplete replication generates somatic DNA alterations within Drosophila polytene salivary gland cells

    PubMed Central

    Yarosh, Will

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication remains unfinished in many Drosophila polyploid cells, which harbor disproportionately fewer copies of late-replicating chromosomal regions. By analyzing paired-end high-throughput sequence data from polytene larval salivary gland cells, we define 112 underreplicated (UR) euchromatic regions 60–480 kb in size. To determine the effects of underreplication on genome integrity, we analyzed anomalous read pairs and breakpoint reads throughout the euchromatic genome. Each UR euchromatic region contains many different deletions 10–500 kb in size, while very few deletions are present in fully replicated chromosome regions or UR zones from embryo DNA. Thus, during endocycles, stalled forks within UR regions break and undergo local repair instead of remaining stable and generating nested forks. As a result, each salivary gland cell contains hundreds of unique deletions that account for their copy number reductions. Similar UR regions and deletions were observed in ovarian DNA, suggesting that incomplete replication, fork breakage, and repair occur widely in polytene cells. UR regions are enriched in genes encoding immunoglobulin superfamily proteins and contain many neurally expressed and homeotic genes. We suggest that the extensive somatic DNA instability described here underlies position effect variegation, molds the structure of polytene chromosomes, and should be investigated for possible functions. PMID:25128500

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Bridget; Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela; Wijeratne, Saranga; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Wang, Jian; Lamp, William

    2012-12-01

    The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, is a pest of economic crops in the United States and Canada, where it causes damage known as hopperburn. Saliva, along with mechanical injury, leads to decreases in gas exchange rates, stunting and chlorosis. Although E. fabae saliva is known to induce plant responses, little knowledge exists of saliva composition at the molecular level. We subjected the salivary glands of E. fabae to Roche 454-pyrosequencing which resulted significant number (30,893) of expressed sequence tags including 2805 contigs and 28,088 singletons. A high number of sequences (78%) showed similarity to other insect species in GenBank, including Triboliumcastaneum, Drosophilamelanogaster and Acrythosiphonpisum. KEGG analysis predicted the presence of pathways for purine and thiamine metabolic, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, drug metabolism, and lysine degradation. Pfam analysis showed a high number of cellulase and carboxylesterase protein domains. Expression analysis of candidate genes (alpha amylase, lipase, pectin lyase, etc.) among different tissues revealed tissue-specific expression of digestive enzymes in E. fabae. This is the first study to characterize the sialotranscriptome of E. fabae and the first for any species in the family of Cicadellidae. Due to the status of these insects as economic pests, knowledge of which genes are active in the salivary glands is important for understanding their impact on host plants. PMID:23063500

  4. Effects of Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus on the Reproductive Behavior of the Housefly, Musca domestica▿

    PubMed Central

    Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Geden, Christopher J.; Blackburn, Patrick; Boucias, Drion G.

    2007-01-01

    Pathological studies demonstrated that the salivary gland hypertrophy virus of houseflies (MdSGHV) shuts down reproduction in infected females. The mechanism that underlay the disruption of reproduction functioned on several levels. Females infected at the previtellogenic stage did not produce eggs, reflecting a block in the gonadotropic cycle. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis of hemolymph samples demonstrated that MdSGHV infection reduced the levels of both the female-specific hexamerin and egg yolk proteins. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that infection blocked hexamerin and yolk protein gene transcription. When females were allowed to develop eggs prior to infection (postvitellogenic stage), the outcome of mating attempts depended upon when mating took place. If egg-containing, virus-infected females were mated within 24 h of infection, they copulated and deposited a single batch of fertilized eggs. However, if mating was delayed for a longer period, the egg-containing females refused to copulate with healthy males. Both of these results suggested that a virus-induced signal influenced the central nervous system, shutting down female receptivity and egg production. All experiments demonstrated that MdSGHV-infected males did not display azoospermia and were fertile. Both healthy females mated with infected males, and the resulting F1 progeny were free of salivary gland hypertrophy symptoms, which suggests that the virus is not sexually or vertically transmitted. PMID:17827327

  5. Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.; Zhao, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, R.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta dose

  6. Identification of endo- and exo-polygalacturonase activity in Lygus hesperus (Knight) salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz; Carl Greve, L; Teuber, Larry R; Labavitch, John M

    2009-02-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) activity found in the salivary gland apparatus of the western tarnished plant bug (WTPB, Lygus hesperus Knight) has been thought to be the main chemical cause of the damage inflicted by this mirid when feeding on its plant hosts. Early viscosity and thermal stability studies of the PG activity in L. hesperus protein extracts were difficult to interpret. Thus, it has been suggested that one or more PG protein(s) with different hydrolytic modes of action are produced by this mirid. In order to understand the quantitative complexity of the WTPB salivary PG activity, PG purification from a protein extract from salivary glands excised from L. hesperus insects was performed using affinity and ion exchange chromatography. To elucidate the qualitative complexity of the purified PGs, the digestion products generated by the PGs were separated using high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. At least five PG proteins were detected; these differing in terms of their glycosylation, mass-to-charge ratios, and/or molecular mass. The characterization of the products generated by these PGs showed that endo- and exo-acting PGs are produced by WTPB. Although none of the PGs was purified to homogeneity, the present work provides biochemical evidence of a multiplicity of PGs that degrade the pectin component of the plant tissue in different fashions. The implications of these findings affect the understanding of WTPB feeding damage and, potentially, help identify ways to control this important crop pest. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19085947

  7. Dietary and Flight Energetic Adaptations in a Salivary Gland Transcriptome of an Insectivorous Bat

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Carleton J.; Phillips, Caleb D.; Goecks, Jeremy; Lessa, Enrique P.; Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Tandler, Bernard; Gannon, Michael R.; Baker, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that evolution of salivary gland secretory proteome has been important in adaptation to insectivory, the most common dietary strategy among Chiroptera. A submandibular salivary gland (SMG) transcriptome was sequenced for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The likely secretory proteome of 23 genes included seven (RETNLB, PSAP, CLU, APOE, LCN2, C3, CEL) related to M. lucifugus insectivorous diet and metabolism. Six of the secretory proteins probably are endocrine, whereas one (CEL) most likely is exocrine. The encoded proteins are associated with lipid hydrolysis, regulation of lipid metabolism, lipid transport, and insulin resistance. They are capable of processing exogenous lipids for flight metabolism while foraging. Salivary carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is thought to hydrolyze insect lipophorins, which probably are absorbed across the gastric mucosa during feeding. The other six proteins are predicted either to maintain these lipids at high blood concentrations or to facilitate transport and uptake by flight muscles. Expression of these seven genes and coordinated secretion from a single organ is novel to this insectivorous bat, and apparently has evolved through instances of gene duplication, gene recruitment, and nucleotide selection. Four of the recruited genes are single-copy in the Myotis genome, whereas three have undergone duplication(s) with two of these genes exhibiting evolutionary ‘bursts’ of duplication resulting in multiple paralogs. Evidence for episodic directional selection was found for six of seven genes, reinforcing the conclusion that the recruited genes have important roles in adaptation to insectivory and the metabolic demands of flight. Intragenic frequencies of mobile- element-like sequences differed from frequencies in the whole M. lucifugus genome. Differences among recruited genes imply separate evolutionary trajectories and that adaptation was not a single, coordinated event. PMID:24454705

  8. Dietary and flight energetic adaptations in a salivary gland transcriptome of an insectivorous bat.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Carleton J; Phillips, Caleb D; Goecks, Jeremy; Lessa, Enrique P; Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Tandler, Bernard; Gannon, Michael R; Baker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that evolution of salivary gland secretory proteome has been important in adaptation to insectivory, the most common dietary strategy among Chiroptera. A submandibular salivary gland (SMG) transcriptome was sequenced for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The likely secretory proteome of 23 genes included seven (RETNLB, PSAP, CLU, APOE, LCN2, C3, CEL) related to M. lucifugus insectivorous diet and metabolism. Six of the secretory proteins probably are endocrine, whereas one (CEL) most likely is exocrine. The encoded proteins are associated with lipid hydrolysis, regulation of lipid metabolism, lipid transport, and insulin resistance. They are capable of processing exogenous lipids for flight metabolism while foraging. Salivary carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is thought to hydrolyze insect lipophorins, which probably are absorbed across the gastric mucosa during feeding. The other six proteins are predicted either to maintain these lipids at high blood concentrations or to facilitate transport and uptake by flight muscles. Expression of these seven genes and coordinated secretion from a single organ is novel to this insectivorous bat, and apparently has evolved through instances of gene duplication, gene recruitment, and nucleotide selection. Four of the recruited genes are single-copy in the Myotis genome, whereas three have undergone duplication(s) with two of these genes exhibiting evolutionary 'bursts' of duplication resulting in multiple paralogs. Evidence for episodic directional selection was found for six of seven genes, reinforcing the conclusion that the recruited genes have important roles in adaptation to insectivory and the metabolic demands of flight. Intragenic frequencies of mobile- element-like sequences differed from frequencies in the whole M. lucifugus genome. Differences among recruited genes imply separate evolutionary trajectories and that adaptation was not a single, coordinated event. PMID:24454705

  9. Immunocytochemical localization of atrial natriuretic factor in the heart and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Cantin, M; Gutkowska, J; Thibault, G; Milne, R W; Ledoux, S; MinLi, S; Chapeau, C; Garcia, R; Hamet, P; Genest, J

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies produced in the mouse by repeated intraperitoneal injections of partly purified atrial natriuretic factor (low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) and high molecular weight peptide (HMWP)) have been used to localize these factors by immunohistochemistry (immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase method) and by immunocytochemistry (protein A-gold technique) in the heart of rats and of a variety of animal species including man and in the rat salivary glands. Immunofluorescence and the immunoperoxidase method gave identical results; in the rat, atrial cardiocytes gave a positive reaction at both nuclear poles while ventricular cardiocytes were consistently negative. The cardiocytes of the right atrial appendage were more intensely reactive than those localized in the left appendage. A decreasing gradient of intensity was observed from the subpericardial to the subendocardial cardiocytes. The cardiocytes of the interatrial septum were only lightly granulated. Sodium deficiency and thirst (deprivation of drinking water for 5 days) produced, as already shown at the ultrastructural level, a marked increase in the reactivity of all cardiocytes from both atria with the same gradient of intensity as in control animals. Cross-reactivity of intragranular peptides with the rat antibodies allowed visualization of specific granules in a variety of animal species (mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, rat, dog) and in human atrial appendages. No reaction could be elicited in the frog atrium and ventricle although, in this species, specific granules have been shown to be present by electron microscopy in all cardiac chambers. With the protein A-gold technique, at the ultrastructural level, single labeling (use of one antibody on one face of a fine section) or double labeling (use of two antibodies on the two faces of a fine section) showed that the two peptides are localized simultaneously in all three types (A, B and D) of specific granules. In the rat salivary glands

