Sample records for salmon european sea

  1. Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245

    E-print Network

    Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245 Final EIS ­ December 2009 5.0 CHINOOK SALMON This chapter provides information on Chinook salmon biology, distribution, and current stock assessments. This chapter then analyzes the impacts of the alternatives on Chinook salmon

  2. Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management

    E-print Network

    Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Regulatory Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Flexibility 2008 ES-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review

  3. Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)

    E-print Network

    Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2012 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 89 686 597 13% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 35 1,028 993 3% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 84 562 478 15% 0 BS Chinook Salmon

  4. LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON

    E-print Network

    LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON MOTHERSHIP FISHERY that the percentage of net-marked sockeye salmon in the daily catch below' Hells Gate on the Fraser River during 1943 and the USSR have reported net injuries to salmon in coastal waters. Thus, Petrova (1964) reported that up

  5. Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)

    E-print Network

    Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2013 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 35 686 651 5% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 127 1,028 901 12% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 134 560 426 24% 0 BS Chinook

  6. Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)

    E-print Network

    Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2011 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 120 686 566 17% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 164 1,028 864 16% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 76 498 422 15% 0 BS Chinook

  7. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

  8. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

  9. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

  10. Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management

    E-print Network

    Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume I Final Environmental Impact Statement North Bycatch Management Volume I FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT December 2009 Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental

  11. Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1

    E-print Network

    Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1 Final EIS ­ December 2009 1 with an evaluation of the predicted environmental effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch developed the following problem statement for Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management: An effective

  12. Chapter 3 Methodology Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 147

    E-print Network

    in this analysis, marine mammals, seabirds, other groundfish, EFH, ecosystem relationships, and environmentalChapter 3 Methodology Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 147 Final EIS ­ December 2009 3 3. 3.1 Estimating Chinook salmon bycatch in the pollock fishery Overall, salmon bycatch levels

  13. Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

    E-print Network

    Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume I FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT December 2009 Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides decision-makers and the public This executive summary summarizes the Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Final Environmental Impact

  14. Chapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381

    E-print Network

    in this section is extracted from Buklis (1994). Other information on Chum salmon may be found at the ADF. The development of markets for fresh and frozen chum in Japan and northern Europe has increased their demand. Chum

  15. Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Mark

    Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon ) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from one of the Canada's largest salmon stocks. Migratory allopatry protects juvenile salmon from L. salmonis for two to three months of early marine life (2

  16. Chapter 11 References Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 629

    E-print Network

    Chapter 11 References Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 629 Final EIS ­ December 2009 11 statement for essential fish habitat identification and conservation in Alaska (EFH EIS). NMFS Alaska/61/13/8 (AFA EIS). NMFS Alaska Regional Office, PO Box 21668, Juneau, Alaska. June. URL: http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/sustainablefisheries/afa/eis

  17. Bering Sea Salmon Bycatch Management Environmental Impact Statement

    E-print Network

    , scoping period for the Bering Sea Salmon Bycatch Management Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS and decision-making. The EIS will serve as the central decision-making document for management measures being. The EIS will provide decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental, social

  18. Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 9 Final EIS December 2009

    E-print Network

    Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 9 Final EIS ­ December 2009 1.5 Public Participation The EIS, and the public comment process for the draft EIS/RIR. This section describes these avenues for public in the EIS and RIR. Scoping is accomplished through written communications and consultations with agency

  19. Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Mark

    Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon Martin Krkosek1,2*, Mark A, Canada T6G 2E7 Marine salmon farming has been correlated with parasitic sea lice infestations and concurrent declines of wild salmonids. Here, we report a quantitative analysis of how a single salmon farm

  20. Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles

    E-print Network

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea) Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers

  1. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Stephanie J.; Connors, Brendan M.; Krkošek, Martin; Irvine, James R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host–parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  2. Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Mark

    Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish Martin Krkosek of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3, Canada 3 Salmon Coast Field Station, Simoom Sound, British Columbia V0 by the migration of wild fishes, which determines the period of exposure to parasites. For Pacific salmon

  3. Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon

    PubMed Central

    Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Volpe, John P

    2005-01-01

    Marine salmon farming has been correlated with parasitic sea lice infestations and concurrent declines of wild salmonids. Here, we report a quantitative analysis of how a single salmon farm altered the natural transmission dynamics of sea lice to juvenile Pacific salmon. We studied infections of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi?) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) as they passed an isolated salmon farm during their seaward migration down two long and narrow corridors. Our calculations suggest the infection pressure imposed by the farm was four orders of magnitude greater than ambient levels, resulting in a maximum infection pressure near the farm that was 73 times greater than ambient levels and exceeded ambient levels for 30?km along the two wild salmon migration corridors. The farm-produced cohort of lice parasitizing the wild juvenile hosts reached reproductive maturity and produced a second generation of lice that re-infected the juvenile salmon. This raises the infection pressure from the farm by an additional order of magnitude, with a composite infection pressure that exceeds ambient levels for 75?km of the two migration routes. Amplified sea lice infestations due to salmon farms are a potential limiting factor to wild salmonid conservation. PMID:15870031

  4. pattern of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar )i n the Baltic Sea with management implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Håkan Jansson; Tiit Paaver; Oleg Vasin; Jarmo Koskiniemi

    The genetic structure and isolation pattern of the Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) throughout its range in the Baltic Sea were examined as a starting point for a conservation strategy for the species in this area. The allozyme variation in seven polymorphic loci was studied in 5125 salmon from 24 rivers in four countries. A clear dichotomy was observed between

  5. Salmon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    2002-01-01

    The first Web site (1) is intended as an educational resource, but is also fit for a general audience as it introduces salmon, their habitat, the need for conservation, and salmon fisheries. The next site is from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fish FAQs (2) and has several pages of salmon FAQs, all of which can be found by using the next button. The third resource from an Anthropology course at Oregon State University (3) gives an account of the changing Columbia River Basin and the status of commercial fisheries in the region. The King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Web site (4) has information on salmon conservation and recovery efforts in King County. Research papers on salmon and other Pacific Northwest fishes are provided on this Northwest Fisheries Science Center page (5). The Web site for the organization Wild Olympic Salmon (6) celebrates the successful recovery of summer chum salmon to Chimacum Creek. The Wild Salmon Center (7), a nonprofit organization formed to protect salmon and their habitat, provides numerous links to salmon conservation information. Some interesting video clips of salmon runs were caught on tape by the King County Salmon Cam (8).

  6. Preliminary genetic analysis of juvenile chum salmon from the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The arctic region has experienced warming in recent years, resulting in decreased summer sea ice cover and increased sea surface temperatures. In September 2007, the U.S. BASIS survey extended surface trawling into the Chukchi Sea. Juvenile (young-of-the-year) chum salmon were collected at most stat...

  7. Hydroacoustic monitoring of fish in sea cages: target strength (TS) measurements on Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Knudsen; J. E. Fosseidengen; F. Oppedal; Ø. Karlsen; E. Ona

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between target strength (TS) and body length of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in sea cages. Five size-groups (mean total length 20, 25, 55, 67 and 78cm, n = 6–17 fish per group) of Atlantic salmon were used in the experiment. The fish were monitored in a sea cage (12m

  8. Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Bumgarner, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring of Atlantic salmon and sea-trout migration in the fish- ladders in Sandsfossen in 2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Lura

    2004-01-01

    Upstream migration of Atlantic salmon and sea-trout in The River Suldalslagen was monitored in the two fish-ladders in Sandsfossen in 2004. In total, 670 salmon and 166 trout were registered ascending the southern fish-ladder. The distribution of one-, two-, and multi-seawinter salmon was 33 %, 20 % and 47 %, respectively, for wild and marked salmon combined. The proportion of

  10. Seabird–sockeye salmon co-variation in the eastern Bering Sea: Phenology as an ecosystem indicator and salmonid predictor?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Sydeman; Christine L. Abraham; G. Vernon Byrd

    2008-01-01

    Seabirds (Rissa spp. and Uria spp.) and sockeye salmon (Onchorhynchus nerka) of the eastern Bering Sea share similarities in their trophic ecology. We tested the role of seabirds as indicators of food web conditions that affect sockeye salmon at sea survival by investigating co-variation between seabirds breeding on the Pribilof Islands and returns of Bristol Bay sockeyes. We examined seabird

  11. Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.; Putman, Nathan F.; Lohmann, Catherine M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure. PMID:19060188

  12. Social interactions and the distribution of food among one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) in a sea-cage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kadri; F. A. Huntingford; N. B. Metcalfe; J. E. Thorpe

    1996-01-01

    In order to test whether the amount of food obtained by individual one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon was related to social status, the feeding interactions of 19 individually marked Atlantic salmon in a sea cage were monitored by underwater video (fish competed for single food pellets presented at regular intervals). Food was distributed unevenly among fish; no significant relationship was found between

  13. The Interaction between Water Currents and Salmon Swimming Behaviour in Sea Cages

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, David; Laursen, Frida; Fernö, Anders; Fosseidengen, Jan Erik; Klebert, Pascal; Stien, Lars Helge; Vågseth, Tone; Oppedal, Frode

    2014-01-01

    Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched from the traditional circular polarized group structure, seen at low and moderate current velocities, to a group structure where all fish kept stations at fixed positions swimming against the current. This type of group behaviour has not been described in sea cages previously. The structural changes could be explained by a preferred swimming speed of salmon spatially restricted in a cage in combination with a behavioural plasticity of the fish. PMID:24830443

  14. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997–2009

    PubMed Central

    Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

    2013-01-01

    The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice. PMID:23311746

  15. Historical record of Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida among sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Coll, J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite restoration efforts, only about 2,000 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) salmon have annually returned to New England Rivers and more than 71% of these fish migrate to the Penobscot River alone. This report provides a historical compilation on the prevalence's of both Yersinia ruckeri, cause of enteric redmouth disease, and Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis, among mature sea-run Atlantic salmon that returned to the Penobscot River from 1976 to 2003. Aeromonas salmonicida was detected in 28.6% and Yersinia ruckeri was detected among 50% of the yearly returns. Consequently, Atlantic salmon that return to the river are potential reservoirs of infection.

  16. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas.

    PubMed

    Galil, B S; Marchini, A; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Minchin, D; Narš?ius, A; Ojaveer, H; Olenin, S

    2014-04-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  17. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narš?ius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  18. Piscine reovirus (PRV) in wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and sea-trout, Salmo trutta L., in Norway.

    PubMed

    Garseth, Å H; Fritsvold, C; Opheim, M; Skjerve, E; Biering, E

    2013-05-01

    This is the first comprehensive study on the occurrence and distribution of piscine reovirus (PRV) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., caught in Norwegian rivers. PRV is a newly discovered reovirus associated with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), a serious and commercially important disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway. A cross-sectional survey based on real-time RT-PCR screening of head kidney samples from wild, cultivated and escaped farmed Atlantic salmon caught from 2007 to 2009 in Norwegian rivers has been conducted. In addition, anadromous trout (sea-trout), Salmo trutta L., caught from 2007 to 2010, and anadromous Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), caught from 2007 to 2009, were tested. PRV was detected in Atlantic salmon from all counties included in the study and in 31 of 36 examined rivers. PRV was also detected in sea-trout but not in anadromous Arctic char. In this study, the mean proportion of PRV positives was 13.4% in wild Atlantic salmon, 24.0% in salmon released for stock enhancement purposes and 55.2% in escaped farmed salmon. Histopathological examination of hearts from 21 PRV-positive wild and one cultivated salmon (Ct values ranging from 17.0 to 39.8) revealed no HSMI-related lesions. Thus, it seems that PRV is widespread in Atlantic salmon returning to Norwegian rivers, and that the virus can be present in high titres without causing lesions traditionally associated with HSMI. PMID:23167652

  19. Two Virtual Journeys: Salmon, Spirit of the Land and Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Even though most people have returned to work and school, the opportunity for travel and adventure still exists...via computer. A northern adventure comes from OneWorldJourneys.com, which is presenting a ten-day photo-documentary Webcast from the coastal waters and rivers of British Columbia's Great Bear Rainforest. This virtual journey, focuses on the natural history and future of the wild Pacific Salmon. Visitors to the site can learn how the salmon is a critical link in the health of an entire ecosystem -- a particularly timely issue in the wake of water rights and forestry disputes in the Northwest. Text, gorgeous photos, and videos can be viewed in either high or low bandwidth formats (Flash, QuickTime, RealPlayer), and the site is also available in Japanese. Salmon is the fifth Webcast expedition produced by OneWorldJourneys.com. The last OneWorldJourneys Webcast that we featured was "Jaguar: Lord of the Mayan Jungle," reviewed in the April 27, 2001 Scout Report.

  20. Transmission of Loma salmonae (Microsporea) to chinook salmon in sea water.

    PubMed Central

    Kent, M L; Dawe, S C; Speare, D J

    1995-01-01

    Transmission studies were conducted to determine if Loma salmonae was transmissible in sea water. Transmission of L. salmonae to chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) held in sea water was achieved by exposing fish to macerated, infected gill tissue. Fish were exposed in seawater in a flow-through aquarium, and the infection was detected as soon as 5 wk after exposure. Heavily infected fish exhibited numerous xenomas in the branchial arteries, central venous sinusoids, and within the blood channels of the lamellae. The pathological changes were similar to those seen in pen-reared salmon with L. salmonae infections. The infection was not observed in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi, family Clupeidae), or shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata, family Embiotocidae), experimentally exposed using identical methods. This study suggests that L. salmonae is transmissible to chinook salmon in seawater netpens. Fish farmers and fish health specialists should consider this possibility when developing and implementing strategies to control the infection. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7728735

  1. Organohalogen concentrations and feeding status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Baltic Sea during the spawning run.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Pekka J; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Pöyhönen, Outi; Ikonen, Erkki; Keinänen, Marja

    2014-01-15

    Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery. PMID:24056447

  2. HERRING OF THE NORTH EUROPEAN BASIN AND ADJACENT SEAS

    E-print Network

    327 HERRING OF THE NORTH EUROPEAN BASIN AND ADJACENT SEAS Translations from the Russian -EVROPEYSKOGO BASSEYNA I SMEZH^fYKH MOREY THE HERRING OF THE NORTH EUROPEAN BASIN AND ADJACENT SEAS Translations from Preface 3 The Fundamental Stage of the Life-cycle of Atlantic -Scandinavian Herring - by Yu. Yu. Marti 5

  3. Seasonal increase in sea temperature triggers pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms.

    PubMed

    Stene, A; Bang Jensen, B; Knutsen, Ø; Olsen, A; Viljugrein, H

    2014-08-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease causing negative impacts on economy of salmon farms and fish welfare. Its transmission route is horizontal, and water transport by ocean currents is an important factor for transmission. In this study, the effect of temperature changes on PD dynamics in the field has been analysed for the first time. To identify the potential time of exposure to the virus causing PD, a hydrodynamic current model was used. A cohort of salmon was assumed to be infected the month it was exposed to virus from other infective cohorts by estimated water contact. The number of months from exposure to outbreak defined the incubation period, which was used in this investigation to explore the relationship between temperature changes and PD dynamics. The time of outbreak was identified by peak in mortality based on monthly records from active sites. Survival analysis demonstrated that cohorts exposed to virus at decreasing sea temperature had a significantly longer incubation period than cohorts infected when the sea temperature was increasing. Hydrodynamic models can provide information on the risk of being exposed to pathogens from neighbouring farms. With the knowledge of temperature-dependent outbreak probability, the farmers can emphasize prophylactic management, avoid stressful operations until the sea temperature is decreasing and consider removal of cohorts at risk, if possible. PMID:23980568

  4. Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -

    E-print Network

    Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

  5. European Enclosed and Semi-enclosed Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkki Leppäkoski; Tamara Shiganova; Boris Alexandrov

    The brackish-water seas of Europe, i.e. the Black (including the Sea of Azov), Caspian and Baltic Seas, can be regarded as\\u000a “brackish-water islands”, locked in by land masses and isolated from other major brackish-water bodies by physical (ocean\\u000a and land) barriers. During the last two centuries, more than 300 alien species have been recorded in the four seas. Introduced\\u000a species

  6. Temporal variation of genetic composition in Atlantic salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin: influence of anthropogenic factors?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the temporal patterns of population genetic structure assist in evaluating the consequences of demographic and environmental changes on population stability and persistence. In this study, we evaluated the level of temporal genetic variation in 16 anadromous and 2 freshwater salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin (Russia) using samples collected between 1995 and 2008. To assess whether the genetic stability was affected by human activity, we also evaluated the effect of fishing pressure on the temporal genetic variation in this region. Results We found that the genetic structure of salmon populations in this region was relatively stable over a period of 1.5 to 2.5 generations. However, the level of temporal variation varied among geographical regions: anadromous salmon of the Kola Peninsula exhibited a higher stability compared to that of the anadromous and freshwater salmon from the Karelian White Sea coast. This discrepancy was most likely attributed to the higher census, and therefore effective, population sizes of the populations inhabiting the rivers of the Kola Peninsula compared to salmon of the Karelian White Sea coast. Importantly, changes in the genetic diversity observed in a few anadromous populations were best explained by the increased level of fishing pressure in these populations rather than environmental variation or the negative effects of hatchery escapees. The observed population genetic patterns of isolation by distance remained consistent among earlier and more recent samples, which support the stability of the genetic structure over the period studied. Conclusions Given the increasing level of fishing pressure in the Western White Sea Basin and the higher level of temporal variation in populations exhibiting small census and effective population sizes, further genetic monitoring in this region is recommended, particularly on populations from the Karelian rivers. PMID:24053319

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of intestinal bacteria of freshwater salmon Salmo salar and sea trout Salmo trutta trutta and diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesta Skrodenyt?-Arba?iauskien?; Aniolas Sruoga; Dalius Butkauskas; Kestutis Skrupskelis

    2008-01-01

    The microbial diversity of culturable intestinal microflora of wild freshwater salmonid fishes salmon Salmo salar and sea trout Salmo trutta trutta juveniles (0+ years old) from the same environmental conditions were investigated by means of molecular identification techniques\\u000a and analysis of diet. Significant differences in the intestinal microbial diversity were observed in different fish species.\\u000a The predominant group in the

  8. Characterization of extreme sea level at the European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Alberto; Jorda, Gabriel; Mathis, Moritz; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high sea levels arise as a combination of storm surges and particular high tides events. Future climate simulations not only project changes in the atmospheric circulation, which induces changes in the wind conditions, but also an increase in the global mean sea level by thermal expansion and ice melting. Such changes increase the risk of coastal flooding, which represents a possible hazard for human activities. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pattern of sea level variability and long-term trends at coastal areas. In order to analyze further extreme sea level events at the European coast in the future climate projections, a new setup for the global ocean model MPIOM coupled with the regional atmosphere model REMO is prepared. The MPIOM irregular grid has enhanced resolution in the European region to resolve the North and the Mediterranean Seas (up to 11 x 11 km at the North Sea). The ocean model includes as well the full luni-solar ephemeridic tidal potential for tides simulation. To simulate the air-sea interaction, the regional atmospheric model REMO is interactively coupled to the ocean model over Europe. Such region corresponds to the EuroCORDEX domain with a 50 x 50 km resolution. Besides the standard fluxes of heat, mass (freshwater), momentum and turbulent energy input, the ocean model is also forced with sea level pressure, in order to be able to capture the full variation of sea level. The hydrological budget within the study domain is closed using a hydrological discharge model. With this model, simulations for present climate and future climate scenarios are carried out to study transient changes on the sea level and extreme events. As a first step, two simulations (coupled and uncoupled ocean) driven by reanalysis data (ERA40) have been conducted. They are used as reference runs to evaluate the climate projection simulations. For selected locations at the coast side, time series of sea level are separated on its different components: tides, short time atmospheric process influence (1-30 days), seasonal cycle and interannual variability. Every sea level component is statistically compared with data from local tide gauges.

  9. Multivariate evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment efficacy of cypermethrin against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is the most important ectoparasite of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norwegian aquaculture. Control of sea lice is primarily dependent on the use of delousing chemotherapeutants, which are both expensive and toxic to other wildlife. The method most commonly used for monitoring treatment effectiveness relies on measuring the percentage reduction in the mobile stages of Lepeophtheirus salmonis only. However, this does not account for changes in the other sea lice stages and may result in misleading or incomplete interpretation regarding the effectiveness of treatment. With the aim of improving the evaluation of delousing treatments, we explored multivariate analyses of bath treatments using the topical pyrethroid, cypermethrin, in salmon pens at five Norwegian production sites. Results Conventional univariate analysis indicated reductions of over 90% in mobile stages at all sites. In contrast, multivariate analyses indicated differing treatment effectiveness between sites (p-value?salmon aquaculture. PMID:24354936

  10. [Ultrastructure of chloride cell of gill epithelium and body ionic composition of the fry of two species of Pacific salmon during migration to the sea].

    PubMed

    Maksimovich, A A

    2010-01-01

    Pacific salmon fry were collected in 2001-2002 in the rivers of Southern Sakhalin on the way of their migration to the sea. The comparison of the data on ionic content of chum salmon fry carcass, received in 2002, with those obtained in 2001, has shown that the dispersion of ion concentration values in 2002 samples was significantly smaller than in 2001. Similar results were obtained when the mass of smolts was compared. The significant decrease of Na+ concentration in chum salmon fry during migration to the sea supports the idea on an imperative stimulus formation by means of change of Na+ concentration in migrating fish. The analysis of gill chloride cell (CC) structure in chum salmon and masu salmon fry in fresh and salty water has shown, that in fishes from fresh water CC were located mainly in primary lamellae, at the basis of secondary lamellae. As a rule, CC are large, have a large nucleus with an active chromatin and a light cytoplasm with numerous elongated mitochondria containing dense matrix. Secondary lamellae are short, 1-3 cells thick and practically contain no CC. In some fishes secondary lamellae were more numerous and longer. Some part of secondary lamellae contained large CC; in this place their width was approximately 2 times greater. As a whole, CC number in these fishes was increased. Analyzing all the material received during 2 years, with respect to CC cell structure and functions, a conclusion was drawn that freshwater fry of two salmon species, both chum salmon and masu salmon, caught at the same time and practically in the same reservoirs, could be divided into 3 groups. Masu salmon underyearlings are characterized, as a rule, by a thickened secondary lamellae epithelium, which, however contained few CC. In the chum salmon smolts, on the contrary, epithelium was thin, but contained numerous CC, which demonstrate active structure in the beginning of migration to the sea. But as they approached the sea (and migration duration increased), CC activity fell, though their number remained unchanged. It was only after fish transition to the sea, that CC activity grew again, though their number remained the same. PMID:20593586

  11. Assessment of MERIS reflectance data as processed with SeaDAS over the European seas.

    PubMed

    Mélin, Frédéric; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-François; Bailey, Sean; Franz, Bryan; Voss, Kenneth; Flora, Stephanie; Grant, Mike

    2011-12-01

    The uncertainties associated with MERIS remote sensing reflectance (RRS) data derived from the SeaWiFS Data Analysis System (SeaDAS) are assessed with field observations. In agreement with the strategy applied for other sensors, a vicarious calibration is conducted using in situ data from the Marine Optical BuoY offshore Hawaii, and leads to vicarious adjustment factors departing from 1 by 0.2% to 1.6%. The three field data sets used for validation have been collected at fixed stations in the northern Adriatic Sea and the Baltic Sea, and in a variety of European waters in the Baltic, Black, Mediterranean and North Seas. Excluding Baltic waters, the mean absolute relative difference |?| between satellite and field data is 10-14% for the spectral interval 490-560 nm, 16-18% at 443 nm, and 24-26% at 413 nm. In the Baltic Sea, the |?| values are much higher for the blue bands characterized by low RRS amplitudes, but similar or lower at 560 and 665 nm. For the three validation sets, the root-mean-square differences decrease from approximately 0.0013 sr-1 at 413 nm to 0.0002 sr-1 at 665 nm, and are found similar or lower than those obtained for SeaWiFS or MODIS-Aqua. As derived from SeaDAS, the RRS records associated with these three missions thus provide a multi-mission data stream of consistent accuracy. PMID:22273959

  12. European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

    2014-05-01

    The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

  13. Summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals in polar ecosystems: a comparison between the European Arctic seas and the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude R Joiris

    2000-01-01

    The summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals was quantitatively established both in Antarctica (Weddell Sea) and in the European Arctic: Greenland, Norwegian and Barents seas. Data can directly be compared, since the same transect counts were applied by the same team from the same icebreaking ship in both regions. The main conclusion is that densities of seabirds and

  14. Salmon lice--impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-03-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  15. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J

    2009-10-01

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry euro300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

  16. Are invasive species most successful in habitats of low native species richness across European brackish water seas?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjo Paavola; Sergej Olenin; Erkki Leppäkoski

    2005-01-01

    European brackish water seas (Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Azov, Caspian Sea) are subject to intense invasion of non-indigenous species (NIS). In these seas, salinity is the most important range limiting factor and native species seem to reach a minimum species richness at intermediate salinities. This trend, revealed by Remane in 1934 and later on confirmed by many

  17. Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization by European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) Juveniles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Enes; S. Panserat; S. Kaushik; A. Oliva-Teles

    2011-01-01

    European sea bass and gilthead sea bream are two major marine finfish species reared in the Mediterranean region. Feeds for these species have high protein levels, usually supplied by fish meal. Research on alternatives to fish meal is mainly focused on plant protein feedstuffs, which are generally high in carbohydrates. Therefore, understanding the potential use of dietary carbohydrate is crucial

  18. Physiology and behaviour of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) smolts during commercial land and sea transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nomura; K. A. Sloman; M. A. G. von Keyserlingk; A. P. Farrell

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the physiology (plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, potassium, sodium and chloride concentrations) and behaviour (underwater video footage) of commercially produced Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during transport from freshwater farms to saltwater net pens. Smolts were transported by truck in closed tanks from two freshwater farms to the dock (30–60 min), and then in the flow-through cargo holds of

  19. Warming shelf seas drive the subtropicalization of European pelagic fish communities.

    PubMed

    Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57,870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. PMID:25230844

  20. Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the Southern European Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for wider use. A multi-stakeholder involvement at multidisciplinary level as well as an integrated cross-sectoral approach has to take place to achieve the best results and opportunities. The emerging new knowledge and new tools from all actions will help the scientific community to create more accurate and dynamic forecasting of possible risk scenarios. Using this input coupled with socio-economic analysis, a substantial science-based advice to policy and decision-makers can be provided, whenever is needed. It is more than certain that this process will help to meet the challenges ahead and increase the potential of the blue growth in the SES, which could, eventually, represent a significant share of the actual countries' growth in the two basins.