  10. Use of circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with microscopic examination of salivary glands for calculation of malaria infectivity rates in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fontenille, D; Meunier, J Y; Nkondjio, C A; Tchuinkam, T

    2001-05-01

    A survey in Cameroon compared the usefulness of the circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CSP ELISA) to dissection and microscopic examination of anopheline salivary glands for measuring infectivity rates in anopheline mosquitoes. The salivary glands of 375 females, belonging to four species were examined for sporozoites. After microscopic examination, the glands as well as all the remaining heads and thoraces were tested by ELISA. The sensitivity of ELISA was 100% (18/18), confidence interval (CI) (78.1-100) and the specificity was 99.7% (357/358), CI (98.2 100). The Kappa value, agreement between examination of the glands and salivary gland ELISA, was 0.97. The head thorax CSP ELISA overestimated the true salivary gland infection rate by 12.0%. The results obtained in Central Africa in a village with perennial transmission highly justified the use of the ELISA for measuring the entomological inoculation rate. PMID:11372973

  11. Morphological and functional state of major salivary glands under conditions of aluminum chloride excess in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Denisov, A B

    2009-12-01

    Morphology and function of the major salivary glands were studied in 50 albino rats drinking water supplemented with aluminum chloride for 2 weeks. Against the background of normal gland appearance, the salivation function and the composition of the saliva were changed: the concentrations of sodium and calcium ions and α-amylase activity were reduced. In parallel, cholesterol content was increased by 54%. PMID:21116512

  12. Non-functioning parathyroid gland carcinoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Krvavica, Ana; Kovacić, Marijan; Baraka, Ivan; Rudić, Milan

    2011-06-01

    Parathyroid gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy. The tumor is mostly functioning, causing severe hyperparathyroidism, with high serum calcium level and severe bone disease. Non-functioning parathyroid carcinomas are extremely rare. We report on a 60-year-old male patient admitted to ENT Department due to a large neck tumor mass compressing the thyroid and trachea. Preoperatively, thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium serum levels were normal. The following immunohistochemical markers (DAKO, Denmark) were used: bcl-2; CD-10; Chromogranin-A; Cyclin-D1; EMA; Ki-67; Mdm-2; p-53; PGP-9,5; RCC; Synaptophysin; Thyroglobulin; and TTF-1. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the diagnosis of a primary parathyroid gland carcinoma. Tumor cells showed diffusely positive immunohistochemical staining with chromogranin-A and PGP-9,5, positive staining of variable intensity with synaptophysin, and weakly positive reaction with EMA. Also, the cytoplasm of tumor cells was diffusely positively stained with bcl-2, while the nuclei showed positive reaction with p-53 oncogene and TTF-1. The remaining markers (CD-10, cyclin-D1, Ki-67, Mdm-2, RCC and thyroglobulin) were negative. Four years after the surgery, the patient died from renal carcinoma pulmonary metastases and liver cirrhosis complications. In conclusion, non-functioning parathyroid gland carcinoma is a very rare disease. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis is needed to distinguish it from other thyroid and parathyroid neoplasms and metastatic carcinoma. Surgical treatment is presently the best mode of therapy. PMID:22263388

  13. Effects of split-dose X irradiation on rat salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, A.; s-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, A.W. )

    1991-07-01

    The effect of a single local dose of 15 Gy on salivary gland function in male Albino Wistar rats was compared with the effect of two doses of 7.5 Gy. The intervals chosen were 0-24 h and 1 week. Before and 1-30 days after the last radiation dose, samples of parotid and submandibular saliva were collected simultaneously after stimulation of the glands with pilocarpine. Irradiation with the single dose resulted in an increased lag phase and potassium concentration, and a decreased flow rate and sodium concentration. The rate of secretion of amylase was decreased during Days 1-6, increased at Day 10, and was decreased again at Day 30. With two dose fractions, substantial dose-sparing effects on lag phase, flow rate, and secretion of amylase were observed for both the very early (0-6 days postirradiation) and later (6-30 days postirradiation) effects. These effects were maximal when the interval between the fractions was 6 h. A significant dose-sparing effect on electrolytes was observed for the later effects only, again with a maximum for the 6-h interval. The dose-sparing observed for the very early effects cannot be explained satisfactorily by repair of sublethal damage (SLD), redistribution of cells over the cell cycle, or repopulation of salivary gland tissue between the doses. In contrast to the earlier dose-sparing effects, the split-dose recovery seen for later damage may be attributed, in part, to SLD repair in providing for greater reproductive survival of intercalated ductal cells and enhanced tissue regeneration.

  14. Cell-based multi-parametric model of cleft progression during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shayoni; Yuan, Daniel; Dhulekar, Nimit; Oztan, Basak; Yener, Bülent; Larsen, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and development of the complex adult organ. Previous experimental studies indicated requirements for several epithelial cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix (matrix) adhesion, and cellular contraction in cleft formation; however, the relative contribution of each of these processes is not fully understood since it is not possible to experimentally manipulate each factor independently. We present here a comprehensive analysis of several cellular parameters regulating cleft progression during branching morphogenesis in the epithelial tissue of an early embryonic salivary gland at a local scale using an on lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model. We utilized measurements from time-lapse images of mouse submandibular gland organ explants to construct a temporally and spatially relevant cell-based 2D model. Our model simulates the effect of cellular proliferation, actomyosin contractility, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions on cleft progression, and it was used to test specific hypotheses regarding the function of these parameters in branching morphogenesis. We use innovative features capturing several aspects of cleft morphology and quantitatively analyze clefts formed during functional modification of the cellular parameters. Our simulations predict that a low epithelial mitosis rate and moderate level of actomyosin contractility in the cleft cells promote cleft progression. Raising or lowering levels of contractility and mitosis rate resulted in non-progressive clefts. We also show that lowered cell-cell adhesion in the cleft region and increased cleft cell-matrix adhesions are required for cleft progression. Using a classifier-based analysis, the relative importance of these four contributing cellular factors for effective cleft progression was determined

  15. Expression of SKA1 and MMP-9 in primary salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma: Correlation with tumor progression and patient prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Jiang, Licheng; Du, Pinggong; Zhang, Dongyan; Liu, Zhonghao; Li, Keyi; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion The spindle and kinetochore-associated complex sub unit 1(SKA1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are highly expressed in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC), and SKA1 may be the novel, promising prognostic factor for clinical outcomes in head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma patients. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the expression of SKA1 and MMP-9 in SACC tissues and the clinical significance. Methods SKA1 and MMP-9 expression in samples from 42 cases of SACC and 20 subjects with the normal tissue adjacent to carcinoma were detected by immunohistochemical analysis. Results The positive rate of SKA1 and MMP-9 staining was 78.6% and 66.7% in SACC, respectively, significantly higher than in normal salivary gland tissues (p < 0.001). Chi-square test showed that there was no significant correlation between SKA1 expression and MMP-9 expression in SACC tissues. However, SKA1 and MMP-9 expression was positively associated with advanced stage and solid histological pattern of SACC (p < 0.05). In addition, SKA1 and MMP-9 expression was positively associated with recurrence and perineural invasion, and survival time, respectively. PMID:26881872

  16. Radiation-Induced Microvascular Injury as a Mechanism of Salivary Gland Hypofunction and Potential Target for Radioprotectors.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Aviram; Cotrim, Ana P; Katabi, Nora; Mitchell, James B; Verheij, Marcel; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). One of the major side effects of radiotherapy is injury to the salivary glands (SG), which is thought to be mediated by microvascular dysfunction leading to permanent xerostomia. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced microvasculature damage and its impact on SG function. We measured bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) apoptosis and ceramide production in response to 5 Gy irradiation, either alone or with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers. We then investigated the effect of a single 15 Gy radiation dose on murine SG function. BAECs exposed to 5 Gy underwent apoptosis with increased ceramide production, both prevented by ROS scavengers. Among the 15 Gy irradiated mice, there was considerable weight loss, alopecia and SG hypofunction manifested by reduced saliva production and lower lysozyme levels. All of these effects, except for the lysozyme levels, were prevented by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. Microvessel density was significantly lower in the SG of irradiated mice compared to the control group, and this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with Tempol. This study demonstrates that radiation-induced SG hypofunction is to a large extent mediated by microvascular dysfunction involving ceramide and ROS generation. These findings strongly suggest that ROS scavengers may serve as potential radioprotectors of SG function in patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNSCC. PMID:27459704

  17. Whole-exome sequencing identifies a somatic missense mutation of NBN in clear cell sarcoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jia, Zhen; Mao, Fengbiao; Shi, Yueyi; Bu, Rong Fa; Zhang, Baorong

    2016-06-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare, low-grade carcinoma commonly located in the distal extremities of young adults involving tendons and aponeuroses. CCS is characterized by its poor prognosis due to late diagnosis, multiple local recurrence, propensity to late metastases, and a high rate of tumor-related mortality. The genetic cause for CCS is thought to be EWSR1 gene translocation. However, CCS lacking a translocation may have other, as yet uncharacterized, genetic mutations that can cause the same pathological effect. A combination of whole‑exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cancer tissue and venous blood from a patient diagnosed with CCS of the salivary gland revealed a somatic missense mutation, c.1061C>T (p.P354L), in exon 9 of the Nibrin gene (NBN). This somatic missense mutation led to the conversion of proline to leucine (p.P354L), resulting in deleterious effects for the NBN protein. Multiple-sequence alignments showed that codon 354, where the mutation (c.1061C>T) occurs, is located within a phylogenetically conserved region. In conclusion, we here report a somatic missense mutation c.1061C>T (p.P354L) in the NBN gene in a patient with CCS lacking an EWSR1-ATF1 fusion. Our findings broaden the genotypic spectrum of CCS and provide new molecular insight that should prove useful in the future clinical genetic diagnosis of CCS. PMID:27109316

  18. [Evolutionary regularities of somatic polyploidy expansion in salivary glands of gastropod mollusks. V. Subclasses Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, A P; Ziumchenko, N E

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands of 25 species of euthyneural gastropod mollusks (Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata) have been investigated by means of histochemical methods and DNA cytophotometry in nuclei of cells. The cells of three basic types are distinguished in glandular epithelim: granular cells (with glicoproteid granular inclusions), mucocytes-I (with sulfatic acid mucopolysaccharides) and mucocytes-II (with neutral and acid nonsulfatic polysaccharides and proteins) and so the epithelial ciliated cells and cells of the ducts. It was shown that glandular cells of salivary glands of all discovered mollusks' species are polyploid in different degree. The highest ploidy level estimated by means of DNA content in most of species is 64-128c. The giant polyploidy, attained to 4096c, is discovered in cells of salivary glands of Tritonia diomedea. The functional conditionality connected with features of feeding of different mollusk species and phylogenetic tendencies of expansion of somatic polyploidy in class Gastropoda are discussed. In comparison with allogenic, facultative and small polyploidy manifestation in Prosobranchia the obligatory polyploidization of high degree revealed in cells of salivary glands of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata is consider to be the original cytological arogenesis. The probable causes of such differences are conneted with euthyneural type of organization of central nervous system and giant polyploidy of neurons in Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata mollusks. The causes, mechanisms and significance of such correlations are unclear for the present. PMID:22590930

  19. Impact of house fly salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on a heterologous host, Stomoxys calcitrans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on selected fitness parameters of stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans [L.]) was examined in the laboratory. Virus-injected stable flies of both genders suffered substantially higher mortality than control flies. By day 9, female...

  20. Morphology and proteome characterization of the salivary glands of the western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland ...

  1. A protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on a host plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In feeding, aphids inject saliva into plant tissues, gaining access to phloem sap and eliciting (and sometimes overcoming) plant responses. We are examining the involvement, in this aphid-plant interaction, of individual aphid proteins and enzymes, as identified in a salivary gland cDNA library. Her...

  2. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs.

    PubMed

    Viol, Milena Araúz; Guerrero, Felix D; de Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Loiola, Saulo Hudson; de Melo, Guilherme Dias; de Souza Gomes, Aparecida Helena; Kanamura, Cristina Takami; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-09-01

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the DNA of Leishmania spp. has been reported in whole ticks. We investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from tick-infested dogs in two cities of Brazil. We used 66 dogs that tested positive and 33 that tested negative for Leishmania spp. according to direct cytological examination assays. Ten ticks were collected from each dog and dissected to collect the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IHC results showed Leishmania spp. in 98, 14, and 8 % of the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands, respectively. Real-time PCR showed that 89, 41, and 33 % of the tick intestine, ovary, and salivary glands, respectively, were positive for Leishmania spp. The verification of promastigotes of Leishmania spp. by two independent techniques in ticks collected from these urban region dogs showed that there is need for clarification of the role of ticks in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. PMID:27169724

  3. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus that Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry that is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a non-occluded dsDNA virus that inhibits egg production in...

  4. Disease dynamics and persistence of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertropy virus infections in laboratory house fly (Musca domestica) populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past surveys of feral house fly populations have shown that Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) has a world-wide distribution with an average prevalence varying between 0.5% and 10%. How this adult-specific virus persists in nature is unknown. In the present study, experiments ...

  5. The landscape of gene fusions and somatic mutations in salivary gland neoplasms - Implications for diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mattias K; Stenman, Göran

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies of the genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors have provided important insights into the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors. The most consistent alterations identified include a translocation-generated gene fusion network involving transcription factors, transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and other kinases. In addition, next-generation sequencing studies of a few subtypes of salivary neoplasms have revealed hotspot mutations in individual genes and mutations clustering to specific pathways frequently altered in cancer. Although limited, these studies have opened up new avenues for improved classification and targeted therapies of salivary gland cancers. In this review, we summarize the latest developments in this field, focusing on tumor types for which clinically important molecular data are available. PMID:27101980

  6. Differential expression of genes in salivary glands of male Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in response to infection with Anaplasma marginale

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the rickettsial tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is vectored by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A. marginale undergoes a complex developmental cycle in ticks which results in infection of salivary glands from where the pathogen is transmitted to cattle. In previous studies, we reported modification of gene expression in Dermacentor variabilis and cultured Ixodes scapularis tick cells in response to infection with A. marginale. In these studies, we extended these findings by use of a functional genomics approach to identify genes differentially expressed in R. microplus male salivary glands in response to A. marginale infection. Additionally, a R. microplus-derived cell line, BME26, was used for the first time to also study tick cell gene expression in response to A. marginale infection. Results Suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected ticks and used to identify genes differentially expressed in male R. microplus salivary glands infected with A. marginale. A total of 279 ESTs were identified as candidate differentially expressed genes. Of these, five genes encoding for putative histamine-binding protein (22Hbp), von Willebrand factor (94Will), flagelliform silk protein (100Silk), Kunitz-like protease inhibitor precursor (108Kunz) and proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 3 precursor (7BstNI3) were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR to be down-regulated in tick salivary glands infected with A. marginale. The impact of selected tick genes on A. marginale infections in tick salivary glands and BME26 cells was characterized by RNA interference. Silencing of the gene encoding for putative flagelliform silk protein (100Silk) resulted in reduced A. marginale infection in both tick salivary glands and cultured BME26 cells, while silencing of the gene encoding for subolesin (4D8

  7. Protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Berggoetz, M; Schmid, M; Ston, D; Wyss, V; Chevillon, C; Pretorius, A-M; Gern, L

    2014-03-01

    A total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 South African Provinces (Free State, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo). The geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for Haemaphysalis silacea. From each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the salivary glands. Salivary glands were screened for tick-borne pathogens using polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse line blotting and sequencing. This approach allowed us to evaluate the exposure of wild and domestic hosts to tick-borne pathogens in their respective environments. Among the 2117 examined ticks, 329 (15.5%), belonging to 8 species, were infected and harboured 397 infections. Among those, 57.7% were identified to species level and were assigned to 23 pathogen species of the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. In 3 out of 6 localities, salivary glands from ticks infesting wild ruminants displayed significantly higher infection prevalence and pathogen mean density than salivary glands from ticks infesting livestock animals. Four piroplasm species [Theileria bicornis, Babesia sp. (sable), Theileria sp. (giraffe), and Theileria sp. (kudu)] were detected for the first time in ticks. The tick species Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Amblyomma hebraeum were associated with a broader pathogen range than previously known, and thus new vector-pathogen combinations are described. In addition, previously unknown coinfection patterns in tick salivary glands are reported. PMID:24378080

  8. Microbial Population Analysis of the Salivary Glands of Ticks; A Possible Strategy for the Surveillance of Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yongjin; Nakao, Ryo; Ohnuma, Aiko; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are one of the most important blood-sucking vectors for infectious microorganisms in humans and animals. When feeding they inject saliva, containing microbes, into the host to facilitate the uptake of blood. An understanding of the microbial populations within their salivary glands would provide a valuable insight when evaluating the vectorial capacity of ticks. Three tick species (Ixodes ovatus, I. persulcatus and Haemaphysalis flava) were collected in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan between 2008 and 2011. Each tick was dissected and the salivary glands removed. Bacterial communities in each salivary gland were characterized by 16S amplicon pyrosequencing using a 454 GS-Junior Next Generation Sequencer. The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier was used to classify sequence reads at the genus level. The composition of the microbial populations of each tick species were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA) using the Metagenomics RAST (MG-RAST) metagenomic analysis tool. Rickettsia-specific PCR was used for the characterization of rickettsial species. Almost full length of 16S rDNA was amplified in order to characterize unclassified bacterial sequences obtained in I. persulcatus female samples. The numbers of bacterial genera identified for the tick species were 71 (I. ovatus), 127 (I. persulcatus) and 59 (H. flava). Eighteen bacterial genera were commonly detected in all tick species. The predominant bacterial genus observed in all tick species was Coxiella. Spiroplasma was detected in Ixodes, and not in H. flava. PCA revealed that microbial populations in tick salivary glands were different between tick species, indicating that host specificities may play an important role in determining the microbial complement. Four female I. persulcatus samples contained a high abundance of several sequences belonging to Alphaproteobacteria symbionts. This study revealed the microbial populations within the salivary glands of three species of ticks, and the

  9. Sonoelastographic Modalities in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Characteristics in Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hofauer, Benedikt; Mansour, Naglaa; Heiser, Clemens; Gahleitner, Constanze; Thuermel, Klaus; Bas, Murat; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate salivary tissue assessment with various sonoelastographic modalities (real-time tissue elastography, Virtual Touch imaging and quantification) in patients with Sjögren's syndrome as compared with an appropriate control group. The sonoelastographic modalities were evaluated in 50 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Patients underwent high-resolution ultrasonography of the submandibular and parotid glands. Results of B-mode, real-time tissue elastography, Virtual Touch imaging-each graded with the appropriate scoring system-and Virtual Touch quantification were compared with those for 50 patients with sicca symptoms who did not fulfill the American-European consensus group criteria. In B-mode, 34 of 50 parotid glands in patients with pSS and 8 of 50 in the control group had abnormal findings (p < 0.001). Compared with 9 of 50 control patients, 38 of 50 patients with pSS had abnormal findings in submandibular gland B-mode (p < 0.001). With real-time tissue elastography, there was a trend toward higher scores for parotid glands in the pSS group (p = 0.238), whereas scores for submandibular glands in the control group were higher (p = 0.107). Virtual Touch imaging did not indicate any difference (p = 0.647 and p = 0.658). In Virtual Touch quantification, values for parotid (mean: 2.99 m/s) and submandibular glands (mean: 2.54 m/s) in the pSS group were higher than those for parotid (mean: 2.16 m/s) and submandibular (mean: 2.04 m/s) glands in the control group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008). Glandular stiffness, measured by Virtual Touch quantification, was significantly higher in patients with Sjögreńs syndrome than in patients with sicca symptoms. PMID:27207020

  10. A Focused Salivary Gland Infection with attenuated MCMV: An Animal Model with Prevention of Pathology Associated with Systemic MCMV Infection1, 2