  1. Copepods associated with polychaete worms in European seas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Sikorski, Andrey; O'Reilly, Myles; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 18 species of copepods that live in symbiotic association with polychaete worms in European Seas. Three new genera and six new species of the family Clausiidae Giesbrecht, 1895 are described: Boreoclausia rectan. gen. et n. sp. is described from Galathowenia fragilis (Nilson & Holthe, 1985), Boreoclausia holmesi n. gen. et n. sp.is described from Myriochele danielsseni Hansen, 1879, Sheaderia bifida n. gen. et n. sp. from Euclymene oerstedii (Claparède, 1863), Vivgottoia garwoodi n. gen. et n. sp., was found inside the tail fragment of a terebellid host (probably Phisidia aurea Southward, 1956), Rhodinicola tenuis n. sp. from an unknown host, and R. similis n. sp., from Rhodine gracilor (Tauber, 1879). In addition, four other clausiid species, Clausia lubbockii Claparède, 1863, Mesnilia cluthae (T. and A.Scott, 1896), Rhodinicola gibbosus Bresciani, 1964 and R. rugosum (Giesbrecht, 1895), are redescribed in detail on the basis of newly collected material. The previously-unknown hosts of C. lubbockii were found to be species of the spionid polychaete genus Dipolydora Verrill, 1881. Clausia uniseta Bocquet & Stock, 1960 were recognized as a junior subjective synonym of C. lubbockii, and Mesnilia martinensis Canu, 1898 was recognized as a junior subjective synonym of M. cluthae. The sole species of the monotypic family Anomoclausiidae Gotto, 1964, Anomoclausia indrehusae Gotto, 1964, is redescribed based on new material. The host of A. indrehusae, reported here for the first time, is the spionid Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata (Okuda, 1937). Four new species of the family Nereicolidae Claus, 1875 are described, three belonging to the genus Anomopsyllus Sars, 1921: Anomopsyllus bifurcus n. sp. from Notomastus latericeus M. Sars, 1851, A. geminus n. sp. from Ampharete lindstroemi Malmgren, 1867, and A. hamiltonae n. sp., from Mugga wahrbergi Eliasson, 1955. The fourth new species is Vectoriella gabesensis n. sp., both sexes of which are described from the paraonid Aricidea catherinae Laubier, 1967 collected in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Tunisia. Another nereicolid, Sigecheres brittae Bresciani, 1964 is redescribed based on new material collected from the type host Sige fusigera Malmgren, 1865. It is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of Nereicola concinna T. Scott, 1902 and the valid name of this taxon becomes Sigecheres concinna (T. Scott, 1902) new combination. A new species of the family Spiophanicolidae Ho, 1984, Spiophanicola atlanticus n. sp., is described based on European material. Previously European material of Spiophanicola Ho, 1984 has been reported as S. spinulosus Ho, 1984, but based on consistent differences between the Californian S. spinulosus and material from Norway and the British Isles, there is sufficient justification to establish a new species for the European material. Finally one new genus and species is described which cannot be placed, with confidence, in any existing family. This new parasite, Notomasticola frondosus n. gen. et n. sp., is based on material from two hosts, a spionid (Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata) and a capitellid (Notomastus latericeus). It is highly derived and may represent a terminal branch within an existing family. The cluster of families using polychaetes as hosts is in need of revision based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. PMID:25340192

  2. From the European slope to the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Andy; Porter, Marie

    2015-04-01

    The European slope current is a density driven poleward current tracing the shelf edge from the Bay of Biscay into the Nordic Seas. This current is not entirely coherent along its length and is known to be disrupted by the wind, bathymetric irregularities and local circulation, potentially providing a source of relatively warm and nutrient rich water to the local shelf. On the Malin Shelf, to the north of Ireland and the west of Scotland, persistent intrusions of oceanic water occur onto the shelf near a bend in the slope. Additional pathways onto the shelf result from strong wind events, which cause ingress of slope water at multiple locations, while eddies in the Rockall Trough are known to pull water off the slope into deeper, abyssal regions. In July 2013, 30 surface drifters, 15 drogued at 15 m and 15 at 70 m, were deployed on the Malin Shelf slope. Of these drifters, all of those drogued at 15 m and 10 of those drogued at 70 m moved north-eastward from their release onto the shelf. The majority crossed onto the shelf within a relatively small area, within a 30km radius of 55.5°N, 10°W, and continued as a coherent group along the edge of the Irish coastal front for approximately 38 days. This current, estimated to transport approximately 0.5 Sv of water towards the Scottish coast, follows the Irish Coastal front and then the Islay front until it bifurcates around the Outer Hebrides, with half of the drifters passing inside, to the east through the Minch, and half passing outside, to the west. The control over the path taken is likely to have been the position and strength of the Islay Front. The tendency for the shallow drifters to cross onto the shelf more readily than the deeper ones suggests that the ingress onto the shelf varies with depth and is strongest at the surface. The deeper drifters generally spent longer in the slope region and were frequently pulled into the Rockall Trough. The drifter trajectories highlight a pathway for surface water (15 m) from the European slope, around the Scottish coast and islands and into the North Sea. Highly variable subsurface (70 m) water movement is also seen, with flow both onto and away from the shelf as well as stagnation at points along the slope.

  3. Salmon on the Columbia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rick Thomas

    This interdisciplinary unit explores aspects of the history of salmon in the Columbia Basin. The materials provided for this unit are primarily social studies related, but include topics in both math and science and. Students have the opportunity to explore data using GIS mapping technology. The learning goals include: understanding the historical, cultural, and economic importance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin to both native and European immigrant populations; identifying technological, economic, and environmental factors that contributed to the decline in salmon populations in the Columbia Basin; use GIS and graphing software to analyze and interpret factors related to changes in the Columbia River salmon population over the last century and describe these phenomena in narrative, graphical or mathematical terms as appropriate; and evaluate the effectiveness of recent actions in helping to restore Columbia Basin salmon populations.

  4. The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields

    E-print Network

    Koek, Frits

    The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP recon- structions lack data

  5. Lack of genetic structure in the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) across European seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Stopar; Andreja Ramšak; Peter Trontelj; Alenka Malej

    2010-01-01

    The genetic structure of the holopelagic scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca was inferred based on the study of 144 adult medusae. The areas of study were five geographic regions in two European seas (Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea). A 655-bp sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and a 645-bp sequence of two nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2)

  6. Migration of the European sea bass Cefas have been collaborating with IFREMER scientists and the Breton

    E-print Network

    Migration of the European sea bass Cefas have been collaborating with IFREMER scientists bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Although a popular and important catch for both commercial and recreational, in both space and time. We do know, however, that sea bass are highly sensitive to changes in seawater

  7. Quantifying the Ocean, Freshwater and Human Effects on Year-to-Year Variability of One-Sea-Winter Atlantic Salmon Angled in Multiple Norwegian Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J.; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Storvik, Geir O.; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse) from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (1979–2007). Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching for solutions to conserve this species. PMID:21897867

  8. [Long-term changes in the epizootic of juvenile salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Keret River (White Sea basin) depending on the invasion of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957].

    PubMed

    Ieshko, E P; Shul'man, B S; Shchurov, I L; Barskaia, Iu Iu

    2008-01-01

    Results of long-term investigations on the population dynamics of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Keret' river (White Sea drainage basin) depending on the invading of Gyrodactylus salaris (Malmberg, 1957) and mass infestation of salmon with this parasite are presented. Gyrodactylus salaris was for the first time recorded in the Keret' river in 1992. During the period lesser than five years the parasite spread along the river. The rise in the infestation of salmon parr with G. salaris caused death of the fish host. As the abundance of juveniles decreased, adult salmon stocks dropped more than 25 times. It was shown, that after the decreasing in number of salmon juveniles following acute epizootic, infestation parameters dropped, and in some years G. salaris was not even found at all. PMID:19198173

  9. Salmon Subbasin Management Plan

    E-print Network

    Salmon Subbasin Management Plan May 2004 # # # # # # # # # # # LemhiRiverBig Creek PahsimeroiRiver PantherCreek LittleSalmonRiver RapidRiver E.Fk.SalmonRiver Chamberlain Creek N.Fk. SalmonRiver MidFkSalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver S.Fk.SalmonRiver Salmon River Salmon River IDAHO LEMHI CUSTER VALLEY

  10. [Peculiarities of the biology and parasite fauna of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Pista River (White Sea Basin), according to the Gyrodactylus salaris infestation].

    PubMed

    Ieshko, E P; Shchurov, I L; Shul'man, B S; Barskaia, Iu Iu; Lebedeva, D I; Shirokov, V A

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile salmon Salmo salar m. sebago Girard from the Pista River system (the White Sea Basin) was investigated. The data on species composition and occurrence peculiarities of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 are given. This monogenean is the alien species for the river system and it is recorded for the first time. It is shown that the distribution of the parasite abundance is can be described as the negative binomial distribution; variations of its parameters (k and p) were also characterized. Parasitological data obtained, as well as the data describing the characteristics of growth and age structure of juvenile salmon population, suggest the potential influence of G. salaris infection on the degree of survival of fishes in the lake-river system examined. PMID:23285741

  11. Physiology and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during commercial land and sea transport.

    PubMed

    Nomura, M; Sloman, K A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Farrell, A P

    2009-02-16

    This study examined the physiology (plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, potassium, sodium and chloride concentrations) and behaviour (underwater video footage) of commercially produced Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during transport from freshwater farms to saltwater net pens. Smolts were transported by truck in closed tanks from two freshwater farms to the dock (30-60 min), and then in the flow-through cargo holds of a live-haul vessel, the Sterling Carrier, to the saltwater net pens (~2 h). Some fish were dockside in the vessel for up to 8 h while successive deliveries were loaded into the holds. Fish and water were sampled both before and after truck transport, and then at several time points aboard the vessel. Analysis of plasma constituents showed modest primary and secondary stress responses due to loading and truck transport, and the recovery that occurred dockside in the live-haul vessel was maintained when the vessel was underway. Underwater video footage revealed behavioural differences between fish from the two freshwater facilities that were not evident from the physiological measurements, but the behaviours observed during transport on a live-haul vessel were consistent with a non-stressful environment. Although smolts were subjected to moderately stressful conditions during loading and trucking, they began to recover rapidly aboard the Sterling Carrier. We therefore conclude that smolt transport, as currently conducted by our industry partner, appears to reflect good fish welfare. PMID:18955074

  12. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and trace elements in wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) off European estuaries.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Joseph G; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Lepage, Mario; Das, Krishna

    2011-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides like dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), aldrin, dieldrin and trace elements (Cd, Cu, Se, Pb, Zn and Hg) were analysed in the muscle of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sampled in Atlantic coastal regions near several important European river mouths (Gironde, Charente, Loire, Seine and Scheldt). High contamination levels were measured in the muscles of European sea bass sampled in the coastal regions near those river mouths (e.g. ? ICES PCB=133-10,478 ?g kg(-1) lw and Hg=250-2000 ?g kg(-1) dw). The Scheldt and the Seine are still among the most contaminated estuaries in Europe. Each region presented their specific contamination patterns reflecting different sources due to the input of the respective rivers. As fish and fishery products are the main contributors of the total dietary intake of organochlorinated pollutants, regular consumption of European sea bass with the reported contamination levels may represent a significant exposure route for the general human population. PMID:21719074

  13. SeaDataNet II - EMODNet Bathymetry - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management and a digital high resolution bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.6 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for an active role in the data management component of the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. Starting 2009 EMODnet pilot portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are being expanded to all European sea regions as part of EMODnet Phase 2, which started mid 2013. EMODnet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODnet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy between SeaDataNet and EMODnet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place as part of phase 2. The presentation will highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II and give further details and views on the new EMODNet Digital Bathymetry for European seas as to be released early 2015.

  14. Seabed substrates and sedimentation rates of the European Seas - EMODnet-Geology2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Alanen, Ulla; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet Geology 2

    2015-04-01

    Seas and oceans are important for us. However, increased human activities in marine and coastal areas have altered marine ecosystems worldwide. To ensure sustainable use of marine resources and health of the seas, improved management is needed. The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive targets to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of the EU's marine waters by 2020. However, it has been acknowledged that the poor access to data on the marine environment was a handicap to government decision-making, a barrier to scientific understanding and a break on the economy. The effective management of the broad marine areas requires spatial datasets covering all European marine areas. As a consequence the European Commission adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) in 2009 to combine dispersed marine data into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 and it will run for 3 years. The partnership includes 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. The partners, mainly from the marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - EuroGeoSurveys), aim to assemble marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). In comparison to the urEMODnet project (2009-2012) the data will be more detailed and aim to cover much larger area. The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first seabed substrate map for the European Seas, as well as data/map showing sedimentation rates at the seabed. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on seabed substrates will be delivered in the portal, in addition to the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase that will be updated with data from the new sea areas. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations. Further information about the EMODnet-Geology 2 project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/).

  15. The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?

    PubMed Central

    Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

  16. Contemporary ocean warming and freshwater conditions are related to later sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon spawning in Norwegian rivers

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik,, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Atlantic salmon populations are reported to be declining throughout its range, raising major management concerns. Variation in adult fish abundance may be due to variation in survival, growth, and timing of life history decisions. Given the complex life history, utilizing highly divergent habitats, the reasons for declines may be multiple and difficult to disentangle. Using recreational angling data of two sea age groups, one-sea-winter (1SW) and two-sea-winter (2SW) fish originated from the same smolt year class, we show that sea age at maturity of the returns has increased in 59 Norwegian rivers over the cohorts 1991–2005. By means of linear mixed-effects models we found that the proportion of 1SW fish spawning in Norway has decreased concomitant with the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea. Furthermore, the decrease in the proportion of 1SW fish was influenced by freshwater conditions as measured by water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration. These results suggest that part of the variability in age at maturity can be explained by the large-scale changes occurring in the north-eastern Atlantic pelagic food web affecting postsmolt growth, and by differences in river conditions influencing presmolt growth rate and later upstream migration. PMID:23139878

  17. 2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008

    E-print Network

    2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008 Report to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council on the Bering Sea Pollock Intercooperative Salmon Avoidance Agreement Karl Haflinger, Sea State (BSAI) Pollock Intercoop Salmon Avoidance Agreement ("ICA"). During the course of the fishery

  18. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiricka, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.jiricka@boku.ac.at; Proebstl, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.proebstl@boku.ac.at

    2013-01-15

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  19. Intestinal barrier function of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post smolts is reduced by common sea cage environments and suggested as a possible physiological welfare indicator

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fish farmed under high intensity aquaculture conditions are subjected to unnatural environments that may cause stress. Therefore awareness of how to maintain good health and welfare of farmed fish is important. For Atlantic salmon held in sea cages, water flow, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature will fluctuate over time and the fish can at times be exposed to detrimentally low DO levels and high temperatures. This experimental study investigates primary and secondary stress responses of Atlantic salmon post smolts to long-term exposure to reduced and fluctuating DO levels and high water temperatures, mimicking situations in the sea cages. Plasma cortisol levels and cortisol release to the water were assessed as indicators of the primary stress response and intestinal barrier integrity and physiological functions as indicators of secondary responses to changes in environmental conditions. Results Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish exposed to low (50% and 60% saturation) DO levels and low temperature (9°C), at days 9, 29 and 48. The intestinal barrier function, measured as electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of mannitol at the end of the experiment, were reduced at 50% DO, in both proximal and distal intestine. When low DO levels were combined with high temperature (16°C), plasma cortisol levels were elevated in the cyclic 1:5 h at 85%:50% DO group and fixed 50% DO group compared to the control (85% DO) group at day 10 but not at later time points. The intestinal barrier function was clearly disturbed in the 50% DO group; TER was reduced in both intestinal regions concomitant with increased paracellular permeability in the distal region. Conclusions This study reveals that adverse environmental conditions (low water flow, low DO levels at low and high temperature), that can occur in sea cages, elicits primary and secondary stress responses in Atlantic salmon post smolts. The intestinal barrier function was significantly affected by prolonged hypoxic stress even when no primary stress response was observed. This suggests that intestinal barrier function is a good experimental marker for evaluation of chronic stress and that it can be a valuable tool to study the impact of various husbandry conditions on health and welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:21062437

  20. Seasonal sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and at the Atlantic European coasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Tsimplis; A. G. P. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Hourly sea level data from tide gauges and a barotropic model are used to explore the spatial and temporal variability of sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian peninsula on seasonal time scales. Significant spatial variability is identified in the observations in all seasons. The Atlantic stations show larger extreme values than the

  1. Preliminary nutritional evaluation of pea seed meal ( Pisum sativum) for juvenile European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gouveia; S. J Davies

    1998-01-01

    An 84-day feeding and digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the use of a pea seed derived meal in experimental diets for European sea bass fingerlings of initial weight 10 g. It was demonstrated that up to 40% pea seed meal inclusion was feasible in diets allowing for a 12% reduction in fish meal content and a 25% substitution of

  2. Experimental susceptibility of European sea bass and Senegalese sole to different betanodavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Souto, S; Lopez-Jimena, B; Alonso, M C; García-Rosado, E; Bandín, I

    2015-05-15

    The susceptibility of juvenile European sea bass and Senegalese sole to three VNNV isolates (a reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV, as well as the parental RGNNV and SJNNV genotypes) has been evaluated by challenges using two inoculation ways (bath and intramuscular injection). The results demonstrate that these two fish species are susceptible to all the VNNV isolates tested. In European sea bass, RGNNV caused the highest cumulative mortality, reaching maximum values of viral RNA and titres. Although the SJNNV isolate did not provoke mortality or clinical signs of disease in this fish species, viral production in survivor fish was determined; on the other hand the reassortant isolate did cause mortality and clinical signs of disease, although less evident than those recorded after RGNNV infection. These results suggest that the changes suffered by the SJNNV RNA2 segment of the reassortant isolate, compared to the parental SJNNV, may have involved host-specificity and/or virulence determinants for European sea bass. Regarding Senegalese sole, although the three isolates caused 100% mortality, the reassortant strain provoked the most acute symptoms, and more quickly, especially in the bath challenge. This was also the isolate showing less difference between the number of RNA copies and viral titre, reaching the highest titres of infective viral particles in nervous tissue of infected animals. The RGNNV isolate produced the lowest values of infective viral particles. All these results suggest that the RGNNV and the reassortant isolates are the most suited for infecting European sea bass and Senegalese sole, respectively. PMID:25770892

  3. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  4. New perspectives on sea use management: initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Douvere, Fanny; Ehler, Charles N

    2009-01-01

    Increased development pressures on the marine environment and the potential for multiple use conflicts, arising as a result of the current expansion of offshore wind energy, fishing and aquaculture, dredging, mineral extraction, shipping, and the need to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation, have led to increased interest in sea use planning with particular emphasis on marine spatial planning. Several European countries, on their own initiative or driven by the European Union's Marine Strategy and Maritime Policy, the Bergen Declaration of the North Sea Conference, and the EU Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, have taken global leadership in implementing marine spatial planning. Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany in the North Sea, and the United Kingdom in the Irish Sea, have already completed preliminary sea use plans and zoning proposals for marine areas within their national jurisdictions. This paper discusses the nature and context of marine spatial planning, the international legal and policy framework, and the increasing need for marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, the authors review briefly three marine spatial planning initiatives in the North Sea and conclude with some initial lessons learned from these experiences. PMID:18786758

  5. SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. • As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common SeaDataNet formats and procedures and software tools for preparing and updating metadata, processing and quality control of data, and presentation of data in viewing services, and for production of data products. • SeaDataNet maintains and operates several discovery services with overviews of marine organisations in Europe and their engagement in marine research projects, managing large datasets, and data acquisition by research vessels and monitoring programmes for the European seas and global oceans: o European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) (at present > 4300 entries from more than 600 data holding centres in Europe) is a comprehensive reference to the marine data and sample collections held within Europe providing marine scientists, engineers and policy makers with a simple discovery mechanism. It covers all marine environmental disciplines. This needs regular maintenance. o European Directory of Marine Environmental Research Projects (EDMERP) (at present > 2200 entries from more than 300 organisations in Europe) gives an overview of research projects relating to the marine environment, that are relevant in the context of data sets and data acquisition activities ( cruises, in situ monitoring networks, ..) that are covered in SeaDataNet. This needs regular updating, following activities by dataholding institutes for preparing metadata references for EDMED, EDIOS, CSR and CDI. o Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) directory (at present > 43000 entries) provides a coarse-grained inventory for tracking oceanographic data collected by research vessels. o European Directory of Oceanographic Observing Systems (EDIOS) (at present > 10000 entries) is an initiative of EuroGOOS and gives an overview of the ocean measuring and monitoring systems operated by European countries. • European Directory of Marine Organisations (EDMO) (at present > 2000 entries) contains the contact information and activity profiles for the organisations whose data and activities are described by the discovery services. • Common Vocabularies (at present > 120000

  6. Space-time cluster analysis of sea lice infestation (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on wild juvenile Pacific salmon in the Broughton Archipelago of Canada.

    PubMed

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Revie, Crawford W

    2015-06-15

    Sea lice infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago region are known to vary spatially and temporally; however, the locations of areas associated with a high infestation level had not been investigated yet. In the present study, the multivariate spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model was used to assess spatial clustering of elevated sea lice (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon sampled between March and July of 2004 to 2012 in the Broughton Archipelago and Knight Inlet regions of British Columbia, Canada. Three covariates, seine type (beach and purse seining), fish size, and year effect, were used to provide adjustment within the analyses. The analyses were carried out across the five months/datasets and between two fish species to assess the consistency of the identified clusters. Sea lice stages were explored separately for the early life stages (non-motile) and the late life stages of sea lice (motile). Spatial patterns in fish migration were also explored using monthly plots showing the average number of each fish species captured per sampling site. The results revealed three clusters for non-motile C. clemensi, two clusters for non-motile L. salmonis, and one cluster for the motile stage in each of the sea lice species. In general, the location and timing of clusters detected for both fish species were similar. Early in the season, the clusters of elevated sea lice infestation levels on wild fish are detected in areas closer to the rivers, with decreasing relative risks as the season progresses. Clusters were detected further from the estuaries later in the season, accompanied by increasing relative risks. In addition, the plots for fish migration exhibit similar patterns for both fish species in that, as expected, the juveniles move from the rivers toward the open ocean as the season progresses The identification of space-time clustering of infestation on wild fish from this study can help in targeting investigations of factors associated with these infestations and thereby support the development of more effective sea lice control measures. PMID:25869117

  7. An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (waves and storm surge) for coastal impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of waves and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated waves (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal waves can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface waves of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear wave-wave interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time series of surge sea level component and waves (significant wave height, period and direction) at coastal locations. Altimeter observations are also considered for a spatial validation of surge and wave heights. Results obtained from this validation process show a general good agreement with observations for the European region. Finally, the hourly time series of surge and wave climate along the European coast grid-points are analyzed. Historical changes in the waves and storm surge provide a useful information for coastal impact studies since coastal flooding, beach erosion, coastal structures and physical damages in ecosystems can be affected by long-term changes in wave climate and sea levels. Reguero, B. G., Menéndez, M., Méndez, F. J. Mínguez, R. Losada, I. J. (2012). A Global Ocean Wave (GOW) calibrated reanalysis from 1948 onwards. Coastal Engineering, 65, 38-55. Cid, A., Castanedo, S., Abascal, A. J., Menéndez, M., & Medina, R. (2014). A high resolution hindcast of the meteorological sea level component for Southern Europe: the GOS dataset. Climate Dynamics, 1-18.

  8. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea...NMFS proposes to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for...

  9. 77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...a final rule to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program, which will evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for the...

  10. SeaDataNet Pan-European infrastructure for Ocean & Marine Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, G. M.; Maillard, C.; Maudire, G.; Schaap, D.; Rickards, L.; Nast, F.; Balopoulos, E.; Mikhailov, N.; Vladymyrov, V.; Pissierssens, P.; Schlitzer, R.; Beckers, J. M.; Barale, V.

    2007-12-01

    SEADATANET is developing a Pan-European data management infrastructure to insure access to a large number of marine environmental data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties), safeguard and long term archiving. Data are derived from many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. SeaDataNet allows to have information on real time and archived marine environmental data collected at a pan-european level, through directories on marine environmental data and projects. SeaDataNet allows the access to the most comprehensive multidisciplinary sets of marine in-situ and remote sensing data, from about 40 laboratories, through user friendly tools. The data selection and access is operated through the Common Data Index (CDI), XML files compliant with ISO standards and unified dictionaries. Technical Developments carried out by SeaDataNet includes: A library of Standards - Meta-data standards, compliant with ISO 19115, for communication and interoperability between the data platforms. Software of interoperable on line system - Interconnection of distributed data centres by interfacing adapted communication technology tools. Off-Line Data Management software - software representing the minimum equipment of all the data centres is developed by AWI "Ocean Data View (ODV)". Training, Education and Capacity Building - Training 'on the job' is carried out by IOC-Unesco in Ostende. SeaDataNet Virtual Educational Centre internet portal provides basic tools for informal education

  11. Doppler -- European Datum Transformation Parameters for the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenburgh, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The positioning of platforms and other constructions at distances greater than 100 km offshore is usually carried out by using the Navy Navigation Satellite System (N.N.S.S.) if high absolute accuracy is required. For legal and technical reasons, these positions must be related to the local onshore geodetic datum, usually European Datum 1950 (ED 50). The relation between satellite datum, World Geodetic Datum 1972, and ED 50 must therefore be determined with adequate accuracy. When accuracies of better than 5 m are required, inconsistencies occur owing to a systematic deviation between the British and Norwegian primary order triangulation. This paper gives a review of existing parameters, mainly for the Norwegian side, and describes how they were determined, how they should be used and how errors can be avoided.

  12. Request for a new exempted fishing permit (EFP) to continue research on salmon bycatch reduction devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one

    E-print Network

    Request for a new exempted fishing permit (EFP) to continue research on salmon bycatch reduction devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one field season to improve to Chinook salmon fishing permit for our continuing research on salmon excluders for the Bering Sea pollock fishery

  13. Two Mx genes identified in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) respond differently to VNNV infection.