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Mark J.; Kasman, Laura; Grewal, Jasvir; Bruorton, Mary E.; Werner, Phil; London, Lucille; London, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    While the salivary gland has been recognized as an important effector site of the common mucosal immune system, a useful model for studying anti-viral salivary gland immune responses in vivo and for exploring the role of the salivary gland within the common mucosal system has been lacking. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that displays a strong tropism for the salivary gland and produces significant morbidity in susceptible mice when introduced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation. This study tested the hypothesis that MCMV morbidity and pathology could be reduced by injecting the virus directly the submandibular salivary gland (intraglandular (i.g.)), using either in vivo derived MCMV or the less virulent, tissue culture-derived MCMV (tcMCMV). Peak salivary gland viral titers were completely unaffected by infection route (i.p vs. i.g.) after inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV. However, i.g. tcMCMV inoculation reduced viremia in all systemic tissues tested compared to i.p. inoculation. Further, systemic organ pathology observed in the liver and spleen after i.p. inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV was completely eliminated by i.g. inoculation with tcMCMV. Cellular infiltrates in the salivary glands, after i.p. or i.g. inoculation were composed of both B and T cells, indicating the potential for a local immune response to occur in the salivary gland. These results demonstrate that a focused MCMV infection of the salivary gland without systemic organ pathology is possible using i.g. delivery of tcMCMV. PMID:17320076

  11. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate gland

    PubMed Central

    Hoof, Pamela; Tsai-Nguyen, Ginger; Paulson, Scott; Syed, Almas

    2016-01-01

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) has a clinical course and prognosis that is markedly different from that of common adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient in this case presented with fever of unknown origin, dyspnea, and near spinal cord compression. He was subsequently found to have widely metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostatic origin. This case emphasizes that despite the commonality of prostate cancer, there are rare presentations of this common disease. PMID:26722176

  12. Isolation and characterization of novel tachykinins from the posterior salivary gland of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Takuwa-Kuroda, Kyoko; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Two novel tachykinins (OctTK-I: Lys-Pro-Pro-Ser-Ser-Ser-Glu-Phe-Ile-Gly-Leu-Met-NH(2) and OctTK-II: Lys-Pro-Pro-Ser-Ser-Ser-Glu-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met-NH(2)) were isolated from the posterior salivary gland of the octopus (Octopus vulgaris) using a contraction assay of the carp rectum. These peptides had in common the pentapeptide sequence -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH(2) at the C-terminal and induced immediate contractions on the carp rectum and the guinea-pig ileum. cDNAs encoding their precursor proteins were cloned. The OctTK gene was expressed in the posterior salivary gland and the expression was localized in mucus-secreting cells of the gland. The results suggested that OctTKs might be secreted as a venomous substance acting on vertebrates such as fishes, which are the prey or natural enemies of the octopus. PMID:12576083

  13. Nucleolar 4s ribonucleic acid in dipteran salivary glands in the presence of inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Sirlin, J. L.; Loening, U. E.

    1968-01-01

    1. Salivary glands of insect larvae accumulate newly made transfer RNA in the nucleolus when maintained in the presence of nucleoside antagonists that inhibit RNA synthesis preferentially at the chromosome. 2. The nucleus contains precursor transfer RNA, which, on the basis of the general evidence, may originate in the chromosome and then be methylated in the nucleolus. 3. The maturation of precursor ribosomal RNA is blocked in the nucleolus during inhibition. 4. The transport of nuclear RNA to cytoplasm is also blocked. 5. It is suggested that, if the transfer RNA accumulated in the nucleolus does indeed originate in the chromosome, the accumulation may result from the blockage of an obligatory transient association of the RNA with the nucleolus. PMID:4176517

  14. Effect of reserpine on salivary gland radioiodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, H.A.; Park, C.H.

    1987-04-01

    Nine patients with thyroid cancer were treated with reserpine in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure to the salivary glands from 100-150 mCi doses of I-131 therapy to thyroid remnants or metastases. Three control patients were not treated with reserpine but did receive 100-150 mCi of I-131. Parotid/background ratios of activity after radioablative doses of I-131 in patients not treated with reserpine were significantly higher than the patients treated with reserpine, and this was also true seven days after the radioablative dose. Combined therapy with reserpine, chewing gum, lemon candies, and hydration is suggested for the prevention of sialadenitis and xerostomia due to large doses of radioiodine.

  15. Sclerotherapy for the mucoceles of the anterior lingual salivary glands with pingyangmycin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Wang, R; Yang, S-F; Zhao, Y-F; Zhao, J-H

    2014-07-01

    Recurrence is very common if the mucoceles of the anterior lingual salivary glands (ALSGs) are treated by surgery due to its anatomic characteristics. Therefore, more effective and less invasive treatment methods are urgently required to be applied instead of surgery. In this study, 40 patients with the mucocele of the ALSGs received the intralesional injections of pingyangmycin, and the median number of injections per patient was 2.075 (range, 1-3). All cases completely recovered with no recurrence after follow-up of more than 16 months. The complications included the local swelling, pain, and ulceration following injection, and all these symptoms resolved 7-10 days after the injection. Taken together, sclerotherapy with pingyangmycin is an effective and safe treatment method for the mucocele of the ALSGs and may be the primary treatment modality. PMID:23848975

  16. Clinicopathological aspects of 25 cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Brazao-Silva, Marco Tullio; Prosdocimi, Fabio Cesar; Lemos-Junior, Celso Augusto; de Sousa, Suzana Orsini Machado

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands (SMSG) is rarely reported and presumably represents an underestimated disease. This study examined the clinicopathological aspects of 25 selected SMSG cases over an 11-year period at the Oral Pathology Department of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. SMSG was not a clinical diagnosis in 92% of the cases. Histologically, the sialoliths tended to be superficial and formed by concentric layers with variable degrees of mineralization. Chronic periductal and parenchymal inflammation were frequent, as well as squamous metaplasia of the affected duct. Ectasia, squamous and mucous metaplasia, mucous plug formation, and cellular debris were seen in adjacent ducts. Clinicians should be aware of SMSG, especially with regard to its higher incidence in the upper lip and buccal mucosa. PMID:25945774

  17. Sialoendoscopy in the management of salivary gland disorders--4 years experience.

    PubMed

    Hasan, W; Curran, A

    2014-04-01

    Sialoendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique used in the diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders with promising success rates. Our objective is to describe our experience in sialoendoscopy, outlining our technique, success rates and complications, and to compare our data to those reported in the literature. A retrospective review and data analysis of all sialoendoscopic procedures performed by our service between 2006 and 2010 was performed. 41 patients were identified. 4 (9.7%) patients had normal findings, 2 (4.8%) had anatomical variants, 4 (9.7%) had benign strictures, 11 (26.8%) had mucinous debris and 20 (48%) had obstructing stones. Stone removal was successful in 19 (95%) of the 20 cases and symptomatic relief was achieved in 34 (83%) cases. In our experience a single interventional modality was used, despite that our success rates are similar to those reported in the literature where multiple therapeutic modalities were used. PMID:24834589

  18. Voluminous Myoepithelioma of the Minor Salivary Glands Involving the Base of the Tongue.

    PubMed

    Policarpo, Mario; Longoni, Valentina; Garofalo, Pietro; Spina, Paolo; Pia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelioma is an extremely rare tumour subtype and diagnosis is based on a wide variation of cellular morphology. FNAC specimens do not always suffice for a definitive differential diagnosis which depends on histology and immunohistochemistry of the lesion. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old female came to our attention with dysphagia and dyslalia of 6-month standing. Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) examination revealed a voluminous mass on the right portion of the base of her tongue, where postcontrast T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) evidenced a hyperintense lesion. The fine-needle aspiration specimen taken for cytology was not diagnostic, as a differential diagnosis between myoepithelioma and a malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands necessitates parameters that cytology alone cannot provide. Therefore, the whole lesion was excised by diode laser through a transoral approach. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the completely excised lesion confirmed a myoepithelioma. PMID:27034872

  19. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Balanzá, Ricardo; Arrangoiz, Rodrigo; Cordera, Fernando; Muñoz, Manuel; Luque-de-León, Enrique; Moreno, Eduardo; Toledo, Carlos; González, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) was first described in 2010 by Skálová et al. This entity shares morphologic and immunohistochemical features with the secretory carcinoma (SC) of the breast. MASC usually presents as an asymptomatic mass in the parotid gland and predominantly affects men. This tumor is considered a low-grade carcinoma but has the potential for high-grade transformation. We report one MASC case and a review of world literature. Case report A 66-year-old male patient presented because he noticed a mass of approximately 3 × 3 cm on the right pre-auricular region. Physical examination demonstrated a 3 × 3.5 cm, firm, fixed, non-tender mass in the right pre-auricular region. An MRI of the head and neck showed an ovoid heterogeneous lesion, dependent of the right parotid gland of 27 × 28 mm. We performed a superficial parotidectomy with identification and preservation of the facial nerve. The immunophenotype was positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CK8/18, vimentin, S-100 protein, and mammoglobin. No further surgical interventions or adjuvant therapies were needed. The patient will have a close follow up. Conclusion The presence of t(12;15) (p13;q25) translocation which results in the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion or positive immunochemical studies for STAT5, mammoglobin and S100 protein, are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of MASC. MASC treatment should mimic the management of other low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasms. The inhibition of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion could be used as treatment in the future. PMID:26496413

  20. Tmem16A Encodes the Ca2+-activated Cl− Channel in Mouse Submandibular Salivary Gland Acinar Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Victor G.; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Brown, David A.; Putzier, Ilva; Hartzell, H. Criss; Marmorstein, Alan D.; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Rock, Jason R.; Harfe, Brian D.; Melvin, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of an apical Ca2+-dependent Cl− channel (CaCC) is the rate-limiting step for fluid secretion in many exocrine tissues. Here, we compared the properties of native CaCC in mouse submandibular salivary gland acinar cells to the Ca2+-gated Cl− currents generated by Tmem16A and Best2, members from two distinct families of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels found in salivary glands. Heterologous expression of Tmem16A and Best2 transcripts in HEK293 cells produced Ca2+-activated Cl− currents with time and voltage dependence and inhibitor sensitivity that resembled the Ca2+-activated Cl− current found in native salivary acinar cells. Best2−/− and Tmem16A−/− mice were used to further characterize the role of these channels in the exocrine salivary gland. The amplitude and the biophysical footprint of the Ca2+-activated Cl− current in submandibular gland acinar cells from Best2-deficient mice were the same as in wild type cells. Consistent with this observation, the fluid secretion rate in Best2 null mice was comparable with that in wild type mice. In contrast, submandibular gland acinar cells from Tmem16A−/− mice lacked a Ca2+-activated Cl− current and a Ca2+-mobilizing agonist failed to stimulate Cl− efflux, requirements for fluid secretion. Furthermore, saliva secretion was abolished by the CaCC inhibitor niflumic acid in wild type and Best2−/− mice. Our results demonstrate that both Tmem16A and Best2 generate Ca2+-activated Cl− current in vitro with similar properties to those expressed in native cells, yet only Tmem16A appears to be a critical component of the acinar Ca2+-activated Cl− channel complex that is essential for saliva production by the submandibular gland. PMID:20177062

  1. On approaches to the functional restoration of salivary glands damaged by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, with a review of related aspects of salivary gland morphology and development

    PubMed Central

    Redman, RS

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck can devastate the salivary glands and partially devitalize the mandible and maxilla. As a result, saliva production is drastically reduced and its quality adversely altered. Without diligent home and professional care, the teeth are subject to rapid destruction by caries, necessitating extractions with attendant high risk of necrosis of the supporting bone. Innovative techniques in delivery of radiation therapy and administration of drugs that selectively protect normal tissues can reduce significantly the radiation effects on salivary glands. Nonetheless, many patients still suffer severe oral dryness. I review here the functional morphology and development of salivary glands as these relate to approaches to preventing and restoring radiation-induced loss of salivary function. The acinar cells are responsible for most of the fluid and organic material in saliva, while the larger ducts influence the inorganic content. A central theme of this review is the extent to which the several types of epithelial cells in salivary glands may be pluripotential and the circumstances that may influence their ability to replace cells that have been lost or functionally inactivated due to the effects of radiation. The evidence suggests that the highly differentiated cells of the acini and large ducts of mature glands can replace themselves except when the respective pools of available cells are greatly diminished via apoptosis or necrosis owing to severely stressful events. Under the latter circumstances, relatively undifferentiated cells in the intercalated ducts proliferate and redifferentiate as may be required to replenish the depleted pools. It is likely that some, if not many, acinar cells may de-differentiate into intercalated duct-like cells and thus add to the pool of progenitor cells in such situations. If the stress is heavy doses of radiation, however, the result is not only the death of acinar cells, but also a marked

  2. Identification of differentially expressed genes in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells associated with metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing-Yao; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Xiao-Ge; Cao, Gang; Dong, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is a frequent type of salivary gland cancer which is characterized by slow growth but high incidence of distant metastasis. We aimed to identify therapeutic targets which are associated with metastasis of SACC. Material and methods Total RNA was isolated from a low metastatic SACC cell line (ACC-2) and a highly metastatic SACC cell line (ACC-M), which was screened from ACC-2 by combination of in vivo selection and cloning in vitro. Then the total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened from ACC-M compared with ACC-2, followed by Gene Ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Function annotation for DEGs also was performed. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was constructed for DEGs. Results A total of 1128 DEGs were identified from ACC-M cells compared with ACC-2 cells. Both up- and down-regulated DEGs were enriched in different functions in biological process (BP), cellular component (CC) and molecular function (MF). Additionally, down-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in “Apoptosis” and “Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction” pathways which involved IFN-α1, NTRK1 and TGF-β1. In the PPI network, PIK3CA, PTPN11 and PIK3R1 had a number of nodes greater than 10. Conclusions Transforming growth factor β1 might play a pivotal role during lung metastasis of SACC and be selected as a candidate target for treatment of metastatic SACC. IFNA1, NTRK1 and PIK3CA were also associated with tumor metastasis. PMID:27478471

  3. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland with Four Morphological Features

    PubMed Central

    Rosero, David S; Alvarez, Ramiro; Gambó, Paula; Alastuey, María; Valero, Alberto; Torrecilla, Nerea; Roche, A. Belén; Simón, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma arising in salivary glands is a rare tumor, accounting for 2% to 5% of the primary neoplasms of the parotid gland. When these tumors are well-differentiated, the neoplasia has innocuous aspect, due to the similarity to normal parotid tissue. This makes the diagnosis difficult. Initially the malignancy of this tumor was uncertain; however, recent studies have declared it as malignant. The female / male ratio is 3:2. The nodule usually presents as solitary and well defined shape. Several authors have used different terms to describe histomorphological patterns of these tumors. Four descriptive categories (solid, microcystic, papillary-cystic and follicular) are useful for pathologists. Here we report a case of a 49 yr old man with a left parotid nodule of 5 cm. Parotidectomy was performed at the Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, in Zaragoza (Spain). The microscopy showed a tumor with acinic semblance, having the four morphologic patterns previously described. The morphological and immunohistochemical study was consistent with the diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma. PMID:27499783

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  5. Ixodes ricinus and Its Endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii: A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands and Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Di Venere, Monica; Fumagalli, Marco; Cafiso, Alessandra; De Marco, Leone; Epis, Sara; Plantard, Olivier; Bardoni, Anna; Salvini, Roberta; Viglio, Simona; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Iadarola, Paolo; Sassera, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hard ticks are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of numerous pathogenic microorganisms of high relevance in human and veterinary medicine. Ixodes ricinus is one of the most important tick species in Europe, due to its role of vector of pathogenic bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, of viruses such as tick borne encephalitis virus and of protozoans as Babesia spp. In addition to these pathogens, I. ricinus harbors a symbiotic bacterium, Midichloria mitochondrii. This is the dominant bacteria associated to I. ricinus, but its biological role is not yet understood. Most M. mitochondrii symbionts are localized in the tick ovaries, and they are transmitted to the progeny. M. mitochondrii bacteria have however also been detected in the salivary glands and saliva of I. ricinus, as well as in the blood of vertebrate hosts of the tick, prompting the hypothesis of an infectious role of this bacterium. To investigate, from a proteomic point of view, the tick I. ricinus and its symbiont, we generated the protein profile of the ovary tissue (OT) and of salivary glands (SG) of adult females of this tick species. To compare the OT and SG profiles, 2-DE profiling followed by LC-MS/MS protein identification were performed. We detected 21 spots showing significant differences in the relative abundance between the OT and SG, ten of which showed 4- to 18-fold increase/decrease in density. This work allowed to establish a method to characterize the proteome of I. ricinus, and to detect multiple proteins that exhibit a differential expression profile in OT and SG. Additionally, we were able to use an immunoproteomic approach to detect a protein from the symbiont. Finally, the method here developed will pave the way for future studies on the proteomics of I. ricinus, with the goals of better understanding the biology of this vector and of its symbiont M. mitochondrii. PMID:26398775

  6. Insight into the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois).

    PubMed

    Showmaker, Kurt C; Bednářová, Andrea; Gresham, Cathy; Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Peterson, Daniel G; Krishnan, Natraj

    2016-01-01

    The tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) is a polyphagous, phytophagous insect that has emerged as a major pest of cotton, alfalfa, fruits, and vegetable crops in the eastern United States and Canada. Using its piercing-sucking mouthparts, TPB employs a "lacerate and flush" feeding strategy in which saliva injected into plant tissue degrades cell wall components and lyses cells whose contents are subsequently imbibed by the TPB. It is known that a major component of TPB saliva is the polygalacturonase enzymes that degrade the pectin in the cell walls. However, not much is known about the other components of the saliva of this important pest. In this study, we explored the salivary gland transcriptome of TPB using Illumina sequencing. After in silico conversion of RNA sequences into corresponding polypeptides, 25,767 putative proteins were discovered. Of these, 19,540 (78.83%) showed significant similarity to known proteins in the either the NCBI nr or Uniprot databases. Gene ontology (GO) terms were assigned to 7,512 proteins, and 791 proteins in the sialotranscriptome of TPB were found to collectively map to 107 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database pathways. A total of 3,653 Pfam domains were identified in 10,421 sialotranscriptome predicted proteins resulting in 12,814 Pfam annotations; some proteins had more than one Pfam domain. Functional annotation revealed a number of salivary gland proteins that potentially facilitate degradation of host plant tissues and mitigation of the host plant defense response. These transcripts/proteins and their potential roles in TPB establishment are described. PMID:26789269

  7. Tsetse salivary gland hypertrophy virus: hope or hindrance for tsetse control?

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Parker, Andrew G; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bergoin, Max

    2011-08-01

    MANY SPECIES OF TSETSE FLIES (DIPTERA: Glossinidae) are infected with a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH), and flies with SGH symptoms have a reduced fecundity and fertility. The prevalence of SGH in wild tsetse populations is usually very low (0.2%-5%), but higher prevalence rates (15.2%) have been observed occasionally. The successful eradication of a Glossina austeni population from Unguja Island (Zanzibar) using an area-wide integrated pest management approach with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component (1994-1997) encouraged several African countries, including Ethiopia, to incorporate the SIT in their national tsetse control programs. A large facility to produce tsetse flies for SIT application in Ethiopia was inaugurated in 2007. To support this project, a Glossina pallidipes colony originating from Ethiopia was successfully established in 1996, but later up to 85% of adult flies displayed symptoms of SGH. As a result, the colony declined and became extinct by 2002. The difficulties experienced with the rearing of G. pallidipes, epitomized by the collapse of the G. pallidipes colony originating from Ethiopia, prompted the urgent need to develop management strategies for the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV) for this species. As a first step to identify suitable management strategies, the virus isolated from G. pallidipes (GpSGHV) was recently sequenced and research was initiated on virus transmission and pathology. Different approaches to prevent virus replication and its horizontal transmission during blood feeding have been proposed. These include the use of antiviral drugs such as acyclovir and valacyclovir added to the blood for feeding or the use of antibodies against SGHV virion proteins. In addition, preliminary attempts to silence the expression of an essential viral protein using RNA interference will be discussed. PMID:21912708

  8. Insight into the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)

    PubMed Central

    Showmaker, Kurt C.; Bednářová, Andrea; Gresham, Cathy; Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Peterson, Daniel G.; Krishnan, Natraj