    PubMed

    Novel, P; Fernández-Trujillo, M A; Gallardo-Gálvez, J B; Cano, I; Manchado, M; Buonocore, F; Randelli, E; Scapigliati, G; Alvarez, M C; Béjar, J

    2013-06-15

    Mx proteins are key components of the antiviral state triggered by interferon type I in response to viral infections. In this study, two different Mx genes have been identified in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and their sequences were cloned and characterized. MxA cDNA consists of 1881 bp coding for a putative 626 aminoacids protein, while MxB cDNA has 1920 bp and results in a protein with 639 residues. Their corresponding genomic sequences contain 3538 bp and 5326 bp, respectively, and both present 12 exons and 11 introns. The expression patterns of the two Mx genes after an in vivo challenge with the viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV), a serious pathogen in farmed European sea bass, have been characterized by real-time PCR. The results showed interesting differences in the transcription profile of both Mx, thus suggesting a differential role for each Mx isoform in the immune response of European sea bass to VNNV, and most likely in the general viral response of this species. PMID:23548865

  14. The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to underline the future challenges for European marine research in terms of the integrated coastal zone management of these highly significant coastal zones. PMID:18061212

  15. The effect of Mediterranean exchange flow on European time mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Chris W.; Bingham, Rory J.; Roussenov, Vassil; Williams, Joanne; Woodworth, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a suite of ocean model simulations and a set of dedicated twin experiments, we show that the exchange flow between the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic leads to a drop in time mean European coastal sea level along the Atlantic coast north of Gibraltar. The drop is about 7 cm along the Portuguese coast and remains apparent (though reduced) as far north as the Norwegian coast. We also show that Mediterranean time and spatial mean sea level is about 9 cm lower than it would be without the exchange flow (but assuming a small supply from the Atlantic to balance evaporation). Each of these relationships makes possible an estimate of the magnitude of the exchange flow based on sea level measurements, and estimates of 0.8 and 0.91 sverdrups are made consistent with previous determinations based mainly on current measurements in the Strait of Gibraltar.

  16. Law of the Sea and the prospects for deep-seabed mining: the position of the European Community

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper outlines the relationship between the Law of the Sea Conference and internal developments within the European Community, notably in regard to fishing. The European Community has signed the Convention, and the Declaration that was made is discussed. European participation in deep seabed mining activities is described in terms of government measures, the formation of consortia, and registration procedures. A fact sheet on the consortia, legislation of EC States, and international arrangements is given.

  17. THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

  18. SALMON: A WORLD AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

  19. Carbon flux to the deep in three open sites of the Southern European Seas (SES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogou, Alexandra; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Stavrakakis, Spyros; Calafat, Antoni M.; Stabholz, Marion; Psarra, Stella; Canals, Miquel; Heussner, Serge; Stavrakaki, Ioanna; Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the strength and efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Southern European Seas (SES), by analyzing the export of POC at three deep sites located in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED) and the Black Sea (BS). We combine estimations of satellite and algorithm-generated primary production data, calculated POC fluxes out of the euphotic layer and POC fluxes measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers during a one year period, with an ultimate goal to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of the biological pump in the SES. Annual particulate primary production based on satellite estimations (SeaWiFS) at the three sites, averages 205, 145 and 225 gC m- 2 y- 1 at the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. According to our findings, the fraction of primary production that is exported out of the euphotic zone in the SES ranges between 4.2% and 11.4%, while the fraction reaching the mesopelagic layer (1000-1400 m depth) ranges between 0.6% and 1.8%. Finally, the fraction of primary production exported at the bathypelagic layer (2000-2800 m depth) is found to be 0.6%, 0.3% and 1.4% in the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. The role of various processes responsible for the replenishment of surface waters with nutrients, giving rise to productivity episodes and organic carbon export to depth at the three SES sites is considered.

  20. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) is a long term marine data initiative from the European Commission Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE) underpinning the Marine Knowledge 2020 strategy. EMODnet is a consortium of organisations assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The main purpose of EMODnet is to unlock fragmented and hidden marine data resources and to make these available to individuals and organisations (public and private), and to facilitate investment in sustainable coastal and offshore activities through improved access to quality-assured, standardised and harmonised marine data which are interoperable and free of restrictions on use. The EMODnet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODnet is in the 2nd phase of development with seven sub-portals in operation that provide access to marine data from the following themes: bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities. EMODnet development is a dynamic process so new data, products and functionality are added regularly while portals are continuesly improved to make the service more fit for purpose and user friendly with the help of users and stakeholders. The EMODnet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets, that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the SeaDataNet Sextant data products catalogue service. The new EMODnet DTM will have a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and will cover all European sea regions. Use is made of available and gathered surveys and already more than 10.000 surveys have been indexed by 24 European data providers and originating from more than 120 organisations. Also use is made of composite DTMs as generated and maintained by several data providers for their areas of interest. Already 44 composite DTMs are included in the Sextant data products catalogue. For areas without coverage use is made of the latest global DTM of GEBCO who is partner in the EMODnet Bathymetry project. In return GEBCO integrates the EMODnet DTM to achieve an enriched and better result. The catalogue services and the generated EMODnet can be queried and browsed at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal which also provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. Activities are underway for further refinement following user feedback. The EMODnet DTM is publicly available for downloading in various formats. The presentation will highlight key details of EMODnet Bathymetry project, its portal and views on the new EMODNet Digital Bathymetry for European seas as to be released early 2015.

  1. AL ASK A SALMON alaska Salmon

    E-print Network

    189 AL ASK A SALMON UNIT 13 alaska Salmon INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon have played an important and pivotal role in the history of Alaska. Salmon, along with mining, timber, and furs, were the keystone now, the abundant salmon resources of this region continue to shape much of the con- temporary lives

  2. Modelling of European hake nurseries in the Mediterranean Sea: An ecological niche approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druon, Jean-Noël; Fiorentino, Fabio; Murenu, Matteo; Knittweis, Leyla; Colloca, Francesco; Osio, Chato; Mérigot, Bastien; Garofalo, Germana; Mannini, Alessandro; Jadaud, Angélique; Sbrana, Mario; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Carlucci, Roberto; Heikkonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    An ecological niche modelling (ENM) approach was developed to model the suitable habitat for the 0-group European hake, Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, in the Mediterranean Sea. The ENM was built combining knowledge on biological traits of hake recruits (e.g. growth, settlement, mobility and feeding strategy) with patterns of selected ecological variables (chlorophyll-a fronts and concentration, bottom depth, sea bottom current and temperature) to highlight favourable nursery habitats. The results show that hake nurseries require stable bottom temperature (11.8-15.0 °C), low bottom currents (<0.034 m s-1) and a frequent occurrence of productive fronts in low chlorophyll-a areas (0.1-0.9 mg m-3) to support a successful recruitment. These conditions mostly occur recurrently in outer shelf and shelf break areas. The prediction explains the relative balance between biotic and abiotic drivers of hake recruitment in the Mediterranean Sea and the primary role of unfavourable environmental conditions on low recruitment in specific years (i.e. 2011). The ENM outputs particularly agree spatially with biomass data of recruits, although processes such as fishing and natural mortality are not accounted for. The seasonal mapping of suitable habitats provides information on potential nurseries and recruitment carrying capacity which are relevant for spatial fisheries management of hake in the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. 75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...that pertain to the management of Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea subarea of...

  4. The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recolonizing the River Mersey in northwest England

    PubMed Central

    Ikediashi, Charles; Billington, Sam; Stevens, Jamie R

    2012-01-01

    By the 1950s, pollution had extirpated Atlantic salmon in the river Mersey in northwest England. During the 1970s, an extensive restoration program began and in 2001, an adult salmon was caught ascending the river. Subsequently, a fish trap was installed and additional adults are now routinely sampled. In this study, we have genotyped 138 adults and one juvenile salmon at 14 microsatellite loci from across this time period (2001–2011). We have used assignment analysis with a recently compiled pan-European microsatellite baseline to identify their most probable region of origin. Fish entering the Mersey appear to originate from multiple sources, with the greatest proportion (45–60%, dependent on methodology) assigning to rivers in the geographical region just north of the Mersey, which includes Northwest England and the Solway Firth. Substantial numbers also appear to originate from rivers in western Scotland, and from rivers in Wales and Southwest England; nonetheless, the number of fish originating from proximal rivers to the west of the Mersey was lower than expected. Our results suggest that the majority of salmon sampled in the Mersey are straying in a southerly direction, in accordance with the predominantly clockwise gyre present in the eastern Irish Sea. Our findings highlight the complementary roles of improving water quality and in-river navigability in restoring salmon to a river and underlines further the potential benefits of restoration over stocking as a long-term solution to declining fish stocks. PMID:23145338

  5. Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

    2014-05-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

  6. European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation.

    PubMed

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S T; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A M; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M; Bonhomme, François; Canario, Adelino V M; Reinhardt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

  7. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  8. Development of two telemetry-based systems for monitoring the feeding behaviour of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in aquaculture sea-cages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Føre; Jo Arve Alfredsen; Aage Gronningsater

    2011-01-01

    Two novel acoustic transmitter tags intended to reflect feeding behaviours in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were developed and tested in this study. Using information from the literature and video recordings of feeding salmon, measurements of swimming depth and motion (acceleration) were identified as two promising sensing principles on which to base the tag development. Video footage and laboratory

  9. PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon

    E-print Network

    181 PACIFIC COAST SALMON UNIT 12 pacific Coast Salmon Unit 12 ROBERT G. KOPE NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon support important commercial and recreational fisheries in Washington, Oregon, and California. Salmon are a vital part of the cul- ture

  10. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth performance and feed utilization by European sea bass juveniles ( Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Peres; Aires Oliva-Teles

    1999-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of the dietary lipid level on growth and feed efficiency of European sea bass juveniles. Four isonitrogenous diets (48% crude protein) with increasing dietary lipid levels (12, 18, 24 and 30% DM) were fed to satiety to triplicate groups of 25 fish (IBW=7 g) for 8 weeks. Final body weight of fish

  11. Impact of essential fatty acid deficiency and temperature on tissues' fatty acid composition of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Skalli; J. H. Robin; N. Le Bayon; H. Le Delliou; J. Person-Le Ruyet

    2006-01-01

    The effects of essential fatty acid deficiency and temperature on the fatty acid profiles of polar lipids (PL) and neutral lipids (NL) from various tissues (muscle, liver, gills, eyes and brain) of European sea bass juveniles were compared in a two factorial design. Fish (60 g) were held for 84 days at 22 or 29 °C (upper limit for growth)

  12. Exogenous 17?-oestradiol (E2) modifies thymus growth and regionalization in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Seemann, F; Knigge, T; Olivier, S; Monsinjon, T

    2015-03-01

    The effect of 17?-oestradiol (E2) on the growth of the thymus and its regionalization into cortex and medulla was investigated in juvenile European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax as they find themselves close to sources of oestrogenic pollution whilst residing in their estuarine nursery areas. While the exposure to 2, 20 and 200 ng l(-1) in 60 days post-hatch (dph) fish tended to cause a non-monotonous dose-response curve with a significant difference of the cortex size between lowest and highest exposures, the exposure to 20 ng l(-1) E2 from 90 dph onwards resulted in a distinct enlargement of the cortex. It is probable that the alteration of the cortex size also affects the T-cell differentiation and proliferation. PMID:25683570

  13. A Polygenic Hypothesis for Sex Determination in the European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    PubMed Central

    Vandeputte, Marc; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Chavanne, Hervé; Chatain, Béatrice

    2007-01-01

    Polygenic sex determination, although suspected in several species, is thought to be evolutionarily unstable and has been proven in very few cases. In the European sea bass, temperature is known to influence the sex ratio. We set up a factorial mating, producing 5.893 individuals from 253 full-sib families, all reared in a single batch to avoid any between-families environmental effects. The proportion of females in the offspring was 18.3%, with a large variation between families. Interpreting sex as a threshold trait, the heritability estimate was 0.62 ± 0.12. The observed distribution of family sex ratios was in accordance with a polygenic model or with a four-sex-factors system with environmental variance and could not be explained by any genetic model without environmental variance. We showed that there was a positive genetic correlation between weight and sex (rA = 0.50 ± 0.09), apart from the phenotypic sex dimorphism in favor of females. This supports the hypothesis that a minimum size is required for sea bass juveniles to differentiate as females. An evolution of sex ratio by frequency-dependent selection is expected during the domestication process of Dicentrarchus labrax populations, raising concern about the release of such fish in the wild. PMID:17435246

  14. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Ma Angeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed in cultured sea bass juveniles. We also studied the effect of liposome-vehiculated KZ included in medicated food on ichthyophoniasis. KZ causes clear toxic effects in D. labrax juveniles at doses >80 mg kg-1, apparent in the reduced survival of fish and histological alterations to livers, kidneys and spleens. Fish injected with Ichthyophonus and treated with KZ dosages of ?80 mg kg-1 d-1 presented lower ichthyophoniasis prevalence, fewer organs infected per fish, and fewer spores in the affected organs than the untreated fish. KZ seems to delay the onset of infection, but cannot stop further progression once established. However, this behaviour is not clearly reflected in the biometric and haematological data collected from these fish. We hypothesise that KZ's delaying effect would increase, if lower infective doses (more similar to natural situations) were used. The drug administration vehicle (liposomes vs. emulsions) did not affect the results. Our data confirm the potential utility of KZ in treating ichthyophoniasis and reveal its low toxicity for sea bass. Nevertheless, the optimal dose and appropriate application protocol remain to be determined. PMID:23999706

  15. Salmon's Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

  16. Exposure to chronic moderate hypoxia impacts physiological and developmental traits of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.

    PubMed

    Vanderplancke, Gwenaëlle; Claireaux, Guy; Quazuguel, Patrick; Huelvan, Christine; Corporeau, Charlotte; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, José-Luis

    2015-02-01

    Since European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae occurred in coastal and estuarine waters at early life stages, they are likely to be exposed to reduced dissolved oxygen waters at a sensitive developmental stage. However, the effects of hypoxia at larval stage, which depend in part on fish species, remain very poorly documented in European sea bass. In the present study, the impacts of an experimental exposure to a chronic moderate hypoxia (40 % air saturation) between 30 and 38 days post-hatching on the physiological and developmental traits of European sea bass larvae were assessed. This study was based on the investigation of survival and growth rates, parameters related to energy metabolism [Citrate Synthase (CS) and Cytochrome-c Oxidase (COX) activities], and biological indicators of the maturation of digestive function [pancreatic (trypsin, amylase) and intestinal (Alkaline Phosphatase "AP" and Aminopeptidase-N "N-LAP") enzymes activities]. While condition of hypoxia exposure did not induce any significant mortality event, lower growth rate as well as CS/COX activity ratio was observed in the Hypoxia Treatment group. In parallel, intestinal enzyme activities were also lower under hypoxia. Altogether, the present data suggest that sea bass larvae cope with moderate hypoxia by (1) reducing processes that are costly in energy and (2) regulating mitochondria functions in order to respond to energy-demand conditions. Both these effects are associated with a delay in the maturation of the digestive function. PMID:25487612

  17. Assessment of riverine load of contaminants to European seas under policy implementation scenarios: an example with 3 pilot substances.

    PubMed

    Marinov, Dimitar; Pistocchi, Alberto; Trombetti, Marco; Bidoglio, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of conventional emission scenarios is carried out targeting a possible impact of European Union (EU) policies on riverine loads to the European seas for 3 pilot pollutants: lindane, trifluralin, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The policy scenarios are investigated to the time horizon of year 2020 starting from chemical-specific reference conditions and considering different types of regulatory measures including business as usual (BAU), current trend (CT), partial implementation (PI), or complete ban (PI ban) of emissions. The scenario analyses show that the model-estimated lindane load of 745 t to European seas in 1995, based on the official emission data, would be reduced by 98.3% to approximately 12.5 t in 2005 (BAU scenario), 10 years after the start of the EU regulation of this chemical. The CT and PI ban scenarios indicate a reduction of sea loads of lindane in 2020 by 74% and 95%, respectively, when compared to the BAU estimate. For trifluralin, an annual load of approximately 61.7 t is estimated for the baseline year 2003 (BAU scenario), although the applied conservative assumptions related to pesticide use data availability in Europe. Under the PI (ban) scenario, assuming only small residual emissions of trifluralin, we estimate a sea loading of approximately 0.07 t/y. For PFOS, the total sea load from all European countries is estimated at approximately 5.8 t/y referred to 2007 (BAU scenario). Reducing the total load of PFOS below 1 t/y requires emissions to be reduced by 84%. The analysis of conventional scenarios or scenario typologies for emissions of contaminants using simple spatially explicit GIS-based models is suggested as a viable, affordable exercise that may support the assessment of implementation of policies and the identification or negotiation of emission reduction targets. PMID:23801648

  18. A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    1 A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN BRITISH COLUMBIA?" Report 1: Parasitic Sea Lice and Other Diseases of Pacific Salmon December 2012 review funded by the BC Salmon Farmers Association #12;2 Table of Contents PREAMBLE

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon

    E-print Network

    Fraser, Dylan J.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness Dylan J. Fraser,1 Adam M. Cook,1 James escapes of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recur from sea cages (Fiske et al. 2006). Escaped farmed

  20. 75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures for Groundfish...be a novel approach to managing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery...combines a limit on the amount of Chinook salmon that may be caught incidentally with...

  1. Biological responses of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    De Domenico, Elena; Mauceri, Angela; Giordano, Daniela; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Natalotto, Antonino; D'Agata, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    Multiple anthropogenic activities present along coastal environments may affect the health status of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, specimens of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed for 30 days to highly contaminated sediment collected from the industrial area between Augusta and Priolo (Syracuse, Italy), defined as the most mercury polluted site in the Mediterranean. The aim was to evaluate the responses of juvenile D. labrax to highly contaminated sediments, particularly enriched in Hg, in order to enhance the scarce knowledge on the potential compensatory mechanisms developed by organisms under severe stress conditions. Apoptotic and proliferative activities [cell turnover: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and FAS Ligand (FasL)], onset of hypoxic condition [hypoxia: Hypoxia Inducibile Factor-1? (HIF-1?)], and changes in the neuroendocrine control mechanisms [neurotransmission: Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 (5-HT3)] were investigated in sea bass gill tissues. In the specimens exposed to the polluted sediment, the occurrence of altered cell turnover may result in impaired gas exchange that leads to a condition of "functional hypoxia". Changes in neurotransmission pathways were also observed, suggesting a remodeling process as an adaptive response to increase the O2-carrying capacity and restore the normal physiological conditions of the gills. Overall, these findings demonstrated that although chronic exposure to heavy metal polluted sediments alters the functioning of both the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as plasticity of the gill epithelium, fish are able to trigger a series of physiological adjustments or adaptations interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms that enable their long-term survival. PMID:23953925

  2. Chinook Salmon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    Can painted wooden fish on a schoolyard fence change human behavior and help clean up the ocean for the real salmon? Stream of Dreams in British Columbia thinks so, and a lot of wooden fish and some 100,000 school kids later, they have some intriguing results to show for their effort. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

  3. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei) is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690) were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish. PMID:20105308

  4. Effect of meal size modulation on growth performance and feeding rhythms in European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax, L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Azzaydi; F. J Mart??nez; S Zamora; F. J Sánchez-Vázquez; J. A Madrid

    1999-01-01

    The combined effect of feeding time and meal size on the growth performance and feeding rhythms were studied in European sea bass maintained under natural summer–autumn conditions. Three feeding strategies were compared: a modulated automatic-feeding (MF), a fixed automatic-feeding (FF) and a free access to self-feeders (SF). Under MF, feed was supplied in meals of different size, three times a

  5. Effect of stocking density and feeding level on energy expenditure and stress responsiveness in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Lupatsch; G. A. Santos; J. W. Schrama; J. A. J. Verreth

    2010-01-01

    European sea bass (initial weight 72±4g) were stocked in 200-L tanks at two densities: a low density (LD) ?5.5kgm?3 and a high density (HD) ?36kgm?3. The tanks were part of a recirculation system and were equipped to carry out frequent oxygen measurements. At each density the fish were fed at increasing levels from around maintenance requirement up to apparent satiation.

  6. SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

    2009-04-01

    SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania

  7. JAPANESE MOTHERSHIP SALMON FISHERY MEANS RESEARCH FOR NMFS

    E-print Network

    JAPANESE MOTHERSHIP SALMON FISHERY MEANS RESEARCH FOR NMFS A mothership fleet that has sailed each spring for nearly 20 years from Hakodate, Japan, to fish Pacific salmon has affected significantly Pacific Ocean, between 1550 E and 1750 E. Then it expanded west- ward to the Okhotsk Sea, 1955-58, and

  8. Embryonic ionocytes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Structure and functionality.

    PubMed

    Sucré, Elliott; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Grousset, Evelyse; Cucchi-Mouillot, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Early ionocytes have been studied in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) embryos. Structural and functional aspects were analyzed and compared with those observed in the same conditions (38 ppt) in post hatching stages. Immunolocalization of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) in embryos revealed the presence of ionocytes on the yolk sac membrane from a stage 12 pair of somites (S), and an original cluster around the first gill slits from stage 14S. Histological investigations suggested that from these cells, close to the future gill chambers, originate the ionocytes observed on gill arches and gill filaments after hatching. Triple immunocytochemical staining, including NKA, various Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl? cotransporters (NKCCs) and the chloride channel "cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator" (CFTR), point to the occurrence of immature and mature ionocytes in early and late embryonic stages at different sites. These observations were completed with transmission electronic microscopy. The degree of functionality of ionocytes is discussed according to these results. Yolk sac membrane ionocytes and enteric ionocytes seem to have an early role in embryonic osmoregulation, whereas gill slits tegumentary ionocytes are presumed to be fully efficient after hatching. PMID:21261608

  9. Assessment of Salmon Stocks

    E-print Network

    Annual Assessment of Salmon Stocks and Fisheries in England and Wales 2009 #12;#12;SALMON STOCKS;Acknowledgement: This report has been compiled jointly by staff from the Cefas Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries and assessment of salmon stocks is funded by Defra. Both Cefas and the Environment Agency would like to extend

  10. Salmon Patties Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Salmon Patties Ingredients: 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 15 ounces salmon, canned 1 cup whole wheat to medium. 2. While skillet is heating, open can of salmon and add to bowl. Use a fork to remove skin to bowl with salmon. 5. Use hands to mix ingredients together and shape mixture into eight patties. 6. Add

  11. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  12. Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-01-04

    The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

  13. Reprint of: Carbon flux to the deep in three open sites of the Southern European Seas (SES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogou, Alexandra; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Stavrakakis, Spyros; Calafat, Antoni M.; Stabholz, Marion; Psarra, Stella; Canals, Miquel; Heussner, Serge; Stavrakaki, Ioanna; Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the strength and efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Southern European Seas (SES), by analyzing the export of POC at three deep sites located in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED) and the Black Sea (BS). We combine estimations of satellite and algorithm-generated primary production data, calculated POC fluxes out of the euphotic layer and POC fluxes measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers during a one year period, with an ultimate goal to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of the biological pump in the SES. Annual particulate primary production based on satellite estimations (SeaWiFS) at the three sites, averages 205, 145 and 225 gC m- 2 y- 1 at the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. According to our findings, the fraction of primary production that is exported out of the euphotic zone in the SES ranges between 4.2% and 11.4%, while the fraction reaching the mesopelagic layer (1000-1400 m depth) ranges between 0.6% and 1.8%. Finally, the fraction of primary production exported at the bathypelagic layer (2000-2800 m depth) is found to be 0.6%, 0.3% and 1.4% in the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. The role of various processes responsible for the replenishment of surface waters with nutrients, giving rise to productivity episodes and organic carbon export to depth at the three SES sites is considered.

  14. GILL NET MESH SELECTION CURVES FOR PACIFIC SALMON ON THE By ALVIN E. PETERSON, Fisher-y Biologist (Research)

    E-print Network

    GILL NET MESH SELECTION CURVES FOR PACIFIC SALMON ON THE HIGH SEAS By ALVIN E. PETERSON, Fisher-y Biologist (Research) BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES, SEA'ITLE, WASH. ABSTRACT Gill net mesh selection curves.reial Fisheries fishes experiment,ally for salmon with slI1'face gill nets on the high seas of the North Pacific

  15. GROWTH OF PREMIGRATORY CHINOOK SALMON IN SEAWATER BERNARD M. KEPSHlRE, JR., AND WILLIAM J. McNEIL'

    E-print Network

    GROWTH OF PREMIGRATORY CHINOOK SALMON IN SEAWATER BERNARD M. KEPSHlRE, JR., AND WILLIAM J. McNEIL' ABSTRACT A potential demand exists in sea farming for premigratory juvenile Pacific salmon that have been acclimated to seawater. This paper reports experiments on growth of premigratory chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus

  16. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  17. Salmon Homing Instincts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deborah Werner

    1998-01-01

    Salmon Homing Instincts is an activity that enables learners to experience what it is like to be a returning salmon attempting to find its home by smell. Scientific research suggests that salmon use the smell of water to find their home stream; even after being out in the open ocean as many as six years. The activity allows the entire class to participate in the life cycle of the Pacific salmon and the hazards (i.e. pollution) of their journey.

  18. Cooking with Canned Salmon 

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-09-10

    that might be in the canned salmon. 4. Mix the salmon, liquid, soup, bread crumbs, eggs, onion and lemon juice. 5. Press the mixture into a greased 9- by 5-inch loaf pan. 6. Bake at 375 degrees F for about 1 hour. Cool it for 10 minutes before removing... baking dish. 5. Spread the mashed potatoes over the top of the salmon mixture. ...

  19. Salmon Spread Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Salmon Spread Ingredients: 15 ounces salmon, canned 1 small onion 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 salmon and place in a bowl. Use a fork to mash bones and remove skin. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting

  20. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  1. Seasonal screening of AChE, GSH and gonad histology, in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. reared in three different fish farms.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Corsi, Ilaria; Bonacci, Stefano; Sensini, Cristiana; Cicero, Nicola; Focardi, Silvano; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to do a preliminary seasonal screening of ecotoxicological biomarkers in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax in three different fish farms, to know if the different location and typology can discriminate them. A set of selected biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, Glutathione (GSH) and gonad morphology were investigated seasonally in male European sea bass D. labrax (L.) reared in three different intensive farms: a land-based farm of cement tanks (T), an in-shore sea cages farm (C1) and an off-shore sea cages farm (C2). The results showed that both location and typology can discriminate AChE activity, GSH content and gonad morphology. Further investigation is needed to propose these biomarkers in the protocol of fish farm quality control. PMID:22533608

  2. Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms

    E-print Network

    Dill, Lawrence M.

    Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms Brendan M of pathogen transmission from farmed fish on species interactions or other ecosystem components. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch smolts are susceptible hosts to the parasitic salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis as well

  3. Effect of the Inclusion of Dried Tetraselmis suecica on Growth, Feed Utilization, and Fillet Composition of European Sea Bass Juveniles Fed Organic Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tulli; G. Chini Zittelli; G. Giorgi; B. M. Poli; E. Tibaldi; M. R. Tredici

    2012-01-01

    Dried Tetraselmis suecica was evaluated as a fish protein substitute when incorporated to replace (protein basis) 10% (TETRA10) and 20% (TETRA20) of the control diet. The diets were offered to nine groups of European sea bass (72 g) over 63 days. Test diets did not affect zootechnical performances nor carcass or fillet yields and proximate analysis of edible portion. Feeding

  4. Developmental expression of DAX1 in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: lack of evidence for sexual dimorphism during sex differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rute ST Martins; Laurence AM Deloffre; Constantinos C Mylonas; Deborah M Power; Adelino VM Canário

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DAX1 (NR0B1), a member of the nuclear receptors super family, has been shown to be involved in the genetic sex determination and in gonadal differentiation in several vertebrate species. In the aquaculture fish European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and in the generality of fish species, the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation have not been elucidated. The present study

  5. Effect of a dietary phospholipid supplementation on growth and fatty acid composition of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) juveniles from weaning onwards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Geurden; P. Coutteau; P. Sorgeloos

    1997-01-01

    Two 40-day feeding trials using extruded diets were conducted to assess the effect of a dietary phospholipid (PL) supplementation on growth, survival and fatty acid composition of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from weaning onwards. Two dietary treatments (FO and PL) were tested; both had an identical extruded basis (92.5% total diet weight) coated with a

  6. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L., Clupeidae) reveals isolated climatically vulnerable populations in the Mediterranean Sea and range expansion in the northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Debes, P V; Zachos, F E; Hanel, R

    2008-09-01

    We examined the genetic structure of the European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) by means of a 530-bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region from 210 fish originating from seven sampling localities of its distributional range. Phylogeographical analysis of 128 haplotypes showed a phylogenetic separation into two major clades with the Strait of Sicily acting as a barrier to gene flow between them. While no population differentiation was observed based on analysis of molecular variance and net nucleotide differences between samples of the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Bay of Biscay nor between the Black Sea and the Bosporus, a strong population differentiation between these samples and two samples from the Mediterranean Sea was found. Further, the biggest genetic distance was observed within the Mediterranean Sea between the populations of the Gulf of Lyon and the Adriatic Sea, indicating genetic isolation of these regions. Low genetic diversities and star-like haplotype networks of both Mediterranean Sea populations point towards recent demographic expansion scenarios after low population size, which is further supported by negative F(S) values and unimodal mismatch distributions with a low mean. Along the northeast Atlantic coast, a northwards range expansion of a large and stable population can be assumed. The history of a diverse but differentiated Black Sea population remains unknown due to uncertainties in the palaeo-oceanography of this sea. Our genetic data did not confirm the presently used classification into subspecies but are only preliminary in the absence of nuclear genetic analyses. PMID:18643878

  7. A MSFD complementary approach for the assessment of pressures, knowledge and data gaps in Southern European Seas: The PERSEUS experience.

    PubMed

    Crise, A; Kaberi, H; Ruiz, J; Zatsepin, A; Arashkevich, E; Giani, M; Karageorgis, A P; Prieto, L; Pantazi, M; Gonzalez-Fernandez, D; Ribera d'Alcalà, M; Tornero, V; Vassilopoulou, V; Durrieu de Madron, X; Guieu, C; Puig, P; Zenetos, A; Andral, B; Angel, D; Altukhov, D; Ayata, S D; Aktan, Y; Balc?o?lu, E; Benedetti, F; Bouchoucha, M; Buia, M-C; Cadiou, J-F; Canals, M; Chakroun, M; Christou, E; Christidis, M G; Civitarese, G; Coatu, V; Corsini-Foka, M; Cozzi, S; Deidun, A; Dell'Aquila, A; Dogrammatzi, A; Dumitrache, C; Edelist, D; Ettahiri, O; Fonda-Umani, S; Gana, S; Galgani, F; Gasparini, S; Giannakourou, A; Gomoiu, M-T; Gubanova, A; Gücü, A-C; Gürses, Ö; Hanke, G; Hatzianestis, I; Herut, B; Hone, R; Huertas, E; Irisson, J-O; ??inibilir, M; Jimenez, J A; Kalogirou, S; Kapiris, K; Karamfilov, V; Kavadas, S; Keskin, Ç; Kidey?, A E; Kocak, M; Kondylatos, G; Kontogiannis, C; Kosyan, R; Koubbi, P; Kušpili?, G; La Ferla, R; Langone, L; Laroche, S; Lazar, L; Lefkaditou, E; Lemeshko, I E; Machias, A; Malej, A; Mazzocchi, M-G; Medinets, V; Mihalopoulos, N; Miserocchi, S; Moncheva, S; Mukhanov, V; Oaie, G; Oros, A; Öztürk, A A; Öztürk, B; Panayotova, M; Prospathopoulos, A; Radu, G; Raykov, V; Reglero, P; Reygondeau, G; Rougeron, N; Salihoglu, B; Sanchez-Vidal, A; Sannino, G; Santinelli, C; Secrieru, D; Shapiro, G; Simboura, N; Shiganova, T; Sprovieri, M; Stefanova, K; Streftaris, N; Tirelli, V; Tom, M; Topalo?lu, B; Topçu, N E; Tsagarakis, K; Tsangaris, C; Tserpes, G; Tu?rul, S; Uysal, Z; Vasile, D; Violaki, K; Xu, J; Yüksek, A; Papathanassiou, E

    2015-06-15

    PERSEUS project aims to identify the most relevant pressures exerted on the ecosystems of the Southern European Seas (SES), highlighting knowledge and data gaps that endanger the achievement of SES Good Environmental Status (GES) as mandated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A complementary approach has been adopted, by a meta-analysis of existing literature on pressure/impact/knowledge gaps summarized in tables related to the MSFD descriptors, discriminating open waters from coastal areas. A comparative assessment of the Initial Assessments (IAs) for five SES countries has been also independently performed. The comparison between meta-analysis results and IAs shows similarities for coastal areas only. Major knowledge gaps have been detected for the biodiversity, marine food web, marine litter and underwater noise descriptors. The meta-analysis also allowed the identification of additional research themes targeting research topics that are requested to the achievement of GES. PMID:25892079

  8. 14th European Marine Biology Symposium ``Protection of Life in the Sea'': Summary of symposium papers and conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, O.

    1980-03-01

    This last paper of the 14th European Marine Biology Symposium refers to organizational aspects of the meeting; provides a summary of the papers presented in this volume; and attempts to draw conclusions. The summary highlights essentials of the facts presented and of the interpretations offered. It has been written in order to facilitate access to the vast amount of information contained in this volume and to provide a quick overview for the non-specialist. The conclusions present a memorandum issued by the symposium participants; consider the most dangerous pollutants and the most endangered sea areas; evaluate principal criteria for assessing pollution effects, both at the individual and ecosystem levels; and discuss mechanisms of pollution control and environmental management.

  9. THE ATHENS SEA-FRONT REHABILITATION PROJECTS. EUROPEAN GUIDELINES IMPLEMENTATION IN METROPOLITAN COASTAL AREAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maro Evangelidou

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a critical review of the experience gained from planning projects of the Athens Urban seafront area promoted by the Organization of Athens, independently or within various European programs. Structural weaknesses tin the existing planning system in Greece (administrative malfunctions, social practices and scientific approaches) result in difficulties in applying an Integrated Coastal Zone Management policy. The new

  10. Salmon Population Depleted

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Salmon populations face several serious threats, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. In this publication, the reason for the downward spiral of salmon populations is discussed. This video segment features Elders discussing the decline in the local population of salmon, which are at the heart of the cultural identity of the Native American Lummi Nation of Washington State. Fish were very abundant a few decades ago, but now even the fishermen have to buy fish. The background essay explains the many threats that the salmon population faces. There is also a brief description of the salmon lifecycle. The four discussion questions asks the reasons why the salmon population is depleting, and what people can do to help. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

  11. Sensitivity of the European LGM climate to North Atlantic sea-surface temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Pinot; Gilles Ramstein; Isabelle Marsiat; Anne de Vernal; Odile Peyron; Jean-Claude Duplessy; Maria Weinelt

    1999-01-01

    Recent reconstructions of Sea-Surface Temperatures (SSTs) for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21kyr BP) based on foraminifera and dinoflagellate proxies suggest that the north Atlantic may have been warmer than estimated by CLIMAP [1981]. To better understand the impact of such a warm north Atlantic on the global LGM climate, we used two different AGCMs to perform sensitivity studies. With

  12. Assessment of homozygosity and fertility in meiotic gynogens of the European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Francescon; Alvise Barbaro; Daniela Bertotto; Angelo Libertini; Fulvio Cepollaro; Jacopo Richard; Paola Belvedere; Lorenzo Colombo

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of 5–6 microsatellite loci was used to measure the increment of homozygosity in two meiogynogenetic progenies (A and B) of sea bass with respect to their mother. In progeny A and B, 20% and 12% of the meiogynogens retained heterozygosity for all investigated maternal loci, respectively, while complete homozygosity was observed only in 6% of B and in none

  13. Atlantis - The Sunken Indo-European Capital in the Black Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siegfried G. Schoppe; Christian M. Schoppe

    Until around 5500 BC the Black Sea was a (smaller) freshwater-lake. The breaking Bosporus sill led to a flood commonly referred to as Noah's Flood (Pitman\\/Ryan). Although heavily attacked, just recently this theory has gained support from new studies. We propose that Atlantis was an early Neolithic settlement at the former shoreline of that lake. With regard to the interactions

  14. Transcription of T cell-related genes in teleost fish, and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) as a model.

    PubMed

    Boschi, I; Randelli, E; Buonocore, F; Casani, D; Bernini, C; Fausto, A M; Scapigliati, G

    2011-11-01

    In recent years the cloning of genes coding for immuno-regulatory peptides, as well as the sequencing of genomes, provided fish immunologists with a growing amount of information on nucleotide sequences. Research is now also addressed in investigating the functional immunology counterpart of nucleotide sequence transcripts in various fish species. In this respect, studies on functional immunology of T cell activities are still at their beginning, and much work is needed to investigate T cell responses in teleost fish species. In this review we summarise the current knowledge on the group of genes coding for main T cell-related peptides in fish, and the expression levels of these genes in organs and tissues. Particular attention is paid to European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine species in which some information on functional immunology has been obtained, and we reassume here the expression of some T cell-related genes in basal conditions. In addition, we provide original data showing that T cells purified from the intestinal mucosa of sea bass with a specific mAb, express transcripts for TR?, TR?, CD8?, and RAG-1, thus showing similarities with intra-epithelial leucocytes of mammals. PMID:20950688

  15. Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this dim...

  16. Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminish...

  17. USGS Releases Atlantic Salmon at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists (L to R) Ross Abbett and Rich Chiavelli watch as hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, e...

  18. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products. Version 1 of its infrastructure upgrade was launched in April 2008 and is now well underway to include all 40 data centres at V1 level. It comprises the network of 40 interconnected data centres (NODCs) and a central SeaDataNet portal. V1 provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, that are managed at these data centres. The SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure comprises the following middleware services: • Discovery services = Metadata directories and User interfaces • Vocabulary services = Common vocabularies and Governance • Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting • Delivery services = Requesting and Downloading of data sets • Viewing services = Mapping of metadata • Monitoring services = Statistics on system usage and performance and Registration of data requests and transactions • Maintenance services = Entry and updating of metadata by data centres Also good progress is being made with extending the SeaDataNet infrastructure with V2 services: • Viewing services = Quick views and Visualisation of data and data products • Product services = Generic and standard products • Exchange services = transformation of SeaDataNet portal CDI output to INSPIRE compliance As a basis for the V1 services, common standards have been defined for metadata and data formats, common vocabularies, quality flags, and quality control methods, based on international standards, such as ISO 19115, OGC, NetCDF (CF), ODV, best practices from IOC and ICES, and following INSPIRE developments. An important objective of the SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 metadata service provides the link between discovery and delivery of data sets. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres.

  19. Saving the Salmon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprangers, Donald

    2004-01-01

    In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

  20. @Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

  1. A radiation hybrid map of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) based on 1581 markers: Synteny analysis with model fish genomes.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Richard; Senger, Fabrice; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Sadequi, Naoual; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hitte, Christophe; Galibert, Francis

    2010-10-01

    The selective breeding of fish for aquaculture purposes requires the understanding of the genetic basis of traits such as growth, behaviour, resistance to pathogens and sex determinism. Access to well-developed genomic resources is a prerequisite to improve the knowledge of these traits. Having this aim in mind, a radiation hybrid (RH) panel of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was constructed from splenocytes irradiated at 3000 rad, allowing the construction of a 1581 marker RH map. A total of 1440 gene markers providing ~4400 anchors with the genomes of three-spined stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish, helped establish synteny relationships with these model species. The identification of Conserved Segments Ordered (CSO) between sea bass and model species allows the anticipation of the position of any sea bass gene from its location in model genomes. Synteny relationships between sea bass and gilthead seabream were addressed by mapping 37 orthologous markers. The sea bass genetic linkage map was integrated in the RH map through the mapping of 141 microsatellites. We are thus able to present the first complete gene map of sea bass. It will facilitate linkage studies and the identification of candidate genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The RH map further positions sea bass as a genetic and evolutionary model of Perciformes and supports their ongoing aquaculture expansion. PMID:20659549

  2. Environmental factors affecting thyroid function of wild sea bass (Dicentrarchuslabrax) from European coasts.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Joseph G; Klaren, Peter H M; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Das, Krishna

    2012-05-01

    Thyroid functional status of wild fish in relation with the contamination of their environment deserves further investigation. We here applied a multi-level approach of thyroid function assessment in 87 wild sea bass collected near several estuaries: namely the Scheldt, the Seine, the Loire, the Charente and the Gironde. Thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations in muscle were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. The activity of hepatic enzymes involved in extrathyroidal pathways of thyroid hormone metabolism, viz. deiodination, glucuronidation and sulfatation were analyzed. Last, follicle diameter and epithelial cell heights were measured. We observed changes that are predicted to lead to an increased conversion of T(4)-T(3) and lowered thyroid hormone excretion. The changes in the metabolic pathways of thyroid hormones can be interpreted as a pathway to maintain thyroid hormone homeostasis. From all compounds tested, the higher chlorinated PCBs seemed to be the most implicated in this perturbation. PMID:22169207

  3. Associations between piscine reovirus infection and life history traits in wild-caught Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in Norway.

    PubMed

    Garseth, Ase Helen; Biering, Eirik; Aunsmo, Arnfinn

    2013-10-01

    Piscine Reovirus (PRV), the putative causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Norway. While HSMI is a common and commercially important disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, the presence of PRV has so far not been associated with HSMI related lesions in wild salmon. Factors associated with PRV-infection were investigated in returning Atlantic salmon captured in Norwegian rivers. A multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model confirmed clustering within rivers and demonstrated that PRV-infection is associated with life-history, sex, catch-year and body length as a proxy for sea-age. Escaped farmed salmon (odds ratio/OR: 7.32, p<0.001) and hatchery-reared salmon (OR: 1.69 p=0.073) have higher odds of being PRV-infected than wild Atlantic salmon. Male salmon have double odds of being PRV infected compared to female salmon (OR: 2.11, p<0.001). Odds of being PRV-infected increased with body-length measured as decimetres (OR: 1.20, p=0.004). Since body length and sea-age are correlated (r=0.85 p<0.001), body length serves as a proxy for sea-age, meaning that spending more years in sea increases the odds of being PRV-infected. PMID:23906390

  4. Diel feeding activity and the effect of time-restricted self-feeding on growth and feed conversion in European sea bass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Boujard; M. Jourdan; M. Kentouri; P. Divanach

    1996-01-01

    The feeding rhythm and growth performance of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (initial weight 65 g) were studied under free and time-restricted access to self-feeders. Under free access to the feeders, significant feeding rhythms with a nocturnal acrophase were observed, although there was considerable variability between replicates. When access to the self-feeders was restricted to two periods of 4 h

  5. The influence of nocturnal vs. diurnal feeding under winter conditions on growth and feed conversion of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax, L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Azzaydi; F. J Mart??nez; S Zamora; F. J Sánchez-Vázquez; J. A Madrid

    2000-01-01

    European sea bass display predominantly nocturnal self-feeding patterns in winter and early spring, and this has been further examined by comparing the effect of night and day feeding on growth and feed conversion. To this end, three feeding regimes were compared: nocturnal automatic-feeding (NF), diurnal automatic-feeding (DF) and free access to self-feeders (SF). Under NF, feed was supplied in two

  6. Effect of the dietary essential to non-essential amino acid ratio on growth, feed utilization and nitrogen metabolism of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Peres; Aires Oliva-Teles

    2006-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate if dietary essential to non-essential amino acid ratio (EAA\\/NEAA) affects growth, feed utilization and nitrogen metabolism of European sea bass. Three semi-purified diets including fish meal and mixtures of crystalline amino acids as the main nitrogen (N) sources were formulated to have a dietary EAA\\/NEAA ratio of 40\\/60, 50\\/50 and 60\\/40; another diet, fish

  7. Effect of normal and waxy maize starch on growth, food utilization and hepatic glucose metabolism in European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Enes; S. Panserat; S. Kaushik; A. Oliva-Teles

    2006-01-01

    We determined the effect of dietary starch on growth performance and feed utilization in European sea bass juveniles. Data on the dietary regulation of key hepatic enzymes of the glycolytic, gluconeogenic, lipogenic and amino acid metabolic pathways (hexokinase, HK; glucokinase, GK; pyruvate kinase, PK; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBPase; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; alanine aminotransferase, ALAT; aspartate aminotransferase, ASAT and glutamate dehydrogenase,

  8. SeaDataNet II - Second phase of developments for the pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2013-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of the major players in informatics in oceanography and collaborative relationships have been created with other EU and non EU projects. In particular SeaDataNet has recognised roles in the continuous serving of common vocabularies, the provision of tools for data management, as well as giving access to metadata, data sets and data products of importance for society. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users not only background information about SeaDataNet and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools, but also a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, and highlight a number of key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far.

  9. Cooking with Canned Salmon

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-09-10

    1 /2 cup chopped onion 1 teaspoon lemon juice How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Drain the canned salmon, keeping 1 /4 cup of liquid. 3. Remove any skin and bones... that might be in the canned salmon. 4. Mix the salmon, liquid, soup, bread crumbs, eggs, onion and lemon juice. 5. Press the mixture into a greased 9- by 5-inch loaf pan. 6. Bake at 375 degrees F for about 1 hour. Cool it for 10 minutes before removing...

  10. Pacific Salmon Information Via the Internet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Marine Fisheries Service maintains this Pacific Salmon metasite, which covers the life history, habitat, and economic status of salmon, the role of US state fisheries and Canadian agencies in managing salmon stocks, and additional salmon information. From the University of Washington's concise and informative "Salmon Life History" page, to the Pacific Salmon Alliance's proud "Stand up for Canada: Save our Salmon" page, interested users will find much information on the ecology and politics of Salmon.

  11. Carbon cycling and phytoplankton responses within highly-replicated shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European Shelf Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richier, S.; Achterberg, E. P.; Dumousseaud, C.; Poulton, A. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Tyrrell, T.; Zubkov, M. V.; Moore, C. M.

    2014-03-01

    The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which in part likely reflects inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series of highly replicated (n = 8), short term (2-4 days) multi-level (? 4 conditions) carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically different experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterized by a suppression of net growth for small sized cells (< 10 ?m), were observed in the majority of the experiments, irrespective of nutrient status. Remaining between-experiment variability was potentially linked to initial community structure and/or other site-specific environmental factors. Analysis of carbon cycling within the experiments revealed the expected increased sensitivity of carbonate chemistry to biological processes at higher pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasize how biological-chemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

  12. European seafloor observatory offers new possibilities for deep-sea study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo; Smriglio, Giuseppe; Beranzoli, Laura; Braun, Thomas; Calcara, Massimo; Colore, Daniele; Campaci, Renato; Coudeville, Jean-Michel; De Santis, Angelo; Di Mauro, Domenico; Etiope, Giuseppe; Frugoni, Francesco; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Gamberi, Fabiano; Gasparoni, Francesco; Gerber, Hans; Marani, Michael; Marvaldi, Jean; Millot, Claude; Montuori, Caterina; Romeo, Giovanni; Palangio, Paolo

    The Geophysical and Oceanographic Station for Abyssal Research (GEOSTAR), an autonomous seafloor observatory that collects measurements benefiting a number of disciplines during missions up to 1 year long, will begin the second phase of its first mission in 2000. The 6-8 month investigation will take place at a depth of 3400 m in the southern Tyrrhenian basin of the central Mediterranean. GEOSTAR was funded by the European Community (EC) for $2.4 million (U.S. dollars) in 1995 as part of the Marine Science and Technology programme (MAST). The innovative deployment and recovery procedure GEOSTAR uses was derived from the “two-module” concept successfully applied by NASA in the Apollo and space shuttle missions, where one module performs tasks for the other, including deployment, switching on and off, performing checks, and recovery. The observatory communication system, which takes advantage of satellite telemetry, and the simultaneous acquisition of a set of various measurements with a unique time reference make GEOSTAR the first fundamental element of a multiparameter ocean network.

  13. Marine Litter Distribution and Density in European Seas, from the Shelves to Deep Basins

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christopher K.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Alt, Claudia H. S.; Amaro, Teresa; Bergmann, Melanie; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B.; Davies, Jaime; Duineveld, Gerard; Galgani, François; Howell, Kerry L.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Isidro, Eduardo; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Lastras, Galderic; Morato, Telmo; Gomes-Pereira, José Nuno; Purser, Autun; Stewart, Heather; Tojeira, Inês; Tubau, Xavier; Van Rooij, David; Tyler, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments. PMID:24788771

  14. Relationships among Traits of Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Performance in Individual European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    PubMed Central

    Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S.; Domenici, Paolo; Claireaux, Guy; McKenzie, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits. PMID:24019879

  15. Chemical residues and biochemical responses in wild and cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Denise [C.I.M.A., University of Algarve, F.C.M.A., Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139-Faro (Portugal); Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es; Bebianno, Maria Joao [C.I.M.A., University of Algarve, F.C.M.A., Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139-Faro (Portugal)

    2007-02-15

    Cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Arade Estuary were sampled in summer and winter and the degree of exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) assessed, together with some biochemical responses against those and other pollutants. The highest levels of copper (up to 997 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and cadmium (up to 4.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) were detected in the liver and kidney of cultured specimens, whereas the highest exposure to PAHs was observed in wild fish. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were detected and associated to pollutant exposure. Thus, metallothionein concentrations were higher in the tissues of cultured fish and positively correlated with metal residues. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 28 pmol/min/mg protein in cultured fish to 83 pmol/min/mg protein in wild fish collected near a marina area. Cultured fish and wild fish from the marina area had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue and a parasitic infection in the gonads. The obtained results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in both wild and cultured fish.

  16. PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND

    E-print Network

    THIS IS A SALMO HATCH PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND SPORT FISHERIES SHKT* illiiniltiiiii SALMON HATCHERY? To maintain the resource, enough of the mature salmon entering and destroyed young salmon. To counteract the effects of these, salmon hatcheries are necessary. Hatchery salmon

  17. Molecular characterization, gene structure and antibacterial activity of a g-type lysozyme from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Trisolino, Pamela; Facchiano, Angelo; de Pascale, Donatella; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    In fish, the first line of defense is represented by the innate immune system and the lysozyme is one of the molecules involved in this mechanism of protection. Three types of lysozymes have been identified in metazoan, the c-type (chicken or conventional), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type). They are all involved in the hydrolysation of the bacterial cell wall. Our work has been focused on the molecular characterization, expression analysis by real-time PCR, both at basal condition and after in vivo challenges, and 3D structural studies on the g-type lysozyme from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Moreover, a recombinant sea bass lysozyme has been produced in Escherichia coli and used to investigate the activity of the enzyme at different pH and temperatures and to perform antibacterial assays against typical fish pathogens. The cloned sea bass cDNA for g-type lysozyme (accession number FN667957) consists of 742 bp and translates for a putative protein of 188 amino acids. The molecular weight is 20.251, 41Da with a theoretical pI of 8.53, two cysteine residues along the sequence and no putative signal peptide. These features of the enzyme are in agreement with the expected characteristics of a proper g-type lysozyme, except for the cysteine residues that in fish are quite variable in number. An alignment between known g-type lysozyme sequences evidences that the amino acid residues thought to be involved in the enzyme catalysis (Glu(71), Asp(84) and Asp(95) in sea bass) are quite well conserved between mammalian, avian and fish sequences. The sea bass g-type lysozyme gene is composed of four exons and three introns and this gene structure is more compact compared to other known fish lysozyme homologues. Modeling of 3D structure has been performed on the template structure of g-type lysozyme from Atlantic cod. The catalytic site appears well conserved when compared with known structures of fish g-type lysozymes (cod and salmon). The basal expression of lysozyme transcripts is highest in gills, followed by head kidney and peripheral blood leukocytes. The lysozyme expression is up regulated in head kidney leukocytes both after challenge with the fish bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. The lytic activity, determined using as substrate Micrococcus lysodeikticus, was optimal at pH 5.5 and at a temperature of 30°C. In conclusion, these results suggest that the identified g-type lysozyme should be involved in the innate immune responses of sea bass. PMID:24929449

  18. State of the Salmon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Salmon, like many other species of fish, know no political boundaries. In effect, this makes it hard for humans to craft detailed and meaningful policies for the survival and health of these important creatures. The State of the Salmon is an international consortium that is "dedicated to improving understanding of salmon status and trends across the North Pacific--and building a knowledge network that can inform salmon conservation and management decisions in the future." Given this broad range of cooperation, visitors will not be surprised to find that much of the material featured on the site is available in Russian, English, and Chinese. The materials on the site are divided into several sections, including "Monitoring", "Data & Maps", "Status & Trends", and "Collaborate". The "Data & Maps" area is quite useful, and it features a variety of interactive maps that document existing salmon populations and their movements. Moving on, the "Status & Trends" area provides updates on salmon population trends in Canada, Japan, Russia, and the United States. The site is rounded out by a glossary and information about the organization's basic operating principles.