    2016-01-01

    The tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) is a polyphagous, phytophagous insect that has emerged as a major pest of cotton, alfalfa, fruits, and vegetable crops in the eastern United States and Canada. Using its piercing-sucking mouthparts, TPB employs a “lacerate and flush” feeding strategy in which saliva injected into plant tissue degrades cell wall components and lyses cells whose contents are subsequently imbibed by the TPB. It is known that a major component of TPB saliva is the polygalacturonase enzymes that degrade the pectin in the cell walls. However, not much is known about the other components of the saliva of this important pest. In this study, we explored the salivary gland transcriptome of TPB using Illumina sequencing. After in silico conversion of RNA sequences into corresponding polypeptides, 25,767 putative proteins were discovered. Of these, 19,540 (78.83%) showed significant similarity to known proteins in the either the NCBI nr or Uniprot databases. Gene ontology (GO) terms were assigned to 7,512 proteins, and 791 proteins in the sialotranscriptome of TPB were found to collectively map to 107 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database pathways. A total of 3,653 Pfam domains were identified in 10,421 sialotranscriptome predicted proteins resulting in 12,814 Pfam annotations; some proteins had more than one Pfam domain. Functional annotation revealed a number of salivary gland proteins that potentially facilitate degradation of host plant tissues and mitigation of the host plant defense response. These transcripts/proteins and their potential roles in TPB establishment are described. PMID:26789269

  9. Ixodes ricinus and Its Endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii: A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands and Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Di Venere, Monica; Fumagalli, Marco; Cafiso, Alessandra; De Marco, Leone; Epis, Sara; Plantard, Olivier; Bardoni, Anna; Salvini, Roberta; Viglio, Simona; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Iadarola, Paolo; Sassera, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hard ticks are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of numerous pathogenic microorganisms of high relevance in human and veterinary medicine. Ixodes ricinus is one of the most important tick species in Europe, due to its role of vector of pathogenic bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, of viruses such as tick borne encephalitis virus and of protozoans as Babesia spp. In addition to these pathogens, I. ricinus harbors a symbiotic bacterium, Midichloria mitochondrii. This is the dominant bacteria associated to I. ricinus, but its biological role is not yet understood. Most M. mitochondrii symbionts are localized in the tick ovaries, and they are transmitted to the progeny. M. mitochondrii bacteria have however also been detected in the salivary glands and saliva of I. ricinus, as well as in the blood of vertebrate hosts of the tick, prompting the hypothesis of an infectious role of this bacterium. To investigate, from a proteomic point of view, the tick I. ricinus and its symbiont, we generated the protein profile of the ovary tissue (OT) and of salivary glands (SG) of adult females of this tick species. To compare the OT and SG profiles, 2-DE profiling followed by LC-MS/MS protein identification were performed. We detected 21 spots showing significant differences in the relative abundance between the OT and SG, ten of which showed 4- to 18-fold increase/decrease in density. This work allowed to establish a method to characterize the proteome of I. ricinus, and to detect multiple proteins that exhibit a differential expression profile in OT and SG. Additionally, we were able to use an immunoproteomic approach to detect a protein from the symbiont. Finally, the method here developed will pave the way for future studies on the proteomics of I. ricinus, with the goals of better understanding the biology of this vector and of its symbiont M. mitochondrii. PMID:26398775

  10. De novo Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome analysis using two next-generation sequencing methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; von Reumont, Björn M.; Erhart, Jan; Chagas, Andrezza C.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2013-01-01

    Tick salivary gland (SG) proteins possess powerful pharmacologic properties that facilitate tick feeding and pathogen transmission. For the first time, SG transcriptomes of Ixodes ricinus, an important disease vector for humans and animals, were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. SGs were collected from different tick life stages fed on various animal species, including cofeeding of nymphs and adults on the same host. Four cDNA samples were sequenced, discriminating tick SG transcriptomes of early- and late-feeding nymphs or adults. In total, 441,381,454 pyrosequencing reads and 67,703,183 Illumina reads were assembled into 272,220 contigs, of which 34,560 extensively annotated coding sequences are disclosed; 8686 coding sequences were submitted to GenBank. Overall, 13% of contigs were classified as secreted proteins that showed significant differences in the transcript representation among the 4 SG samples, including high numbers of sample-specific transcripts. Detailed phylogenetic reconstructions of two relatively abundant SG-secreted protein families demonstrated how this study improves our understanding of the molecular evolution of hematophagy in arthropods. Our data significantly increase the available genomic information for I. ricinus and form a solid basis for future tick genome/transcriptome assemblies and the functional analysis of effectors that mediate the feeding physiology and parasite-vector interaction of I. ricinus.—Schwarz, A., von Reumont, B.M., Erhart, J., Chagas, A.C., Ribeiro, J.M.C., Kotsyfakis, M. De novo Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome analysis using two next-generation sequencing methodologies. PMID:23964076

  11. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  12. [Identification of Ca2+ release channels in salivary glands secretory cells of Chironomus plumosus L].

    PubMed

    Man'ko, V V; Bychkova, S V; Klevets', M Iu

    2004-01-01

    The presence of two types of well-characterised Ca2+ release channels, namely IP3-receptors (Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs) and ryanodine-receptors (RyRs), was detected in the salivary glands secretory cells of Chironomus plumosus L. For this aim different blockators and activators of these Ca2+ -transport systems were used. The conditions for permeabilization of these cells by saponine were experimentally chosen for their more intensive action. It was shown that IP3 decreased calcium content in saponine-treated gland tissue by (41.14 +/- 11.75)%. The effect of IP3 was not observed under condition of heparin and eosin Y presence in the incubation medium, but heparin alone did not cause any action on calcium content in saponine-treated gland tissue. The observed effects of IP3 are supposed to be the evidences of Ins (1,4,5)P3Rs presence in the intracellular membrane of this object. It was also shown that calcium content in intact gland tissue increased by (67.12 +/- 22.60)% in presence of heparin (500 mkg/ml) in the incubation medium. This effect of heparin was also observed with presence of verapamil (100 mkM) and eosin Y (5, 20 mkM) in incubation medium. So, this effect is not connected with function of voltage-gated Ca2+ -channels and Ca2+ -pumps. Ryanodine in concentration of 5nM decreased calcium content in saponine-treated gland tissue by (35.18 +/- 3.87)% but it caused the increase of calcium content at high concentration (500 nM) by (40.72 +/- 12.52)%. It improved the presence of RyRs in intracellular membrane of secretory cells of this object. Besides, these channels, perhaps, belong to "non-sensitive" to caffeine, because caffeine did not affect calcium content in the gland tissue neither in presence nor with absence of eosin Y. PMID:15909419

  13. Interferon-γ induces immunoproteasomes and the presentation of MHC I-associated peptides on human salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Garcia, Martha E; Misuno, Kaori; Tran, Simon D; Hu, Shen

    2014-01-01

    A prominent histopathological feature of Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease, is the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates in the salivary and lachrymal glands. Such infiltrates are comprised of activated lymphocytes and macrophages, and known to produce multiple cytokines including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). In this study, we have demonstrated that IFN-γ strongly induces the expression of immunoproteasome beta subunits (β1i, β2i and β5i) and immunoproteasome activity but conversely inhibits the expression of proteasome beta subunits (β1, β2 and β5) in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Mass spectrometric analysis has revealed potential MHC I-associated peptides on the HSG cells, including a tryptic peptide derived from salivary amylase, due to IFN-γ stimulation. These results suggest that IFN-γ induces immunoproteasomes in HSG cells, leading to enhanced presentation of MHC I-associated peptides on cell surface. These peptide-presenting salivary gland cells may be recognized and targeted by auto-reactive T lymphocytes. We have also found that lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, inhibits the expression of β1 subunit in HSG cells and blocks the IFN-γ-induced expression of β1i and immunoproteasome activity. However, the expression of β2i and β5i in HSG cells is not affected by lactacystin. These results may add new insight into the mechanism regarding how lactacystin blocks the action of proteasomes or immunoproteasomes. PMID:25102056

  14. Primary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Arising from Ectopic Salivary Tissue within an Intraparotid Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Bastaki, Jassem; Al-Sihan, Mutlaq K.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic salivary tissue is commonly found in intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes. Warthin tumor is the most common tumor arising in ectopic salivary gland tissue and in intraparotid lymph nodes. Although rare, neoplastic transformation of the ectopic salivary tissues is conceivable and other types of salivary gland neoplasms arising in intraparotid lymph nodes have been reported. Herein we report a rare case of a 32-year-old Kuwaiti male who presented with a mass in the right parotid gland. A preoperative fine needle aspiration suggested Warthin tumor. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy. The specimen showed a mass within the parotid parenchyma abutting the deep margin. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of the lesion showed solid islands and cysts composed of epidermoid cells, mucus cells, and intermixed smaller “intermediate” cells within an intraparotid lymph node. The tumor was seen infiltrating the parotid parenchyma at the deep margin. Metastasis from distant sites was ruled out clinically, and the diagnosis rendered was MEC, low-grade, arising from ectopic salivary tissue in an intraparotid lymph node. Such cases are extremely rare and the presence of malignancies within lymph nodes may pose a diagnostic pitfall, which can affect patient management. PMID:26697253

  15. A Subset of Cutaneous and Soft Tissue Mixed Tumors Are Genetically Linked to Their Salivary Gland Counterpart

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Armita; Dalton, James D; Krane, Jeffrey F; Fletcher, Christopher DM

    2011-01-01

    Neoplasms morphologically similar to mixed tumors and myoepitheliomas of the salivary glands, under the broad concept of myoepithelial neoplasia, have recently been defined in the skin and soft tissue; however, to date, no data have supported a shared genetic background with their salivary gland counterpart. From a large body of research, it has been well established that rearrangement of pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) leads to aberrant expression of its protein and is pathogenically relevant in the development of salivary mixed tumors. On the other hand, in soft tissue lesions, compelling evidence suggests that EWSR1 is involved in a significant subset. To examine the hypothesis that there is a genetic link between these histologically similar tumors at different sites, we randomly selected 20 benign myoepitheliomas/mixed tumors of skin and soft tissue (10 cases each). Nineteen cases could be immunostained for PLAG1, of which 11 cases showed distinct nuclear staining with moderate or strong intensity in a significant number of cells. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for PLAG1 was successfully performed in 11 cases (7 in skin, 4 in soft tissue) and was positive for gene rearrangement in 8 cases (5 in skin, 3 in soft tissue). All PLAG1-rearranged tumors, except one, had clear-cut ductal structures and were immunoreactive for PLAG1. In our series, tumors with PLAG1 alteration shared a common morphologic phenotype characterized by prominent tubuloductal differentiation, suggesting that myoepithelial neoplasms with genuine salivary gland-like morphology, so-called soft tissue/cutaneous mixed tumors, are genetically related to their salivary gland counterpart. PMID:22038920