  19. EFFECTS OF COPPER AND ZINC ON SMOLTIFICATION OF COHO SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many species of trout and salmon spend their early life in freshwater and then migrate to the sea. Transition from freshwater to marine existence requires physiological changes which are involved in the development of the migratory smolt stage. Sublethal exposure to pollutants in...

  20. Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON Indiana University EVER SINCE IUS CLASSIC PAPER with Paul Science Foundation for support of the sesearch contained in this paper. 29 30 : Wesley C. Salmon probabi

  1. Phytoplankton responses and associated carbon cycling during shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richier, S.; Achterberg, E. P.; Dumousseaud, C.; Poulton, A. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Tyrrell, T.; Zubkov, M. V.; Moore, C. M.

    2014-09-01

    The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which may reflect community/environment-specific responses or inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series (n = 8) of short-term (2-4 days) multi-level (?4 conditions) carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically separated experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterised by a suppression of net growth for small-sized cells (<10 ?m), were observed in the majority of the experiments, irrespective of natural or manipulated nutrient status. Remaining between-experiment variability was potentially linked to initial community structure and/or other site-specific environmental factors. Analysis of carbon cycling within the experiments revealed the expected increased sensitivity of carbonate chemistry to biological processes at higher pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasise how biogeochemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

  2. Do experimental units of different scale affect the biological performance of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larvae?

    PubMed

    Lika, K; Pavlidis, M; Mitrizakis, N; Samaras, A; Papandroulakis, N

    2015-04-01

    The effects of different tank volumes (2000, 500 and 40?l) on European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larval rearing, relating to growth, survival, quality and stress variables, were investigated. A dynamic energy budget (DEB) model was used to analyse the results. The hydrodynamics of the tanks exhibited differences, with the water currents in the 2000?l tanks to be almost one order of magnitude stronger than those in the 40?l ones. Important differences in fish growth were observed between small and large tank-rearing volumes, with the smallest tank resulting in the slowest growth. Based on the DEB model analysis, growth differences were related to feeding rates, with growth in the smaller tank limited by food availability. Differences in survival rates were not statistically significant among the tank-rearing volumes. The quality evaluation of the fry (in terms of swimbladder, jaw and skeletal abnormalities) showed differences, with the smallest tank having the highest percentage of deformed individuals. This could be attributed to both the feeding variances and the hydrodynamics in the tanks. No differences were observed in terms of whole-body cortisol at the two developmental stages; flexion, and when the larvae body was fully covered by melanophores; when analysis was performed. This indicates that the allostatic load exerted on fish of different groups was similar and inside the fish-coping abilities range, in terms of the cortisol response axis. The selection of the experimental scale is of importance, especially when the results are to be transferred and applied on an industrial scale. PMID:25846855

  3. The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European Contribution to the Investigation of the Energy and Water Cycle over a Large Drainage Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, E.; Meywerk, J.; Warrach, K.; Andrea, U.; Bergström, S.; Beyrich, F.; Bosveld, F.; Bumke, K.; Fortelius, C.; Graham, L. P.; Gryning, S.-E.; Halldin, S.; Hasse, L.; Heikinheimo, M.; Isemer, H.-J.; Jacob, D.; Jauja, I.; Karlsson, K.-G.; Keevallik, S.; Koistinen, J.; van Lammeren, A.; Lass, U.; Launianen, J.; Lehmann, A.; Liljebladh, B.; Lobmeyr, M.; Matthäus, W.; Mengelkamp, T.; Michelson, D. B.; Napiórkowski, J.; Omstedt, A.; Piechura, J.; Rockel, B.; Rubel, F.; Ruprecht, E.; Smedman, A.-S.; Stigebrandt, A.

    2001-11-01

    The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple interactively the atmosphere with the vegetated continental surfaces and the Baltic Sea including its sea ice. The intensive observational and modeling phase BRIDGE, which is a contribution to the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period of GEWEX, will provide enhanced datasets for the period October 1999-February 2002 to validate numerical models and satellite products. Major achievements have been obtained in an improved understanding of related exchange processes. For the first time an interactive atmosphere-ocean-land surface model for the Baltic Sea was tested. This paper reports on major activities and some results.

  4. BIODIESEL FROM WASTE SALMON OIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-S. Chiou; H. M. El-Mashad; R. J. Avena-Bustillos; R. O. Dunn; P. J. Bechtel; T. H. McHugh; S. H. Imam; G. M. Glenn; W. J. Orts; R. Zhang

    Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, oxidative stability, and heating value. The salmon oil methyl esters contained 26.64% saturated fatty acid methyl esters compared to

  5. LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD

    E-print Network

    LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD RECOVERY AND SUBBASIN PLAN Technical Foundation Executive Council MAY 28, 2004 DRAFT #12;Lower Columbia River Salmon Recovery Plan Technical Foundation Executive. This information provides a basis for an integrated Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan prepared by the Fish Recovery

  6. VOLUNTEER-BASED SALMON RIVER

    E-print Network

    VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS Institute Environment Canada VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS STREAM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH #12;Volunteer-Based Monitoring Program for the Salmon River

  7. Velocity model of the crust and upper mantle at the southern margin of the East European Craton (Azov Sea-Crimea-Black Sea area), DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Janik, Tomasz; Stephenson, Randell; Gryn, Dmytro; Tolkunov, Anatoliy; Czuba, Wojciech; ?roda, Piotr; Sydorenko, Grigoriy; Lysynchuk, Dmytro; Omelchenko, Victor; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Kolomiyets, Katerina; Thybo, Hans; Dannowski, Anke; Fl?h, Ernst R.; Legostaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    The southern part of the eastern European continental landmass consists mainly of a thick platform of Vendian and younger sediments overlying Precambrian basement, part of the East European Craton (EEC). The Scythian Platform (SP) lies between the EEC and the (mainly Alpine) deformed belt running from Dobrudja (Romania) to Crimea (Ukraine) and the Greater Caucasus (Russia), along the northern margin of the Black Sea. Hard constraints on the Palaeozoic history on the SP are very sparse and little is known of its crustal structure in this area. The poster presents the seismic results of a multidisciplinary project that fills some of this gap. The project is called DOBRE-2 (as it forms a prolongation of the successful DOBRE project executed in 1999-2001). The main objectives of DOBRE-2 were to elucidate the deep-seated structure of the lithosphere and geodynamic setting of the shelf zones of the Azov and Black seas and the Crimean peninsula and to study the deep controls on the structure of basement and sedimentary cover. DOBRE-2 traverses a number of major faults and suture zones separating the EEC from the SP, the Crimean Mountains, and the Black Sea depression. Significant hydrocarbon reserves occur in the basins traversed by DOBRE-2. Deep seismic reflection profiling (30 second, Vibroseis) has been completed on a 100-km segment of the profile on the Azov massif (part of the Ukrainian Shield) as well as a 47-km segment in Crimea. These are complemented by refraction profiling on the shelf zones of the Azov (~53 km) and Black (~160 km) seas and coincident near-vertical (CDP) in the Black Sea, using a combination of onshore seismograph stations, ocean-bottom seismometers, onshore explosive energy sources (6 shot points), as well as ship-borne seismic acquisition. We present a 2-D seismic velocity model (Vp in the crust, depth to the Moho and depth to the intracrustal reflectors) along (~780 km) the DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect. Our model extends the model published for the DOBRE'99 profile (The DOBREfraction'99 Working Group, 2003) to the southwest. The Moho dips in this direction, from a depth of 40 km below the Azov Sea to ~47 km, below Crimea. A short segment of a reflector interpreted to represent Moho was detected at a depth of ~37 km in the Black Sea part of the profile. We also present a comparison of the DOBRE-2 velocity model with an interpretation of a coincident CDP profile.

  8. The Effects of Chilean Coho Salmon and Rainbow Trout Aquaculture on Markets for Alaskan Sockeye Salmon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abby Williams; Mark Herrmann; Keith R. Criddle

    2009-01-01

    A simultaneous-equation equilibrium model of international salmonid markets is used to examine the combined effect of variability in the landings of Alaska's sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and increases in the production of Chile's Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon O. kisutch, and rainbow trout O. mykiss on Alaska's sockeye salmon exvessel prices and revenues. While Atlantic salmon, coho salmon, and

  9. Screening of ecotoxicological, qualitative and reproductive variables in male European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) reared in three different fish farms: Facility location and typology.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Corsi, Ilaria; Bonacci, Stefano; Sensini, Cristiana; Cicero, Nicola; Focardi, Silvano; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both facility location and typology of fish farm on some ecotoxicological, qualitative and reproductive variables in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. Several variables were investigated: gonado-somatic index (GSI), liver-somatic index (LSI); 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase and acetylcholinesterase activities; glutathione (GSH), testosterone, 17?-estradiol, total lipid, phospholipid (PL) and triglyceride contents. In addition, the histological sections of gonads were examined. Results suggest that LSI, EROD activity, GSI, GSH, PL, hormone levels and gonad morphology were influenced by different facility locations and typologies of fish farm. PMID:22489960

  10. A variant of the interleukin-1beta gene in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., is associated with increased resistance against Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, D A; Kabanov, F V; Troepolskaya, O D; Tischenko, M M

    2010-09-01

    Vibriosis caused by the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum leads to serious losses in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Because of its pleiotropic activity in controlling immune and inflammatory responses against various pathogens, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is an attractive candidate for resistance to bacterial vibriosis. Four polymorphisms c.76 + 52C>T, c.76 + 157A>G, c.76 + 215A>and c76 + 310A>G of IL1B were genotyped in progeny of four families of wild sea bass captured in geographically distinct regions of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov and challenged with V. anguillarum. In the transmission disequilibrium test, the TGGG haplotype of IL1B showed significant overtransmission from parents to surviving progeny, thereby suggesting an association with higher resistance to V. anguillarum infection (Odds Ratio 0.38, P < 10(-7)). Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found a 1.4-fold increase in transcription activity of the protective IL1B TGGG variant compared to the susceptible CAAA variant of IL1B. The higher transcriptional activity of IL1B TGGG may arise from the functional effects of c.76 + 157A>G and c.76 + 215A>G polymorphisms disrupting potential binding sites for glucocorticoid receptor and YY1, both are negative transcription regulators. PMID:20690960

  11. Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming Expected to Climb The world production of pen- farmed salmon doubled during 1981-83. Of the 24,500 metric tons (t) of farmed salmon produced in 1983, almost 85 percent was Atlantic salmon, Sa/mo safar (Table 1). While the farming of Pacific salmon, On

  12. SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL An lnstruction Manual for Hatching Salmon and Trout Eggs in Classroom and Game Native Salmonids of California Map \\|/try Hatcheries? Activities Fish Journals Habitats of Salmon and Trout 11 Seagoing Salmon and Steelhead 12 Trout Life Cycle 13 Salmon and Steelhead Life Cycle 14 Making

  13. Physiological mechanisms underlying individual variation in tolerance of food deprivation in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, David J; Vergnet, Alain; Chatain, Béatrice; Vandeputte, Marc; Desmarais, Erick; Steffensen, John F; Guinand, Bruno

    2014-09-15

    Although food deprivation is a major ecological pressure in fishes, there is wide individual variation in tolerance of fasting, whose mechanistic bases are poorly understood. Two thousand individually tagged juvenile European sea bass were submitted to two 'fasting/feeding' cycles each comprising 3 weeks of food deprivation followed by 3 weeks of ad libitum feeding at 25°C. Rates of mass loss during the two fasting periods were averaged for each individual to calculate a population mean. Extreme fasting tolerant (FT) and sensitive (FS) phenotypes were identified that were at least one and a half standard deviations, on opposing sides, from this mean. Respirometry was used to investigate two main hypotheses: (1) tolerance of food deprivation reflects lower mass-corrected routine metabolic rate (RMR) in FT phenotypes when fasting, and (2) tolerance reflects differences in substrate utilisation; FT phenotypes use relatively less proteins as metabolic fuels during fasting, measured as their ammonia quotient (AQ), the simultaneous ratio of ammonia excretion to RMR. There was no difference in mean RMR between FT and FS over 7 days fasting, being 6.70±0.24 mmol h(-1) fish(-1) (mean ± s.e.m., N=18) versus 6.76±0.22 mmol h(-1) fish(-1) (N=17), respectively, when corrected to a body mass of 130 g. For any given RMR, however, the FT lost mass at a significantly lower rate than FS, overall 7-day average being 0.72±0.05 versus 0.90±0.05 g day(-1) fish(-1), respectively (P<0.01, t-test). At 20 h after receiving a ration equivalent to 2% body mass as food pellets, ammonia excretion and simultaneous RMR were elevated and similar in FT and FS, with AQs of 0.105±0.009 and 0.089±0.007, respectively. At the end of the period of fasting, ammonia excretion and RMR had fallen in both phenotypes, but AQ was significantly lower in FT than FS, being 0.038±0.004 versus 0.061±0.005, respectively (P<0.001, t-test). There was a direct linear relationship between individual fasted AQ and rate of mass loss, with FT and FS individuals distributed at opposing lower and upper extremities, respectively. Thus the difference between the phenotypes in their tolerance of food deprivation did not depend upon their routine energy use when fasting. Rather, it depended upon their relative use of tissue proteins as metabolic fuels when fasting, which was significantly lower in FT phenotypes. PMID:25232198

  14. Atlantic salmon show capability for cardiac acclimation to warm temperatures.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Katja; Couturier, Christine S; Overli, Oyvind; Johnsen, Arild; Marthinsen, Gunnhild; Nilsson, Göran E; Farrell, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    Increases in environmental temperature predicted to result from global warming have direct effects on performance of ectotherms. Moreover, cardiac function has been observed to limit the tolerance to high temperatures. Here we show that two wild populations of Atlantic salmon originating from northern and southern extremes of its European distribution have strikingly similar cardiac responses to acute warming when acclimated to common temperatures, despite different local environments. Although cardiac collapse starts at 21-23?°C with a maximum heart rate of ~150 beats per min (bpm) for 12?°C-acclimated fish, acclimation to 20?°C considerably raises this temperature (27.5?°C) and maximum heart rate (~200?bpm). Only minor population differences exist and these are consistent with the warmer habitat of the southern population. We demonstrate that the considerable cardiac plasticity discovered for Atlantic salmon is largely independent of natural habitat, and we propose that observed cardiac plasticity may aid salmon to cope with global warming. PMID:24957572

  15. Saving Coho Salmon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KQED

    2012-08-08

    Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.

  16. Pacific salmon migrations and homing: mechanisms and adaptive significance.

    PubMed

    Quinn, T P; Dittman, A H

    1990-06-01

    Pacific salmon are noted for their lengthy foraging migrations and for their precise homing ability. Extensive sampling has documented the general migratory patterns of the major populations, but many basic aspects of their marine ecology are still poorly understood. Their life history pattern has been interpreted as an adaptation to exploit the higher productivity of the marine environment over that in fresh water. The adaptive significance of homing is implied by the specializations of populations for their natal habitat and the competitive superiority of locally adapted populations over transplants from other rivers. However, the establishment of new populations by strays and the levels of gene flow between natural populations have only recently received much attention. Research on salmon migrations has also focused on the mechanisms that guide homing at sea and in fresh water. While salmon have highly developed sensory systems, the ways in which inputs are integrated to guide migration through diverse and complex habitats are still being investigated. PMID:21232348

  17. Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies R. SALESSE, J. GARNIER, B en Josas, France Summary. Pituitary gonadotropins of female and male pacific salmon Oncorhynchus) and in salmon (Donaldson et al., 1972), although physicochemical, biological or immunological evidence for two

  18. Generation of a neutral FST baseline for testing local adaptation on gill raker number within and between European whitefish ecotypes in the Baltic Sea basin.

    PubMed

    Ozerov, M Y; Himberg, M; Aykanat, T; Sendek, D S; Hägerstrand, H; Verliin, A; Krause, T; Olsson, J; Primmer, C R; Vasemägi, A

    2015-05-01

    Divergent selection at ecologically important traits is thought to be a major factor driving phenotypic differentiation between populations. To elucidate the role of different evolutionary processes shaping the variation in gill raker number of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus sensu lato) in the Baltic Sea basin, we assessed the relationships between genetic and phenotypic variation among and within three whitefish ecotypes (sea spawners, river spawners and lake spawners). To generate expected neutral distribution of FST and to evaluate whether highly variable microsatellite loci resulted in deflated FST estimates compared to less variable markers, we performed population genetic simulations under finite island and hierarchical island models. The genetic divergence observed among (FCT  = 0.010) and within (FST  = 0.014-0.041) ecotypes was rather low. The divergence in gill raker number, however, was substantially higher between sea and river spawners compared to observed microsatellite data and simulated neutral baseline (PCT  > FCT ). This suggests that the differences in gill raker number between sea and river spawners are likely driven by divergent natural selection. We also found strong support for divergent selection on gill raker number among different populations of sea spawners (PST  > FST ), most likely caused by highly variable habitat use and diverse diet. The putative role of divergent selection within lake spawners initially inferred from empirical microsatellite data was not supported by simulated FST distributions. This work provides a first formal test of divergent selection on gill raker number in Baltic whitefish, and demonstrates the usefulness of population genetic simulations to generate informative neutral baselines for PST -FST analyses helping to disentangle the effects of stochastic evolutionary processes from natural selection. PMID:25877003

  19. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon migration timing. Although salmon phenological diversity will complicate future predictions of migration timing, this variation likely acts as a major contributor to population and ecosystem resiliency in southeast Alaska. PMID:25482609

  20. Effects of dietary concentrated mannan oligosaccharides supplementation on growth, gut mucosal immune system and liver lipid metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Robaina, Lidia; Zamorano, Maria Jesús; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-02-01

    The study assesses the effects of dietary concentrated mannan oligosaccharides (cMOS) on fish performance, biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid profiles, liver and posterior gut morphology and gen expression of selected parameters involved on the intestinal immune response and liver lipid metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). For that purpose, specimens of 20 g were fed during 8 weeks at 0 and 1.6 g kg(-1) dietary cMOS of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet. Dietary cMOS enhanced fish length, specific and relative growth without affecting tissue proximate composition. However, cMOS supplementation altered especially liver and muscle fatty acid profiles by reducing levels of those fatty acids that are preferential substrates for ?-oxidation in spite of a preferential retention of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), such as 20:4n-6 or 22:5n-6, in relation to the down-regulation of delta 6/5 desaturase gene expression found in liver. Besides, dietary cMOS supplementation reduced posterior gut intestinal folds width and induced changes on the gene expression level of certain immune-related genes mainly by down regulating transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) and up-regulating immunoglobulin (Ig), major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), T cell receptor ? (TCR?) and Caspase 3 (Casp-3). Thus, dietary cMOS inclusion at 0.16% promoted European sea bass specific growth rate and length, stimulated selected cellular GALT-associated parameters and affected lipid metabolism in muscle and liver pointing to a higher LC-PUFA accumulation and promoted ?-oxidation. PMID:25447638

  1. Monitoring the impact of litter in large vertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD): constraints, specificities and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Galgani, F; Claro, F; Depledge, M; Fossi, C

    2014-09-01

    In its decision (2010/477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement, ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socio-economic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of "ingestion" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. PMID:24612883

  2. The European Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3): Multidisciplinary observations from the air-sea interface to the deep seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampitt, Richard; Cristini, Luisa; Alexiou, Sofia

    2015-04-01

    The Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3, http://www.fixo3.eu/ ) integrates 23 European open ocean fixed point observatories and improves access to these infrastructures for the broader community. These provide multidisciplinary observations in all parts of the oceans from the air-sea interface to the deep seafloor. Started in September 2013 with a budget of 7 Million Euros over 4 years, the project has 29 partners drawn from academia, research institutions and SME's coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre, UK. Here we present the programme's achievements in the 18 months and the activities of the 12 Work Packages which have the objectives to: • integrate and harmonise the current procedures and processes • offer free access to observatory infrastructures to those who do not have such access, and free and open data services and products • innovate and enhance the current capability for multidisciplinary in situ ocean observation Open ocean observation is a high priority for European marine and maritime activities. FixO3 provides important data and services to address the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and in support of the European Integrated Maritime Policy. FixO3 provides a strong integrated framework of open ocean facilities in the Atlantic from the Arctic to the Antarctic and throughout the Mediterranean, enabling an integrated, regional and multidisciplinary approach to understand natural and anthropogenic change in the ocean.

  3. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North-West European Shelf based on Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-04-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 dataset based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the Western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in north-west European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), the gas transfer velocity coefficient (K), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with relative uncertainties of 17 and 16 ?atm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 dataset (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish Seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT database and obtained relatively robust results with an average precision of 4 ± 22 ?atm in the seasonally stratified nWEC and the southern and northern CS (sCS and nCS), but less promising results in the permanently well-mixed sWEC, IS and Cap Lizard (CL) waters. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.4, -0.9 and -0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the nCS, sCS and nWEC, respectively, whereas, permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the sWEC, CL and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over six provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -0.95 Tg C year-1 for this part of the north-western European continental shelf. Our study showed that combining VOS data with satellite observations can be a powerful tool to estimate and extrapolate air-sea CO2 fluxes in sparsely sampled area.

  4. A complementary LC-ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF approach for screening antibacterial proteomic signature of farmed European sea bass mucus.

    PubMed

    Fekih-Zaghbib, Sonia; Fildier, Aurélie; Barrek, Sami; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss

    2013-08-01

    Antibacterial protection in the mucus is provided by antimicrobial compounds and till now few numbers of AMP and proteins were identified. Herein, mass spectral profiling of fresh mucus from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is investigated in order to survey the infective/healthy status of the mucus. We identify AMP peptides of 2891.7, 2919.45 and 2286.6 Da molecular weight respectively and characterize Chrysophsins in the mucus of Dicentrarchus labrax. These peptides display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against Gram-negative (Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations namely MICs < 0.5 ?M) and Gram-positive bacteria (MICs < 0.5 ?M) including Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, sensitivity to yeast Candida albicans is reported for the first time and shows interesting MICs of less than 2 ?M. We also demonstrate that the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonoicida is sensitive to Chrysophsins (MICs ranging between 5 and 14 ?M). Our mucus molecular mass mapping developed approach allows for fast exploration of immune status. Our data provides evidence that Chrysophsins are secreted by immune cells and are released in mucus of non-challenged farmed European sea bass. These results suggest that Chrysophsins, secreted by gills of red sea bream, are an important widespread component of Teleostei defense against disease. PMID:23643872

  5. The Fight Over Pacific Salmon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Payne, Laura X.

    1998-01-01

    This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

  6. In Brief . ... Awards, Salmon, and Sea Turtles

    E-print Network

    almost completely wiped out when a power failure cut oxygen circulation in holding tanks at the Palacios Bay and did moderate dam- age to oysters in Galveston and East Bays.... · . . . A cooperative white

  7. Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon ..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. Salmon to catch the salmon; it's not so good. Salmon goes over, piles up rocks, here and here. He goes up the bank

  8. SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  9. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  10. A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming

    E-print Network

    Aldrin, Magne

    A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming Ida Scheel1 salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major; infectious disease dynamics; spatio-temporal point processes; partial likelihood; infectious salmon anemia

  11. Growth evaluation of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) raised in seawater or freshwater and fed either fishmeal based on marine-free diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A forty week feeding study was conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in two recirculating aquaculture systems. Twelve salmon (average initial weight 117 g; initial density 9.4 kg/m3) were stocked per tank. Two identical systems were used and contained either freshwater (0 ppt) or sea...

  12. Biodiesel from Waste Salmon Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, o...

  13. Telemetry link for an automatic salmon migration monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, H. A.; Freyman, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The antenna and transmitter described in this report were designed for integration into the remote acoustic assessment system for detection of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay region of the Bering Sea. The assessment system configuration consists of an upward directed sonar buoy anchored 150 ft below the surface and attached by cable to a spar buoy tethered some 300 ft laterally. The spar buoy contains a telemetry transmitter, power supply, data processing electronics, an antenna and a beacon light.

  14. New York State Salmon River Fish Hatchery

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

  15. Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

  16. WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

  17. Consequences of changing sea-ice cover for primary and secondary producers in the European Arctic shelf seas: Timing, quantity, and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Søreide, J. E.; Hessen, D. O.; Falk-Petersen, S.; Berge, J.

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic ice cover poses severe limitations on the productive period of marine autotrophs that form the base of the marine food web. Sea-ice algae begin to grow in early spring within and underneath the ice, producing a substantial biomass despite very low light intensities. Pelagic algal blooms, in contrast, normally occur after ice breakup, at high latitudes as late as July-September. The timing of these blooms is crucial for the quantity and quality of primary and secondary production, and therefore for the transfer of energy and matter to higher trophic levels. Recent findings from Rijpfjorden, north-eastern Svalbard indicate that ice algae, rather than pelagic algae, trigger the reproduction of Arctic zooplankton around Svalbard. The key herbivore in Arctic shelf seas, the copepod Calanus glacialis, timed its seasonal migration, foraging, and reproduction to the ice algal bloom, which preceded the pelagic algal bloom by two months. The growth of this secondary producer’s offspring, however, was dependent on the later bloom of phytoplankton and higher sea-water temperatures. In 2007, reproduction and growth of C. glacialis and the primary production regime matched perfectly. The persistent ice cover in summer 2008, however, led to a mismatch between the pelagic algal bloom and the growth of the new copepod generation, resulting in a fivefold lower biomass of C. glacialis in August 2008 compared to 2007. The initiation of the ice algal bloom is mainly determined by the solar angle, whereas the pelagic algal bloom requires more light and is therefore governed to a larger degree by ice thinning and the unpredictable ice breakup. We conclude that both a too early as well as a too late ice breakup can cause a mismatch between primary and secondary producers, with negative consequences for the entire lipid-based Arctic marine food web.

  18. Plio-Pleistocene geological record and small mammal faunas, eastern shore of the Azov Sea, Southern European Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey S. Tesakov; Andrey E. Dodonov; Vadim V. Titov; Valery M. Trubikhin

    2007-01-01

    The shoreline of the Taganrog Gulf of the Azov Sea at the mouth of Don River provides a series of extended Upper Pliocene and Quaternary sections that have been actively studied in the last century. This extraglacial region had a complex sedimentary history combining subaerial aggradation with marine, fluvial, and deltaic sedimentation. The well-exposed stratigraphical sequence and abundant palaeontological record

  19. Enteroendocrine profile of ?-transducin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Rocco; Mazzoni, Maurizio; De Giorgio, Roberto; Vallorani, Claudia; Bonaldo, Alessio; Gatta, Pier Paolo; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Ruggeri, Eugenio; Bernardini, Chiara; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Clavenzani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, chemosensitivity of nutrients occurs through activation of taste receptors coupled with G protein subunits, including ?-transducin (G?tran) and ?-gustducin (G?gust). This study was aimed at characterizing the cells expressing G?tran-immunoreactivity throughout the mucosa of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. G?tran immunoreactive cells were mainly found in the stomach, and a lower number of immunopositive cells were detected in the intestine. Some G?tran immunoreactive cells in the stomach contained G?gust immunoreactivity. Gastric G?tran immunoreactive cells co-expressed ghrelin, obestatin and 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity. In contrast, G?tran immunopositive cells did not contain somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, substance P, or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in any investigated segments of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. Specificity of G?tran and G?gust antisera was determined by Western blot analysis, which identified two bands at the theoretical molecular weight of ~45 and ~40 kDa, respectively, in sea bass gut tissue as well as in positive tissue, and by immunoblocking with the respective peptide, which prevented immunostaining. The results of the present study provide a molecular and morphological basis for a role of taste related molecules in chemosensing in the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23748963

  20. Effect of an experimental oil spill on vertebral bone tissue quality in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Danion, Morgane; Deschamps, Marie-Hélène; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Le Floch, Stéphane; Quentel, Claire; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify biomarkers of oil pollution in fish we tested the effects of an experimental Light Cycle Oil (LCO) exposure on vertebral bone of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. A total of 60 adult fish were acclimated for fifteen days, then twenty were collected as controls (Day 0) while 40 were exposed to a soluble fraction of LCO (1136 ng L(-1) of ten Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) for seven days. Twenty of them were sampled at the end of the exposure period and the twenty last after a recovery period of fourteen days in clean seawater. Vertebral abnormalities were counted and bone mineralization, total bone area and bone density profiles were established for several post-cranial and caudal vertebrae. In sea bass, seven days of LCO exposure did not affect the frequency and severity of the vertebral abnormalities. No significant differences were observed in bone density and bone repartition (parameters of bone area profiles) between unexposed (Day 0), exposed (D7) and decontaminated (D21) fish. In contrast, bone mineralization of the vertebrae decreased in contaminated sea bass, but in a reversible way, which confirms a previous study in trout showing that this parameter is an early stress indicator. Our results suggest that vertebral bone mineralization could be used as a biomarker of PAH pollution in sea bass. It would be interesting to check this new biomarker in other teleost species exposed to various xenobiotics. PMID:21831432

  1. ICOWES2013 Conference 17-19 June 2013, Lyngby WINDS OBSERVED IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN SEAS WITH

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    profiling lidars was deployed at offshore platforms. All lidars were tested at the Høvsøre test site at DTU Wind Energy (former Risø DTU) prior to installation at the offshore platforms. The lidar operated observed in the Baltic, Irish and North Seas from a combination of ground- based lidars, tall offshore

  2. 14th European Marine Biology Symposium “Protection of Life in the Sea”: Summary of symposium papers and conclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Kinne

    1980-01-01

    This last paper of the 14th European Marine Biology Symposium refers to organizational aspects of the meeting; provides a\\u000a summary of the papers presented in this volume; and attempts to draw conclusions. The summary highlights essentials of the\\u000a facts presented and of the interpretations offered. It has been written in order to facilitate access to the vast amount of\\u000a information

  3. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

  4. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  5. Sea Grant Program Impacts: 2012 Biennial Report to Congress Impacts are alphabetical by program. Focus Areas are also denoted.

    E-print Network

    , halibut skin dog treats, pickled fish, crab tails and salmon oil. Sea Grant analyzed food and seafood and product development expertise. Alaska Sea Grant's seafood quality and seafood marketing specialists worked

  6. Growth and feeding patterns of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) early life stages in the Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Ignacio A.; Folkvord, Arild; Palomera, Isabel; Quílez-Badía, Gemma; Kallianoti, Fotini; Tselepides, Anastasios; Kallianotis, Argyris

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe inter- and intra-annual variations in the environmental characteristics of the North-eastern Aegean Sea and to relate these changes to the egg and larval distributions, growth and feeding of larval anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus). Four cruises, two in July and two in September in 2003 and 2004 were performed. The distributions of eggs and larvae were associated with i) salinity fronts related to the Black Sea Water and ii) shallow areas of high productivity over the continental shelf, some of them with high riverine influence. The first published description of the anchovy larval diet in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in individuals ranging from 2.2 to 17 mm standard length. The number of non-empty guts was relatively high (between 20% and 30%), and the diet was described through 15 main items. The mean size of the prey increased with larval size, and was generally dominated by prey widths smaller than 80 ?m (mainly the nauplii and copepodite stages of copepods). Small larvae positively selected copepod nauplii. As larvae grew, they shifted to larger copepod stages. At all sizes, larvae rejected abundant taxa like cladocerans. The average trophic level calculated for anchovy of all size ranges was 2.98 ± 0.16 (SE). Growth rates varied from 0.41 to 0.75 mm d -1, with the highest growth rates generally observed in September. Variability in the Black Sea Water influence and the recorded inter- and intra-annual changes in primary and secondary production, combined with marked changes in temperature over the first 20 m depth, are used to frame the discussion regarding the observed significant differences in growth rates in terms of both length and weight.

  7. Risk-Based Consumption Advice for Farmed Atlantic and Wild Pacific Salmon Contaminated with Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Foran, Jeffery A.; Carpenter, David O.; Hamilton, M. Coreen; Knuth, Barbara A.; Schwager, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    We reported recently that several organic contaminants occurred at elevated concentrations in farmed Atlantic salmon compared with concentrations of the same contaminants in wild Pacific salmon [Hites et al. Science 303:226–229 (2004)]. We also found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, dieldrin, dioxins, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers occurred at higher concentrations in European farm-raised salmon than in farmed salmon from North and South America. Health risks (based on a quantitative cancer risk assessment) associated with consumption of farmed salmon contaminated with PCBs, toxaphene, and dieldrin were higher than risks associated with exposure to the same contaminants in wild salmon. Here we present information on cancer and noncancer health risks of exposure to dioxins in farmed and wild salmon. The analysis is based on a tolerable intake level for dioxin-like compounds established by the World Health Organization and on risk estimates for human exposure to dioxins developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Consumption of farmed salmon at relatively low frequencies results in elevated exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds with commensurate elevation in estimates of health risk. PMID:15866762

  8. Long-term culture of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in submerged cages during winter affects behaviour, growth and condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Øyvind J. Korsøen; Tim Dempster; Per Gunnar Fjelldal; Frode Oppedal; Tore S. Kristiansen

    2009-01-01

    In the search for alternative farming methods, we investigated whether large salmon submerged below 10m in winter conditions behaved normally and performed as well as control fish held in standard surface cages. On average, 2345 salmon of ~3.5kg were kept in each of six 2000m3 sea-cages for 6weeks; three of which were submerged to 10–24m depth and three acted as

  9. Salmon Move into Deeper Waters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-03-24

    For generations, Native Americans have depended on their observations of nature for their survival. In this video segment adapted from Northwest Indian College, an Elder recalls how fishermen suspected the water was warming after observing salmon retreating to deeper waters.

  10. Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

  11. Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the previous biological concepts based on seasonal breeding stocks or geographical subspecies designations. The trans-Arctic herring phylogeography is notably similar to those of the amphi-boreal mollusk taxa Macoma and Mytilus, suggesting similar histories of inter-oceanic connections. We also considered the time dependency of molecular rates, critical for interpreting timing of relatively recent biogeographical events, by comparing the estimates from coding and non-coding mitochondrial regions of presumably different mutation dynamics. PMID:23510113

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in European hake (Merluccius merluccius) muscle from the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Moraleda-Cibrián, Núria; Carrassón, Maite; Rosell-Melé, Antoni

    2015-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantified in muscle tissue of European hake, an ecologically and commercially important species. Samples were collected from the Western Mediterranean, in seven different stations at different depths and a batch was bought in a local market. PCBs are the dominant pollutants, but the overall concentrations do not show significant differences between the different specimens analyzed from various locations, with the exception of the concentration of PCBs at a shallow station close to the River Besòs mouth. This probably suggests that generally the pollutants in hake from the Western Mediterranean derive from historical and non-point sources. The occurrence of pollutants is widespread in the samples but their concentration is below recommended legal limits for fish or other foodstuffs. PMID:25869202

  13. Toward a salmon conjecture

    E-print Network

    Oeding, Luke

    2010-01-01

    By using a result from the numerical algebraic geometry package Bertini we show that (with extremely high probability) a set of degree 6 and degree 9 polynomials cut out the secant variety $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{2}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{2} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$. This, combined with an argument provided by Landsberg and Manivel, implies set-theoretic defining equations in degrees 5, 6 and 9 for a much larger set of secant varieties, including $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{3}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$ which is of particular interest in light of the salmon prize offered by E. Allman for the ideal-theoretic defining equations.

  14. Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon

    E-print Network

    Dill, Lawrence M.

    Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon Martin Krkoseka,b,1 , Brendan a Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 9016; b Salmon Coast Field Station, Simoom) The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect

  15. Pacific Salmon at the Crossroads: Stocks at Risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack E. Williams; Willa Nehlsen; James A. Lichatowich

    1991-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society herein provides a list of depleted Pacific salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat stocks from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, to accompany the list of rare inland fishes reported by Williams et al. (1989). The list includes 214 native naturally-spawning stocks: 101 at high risk of extinction, 58 at moderate risk of extinction, 54 of special concern,

  16. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aoife Guiry; Denis Flynn; Sophie Hubert; Allan M O'Keeffe; Olivier LeProvost; Samantha L White; Patrick F Forde; Pamela Davoren; Benoit Houeix; Terry J Smith; Deirdre Cotter; Noel P Wilkins; Michael T Cairns

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built

  17. Life history variation and growth rate thresholds for maturity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Life history variation and growth rate thresholds for maturity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, life history and model these data to evaluate how changes to life history influence optimal growth rate thresholds for sea age at maturity. Population means (ranges in parentheses) describe the following

  18. Hybrid origin of Baltic salmon-specific parasite Gyrodactylus salaris: a model for speciation by host switch for hemiclonal organisms.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, Jussi; Zietara, Marek S; Lumme, J

    2007-12-01

    Host switching explains the high species number of ectoparasitic, viviparous, mainly parthenogenetic but potentially hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Gyrodactylus. The starlike mitochondrial phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salaris suggested parallel divergence of several clades on grayling (also named as Gyrodactylus thymalli) and an embedded sister clade on Baltic salmon. The hypothesis that the parasite switched from grayling to salmon during the glacial diaspora was tested using a 493-bp nuclear DNA marker ADNAM1. The parasites on salmon in lakes Onega and Ladoga were heterozygous for divergent ADNAM1 alleles WS1 and BS1, found as nearly fixed in grayling parasites in the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins, respectively. In the Baltic salmon-specific mtDNA clade, the WS/BS heterozygosity was maintained in 23 out of the 24 local clones. The permanently heterozygous clade was endemic in the Baltic Sea basin, and it had accumulated variation in mtDNA (31 variable sites on 1600 bp) and in the alleles of the nuclear locus (two point mutations and three nucleotide conversions along 493 bp). Mendelian shuffling of the nuclear alleles between the local clones indicated rare sex within the clade, but the WS/BS heterozygosity was lost in only one salmon hatchery clone, which was heterozygous WS1/WS3. The Baltic salmon-specific G. salaris lineage was monophyletic, descending from a single historical hybridization and consequential host switch, frozen by permanent heterozygosity. A possible time for the hybridization of grayling parasite strains from the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins was during the Eemian interglacial 132 000 years bp. Strains having a separate divergent mtDNA observed on farmed rainbow trout, and on salmon in Russian lake Kuito were suggested to be clones derived from secondary and tertiary recombination events. PMID:17971088

  19. Salmon farming: occupational health in a new rural industry.

    PubMed

    Douglas, J D

    1995-04-01

    The medical hazards of salmon farming can be grouped into those related to marine safety, fish husbandry, fish-farm diving and disease treatments. The hostile water environment requires thermal protection and personal buoyancy aids as workers frequently fall in the water from boats or cages. Feedstuffs may generate respirable dust and attract rats, creating a risk of leptospirosis. Musculo-skeletal injuries are common from lifting nets. Fish-farm diving has particular risks which can be minimized. Organophosphorous pesticides are used to treat sea lice and employees require health surveillance. Fish immunization is required to reduce the incidence of Aeromonas salmonitica. Needlestick injuries when using oil-based vaccines are a serious hazard to employees. The occupational health problems of salmon farming are predictable and preventable with primary safety measures. This new industry is safer than land-based agriculture on current evidence. PMID:7718825

  20. Effect of three feeding strategies (automatic, ad libitum demand-feeding and time-restricted demand-feeding) on feeding rhythms and growth in European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Azzaydi; J. A Madrid; S Zamora; F. J Sánchez-Vázquez; F. J Mart??nez

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effect of automatic-feeding (A), ad libitum demand-feeding (D) and time-restricted demand-feeding (RD) on the feeding rhythm and growth performance of European sea bass maintained under natural summer conditions. RD and A had access to feed during three meals a day of 1 h duration each (08:00–09:00, 16:00–17:00 and 00:00–01:00). Feeding demands in D showed daily rhythms that

  1. Identification and characterisation of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR) gene cluster in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax , reveals recurrent gene expansion and diversification by positive selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serena Ferraresso; Heiner Kuhl; Massimo Milan; David W. Ritchie; Christopher J. Secombes; Richard Reinhardt; Luca Bargelloni

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, a new gene family encoding non-rearranging receptors, called novel immune-type receptors (NITRs), has\\u000a been discovered in teleost fish. NITRs belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and represent an extraordinarily divergent\\u000a and rapidly evolving gene complex. Genomic analysis of a region spanning 270 kb led to the discovery of a NITR gene cluster\\u000a in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus

  2. SALMON CANNERY WASTE FOR MINK FEED

    E-print Network

    SALMON CANNERY WASTE FOR MINK FEED FISHERY LEAFLET 05 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 'United State 195 · SALMON CANNERY WASTE FOR MINK FEED By James R. Leekley*, Raymond G. Landgraf, Jr.**, Jeanne E················································ 3 Methods and Equipment······························ ········ · 4 Feeding Experiments

  3. The Changing Arctic and Subarctic Environment (CASE): a european network on marine biotic indicators of recent climate changes in the Nordic seas and adjacent domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deme, I.; Giraudeau, J.; Belt, S. T.; Hald, M.; Husum, K.; Knies, J.; Renssen, H.; Spielhagen, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    The European Marie Curie Initial Training Network CASE (FP7 - ITN) is formalizing long-standing research collaborations in the field of empirical and simulated climate and oceanographic changes in the Nordic and Barents Seas. CASE offers an ideal setting for running integrated and innovative projects on recent (Holocene) Arctic and Subarctic climate changes and implementing a multidisciplinary and intersectorial training on biotic proxies of past marine environments through a Marie Curie Network. The EU-funded 12 CASE PhDs projects are concerned with the sensitivity of marine primary and secondary producers to changes in marine physical aspects, and the invaluable information on past oceanic and climatic conditions given by their fossil remains contained in sedimentary archives. Climate modelling provides complementary physical information. The investigations cover an extended field of disciplines, from micropaleontology, to organic and inorganic geochemistry, and an array of expertise such as taxonomy, molecular and stable isotope geochemistry, and climate modelling. This presentation will provide information on the structure of the consortium, the content and philosophy of the training actions, as well as the main scientific objectives of the various research projects carried out by the CASE partner institutions.

  4. Epidemiology of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea) in the River Tornionjoki, a Baltic wild salmon river.

    PubMed

    Anttila, P; Romakkaniemi, A; Kuusela, J; Koski, P

    2008-05-01

    The occurrence of Gyrodactylus salaris in the River Tornionjoki was investigated in 2000-2004. Infection of salmon parr, Salmo salar, was common in the uppermost reach of the river system but decreased downstream and was rare in the lowermost reach. This pattern was consistent across the study period regardless of varying water temperatures. The oldest age groups of parr were more often infected than younger ones throughout the river system, irrespective of their origin (wild or stocked). Parasite-free hatchery-reared 1-year-old parr became infected during their first summer in the wild. Downmigrating salmon smolts had a high prevalence of infection, but their role in the distribution of infection seemed unimportant. On grayling, Thymallus thymallus, we observed only the grayling-specific clade of Gyrodactylus. We found no indication of grayling participating in the epidemiology of infection on salmon. The salmon parr and smolt population in the Tornionjoki has been at its height during the late 1990s and 2000s. Our results indicate that G. salaris infection in this Baltic river has no devastating effects on the salmon population as it has had in salmon rivers flowing into the North Atlantic and White Sea. PMID:18355178

  5. Development of an in vitro system for functional studies of ovarian follicular cells in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Crespo, B; Zanuy, S; Gómez, A

    2013-03-01

    The layers of follicular cells surrounding the oocyte and the interactions among them and the germ cells are critical for the successful maintenance of the ovarian functions. We have set up the isolation procedure and culture conditions of sea bass ovarian follicular cells. Their behaviour at three different physiological temperatures (25, 18 and 15 °C) was evaluated by verifying their steroidogenic capacity along time together with the expression of follicular specific genes (cyp19a1, fshr, lhr and star). These characteristics revealed this culture as a good in vitro alternative to short term in vivo studies at the level of the ovarian follicle. Moreover, to evaluate the suitability of this system for gene function studies conditions for transient transfection of plasmid DNA were optimized. Finally, the characteristics of the follicular culture were not affected by freezing and thawing cycles what facilitates the performance of experiments independently of the reproductive season. In conclusion, we have developed an in vitro homologous system that enables functional and gene expression studies and resembles the in vivo situation in the ovarian follicle. PMID:22760552

  6. Atlantic Salmon Released into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS employee Marisa Lubeck releases the day's last young Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season b...

  7. Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Tunison Lab scientist Emily Waldt (right) assists Dan Bishop of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in releasing Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being release...

  8. -----WESLEy C. SALMON-----Confirmation and Relevance ,

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    -----WESLEy C. SALMON----- Confirmation and Relevance , Item: One of the earliest surprises of Probability (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), sec. 1l0A. ~ Wesley C. Salmon, "Partial Entailment Foundations, secs. 86-88. #12;Wesley C. Salmon that the first edition had been unclear with regard

  9. PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead

    E-print Network

    PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead To Healthy, Harvestable Levels Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board December 15, 2004 Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife Subbasin Plan Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Skamania And Wahkiakum Counties #12;Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife

  10. PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role

    E-print Network

    PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role In Fishery Management CIRCULAR 24 FISH- crease have intensified the problems of salmon-fishery maintenance. Natural propagation has been interfered with by pollution and by dams that cut off the salmon from their natural spawning grounds

  11. Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian

    E-print Network

    Myllymäki, Petri

    Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian Networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen, Petri Karlsson and Ingemar Per¨a December 22, 2002 HIIT TECHNICAL REPORT 2002­7 #12;PREDICTING THE WILD SALMON elsewhere. #12;Predicting the wild salmon production using Bayesian networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen

  12. L'originalit de Juglar Pierre Salmon

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L'originalité de Juglar Pierre Salmon Thèse complémentaire soutenue le 28 mars 1966 Université de -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Version verbatim avec quelques corrections de forme mars 2011 Pierre Salmon Université de Bourgogne Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion (UMRS CNRS 5118) pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract This is a version

  13. UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE

    E-print Network

    UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

  14. USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON

    E-print Network

    353 USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRARY Of. zi 1960 WOODS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON by Richard W Page The effect of dynamite on salmon 2 Description and results of variables tested 3 Effect of water

  15. Ocean Conditions, Salmon, and Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Ocean Conditions, Salmon, and Climate Change John Ferguson1 NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries is dynamic · Multiple species increase and decrease in abundance over various time scales · For salmon, ocean productivity sets salmon recruitment levels - return rates can vary >10x with similar freshwater conditions

  16. Linking species, traits and habitat characteristics of Collembola at European scale

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Linking species, traits and habitat characteristics of Collembola at European scale Salmon S.1, temperature, rainfall, altitude) over which10 Collembola are supposed to be distributed. Occurrences of the 58

  17. Salmon Move into Deeper Waters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this video segment, learn about subsistence fishing and harvesting. Hear from an Elder who speaks about how he used to go trolling (fishing) for salmon with his father, uncles, and cousins when he was young. He recalls that they noticed that the salmon were moving farther offshore, into deeper water. They suspected it was because the water was warming. The video segment was adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham, Washington. The background essay explains the huge significance of climate change for people who rely on the earth so much, and the correlation between the temperature of water and the abundance of salmon is further explained. The Discussion questions will help kids think about the issues,and therefore understand them in a better way. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

  18. Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the interactive effect of ammonia toxicity, salinity challenge and nutritional status on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to normal seawater (32ppt), to brackish water (20ppt and 10ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20mg/L ?1.18mM representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12h, 48h, 84h and 180h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Biochemical responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea excretion rate, plasma ammonia, urea and lactate, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) and osmolality, muscle water content (MWC) and liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and ion- osmoregulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. During HEA, Jamm was inhibited in fasted fish at 10ppt, while fed fish were still able to excrete efficiently. At 2.5ppt, both feeding groups subjected to HEA experienced severe reductions and eventually a reversion in Jamm. Overall, the build-up of plasma ammonia in HEA exposed fed fish was much lower than fasted ones. Unlike fasted fish, fed fish acclimated to lower salinities (10ppt-2.5ppt) could maintain plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and MWC during HEA exposure. Thus fed fish were able to sustain ion-osmotic homeostasis which was associated with a more pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity. At 2.5ppt both feeding groups activated H(+)-ATPase. The expression of NKCC1 was down-regulated at lower salinities in both fed and fasted fish, but was upregulated within each salinity after a few days of HEA exposure. Though an increment in plasma lactate content and a decline in energy stores were noted for both feeding regimes, the effect was more severe in feed deprived fish. Overall, several different physiological processes were disturbed in fasted sea bass during HEA exposure while feeding alleviated adverse effects of high ammonia and salinity challenge. This suggests that low food availability can render fish more vulnerable to external ammonia, especially at reduced seawater salinities. PMID:25625520

  19. Ocean Carrying Capacity : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 6 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Lichatowich, Jim

    1993-06-01

    The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival of coho salmon appears to be determined in the first month at sea while the fish are still in local marine areas in the upwelling zone. There is stronger evidence that upwelling might influence vulnerability to predation. A broader ecosystem view which considers salmon as a member of a complex marine community offers additional insight and raises new questions regarding the marine mortality of salmon. The pelagic fish community in the upwelling zone has undergone dramatic change in the last 50 years. That change is consistent with the historical record, however, the system has not completed a full cycle of change (as it has in the past) since the stocks have been subjected to intense commercial and sport exploitation. Salmon seem to be responding to shifts in productivity in the coastal upwelling zone.