  16. Salivary gland sparing and improved target irradiation by conformal and intensity modulated irradiation of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Eisbruch, Avraham; Ship, Jonathan A; Dawson, Laura A; Kim, Hyungjin M; Bradford, Carol R; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Chepeha, Douglas B; Teknos, Theodore N; Hogikyan, Norman D; Anzai, Yoshimi; Marsh, Lon H; Ten Haken, Randall K; Wolf, Gregory T

    2003-07-01

    The goals of this study were to facilitate sparing of the major salivary glands while adequately treating tumor targets in patients requiring comprehensive bilateral neck irradiation (RT), and to assess the potential for improved xerostomia. Since 1994 techniques of target irradiation and locoregional tumor control with conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have been developed. In patients treated with these modalities, the salivary flow rates before and periodically after RT have been measured selectively from each major salivary gland and the residual flows correlated with glands' dose volume histograms (DVHs). In addition, subjective xerostomia questionnaires have been developed and validated. The pattern of locoregional recurrence has been examined from computed tomography (CT) scans at the time of recurrence, transferring the recurrence volumes to the planning CT scans, and regenerating the dose distributions at the recurrence sites. Treatment plans for target coverage and dose homogeneity using static, multisegmental IMRT were found to be significantly better than standard RT plans. In addition, significant parotid gland sparing was achieved in the conformal plans. The relationships among dose, irradiated volume, and the residual saliva flow rates from the parotid glands were characterized by dose and volume thresholds. A mean radiation dose of 26 Gy was found to be the threshold for preserved stimulated saliva flow. Xerostomia questionnaire scores suggested that xerostomia was significantly reduced in patients irradiated with bilateral neck, parotid-sparing RT, compared to patients with similar tumors treated with standard RT. Examination of locoregional tumor recurrence patterns revealed that the large majority of recurrences occurred inside targets, in areas that had been judged to be at high risk and that had received RT doses according to the perceived risk. Tangible gains in salivary gland sparing and target coverage are being

  17. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    SciTech Connect

    Anacak, Yavuz; Miller, Robert C.; Constantinou, Nikos; Mamusa, Angela M.; Epelbaum, Ron; Li Yexiong; Calduch, Anna Lucas; Kowalczyk, Anna; Weber, Damien C.; Kadish, Sidney P.; Poortmans, Philip; Kamer, Serra; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIE in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease-free survival.

  18. Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Its Histopathological Correlation in A Tertiary Care Center of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    C, Akshatha; Masilamani, Suresh; Jonathan, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Background Salivary glands may enlarge either due to inflammation or neoplastic conditions and the diagnosis is possible by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Aim The present study was undertaken to determine utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 186 FNACs of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Of these, 146 cases had follow-up histopathological diagnosis. FNAC diagnoses were compared to histopathological diagnoses. Results The parotid glands were more commonly involved than others. Among the various diagnostic categories used in FNAC reports, Non neoplastic category was seen in 24 (16.4%), benign category in 86 (58.9%) and malignant category in 30 (20.6%) and unsatisfactory category in 6 (4.1%) of 146 cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions were 86.6%, 94.6%, 93.6%, 88.3%, and 94.6% respectively. Conclusion The present study concluded that FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions is highly sensitive, specific and accurate method. Hence, FNAC is a useful, quick and reliable diagnostic tool. It also appears to be a safe, cost effective and minimally invasive procedure, which provides information for management of salivary gland lesions. PMID:26266126

  19. Effect of laser phototherapy on enzymatic activity of salivary glands of hamsters treated with 5-Fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Luana; Nicolau, José; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Simões, Alyne

    2014-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) can induce salivary gland hypofunction (SGH); however, previous studies did not reach final conclusions on the influence of this drug on glandular tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-FU on submandibular (SMs) and sublingual glands (SLs), as well as, the effect of laser phototherapy (LPT) on SGH induced by 5-FU. Eighty-five hamsters were divided into three groups: control (C), chemotherapy (CT) and laser (L), and the SGH was induced by two injections of 5-FU in groups CT and L. The irradiation was performed using a diode (λ780 nm/20 mW/5 J cm(-2)/0.2 J and 10 s per point/spot size of 0.04 cm(2)) and applied daily. On the euthanasia day, SMs and SLs were removed and biochemical analyses were carried out. The lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in group CT when compared with group C for SLs and SMs (P < 0.05). In addition, the peroxidase and catalase activities were increased and superoxide dismutase was decreased by 5-FU (P < 0.05). However, LPT appears to be a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, tending to alter the activity of these antioxidant enzymes, suggesting LPT as a promising therapy to modulate the 5-FU harmful effect. PMID:24172058

  20. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tissue from patients with IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kenichi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Abe, Ayumi; Kamekura, Ryuta; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Ichimiya, Shingo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion The diagnosis of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) should be based on the morphology of tissue biopsy, and this study recommends a submandibular gland (SMG) biopsy for accurate diagnosis and to exclude malignant disease. Objective To clarify which type of biopsy specimen (SMG or labial salivary gland [LSG]) should be taken from patients with IgG4-RD. Methods This study included 33 patients with IgG4-RD (21 women; 12 men) who were subjected to both SMG and LSG biopsies at Sapporo Medical University between 2011-2015. Tissues obtained from the SMG and LSG specimens were evaluated. Results All SMG specimens satisfied the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD, whereas 19 (57.6%) LSG specimens satisfied the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. Histological evaluation showed fibrosis in all the SMG specimens and in eight LSG specimens (24.2%). Obliterative phlebitis was seen in nine SMG specimens (27.3%), but it was absent in all the LSG specimens. PMID:27007955

  1. Sorting of growth hormone-erythropoietin fusion proteins in rat salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Samuni, Yuval Zheng Changyu; Cawley, Niamh X.; Cotrim, Ana P.; Loh, Y. Peng; Baum, Bruce J.

    2008-08-15

    Neuroendocrine and exocrine cells secrete proteins in either a constitutive manner or via the regulated secretory pathway (RSP), but the specific sorting mechanisms involved are not fully understood. After gene transfer to rat salivary glands, the transgenic model proteins human growth hormone (hGH) and erythropoietin (hEpo) are secreted primarily into saliva (RSP; exocrine) and serum (constitutive; endocrine), respectively. We hypothesized that fusion of hGH at either the C-terminus or the N-terminus of hEpo would re-direct hEpo from the bloodstream into saliva. We constructed and expressed two fusion proteins, hEpo-hGH and hGH-hEpo, using serotype 5-adenoviral vectors, and delivered them to rat submandibular glands in vivo via retroductal cannulation. Both the hEpo-hGH and hGH-hEpo fusion proteins, but not hEpo alone, were secreted primarily into saliva (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0083, respectively). These in vivo studies demonstrate for the first time that hGH, in an N- as well as C-terminal position, influences the secretion of a constitutive pathway protein.

  2. TGFβ Signaling Promotes Matrix Assembly During Mechanosensitive Embryonic Salivary Gland Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sarah B.; Nelson, Deirdre A.; Kwon, Hae Ryong; Koslow, Mathew; DeSantis, Kara A.; Larsen, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the microenvironment regulate cell morphology and differentiation within complex organs. However, methods to restore morphogenesis and differentiation in organs in which compliance is suboptimal are poorly understood. We used mechanosensitive mouse salivary gland organ explants grown at different compliance levels together with deoxycholate extraction and immunocytochemistry of the intact, assembled matrices to examine the compliance-dependent assembly and distribution of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane in explants grown at permissive or non-permissive compliance. Extracellular matrix and basement membrane assembly were disrupted in the glands grown at low compliance compared to those grown at high compliance, correlating with defective morphogenesis and decreased myoepithelial cell differentiation. Extracellular matrix and basement membrane assembly as well as myoepithelial differentiation were restored by addition of TGFβ1 and by mechanical rescue, and mechanical rescue was prevented by inhibition of TGFβ signaling during the rescue. We detected a basal accumulation of active integrin β1 in the differentiating myoepithelial cells that formed a continuous peripheral localization around the proacini and in clefts within active sites of morphogenesis in explants that were grown at high compliance. The pattern and levels of integrin β1 activation together with myoepithelial differentiation were interrupted in explants grown at low compliance but were restored upon mechanical rescue or with application of exogenous TGFβ1. These data suggest that therapeutic application of TGFβ1 to tissues disrupted by mechanical signaling should be examined as a method to promote organ remodeling and regeneration. PMID:25652203

  3. Nanoparticle-mediated Gene Silencing Confers Radioprotection to Salivary Glands In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arany, Szilvia; Benoit, Danielle SW; Dewhurst, Stephen; Ovitt, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    Radiation treatment of head and neck cancers causes irreversible damage of the salivary glands (SG). Here, we introduce a preclinical mouse model for small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based gene silencing to provide protection of SG from radiation-induced apoptosis. Novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles complexed with siRNAs were introduced into mouse submandibular glands (SMG) by retroductal injection to modulate gene expression in vivo. To validate this approach, we first targeted Nkcc1, an ion transporter that is essential for saliva secretion. Nkcc1 siRNA delivery resulted in efficient knockdown, as quantified at the mRNA and the protein levels, and the functional result of Nkcc1 knockdown phenocopied the severe decrease in saliva secretion, characteristic of the systemic Nkcc1 gene knockout. To establish a strategy to prevent apoptotic cell loss due to radiation damage, siRNAs targeting the proapoptotic Pkcδ gene were administered into SMG before ionizing radiation. Knockdown of Pkcδ not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells during the acute phase of radiation damage, but also markedly improved saliva secretion at 3 months in irradiated animals, indicating that this treatment confers protection from hyposalivation. These results demonstrate that nanoparticle delivery of siRNAs targeting a proapoptotic gene is a localized, nonviral, and effective means of conferring radioprotection to the SGs. PMID:23511246

  4. Potential Benefits of Scanned Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Advanced Photon Therapy With Regard to Sparing of the Salivary Glands in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Tara A. van de; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Jong, Marije E. de; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that scanned intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) results in a significant dose reduction to the parotid and submandibular glands as compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy with photons (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for oropharyngeal cancer. In addition, we investigated whether the achieved dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal carcinoma were used. The intensity-modulated plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV2) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal areas (PTV1). The 3D-CRT technique delivered sequentially 70 Gy and 46 Gy to PTV2 and PTV1, respectively. Normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Planning target volume coverage results were similar for IMPT and IMRT. Intensity-modulated proton therapy clearly improved the conformity. The 3D-CRT results were inferior to these results. The mean dose to the parotid glands by 3D-CRT (50.8 Gy), IMRT (25.5 Gy), and IMPT (16.8 Gy) differed significantly. For the submandibular glands no significant differences between IMRT and IMPT were found. The dose reductions obtained with IMPT theoretically translated into a significant reduction in normal tissue complication probability. Conclusion: Compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT, IMPT improved sparing of the organs at risk, while keeping similar target coverage results. The dose reductions obtained with IMPT vs. IMRT and 3D-CRT varied widely per individual patient. Intensity-modulated proton therapy theoretically translated into a clinical benefit for most cases, but this requires clinical validation.