  20. Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 -2008

    E-print Network

    Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 - 2008 Peter Hassemer Idaho Department of Fish;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Spring Chinook Salmon (Includes Snake River Summers) #12;Spring

  1. Modulation of adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH)-induced expression of stress-related genes by PUFA in inter-renal cells from European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Montero, Daniel; Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Tort, Lluis; Negrin, Davinia; Zamorano, María Jesús; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids have been shown to exert a clear effect on the stress response, modulating the release of cortisol. The role of fatty acids on the expression of steroidogenic genes has been described in mammals, but little is known in fish. The effect of different fatty acids on the release of cortisol and expression of stress-related genes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) head kidney, induced by a pulse of adenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), was studied. Tissue was maintained in superfusion with 60 min of incubation with EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid (ARA), linoleic acid or ?-linolenic acid (ALA) during 490 min. Cortisol was measured by RIA. The quantification of stress-related genes transcripts was conducted by One-Step TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. There was an effect of the type of fatty acid on the ACTH-induced release of cortisol, values from ALA treatment being elevated within all of the experimental period. The expression of some steroidogenic genes, such as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-fos, were affected by fatty acids, ALA increasing the expression of StAR after 1 h of ACTH stimulation whereas DHA, ARA and ALA increased the expression of c-fos after 20 min. ARA increased expression of the 11?-hydroxylase gene. Expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was increased in all the experimental treatments except for ARA. Results corroborate previous studies of the effect of different fatty acids on the release of cortisol in marine fish and demonstrate that those effects are mediated by alteration of the expression of steroidogenic genes. PMID:26090096

  2. Expression of Kisspeptins and Kiss Receptors Suggests a Large Range of Functions for Kisspeptin Systems in the Brain of the European Sea Bass

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Sebastián; Servili, Arianna; Espigares, Felipe; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Brocal, Isabel; Felip, Alicia; Gómez, Ana; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This study, conducted in the brain of a perciform fish, the European sea bass, aimed at raising antibodies against the precursor of the kisspeptins in order to map the kiss systems and to correlate the expression of kisspeptins, kiss1 and kiss2, with that of kisspeptin receptors (kiss-R1 and kiss-R2). Specific antibodies could be raised against the preprokiss2, but not the preoprokiss1. The data indicate that kiss2 neurons are mainly located in the hypothalamus and project widely to the subpallium and pallium, the preoptic region, the thalamus, the pretectal area, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mediobasal medial and caudal hypothalamus, and the neurohypophysis. These results were compared to the expression of kiss-R1 and kiss-R2 messengers, indicating a very good correlation between the wide distribution of Kiss2-positive fibers and that of kiss-R2 expressing cells. The expression of kiss-R1 messengers was more limited to the habenula, the ventral telencephalon and the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. Attempts to characterize the phenotype of the numerous cells expressing kiss-R2 showed that neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase are targets for kisspeptins, while GnRH1 neurons did not appear to express kiss-R1 or kiss-R2 messengers. In addition, a striking result was that all somatostatin-positive neurons expressed-kissR2. These data show that kisspeptins are likely to regulate a wide range of neuronal systems in the brain of teleosts. PMID:23894610

  3. Expression of Mx protein in tissues of Atlantic salmon post-smolts--an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Nayak, K K; Fourrier, M; Collet, B; Snow, M; Ellis, A E

    2007-12-01

    A rabbit antiserum was produced from a 12-amino acid long peptide common to the 3 known isoforms of Atlantic salmon Mx proteins. The antibody stained ASK-1 cells 48h after stimulation with poly I:C. In Western blots of these cells, the antibody stained a doublet with MW about 75kDa and another band at about 65kDa, typical of the MW of Atlantic salmon Mx. Western blots of kidney from IPNV-injected salmon showed a similar staining pattern. In immunohistochemistry, the antibody stained the gill, kidney and liver tissue of a fish infected with IPNV by cohabitation. These tissues also expressed high levels of interferon (IFN) and Mx transcripts as determined by real-time qRT-PCR. Normal healthy salmon post-smolts sampled at 4-8 weeks after transfer to sea water had very low-level expression of IFN and Mx transcripts. However, at 4 and 5 weeks after sea water transfer the gill, kidney and liver of these fish stained strongly for Mx protein. Thereafter, immunostaining of Mx markedly diminished in all tissues, persisting weakly in the gill. It has been reported that Atlantic salmon smolts constitutively express IFN and Mx transcripts around the time of smolting. Presumably the Mx protein detected in the tissues for about 6 weeks after transfer to sea water resulted from such a transcriptional event. As Mx is known to provide protection against IPNV infections it is tempting to associate the duration of persistence of Mx protein with the outbreaks of IPN-related mortalities in post-smolts, 6-8 weeks after transfer to sea water. PMID:17980623

  4. DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004

    E-print Network

    DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004 18 Little White Salmon Subbasin Figure 18-1. Location of the Little White Salmon River Subbasin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 18.1 Basin Overview The Little White Salmon Subbasin

  5. DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004

    E-print Network

    DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004 14 Lower Columbia Mainstem Subbasin ­ Salmon Creek Figure 14-1. Location of the Salmon Creek Basin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 14.1 Basin Overview The Salmon Creek Basin comprises approximately

  6. Natural Climate Insurance for Pacific Northwest Salmon and Salmon Fisheries: Finding our way through the Entangled Bank

    E-print Network

    Mantua, Nathan

    1 Natural Climate Insurance for Pacific Northwest Salmon and Salmon Fisheries: Finding our way) and sustainable salmon management policies. We show the importance of climate in its effects on salmon production, and acknowledge a lack predictability for salmon ecosystems. In this regard, we conclude that three things need

  7. Space as mediator between SEA and Ports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Vanoutrive

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is increasingly seen as a critical issue in the port sector. The SEA and other European environmental directives are mainly perceived as a burden for port development and port professionals often have little knowledge about the reasons why an SEA is necessary. According to a European directive (2001\\/42\\/EC) a Strategic Environmental Assessment has to be made

  8. a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^-'^ "^

    E-print Network

    , Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and the B group vitamins. From every nutritional standpoint -high protein value Salad greens 1 hard-cooked egg 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 tablespoon grated onion 1 teaspoon horse-radish V^ teaspoon salt Dash pepper Drain salmon, reserving liquid. Add mayonnaise, parsley, lemon juice

  9. Satellite tagging and cardiac physiology reveal niche expansion in salmon sharks.

    PubMed

    Weng, Kevin C; Castilho, Pedro C; Morrissette, Jeffery M; Landeira-Fernandez, Ana M; Holts, David B; Schallert, Robert J; Goldman, Kenneth J; Block, Barbara A

    2005-10-01

    Shark populations are declining globally, yet the movements and habitats of most species are unknown. We used a satellite tag attached to the dorsal fin to track salmon sharks (Lamna ditropis) for up to 3.2 years. Here we show that salmon sharks have a subarctic-to-subtropical niche, ranging from 2 degrees to 24 degrees C, and they spend winter periods in waters as cold as 2 degrees to 8 degrees C. Functional assays and protein gels reveal that the expression of excitation-contraction coupling proteins is enhanced in salmon shark hearts, which may underlie the shark's ability to maintain heart function at cold temperatures and their niche expansion into subarctic seas. PMID:16210538

  10. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differ

  11. Comparison of genetic diversity in the recently founded Connecticut River Atlantic salmon population to that of its primary donor stock, Maine's Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to the Connecticut River (CR) from 1996 to 1999 were assayed for variability at nine microsatellite DNA loci. Heterozygosity and allele frequencies were compared to the anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to Maine's Penobscot River from 1998 to 2000. The Penobscot River was the primary source of the salmon used to found the previously extirpated population in the Connecticut River. While there were no significant differences in heterozygosity between the source population and the Connecticut River sea-run spawners, microsatellite allele frequencies were significantly different between the populations. Two techniques of estimating effective population size (Ne) suggested a healthy level of genetic variation in the Connecticut River population of anadromous Atlantic salmon. This is significant because the sea-run population is maintained almost entirely through hatchery production. Healthy ratios of Ne to N indicate that hatchery production has not resulted in excessive inbreeding to date. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 78929 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...Part 300 RIN 0648-XZ20 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The orders...

  13. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  14. 75 FR 14135 - Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...Administration RIN 0648-ZC16 Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund AGENCY: National Marine...announces the availability of Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Funding (PCSRF), as authorized...restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and their...

  15. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ...Review)] Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead...

  16. 77 FR 60631 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...RIN 0648-XC222 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

  17. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...action establishes Class E airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance...Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of...

  18. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  19. THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. By CHARLES H. GILBERT,

    E-print Network

    THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. ~ By CHARLES H. GILBERT, Professor of Zoology, Stanford University. " .. " .. " .. " .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 The king salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) " , .. .. . 318 Rate of travel. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 The chum or dog salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) , '" '" . .. .. .. . . . . . 325 Rate of travel

  20. WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

  1. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  2. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  3. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  4. Pacific salmon During their annual spawning migrations from the ocean to their natal streams, Pacific salmon

    E-print Network

    Tiegs, Scott

    Pacific salmon During their annual spawning migrations from the ocean to their natal streams, Pacific salmon influence stream ecosystems by (1) carrying and releasing large quantities of marine. In the foreground is a school of pink salmon (dark objects) migrating up Maybeso Creek, Prince of Wales Island

  5. Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Research Council. Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine.

    This interim report from the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine is a prepublication of the March 2002 report provided by National Academy Press. The once abundant populations of Atlantic Salmon in Maine have declined in recent years, now listed as endangered. The NRC Committee believes that "understanding the genetic makeup of Maine's salmon is important for recovery efforts." This 48-page report includes information on the salmon's biology, evolution, genetics, its current state, and the committee's conclusions. It can be viewed online or downloaded for printing.

  6. Pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Taksdal; A B Olsen; I Bjerkås; M J Hjortaas; B H Dannevig; D A Graham; M F McLoughlin

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes, for the first time, clinical signs and pathological findings of pancreas disease (PD) in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Wal- baum), in sea water in Norway. Similarities and differences with reports of PD from Ireland and Scotland are discussed. Samples of 68 rainbow trout from disease outbreaks on 14 farms

  7. Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory T. Ruggerone; Jennifer L. Nielsen

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world’s oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since

  8. Classical individual assignments versus mixture modeling to estimate stock proportions in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) catches from DNA microsatellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Jerome J. Pella; Michele Masuda

    2005-01-01

    Mixture modeling is shown to outperform classical individual assignments for both estimating stock compo- sition and identifying individuals' sources in a case study of an eight-locus DNA microsatellite database from 26 At- lantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks of the Baltic Sea. Performance of the estimation methods was compared using self- assignment tests applied to each of the baseline samples and

  9. Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This video segment features Native American Elders discussing the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world. A Native educator describes having taken students to a river's headwaters to watch salmon spawn, only to observe the deadly effects of water temperature rise on the fish eggs. She explains that even a small change in temperature can result in a population decline that could threaten Native peoples and their way of life. Included is a background essay explaining how important the fishing is to certain parts of the world, and how the warming waters are negatively affecting the fish and people. There is a helpful section that shows you the standards for your state ranging from grades K-12, as well as links to related resources.

  10. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  11. Phylogenetic Evidence of Long Distance Dispersal and Transmission of Piscine Reovirus (PRV) between Farmed and Wild Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Garseth, Åse Helen; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Biering, Eirik

    2013-01-01

    The extent and effect of disease interaction and pathogen exchange between wild and farmed fish populations is an ongoing debate and an area of research that is difficult to explore. The objective of this study was to investigate pathogen transmission between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations in Norway by means of molecular epidemiology. Piscine reovirus (PRV) was selected as the model organism as it is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Norway, and because infection not necessarily will lead to mortality through development of disease. A matrix comprised of PRV protein coding sequences S1, S2 and S4 from wild, hatchery-reared and farmed Atlantic salmon in addition to one sea-trout (Salmo trutta L.) was examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference indicate long distance transport of PRV and exchange of virus between populations. The results are discussed in the context of Atlantic salmon ecology and the structure of the Norwegian salmon industry. We conclude that the lack of a geographical pattern in the phylogenetic trees is caused by extensive exchange of PRV. In addition, the detailed topography of the trees indicates long distance transportation of PRV. Through its size, structure and infection status, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has the capacity to play a central role in both long distance transportation and transmission of pathogens. Despite extensive migration, wild salmon probably play a minor role as they are fewer in numbers, appear at lower densities and are less likely to be infected. An open question is the relationship between the PRV sequences found in marine fish and those originating from salmon. PMID:24349221

  12. Phylogenetic evidence of long distance dispersal and transmission of piscine reovirus (PRV) between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Garseth, Åse Helen; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Biering, Eirik

    2013-01-01

    The extent and effect of disease interaction and pathogen exchange between wild and farmed fish populations is an ongoing debate and an area of research that is difficult to explore. The objective of this study was to investigate pathogen transmission between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations in Norway by means of molecular epidemiology. Piscine reovirus (PRV) was selected as the model organism as it is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Norway, and because infection not necessarily will lead to mortality through development of disease. A matrix comprised of PRV protein coding sequences S1, S2 and S4 from wild, hatchery-reared and farmed Atlantic salmon in addition to one sea-trout (Salmo trutta L.) was examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference indicate long distance transport of PRV and exchange of virus between populations. The results are discussed in the context of Atlantic salmon ecology and the structure of the Norwegian salmon industry. We conclude that the lack of a geographical pattern in the phylogenetic trees is caused by extensive exchange of PRV. In addition, the detailed topography of the trees indicates long distance transportation of PRV. Through its size, structure and infection status, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has the capacity to play a central role in both long distance transportation and transmission of pathogens. Despite extensive migration, wild salmon probably play a minor role as they are fewer in numbers, appear at lower densities and are less likely to be infected. An open question is the relationship between the PRV sequences found in marine fish and those originating from salmon. PMID:24349221

  13. 76 FR 54216 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Salmon Subcommittee, and Model...

  14. Snake River sockeye salmon estimated adult LGR

    E-print Network

    Snake River sockeye salmon # smolts estimated adult LGR migrating from returns returns Valley-up of the adults returning in 2009, allows us to consider SAR's for sockeye salmon relative to the percent to LGR smolt- to-adult return is 0.08% for the 2005 outmigration. For the 2007 outmigration, the valley

  15. Salmon policy: science, society, restoration, and reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Lackey

    1999-01-01

    Salmon policy in the Pacific Northwest illustrates a class of contentious, socially wrenching issues that are becoming increasingly common in the western United States as demands increase for limited ecological resources. Many Pacific salmon “stocks” (a term used in fisheries management for a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to “population”) have declined and some have been extirpated.

  16. Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Tunison Lab scientists Rich Chiavelli (left) and Emily Waldt (middle) hand a bucketful of young Atlantic salmon to Dan Bishop (right) of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for release into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of you...

  17. Salmon Are Carefully Released Using Buckets

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season by at least two months in Oswego County, N.Y. During fall 2011 and spring 2012, U.S. Geological Survey scie...

  18. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON

    E-print Network

    WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory FEB !) ~iy;)9, Commissioner WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON By John A. Coates* and John E. Halver Western, John A Wiiti'i-sohilile vitamin ivcjuireineiits of silver sahnon, by John A. CoiUes and John E. Ilalver

  19. SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

  20. SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

  1. MORTALITY OF SALMON FINGERLINGS EXPOSED TO PULSATING

    E-print Network

    MORTALITY OF SALMON FINGERLINGS EXPOSED TO PULSATING DIRECT CURRENT BY GERALD B. COLLINS, CHARLES D, current density, pulse frequency, and duration of exposure on the mortality of salmon fingerlings exposed, and pulse duration, using a current of square-wave form. The experiments indicated that mortality increased

  2. SALMON RESEARCH AT DEER CREEK, CALIF.

    E-print Network

    SALMON RESEARCH AT DEER CREEK, CALIF. Marine Biological Laboratory L I B rt ja. R Y FEB 2 7 1952 FISN AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;SALMON RESEARCH AT DEER CREEK, CALIF. Marine Biological Laboratory. January, 19^2 #12;?4 4t ^^'^^^'^''C^^Jtr^ShQsfa Lake SHASTA DAM KESWICK DAM UPPER SACRAMENTO AREA AND DEER

  3. Live-chilling and crowding stress before slaughter of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Olav Skjervold; Svein Olav Fjæra; Per Braarød Østby; Olai Einen

    2001-01-01

    Effects of crowding stress at high fish density and\\/or live-chilling in cold sea water (1°C for 1 h) before slaughter were studied in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The experiment was conducted as a 2×2 factorial design of four groups, each with 50 fish. The groups were (1) untreated before slaughter, (2) crowded, (3) live-chilled, and (4) both crowded and live-chilled

  4. Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

  5. Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery Fish & Wildlife Subbasin Plan

    E-print Network

    at the subbasin level. II.A. Lower Columbia Mainstem and Estuary II.B. Estuary Tributaries II.C. Grays Subbasin II Tributaries II.I. Washougal Subbasin II.J. Wind Subbasin II.K. Little White Salmon Subbasin II.L. Columbia Columbia River Chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmon, steelhead, and bull trout. Appdx. B Other Species

  6. Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery Fish & Wildlife Subbasin Plan

    E-print Network

    .A. Lower Columbia Mainstem and Estuary II.B. Estuary Tributaries II.C. Grays Subbasin II.D. Elochoman II.I. Washougal Subbasin II.J. Wind Subbasin II.K. Little White Salmon Subbasin II.L. Columbia Gorge Chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmon, steelhead, and bull trout. Appdx. B Other Species Descriptions

  7. Global Assessment of Organic Contaminants in Farmed Salmon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald A. Hites; Jeffery A. Foran; David O. Carpenter; M. Coreen Hamilton; Barbara A. Knuth; Steven J. Schwager

    2004-01-01

    The annual global production of farmed salmon has increased by a factor of 40 during the past two decades. Salmon from farms in northern Europe, North America, and Chile are now available widely year-round at relatively low prices. Salmon farms have been criticized for their ecological effects, but the potential human health risks of farmed salmon consumption have not been

  8. SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION FEBRUARY 73, 7995

    E-print Network

    #12;Al SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 73, 7995 LIONS CLUB HALL, SALMON ARM #12;I SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 13, 1995, I DOE FRAP 1995-01 \\ Compiled Salmon River Watershed Ecosystem Goals and Objectives Tyhson Banighen

  9. CANNING OF FISHERY PRODUCTS 117 PACIFIC SALMON7

    E-print Network

    CANNING OF FISHERY PRODUCTS 117 PACIFIC SALMON7 The salmon canning industry is located on the Great salmon are caught commercially in the United States as far south as Monterey Bay in California. The total annual world pack of canned salmon in this area aver- ages about 10,000,000 cases of 48 one-pound cans

  10. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  11. Footprints of Directional Selection in Wild Atlantic Salmon Populations: Evidence for Parasite-Driven Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Zueva, Ksenia J.; Lumme, Jaakko; Veselov, Alexey E.; Kent, Matthew P.; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of host-parasite co-adaptation have long been of interest in evolutionary biology; however, determining the genetic basis of parasite resistance has been challenging. Current advances in genome technologies provide new opportunities for obtaining a genome-scale view of the action of parasite-driven natural selection in wild populations and thus facilitate the search for specific genomic regions underlying inter-population differences in pathogen response. European populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exhibit natural variance in susceptibility levels to the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957, ranging from resistance to extreme susceptibility, and are therefore a good model for studying the evolution of virulence and resistance. However, distinguishing the molecular signatures of genetic drift and environment-associated selection in small populations such as land-locked Atlantic salmon populations presents a challenge, specifically in the search for pathogen-driven selection. We used a novel genome-scan analysis approach that enabled us to i) identify signals of selection in salmon populations affected by varying levels of genetic drift and ii) separate potentially selected loci into the categories of pathogen (G. salaris)-driven selection and selection acting upon other environmental characteristics. A total of 4631 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in Atlantic salmon from 12 different northern European populations. We identified three genomic regions potentially affected by parasite-driven selection, as well as three regions presumably affected by salinity-driven directional selection. Functional annotation of candidate SNPs is consistent with the role of the detected genomic regions in immune defence and, implicitly, in osmoregulation. These results provide new insights into the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in Atlantic salmon and will enable future searches for the specific genes involved. PMID:24670947

  12. Field trials of a method of induction of autoimmune gonad rejection in Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Field trials of a method of induction of autoimmune gonad rejection in Atlantic salmon (Salmon.K. Summary. Autoimmune gonad destruction was induced in Atlantic salmon of both sexes in trials carried out induced in the salmon testis was compared with that caused by autoimmune destruction of mammalian testis

  13. Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM) or fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Results We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD), but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD). Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663). Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein catabolism, amino acid transaminations, RNA splicing and blood coagulation were also found to be regulated by diet, while the expression of genes involved in protein and ATP synthesis differed between the half-sibfamilies. Conclusions Overall, the combined gene expression, compositional and biochemical studies demonstrated a large panel of metabolic and physiological effects induced by total substitution of both FM and FO in the diets of European sea bass and revealed physiological characteristics associated with the two half-sibfamilies. PMID:22017880

  14. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  15. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

  16. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

  17. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

  18. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

  19. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

  20. Behavioral and Genetic Interactions Between Escaped Farm Salmon and Wild Atlantic Salmon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kjetil Hindar; IAN A. FLEMING

    The production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) dwarfs the wild salmon fishery by two orders of magnitude. Throughout the North Atlantic region, large numbers of aquacultured\\u000a (farm) fish escape and invade rivers that contain native salmon. This causes considerable concern, because interactions between\\u000a escaped farm fish and native fish can cause a decline in the fitness and productivity of the

  1. Atlantic salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.

    1989-01-01

    Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.

  2. River temperature drives salmon survivorship: is it determined prior to ocean entry?

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Kentaro; Ayumi, Nakashima; Kikuchi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Early life is believed to be a critical stage for determining survivorship in all fish. Many studies have suggested that environmental conditions in the ocean determine the fry-to-adult survival rate of Pacific salmon but few investigations have been conducted on the importance of the brief freshwater period during the seaward migration on overall survivorship. Here, we found that most of the variation in survivorship of hatchery-reared chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) was explained by river temperature during the fry stage, despite spending most of their life (approx. 99%) at sea. After the annual release of a constant number of fry, the number of fry moving through the river at a downstream location varied greatly. The number of returning adults was positively correlated with the number of fry moving downstream. This result suggests that most salmon mortality occurred prior to ocean entry, and that short-term mortality in the river is a key factor determining major fluctuations in total mortality. Although marine mortality is often invoked in the literature as a key factor determining total mortality of chum salmon, attention should also be paid to freshwater mortality to understand the population dynamics of this species.

  3. The European coastal zone: characterization and first assessment of ecosystem metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Gazeau; Stephen V. Smithsupcs; Bernard Gentili; Michel Frankignoulle; Jean-Pierre Gattuso

    2004-01-01

    The geomorphic, oceanographic, terrestrial and anthropogenic attributes of the European coastal zone are described and published data on ecosystem function (primary production and respiration) are reviewed. Four regions are considered: the Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the European Atlantic coast including the North Sea. The metabolic database (194 papers) suffers from a non-homogeneous geographical coverage with no usable

  4. The Impact of Atmospheric Deposition of Non-Acidifying Substances on the Quality of European Forest Soils and the North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Van den Hout; D. J. Bakker; J. J. M. Berdowski; J. A. Van Jaarsveld; G. J. Reinds; J. Bril; A. Breeuwsma; J. E. Groenenberg; W. De Vries; J. A. Van Pagee; M. Villars; C. J. Sliggers

    1999-01-01

    In the pilot study ESQUAD the impact of atmospheric deposition of three heavy metals (cadmium, copper and lead) and two persistent organic pollutants (benzo(a)-pyrene and lindane) on the quality of European soils and seawater has been calculated. Calculations have been made of atmospheric transport and deposition using a detailed emissions database for Europe. This enabled deposition maps to be produced

  5. 1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon

    E-print Network

    #12;Content: 1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon b. Sockeye Salmon c. Summer Steelhead d. Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon 2.2010 run-size forecasts for: a. Sockeye Salmon b. Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon #12;#12;Species: Run: Origin: Period: Chinook Salmon Fall

  6. Long-term monitoring of individual fish triggering activity on a self-feeding system: An example using European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Covès; M. Beauchaud; J. Attia; G. Dutto; C. Bouchut; M. L. Bégout

    2006-01-01

    In two experiments, a computerized on-demand feeding system coupled with a PIT tag monitoring device was used to continuously record the triggering activity by ca. 50 individual sea bass for 55 days (Exp. 1, initial average body weight and coefficient of variation, CV: 299 g, 15%) and 69 days (Exp. 2, 157 g, 13%). Each group was stocked in 1

  7. THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  8. Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon

    E-print Network

    Salmon, Rick

    Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean circulation, Monte Carlo method 1. Introduction Equilibrium statistical mechanics applies to systems

  9. Classroom-Community Salmon Enhancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard-Gray, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook salmon in the classroom and later release them into a nearby stream. (TW)

  10. Adsorption of Salmon Calcitonin to PLGA Microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sema Calis; Ramasubbu Jeyanthi; Tsuimin Tsai; Rahul C. Mehta; Patrick P. DeLuca

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. The interaction of salmon calcitonin (sCT) and poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) was detected during preparation and evaluation of microspheres. The purpose of this study was to quantitate the extent and nature of the interaction.

  11. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  12. Identification and characterisation of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR) gene cluster in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, reveals recurrent gene expansion and diversification by positive selection

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Heiner; Milan, Massimo; Ritchie, David W.; Secombes, Christopher J.; Reinhardt, Richard; Bargelloni, Luca

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, a new gene family encoding non-rearranging receptors, called novel immune-type receptors (NITRs), has been discovered in teleost fish. NITRs belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and represent an extraordinarily divergent and rapidly evolving gene complex. Genomic analysis of a region spanning 270 kb led to the discovery of a NITR gene cluster in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In total, 27 NITR genes and three putative pseudogenes, organised in a tandemly arrayed cluster, were identified. Sea bass NITR genes maintain the three major genomic organisations that appear to be essentially conserved among fish species along with new features presumably involving processes of intron loss, exon deletion and acquisition of new exons. Comparative and evolutionary analyses suggest that these receptors have evolved following a “birth-and-death” model of gene evolution in which duplication events together with lineage-specific gain and loss of individual members contributed to the rapid diversification of individual gene families. In this study, we demonstrate that species-specific gene expansions provide the raw material for diversifying, positive Darwinian selection favouring the evolution of a highly diverse array of molecules. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-009-0398-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19851764

  13. State-dependent shifts between nocturnal and diurnal activity in salmon

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, N. B.; Fraser, N. H. C.; Burns, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Animal species have usually evolved to be active at a specific time of the daily cycle, and so are either diurnal, nocturnal or crepuscular. However, we show here that the daily timing of activity in juvenile Atlantic salmon is related to the life-history strategy that they have adopted (i.e. the age at which they will migrate to the sea) and their current state (body size/relative nutritional state). Salmon can detect food more easily by day than by night, but the risk of predation is greater. Nocturnal foraging should generally be preferred, but the greater the need for growth, the greater should be the shift towards diurnal activity. In line with this prediction, all fish were predominantly nocturnal, but salmon preparing to migrate to the sea, which would experience size-dependent mortality during the forthcoming migration, were more diurnal than fish of the same age and size that were delaying migration for a further year. Moreover, the proportion of activity by day was negatively correlated with body size within the intending migrants. It has previously been shown that overwinter survival in fish delaying migration is maximized not by growth but by minimizing exposure to predators. As predicted, daytime activity in these fish was correlated with the prior rate of weight loss, fish being more diurnal when their risk of starvation was greater. To our knowledge, these are the first quantitative demonstrations of state-dependent variation in the timing of daily activity.

  14. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2003-01-01

    In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon

  16. Genetic identification and distribution of the parasitic larvae of Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) in European hake Merluccius merluccius from the Tyrrhenian Sea and Spanish Atlantic coast: implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Paolo; Smaldone, Giorgio; Acerra, Virginia; D'Angelo, Luisa; Anastasio, Aniello; Bellisario, Bruno; Palma, Giuseppe; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of the hake Merluccius merluccius is widespread in European countries, where this fish has a high commercial value. To date, different larval species of Anisakis have been identified as parasites in M. merluccius from European waters, Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) being the two most common. The aim of the study is to present data on the occurrence of Anisakis spp. larvae in the viscera and flesh of M. merluccius. Consequently, the distribution and infection rates of different species of Anisakis in different sites (viscera, and dorsal and ventral fillets) were investigated in hake caught in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (FAO 37.1.3) and the NE Atlantic Ocean (FAO 27 IXa). A sample of N=65 fish individuals (length>26 cm) was examined parasitologically from each fishing ground. The fillets were examined using the pepsin digestion method. A large number (1310) of Anisakis specimens were identified by multilocus allozyme electrophoresis (MAE) and mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis; among these, 814 larvae corresponded to A. simplex (s. s.) and 476 to A. pegreffii. They were found to infect both the flesh and the viscera. The two species co-infected the same individual fish (both in the viscera and in the flesh) from the FAO 27 area, whereas only A. pegreffii was found in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea. The average parasite burden of A. pegreffii in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea was significantly lower to that observed from hake off the Atlantic coast of Spain, both in prevalence and in abundance. In addition, whereas no significant difference in overall prevalence values was recorded between the two Anisakis species in the viscera of the FAO 27 sample, significant differences were found in the abundance levels observed between these species in the flesh, with A. simplex (s. s.) exhibiting significantly higher levels than that observed for A. pegreffii (p<0.001). Given that the pathogenic role in relation to man is known for these two species of Anisakis, both the flesh inspection and the infection rates of the different anisakid species assume particular importance in terms of assessing the risk they pose to humans. PMID:25584776

  17. The status of the Bering Sea: January August 2000 Phyllis J. Stabeno

    E-print Network

    The status of the Bering Sea: January ­ August 2000 Phyllis J. Stabeno Pacific Marine Environmental production (Arctic Research Initiative) and Prolonged Production and Trophic Transfer to Predators: processes of the salmon returns were typical, others were well below expected. The present status of the Bering Sea

  18. Effects of different dietary levels of fish protein hydrolysates on growth, digestive enzymes, gut microbiota, and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Kotzamanis; E. Gisbert; F. J. Gatesoupe; J. Zambonino Infante; C. Cahu

    2007-01-01

    Two fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) were incorporated into four diets prepared for start-feeding sea bass larvae, at two different levels (10% and 19% of total ingredients): a commercial FPH, CPSP, in which the molecular mass of the main fraction of soluble peptides (51%) was between 500–2500 Da, and an experimental FPH obtained by acidic silage of sardine offal, SH, with a

  19. Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea!