  5. Left adrenal gland metastasis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HE, TAO; LIU, JIAJU; LI, YIFAN; JIN, LU; SUN, SHUOLEI; NI, LIANGCHAO; MAO, XIANGMING; YANG, SHANGQI; LAI, YONGQING

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the metastatic lesions of the adrenal gland normally originate from lung cancer, colon malignant tumor, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. However, adrenal gland metastasis that metastasize from breast invasive ductal carcinoma are extremely rare. The present study reported a rare case of left adrenal gland metastasis in a 35-year-old female who was diagnosed as breast carcinoma 5 years ago with a mass located on the left adrenal gland, which was detected during a routine examination. The patient was asymptomatic and adrenal gland computed tomography revealed a mass in the left adrenal gland. Definitive preoperative diagnosis failed to be established. Left adrenal gland laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and the diagnosis of adrenal gland metastasis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination. The patient remained in good condition by the time of writing. PMID:27123296

  6. [Mucoceles of the minor salivary glands. Extravasation mucoceles (mucus granulomas) and retention mucoceles (mucus retention cysts) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Donath, K; von Gumberz, C

    1981-06-01

    360 cases of salivary glands cysts (= 6%) were collected in the Salivary Glands Register (Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg) from 1965 until 1979 among a total of 5739 register cases. 273 cases of the cystic lesions (= 76%) were mucoceles of the minor salivary glands. The analysis of these 273 cases revealed the following results: 1. Two types of mucoceles can be morphologically distinguished: extravasation mucoceles and retention mucoceles. 2. The extravasation mucocele is in our material (240 cases = 88.7%) the most frequent type of mucocele. The term "extravasation mucocele" of the anglo-american literature is identical with the term "mucus granuloma" ("Schleimgranulom") introduced by Hamperl (1932). 3. The main signs of the mucus granulomas are: predominant location (79%) at the lower lip, age peak in the 2nd decade and more frequent occurrence (in 60%) in the male sex. 4. Three stages of development can be distinguished in the pathogenesis of the mucus granulomas: an initial stage (interstitial mucus lakes), a resorption stage (mucus granulomas with macrophages, foam cells and foreign bodies giant cells) and a terminal stage with the development of a pseudocyst (capsule of collagen tissue, no epithelial demarcation). 5. The retention mucocele (synonym: mucus retention cyst) is a rare type of mucocele (33 cases = 11.3%). The main signs are: nearly equal occurrence in all oral regions, age peak in the 8th decade, moderate predominance of the female sex. 6. The retention mucoceles contain viscous mucous material, possess always an epithelial demarcation of the cysts differentiated analogous to the different segments of the salivary duct system and show as a rule no inflammatory reaction compared with the extravasation mucoceles. 7. Microtraumas and mucus congestions play the important role in the development of the extravasation mucocele. The final formation depends on the amount of the overflowed mucus and the intensity of the mucus phagocytosis. 8

  7. Invertebrate Specific D1-like Dopamine Receptor in Control of Salivary Glands in the Black-Legged Tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Šimo, Ladislav; Koči, Juraj; Kim, Donghun; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The control of tick salivary secretion, which plays a crucial role in compromising the host immune system, involves complex neural mechanisms. Dopamine is known to be the most potent activator of salivary secretion, as a paracrine/autocrine factor. We describe the invertebrate specific D1-like dopamine receptor (InvD1L), which is highly expressed in tick salivary glands. The InvD1L phylogenic clade was found only in invertebrates, suggesting that this receptor was lost in the vertebrates during evolution. InvD1L expressed in CHO-K1 cells was activated by dopamine with a median effective dose (EC50) of 1.34 μM. Immunohistochemistry using the antibody raised against InvD1L revealed two different types of immunoreactivities: basally located axon terminals that are colocalized with myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide neuropeptides, and longer axon-like processes that are positive only for the InvD1L antibody and extended to the apical parts of the acini. Both structures were closely associated with the myoepithelial cell, as visualized by beta-tubulin antibody, lining the acinar lumen in a web-like fashion. Subcellular localizations of InvD1L in the salivary gland suggest that InvD1L modulates the neuronal activities including MIP/SIFamide varicosities, and leads the contraction of myoepithelial cells and/or of the acinar valve to control the efflux of the luminal content. Combining the previously described D1 receptor with its putative function for activating an influx of fluid through the epithelial cells of acini, we propose that complex control of the tick salivary glands is mediated through two different dopamine receptors, D1 and InvD1L, for different downstream responses of the acinar cells. PMID:24307522

  8. Tsetse Salivary Gland Proteins 1 and 2 Are High Affinity Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins with Residual Nuclease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Caljon, Guy; Ridder, Karin De; Stijlemans, Benoît; Coosemans, Marc; Magez, Stefan; De Baetselier, Patrick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans) saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2) display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with KD values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents. PMID:23110062

  9. Different tumours induced by benzo(a)pyrene and its 7,8-dihydrodiol injected into adult mouse salivary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Wigley, C. B.; Amos, J.; Brookes, P.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the carcinogenic activities of benzo(a)pyrene and the proposed proximate carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol, in the adult C57BL mouse submandibular salivary gland. In preliminary studies using a range of doses, the dihydrodiol was slightly less active than the parent hydrocarbon in this system. There was a difference in the type of tumour induced by the 2 compounds. Benzo(a)pyrene induced tumours of the salivary glands at the site of injection, whereas the dihydrodiol induced malignant lymphosarcomas, particularly of the thymus, which were often metastatic to other orgnas. Possible reasons for the different sites of action of the 2 compounds are discussed. PMID:580763

  10. Effects of Single Exposure of Sodium Fluoride on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Salivary Glands of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguti, Paula Mochidome; Simões, Alyne; Ganzerla, Emily; Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Nicolau, José

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that fluoride exposure can inhibit the activity of various enzymes and can generate free radicals, which interfere with antioxidant defence mechanisms in living systems. To further the understanding of this issue, this present study examined the effects of low-dose fluoride treatment on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) salivary glands of rats. Rats were injected with a single dose of sodium fluoride (NaF) (15 mg F−/kg b.w.) then euthanized at various time intervals up to 24 hours (h) following exposure. NaF exposure did not cause significant differences in SOD or CAT activity or LPO levels in PA glands compared to control. Conversely, SM glands presented increased SOD activity after 3 h and decreased SOD activity after 1, 12, and 24 h, while LPO was increased after 6, 12, and 24 h of the NaF injection. There were no significant differences in the CAT activity in the groups studied. Our results demonstrated that NaF intoxication caused oxidative stress in salivary glands few hours after administration. These changes were more pronounced in SM than in PA gland. PMID:23738039

  11. The use of intraoral ultrasound in the characterization of minor salivary gland malignancy: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anita; Brown, Jackie; Rudralingam, Meena

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that ultrasound is now the first line of imaging of palpable lumps of the neck. Standardized protocols exist for the evaluation of thyroid, salivary gland and nodal disease, and sonography is increasingly being used in the characterization of intraoral soft tissue lesions. Here, we present two cases where intraoral sonography was invaluable in the early detection of oral malignancy. PMID:26954288

  12. The Effects of Diabetes on Salivary Gland Protein Expression of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Cassandra R.; Obi, Nneka; Epane, Elodie C.; Akba, Alexander A.; Halpern, Leslie; Southerland, Janet H.; Gangula, Pandu R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Xerostomia is defined as dry mouth resulting from a change in the amount and/or composition of saliva and often a major oral health complication associated with diabetes. Studies have shown that xerostomia is more common in females in the onset of diabetes. Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in healthy salivary gland function. However, the specific mechanisms by which NO regulates salivary gland function at the onset of diabetes have yet to be determined. This study had two aims: 1. To determine whether protein expression and/or dimerization of NO synthase enzymes (nNOS, eNOS) are altered in the onset of diabetic xerostomia and 2. To determine whether the changes in nNOS/eNOS protein expression/dimerization are correlated with changes in NO cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthetic enzymes (GTP Cyclohydrolase-1, Dihydrofolate reductase). Methods Functional and western blot studies were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic (type 1 diabetes) and control Sprague Dawley female rats using standardized protocols. Confirmation of xerostomia was determined by increased water intake and decreased salivary flow rate. Results In diabetic female rats, salivary hypofunction is correlated with decreased submandibular and parotid gland sizes. Furthermore, our results show a decrease in NOS and BH4 biosynthetic enzyme in submandibular glands. Conclusion Our results indicate that a decrease in submandibular NO-BH4 protein expression may provide insight pertaining to mechanisms for the development of hyposalivation in diabetes-induced xerostomia. Furthermore, understanding the role of NO-BH4 pathway may give insight to possible treatment options for the diabetic patient experiencing xerostomia. PMID:26777763

  13. Comprehensive annotation of Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus from Ethiopian tsetse flies: a proteogenomics approach.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Kariithi, Henry M; Cousserans, François; Parker, Nicolas J; İnce, İkbal Agah; Scully, Erin D; Boeren, Sjef; Geib, Scott M; Mekonnen, Solomon; Vlak, Just M; Parker, Andrew G; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bergoin, Max

    2016-04-01

    Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) can establish asymptomatic and symptomatic infection in its tsetse fly host. Here, we present a comprehensive annotation of the genome of an Ethiopian GpSGHV isolate (GpSGHV-Eth) compared with the reference Ugandan GpSGHV isolate (GpSGHV-Uga; GenBank accession number EF568108). GpSGHV-Eth has higher salivary gland hypertrophy syndrome prevalence than GpSGHV-Uga. We show that the GpSGHV-Eth genome has 190 291 nt, a low G+C content (27.9 %) and encodes 174 putative ORFs. Using proteogenomic and transcriptome mapping, 141 a