    E-print Network

    Pickart, Robert S.

    Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea! Herald Shoal Hanna Shoal Barrow Canyon Herald Canyon Bering Strait of the Alaska Coastal Current (a) Bering Strait! (b) Central Shelf! (c) BCH! (d) BCC/DBO! (e) BCM! BCC avg the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait is transported across the shallow and expansive Chukchi Sea through

  20. Salmon 2100: Some recovery strategies that just might work

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

  1. RHEOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SALMON PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rheological and thermal properties of salmon oil and biodiesel derived from salmon oil are important for designing processing equipment. For example, the viscosity of biodiesel at different temperatures is required for designing a heat exchanger for winterization purposes. Understanding rheological ...

  2. University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections: Salmon Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Washington presents the Salmon Collection, an online digital collection of "documents, photographs, and other original material describing the roots of the salmon crisis in the Pacific Northwest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries." Users may search for items by keyword or browse the entire collection, organized into the following categories: Native Americans, Traps and Fishwheels, Salmon Industry in Washington, Salmon on the Columbia River, Fish Drying, Salmon Industry in Alaska, Salmon Canneries, and Salmon Hatcheries. For a brief overview of the salmon crisis in the Pacific Northwest, click on About this Site (also provides technical information about the collection and its content). The photographs are particularly compelling. The entire collection should appeal to ecologists and history buffs alike.

  3. Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon

    E-print Network

    Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon Steven W. Schlosser1, Gregory Foundation, via grant #CNS-0326453. Brandon Salmon is supported in part by an NSF Fellowship. #12;Keywords

  4. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

  5. Immunocytochemistry of somatotrophs, gonadotrophs, prolactin and adrenocorticotropin cells in larval sea bream ( Sparus auratus ) pituitaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Power; A. V. M. Canario

    1992-01-01

    The chronological appearance of endocrine cells in the pituitary of sea-bream (Sparus auratus) larvae was studied using antisera against salmon prolactin, trout growth hormone, salmon gonadotropin and N-terminal human adrenocorticotropin. The larval pituitary (1–12 days after hatching) was oval in shape and was composed of a dense mass of cells with few neurohypophysial fibres. By 60 days after hatching it

  6. Sea Grant Extension Crucial Link to Coastal Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumbos, John

    1997-01-01

    University of California Sea Grant Extension Program provides training and technical assistance to fishers, farmers, planners, and conservationists on projects such as coastal ecosystem health, marine environmental protection, fisheries management, aquaculture, salmon habitat restoration, and controlling nonpoint-source pollution; supports…

  7. Long-term environmental exposure to metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) activates the immune cell stress response in the common European sea star (Asterias rubens).

    PubMed

    Matranga, V; Pinsino, A; Randazzo, D; Giallongo, A; Dubois, P

    2012-05-01

    The common sea star Asterias rubens represents a key-species of the North-Eastern Atlantic macro benthic community. The cells of their immune system, known as coelomocytes, are the first line of defence against environmental hazards. Here, we report the results of investigations on the immune cells response of sea stars exposed to marine environmental pollution for long periods. We show that levels of the heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) in coelomocytes from A. rubens, which were collected during a field study in the S?rfjord (North Sea, SW coast of Norway) along a contamination gradient, are directly associated with the long-term accumulation of Cd, Cu heavy metals exclusively in the tegument. Conversely, Pb and Zn accumulation in the tegument did not relate to HSC70 levels and none of the metals were found accumulated in the pyloric coeca. In addition the coelomocytes from A. rubens, collected in high and low metal impacted stations were examined by a proteomic approach using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). By comparison of the proteomic maps, we observed that 31 protein spots differed in their relative abundance, indicating a gene expression response to the metal mixture exposure. All together, our results confirm that the echinoderm immune cells are a suitable model for the assessment of long-term exposure to environmental pollution, moreover that the increased level of HSC70 can be considered a signal of an acquired tolerance within a large spectrum of protein profile changes occurring in response to metal contamination. PMID:22000270

  8. CHAPTER 5 Wild Atlantic salmon in Europe: status and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kjetil Hindar

    Despite its status as a flagship species, wild Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) has been in decline in most of Europe for the last three to four decades. Better catch records during this period, and increasing numbers of escaped farm salmon, suggest that the actual decline in wild salmon has been stronger than that estimated from catches. The decline has

  9. DIVERSION OF ADULT SALMON BY AN ELECTRICAL FIELD

    E-print Network

    DIVERSION OF ADULT SALMON BY AN ELECTRICAL FIELD Marine Biological Laboratory : -1958 WOODS HOLE OF ADULT SALMON BY AN ELECTRICAL FIELD By Roger E. Burrows Fishery Research Biologist Entiat, Wash. Bureau line has proved satisfactory for the diversion of adult salmon. The electrical field is created by 110

  10. Scientists Strategize at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists (L to R) Emily Waldt, Ross Abbett, and Jim Johnson chat with Dan Bishop (far left)of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation while watching hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon&nbs...

  11. 7,000 Atlantic Salmon Transported in Tank

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    About 7,000 young Atlantic salmon are transported in a large tank from the USGS Tunison Laboratory in Cortland, N.Y., to Beaverdam Brook in Altmar for release. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish...

  12. USGS Scientists Prepare to Release Salmon into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Ross Abbett transfers young Atlantic salmon from their transportation tank on the back of a truck to small buckets for release into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminishe...

  13. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL

    E-print Network

    ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGA- TIONSKenian, Director ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS season 35 Parasites 39 SCUBA 41 Part IV. Limnology and its relation to sockeye salmon 43 Plankton and its

  14. A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

  15. Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population , John Wakeley*

    E-print Network

    Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population Size Can Cenik¤ , John Wakeley* Department Abstract Pacific salmon include several species that are both commercially important and endangered. Here we use a coalescent approach to analyze a model of the complex life history of salmon, and derive

  16. North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation

    E-print Network

    Miller, Kathleen

    North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation Paper Prepared for the Norway between cooperating on joint management of Pacific salmon harvests and squabbling over their respective shares of the catch. In June 1999, the two nations signed the Pacific Salmon Agreement, which amends

  17. LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS

    E-print Network

    Gow, Rod

    LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS 1819-1904 Lecture by Roderick Gow 6 April 2005 1 #12;The of George Salmon, mathematician, theologian and Provost of Trinity College from 1888. We are not aware of any commemoration of Salmon's life and work that occurred in 2004, and it is our intention, somewhat

  18. Propagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Propagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture BH Dannevig K Falk CMcL Press Summary ― A long-term cell line supporting growth of the infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus has Atlantic salmon, and exhibited macrophage-like enzyme reactivities. By means of transmission experiments

  19. STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TROLL-CAUGHT SALMON

    E-print Network

    379 STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TROLL-CAUGHT SALMON IN SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC SALMON, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA, 1957-58 By Gerald M. Raid United States Fish and Wildlife Service Special and nnaterials ^ Occurrence of food items ^ By season ^ By geographical area ^ By species of salmon 5 By lengths

  20. HOMING AND FISHERIES CONTRIBUTION OF MARKED COHO SALMON,

    E-print Network

    NOTES HOMING AND FISHERIES CONTRIBUTION OF MARKED COHO SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH, RELEASED AT TWO COLUMBIA RIVER LOCATIONS In 1970 we conducted an experiment to deter- mine if coho salmon to the fisheries there (Vreeland et al. 1975). We found the coho salmon returned almost exclusively to the re

  1. WalnutCrusted Salmon cup finely chopped Walnuts

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    WalnutCrusted Salmon ¼ cup finely chopped Walnuts 1 tablespoon dry bread crumbs 1 teaspoon grated Tablespoon ground flax seed 1 salmon fillets, skin-on 1 teaspoon brown mustard 2 lemon slices (thinly sliced slightly stick together; set aside. 2. Place salmon fillet, skin side down, and brush top with mustard

  2. The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential

    E-print Network

    1 In Oregon The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential A summary overview Bruce Introduction Fisheries in Oregon and wild caught salmon in particular have been critical to many Native American tribes both culturally and economically. Salmon continue to play a central economic role today

  3. SALMON RUNS -UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57

    E-print Network

    364; SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57 Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS HOLE, MAt L. McKernan, Director SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER. 1956-57 by R. R. French and R. J. Wahle. October I960 #12;#12;CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Salmon runs past Rocky Reach Dam site 2 Time and size

  4. Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings Pierre Salmon

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    May 2013 Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings by Pierre Salmon Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion Université de Bourgogne and CNRS pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract Governments the influence of three guiding thoughts. 1 Some other aspects are briefly discussed in Salmon (2006). 2 Several

  5. Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel Peter Guttorp NRCSET juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel and Peter Guttorp National Research.S.A SUMMARY We describe movement patterns of hatchery-raised, juvenile, spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus

  6. BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON INIarTne Biological Laboratory!

    E-print Network

    324 BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON INIarTne Biological Laboratory! 1960 WOODS HOLE, MASS« SPECIAL, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON by George J. Ridgway Eind George W. Klontz Acknowledgments 7 Summary 7 Literature cited 7 111 #12;#12;BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON by George J. Ridgway

  7. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

  8. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

  9. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

  10. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

  11. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

  12. Microbiological spoilage and volatiles production of gutted European sea bass stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere package at 2 °C.

    PubMed

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Nychas, George-John E; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Microbiological, sensory, TVB-N and TMA-N changes and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) detection using the SPME/GC-MS technique, were performed to evaluate potential chemical spoilage indices (CSI) of gutted sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored at 2 °C under air and in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP CO2: 60%, O2: 10%, N2: 30%). Shelf-life, determined by sensory evaluation, of gutted sea bass stored at 2 °C under air and MAP was 9 and 13 d respectively. Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria were among the dominant spoilage microorganisms under both storage conditions, while Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta were co-dominant with Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria under MAP. The traditional CSIs such as TVB-N and TMA-N were increased substantially only at the late stages of storage or after rejection of the products, making them unsuitable for freshness/spoilage monitoring throughout storage. A substantial number of VOCs attributed to microbiological action or chemical activity, were detected including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids and esters. The level of microbial origin VOCs such as ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal and some ethyl esters increased during storage, suggesting their potential as CSIs. PMID:25998814

  13. Monitoring salmon habitat in small streams using streambed profiling and the importance of large woody debris for juvenile chinook salmon

    E-print Network

    Monitoring salmon habitat in small streams using streambed profiling and the importance of large woody debris for juvenile chinook salmon habitat in small Yukon streams by Brent Mossop B.Sc., Simon: Monitoring salmon habitat in small streams using streambed profiling and the importance of large woody debris

  14. Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.

    PubMed

    Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

    2008-02-01

    Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

  15. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  16. Toxicokinetic model assessment on the dechlorination of dietary toxaphene CHB-62 into CHB-44 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Berntssen, M H G; Lock, E J; Zeilmaker, M J; Van Eijkeren, J C H

    2013-01-01

    European Union legislation on the upper limits of toxaphene in feed and food include the congeners CHB-26, CHB-62 and CHB-50 and is set at 50 µg kg?¹ feed for the sum of these three congeners. However, due to their elevated presence in fish, the congeners CHB-40 and CHB-41, CHB-44, and CHB-42 should also be included according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2005. Earlier trials with model zebra fish have shown in vivo dechlorination of dietary CHB-62 to CHB-44 and, to a lesser degree, of CHB-50 to CHB-40. Biomagnification patterns of Atlantic salmon, fed with technical toxaphene-enriched feeds, indicated that Atlantic salmon have a similar dechlorination. In the present study, a serial one-compartment physiological kinetic model, which includes differentiated growth of body components, is used to quantify the contribution of dechlorination to the congener-specific fillet accumulation of a mixture of dietary toxaphene congeners in Atlantic salmon. The model is assessed from experimental uptake and elimination kinetics of Atlantic salmon smolt fed with technical toxaphene for 122 days followed by a depuration period of 75 days in which the fish were fed toxaphene-free control feed. The serial one-compartment model shows that about 31% of CHB-44 that accumulated in the fillet originated from dietary CHB-62. In contrast, dechlorination of CHB-50 into CHB-40 is not significant. The results show that previously demonstrated in vivo dechlorination of CHB-62 into CHB-44 in zebra fish also occurs in the farmed fish species Atlantic salmon. This dechlorination can at least partly explain the relatively elevated CHB-44 observed in toxaphene fish surveys. PMID:23859873

  17. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  18. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Ff1 and Gsdf family genes in European sea bass and identification of early gonadal markers of precocious puberty in males.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Berta; Gómez, Ana; Mazón, María José; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia

    2013-09-15

    Puberty represents the transition from an immature to a mature reproductive stage. The mechanisms underlying the onset of normal or precocious puberty have not yet been elucidated. With the goal of gaining an understanding of early events that occur in the testes of precocious animals during this process, a hemigonadectomy was performed on male juvenile sea bass and expression levels of candidate mRNAs were determined through quantitative real-time RT-PCR. For this purpose, the gonadal soma-derived factors gsdf1 and gsdf2, the nuclear receptor 5 subfamily members nr5a1a (ff1b), nr5a1b (ff1d), nr5a2 (ff1a) and nr5a5 (ff1c) and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen or pcna, genes with a putative role in the beginning of spermatogenesis, were isolated and cloned. Hemigonadectomy proved to be a suitable strategy for the study of gonadal stages prior to the appearance of histological differences between precocious and non-precocious fish, as it allowed the subsequent classification of these gonads. The upregulation of the gene encoding the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star) in precocious testes indicates that sex steroids could play a role in the onset of spermatogenesis in sea bass. In contrast, the downregulation observed in ff1b expression indicates that this initial surge in star expression is not the result of Ff1b transactivation, suggesting an alternative pathway for this transcriptional activation. Finally, a decrease in gsdf1 expression in precocious animals suggests that this gene may play a role in the onset of puberty, while its correlation with ff1b expression points to gsdf1 as a putative target for Ff1b-mediated transactivation. PMID:23791759

  20. Medicines for sea lice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andrew N

    2002-06-01

    Sea louse (Family Caligidae: genera Caligus and Lepeophtheirus) infection of farmed salmonids represents a significant threat to animal welfare and undermines profitability. Lice may also act as vectors for the transmission of viral and bacterial pathogens. Pest-control programmes parallel those deployed in terrestrial livestock farming and include the use of parasiticides. The authorisation process for fish medicines varies widely between salmon farming countries and undue regulatory constraint may place farmers in one country at a competitive disadvantage. In many jurisdictions, fish are a 'minor' species and mounting demands for environmental assessment increase registration costs. A successful integrated louse-management strategy requires free access to a range of effective, chemically unrelated active ingredients deployed according to current best practice. Over-reliance on a limited number of products will lead, inevitably, to resistance, which is difficult to counter. PMID:12138618

  1. GENETIC VARIATION IN CHINOOK, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, AND COHO, 0. K1SUTCH, SALMON FROM

    E-print Network

    GENETIC VARIATION IN CHINOOK, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, AND COHO, 0. K1SUTCH, SALMON FROM THE NORTH to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests

  2. Transfer of Nutrients from Spawning Salmon to Riparian Vegetation in Western Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Bilby; Eric W. Beach; Brian R. Fransen; Jason K. Walter; Peter A. Bisson

    2003-01-01

    The extent to which nutrients from Pacific salmon are transported to riparian areas may be influenced by differences in spawning behavior among species. Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, pink salmon O. gorbuscha, and sockeye salmon O. nerka typically spawn in dense aggregations, while species like steelhead O. mykiss and coho salmon O. kisutch spawn at lower densities. The contribution of nutrients

  3. CAN WE SUSTAIN WILD SALMON THROUGH 2100? THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for presentation Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appe...

  4. Quantification of piscine reovirus (PRV) at different stages of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar production.

    PubMed

    Løvoll, Marie; Alarcón, Marta; Bang Jensen, Britt; Taksdal, Torunn; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Tengs, Torstein

    2012-05-15

    The newly described piscine reovirus (PRV) appears to be associated with the development of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. PRV seems to be ubiquitous among fish in Norwegian salmon farms, but high viral loads and tissue distribution support a causal relationship between virus and disease. In order to improve understanding of the distribution of PRV in the salmon production line, we quantified PRV by using real-time PCR on heart samples collected at different points in the life cycle from pre-smolts to fish ready for slaughter. PRV positive pre-smolts were found in about 36% of the freshwater cohorts and a general increase in viral load was observed after their transfer to seawater. A reduction in viral loads was recorded when fish approached slaughter (18 mo in sea cages). Sequencing of positive samples did not support the hypothesis that outbreaks are caused by the spreading of a particular (virulent) strain of PRV. PMID:22585298

  5. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1983-1984 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, David L.

    1985-04-01

    Hydroelectric development coupled with numerous other encroachments on the supply and quality of water has reduced the natural habitat for the spawning and rearing of salmon in the Columbia river system. Artificial production in hatcheries has become a critical link in the restoration of natural stocks of salmon. Released hatchery salmon must survive predation, be able to acquire sustainable nutrients under natural conditions, possess the vitality to surmount man-made impediments to seaward migration and adapt to a sea water environment. Survival of hatchery salmonids is dependent upon a number of factors. Time of release, natural food abundance, fish size and the health and/or quality of smolts all play synergistic roles. The nutritional and physical characteristics of ration regimes for hatchery fish plays a major role in determining the effectiveness of hatchery production and the health and/or quality of smolts.Ration regimes containing high quality components in uniform and fine-free pellet forms produce efficient growth response and minimize loss of nutrients maintaining the quality of hatchery water supply. Under such feed regimes, fish are less susceptible to disease and more uniform and desirable fish sizes can be achieved at release time. High quality smolts would help to optimize out-migration survival and successful adaptation to salt water.

  6. Sea Education Association (SEA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Sea Education Association (SEA) in Woods Hole, MA provides undergraduates with an opportunity to participate in an academic study-abroad program called the SEA Semester. The program combines intensive research in the areas of oceanography, maritime studies, and nautical science with hands-on experience aboard a traditional sailing ship. Piloting, celestial navigation, and practical seamanship are learned together with oceanographic sampling techniques and marine laboratory procedures. Critical thinking, problem-solving, team-building and leadership skills are emphasized throughout the program. SEA Semester is appropriate for students in marine biology, geology and physical science, environmental studies, American studies, and most other areas within the liberal arts and sciences. Academic credit for SEA Semester is obtained through Boston University.

  7. Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  8. Evaluation of the probiotics Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum bioencapsulated in Artemia nauplii against vibriosis in European sea bass larvae (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.).

    PubMed

    Touraki, Maria; Karamanlidou, Gerda; Karavida, Penelope; Chrysi, Karamanoli

    2012-06-01

    Two potential probiotics Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum were evaluated for use in aquaculture as preventive measures against vibriosis. In vitro evaluation of the probiotics using co-culture assays with the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum and testing for the production of antibacterial substances showed the presence of antagonism and confirmed the production of antibacterial substances. Both potential probiotics were administered to the live fish feed Artemia franciscana nauplii, offering protection against a subsequent challenge of the nauplii with the fish pathogen V. anguillarum, with best survival rates of the nauplii and the most efficient protection offered by B. subtilis. Nauplii enriched with B. subtilis were further used to evaluate the protection of sea bass larvae against vibriosis. The untreated group of fish challenged with V. anguillarum presented low survival of 36.7 %, while the fish treated with nauplii enriched with the probiotic B. subtilis showed significantly increased survival rates of 86.7 % after challenge with the pathogen. The survival of healthy unchallenged fish treated with the probiotic was not significantly different from control unchallenged fish (90-94 %). Our results indicate that B. subtilis is a probiotic suitable to be used for the prevention of vibriosis in fish larvae and can be safely administered through their live feed Artemia nauplii. PMID:22806117

  9. The hydrological context determines the beta-diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in European Arctic seas but does not favor endemism

    PubMed Central

    Lehours, Anne-Catherine; Jeanthon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of studies over the last 15 years, aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophic (AAP) bacteria remain a puzzling functional group in terms of physiology, metabolism, and ecology. To contribute to a better knowledge of their environmental distribution, the present study aims at analyzing their diversity and structure at the boundary between the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents Seas. The polymorphism of a marker gene encoding a sub-unit of the photosynthetic apparatus (pufM gene) was analyzed and attempted to be related to environmental parameters. The Atlantic or Arctic origin of water masses had a strong impact on the AAP bacterial community structure whose populations mostly belonged to the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. A majority (>60%) of pufM sequences were affiliated to the Gammaproteobacteria reasserting that this class often represents the major component of the AAP bacterial community in oceanic regions. Two alphaproteobacterial groups dominate locally suggesting that they can constitute key players in this marine system transiently. We found that temperature is a major determinant of alpha diversity of AAP bacteria in this marine biome with specific clades emerging locally according to the partitioning of water masses. Whereas we expected specific AAP bacterial populations in this peculiar and newly explored ecosystem, most pufM sequences were highly related to sequences retrieved elsewhere. This observation highlights that the studied area does not favor AAP bacteria endemism but also opens new questions about the truthfulness of biogeographical patterns and on the extent of AAP bacterial diversity.

  10. A Comparison of Neutral and Immune Genetic Variation in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L. in Chilean Aquaculture Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, David S.; Hollenbeck, Christopher M.; Vidal, R. Rodrigo; Gold, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity was assessed in samples of cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., obtained from facilities in Chile between 2005 and 2010, a period of time during which the infectious pathogens Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) virus, Caligus rogercresseyi (sea lice), and Piscirickettsia salmonis (salmon rickettsial syndrome) were common. Two panels of microsatellite markers were utilized: one with microsatellites with no known gene associations (neutral) and one featuring microsatellites linked to putative immune-related genes (immune-related). Allelic richness and gene diversity across samples were significantly greater in neutral loci as compared to immune-related loci. Both diversity measures were homogeneous among samples for immune-related loci and heterogeneous among samples for neutral loci. Immune-related loci were identified as FST outliers in pairwise comparisons of samples at a 10-fold higher frequency than neutral loci. These results indicate that neutral and immune-related portions of the Atlantic salmon genome may have differed in response to the gauntlet of pathogens and that monitoring of specific, well characterized immune-related loci as well as neutral loci in cultured species could be useful when disease control and prevention is a goal. PMID:24918941

  11. TESTS OF HATCHERY FOODS FOR SALMON 1951

    E-print Network

    of preserved salmon eggs and tuna liver in composite diets. Toxicities probably due to hypervitaminosis. SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT: FISHERIES No. 86 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ' FISH AND WILDLIFE HOLE, MASS. SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT: FISHERIES No. 86 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ^ FISH

  12. Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

  13. Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon

    E-print Network

    Salmon, Rick

    Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD equilibrium statistical mechanics based upon the conservation of energy and potential enstrophy to the mass. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean

  14. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rowe

    1989-01-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation\\/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat

  15. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  16. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  17. EFFECTS OF SOUND WAVES ON YOUNG SALMON

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF SOUND WAVES ON YOUNG SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory X. 1 33 R A. RTT ir.':; WOODS instantaneously to sounds. It was con- were tested in an experimental tank and in eluded that sound waves were, Wash . sound studies conducted under the above contract are terminated. #12;EFFECTS OF SOUND WAVES

  18. Wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho: Some recovery strategies that just might work

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify salmon recovery options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project doe...

  19. 76 FR 29707 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery (Reduction Fishery). The fee...NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Rulemaking, 1315 East-West...

  20. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...FDA-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard...as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the...

  1. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  2. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  3. 76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery (Reduction Fishery). The fee...NMFS, Attn.: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Rulemaking, 1315 East-West...

  4. DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN

    E-print Network

    DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN: DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................1 DAMS AS OBSTACLES TO MIGRATIONS OF SALMON..........................................5 DEVELOPMENT..............................................................................................6 MORTALITY OF JUVENILE SALMON IN TURBINES ..........................................7 MORTALITY

  5. 77 FR 12800 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...A-403-801, C-403-802] Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing...CVD'') orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon (``salmon'') from Norway would not be likely to lead to...

  6. 76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

  7. 78 FR 39282 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Willingness to Pay Survey for Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...Request; Willingness to Pay Survey for Salmon Recovery in the Willamette Watershed...Willingness to Pay Survey for Salmon Recovery in the Willamette Watershed...investigating public values for Chinook salmon and Winter steelhead recovery in the...

  8. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  9. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  10. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  11. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  12. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  13. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  14. 76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...submitted Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

  15. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  16. 77 FR 26744 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...tender of Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon permits...program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. The program authorizes...

  17. 75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures...management measures for the 2010 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2011 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

  18. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  19. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...12 to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of...Fishery Management Council's (Council) salmon management policy and to comply with...

  20. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  1. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

  2. 78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY...announces one inseason action in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

  3. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  4. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  5. 40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  6. 78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through...announces six inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

  7. 77 FR 58526 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Salmon Subcommittee, and Model...

  8. 77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...CONTACT: Peggy Mundy, Northwest Region Salmon Management Division, NMFS, 206-526-4323...regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of...

  9. 40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  10. 77 FR 67327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...transmitted Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

  11. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...12 to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of...Management Council's (Council's) salmon management policy and to comply with...

  12. 77 FR 13072 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, Butte, Custer and Lemhi Counties, ID, Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Salmon-Challis National Forest, Butte, Custer...Environmental Impact Statement to the 2009 Salmon- Challis National Forest Travel Planning...SUMMARY: The Salmon-Challis National Forest announces...

  13. 76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...Information Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal...of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider all comments...of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia, contact Dr. William G. Smith,...

  14. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janna Koistinen; J. P. Giesy; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; P. J. Vuorinen; J. Paasivirta

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs)

  15. Response of juvenile coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ) and steelhead ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) to the addition of salmon carcasses to two streams in southwestern Washington, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Bilby; Brian R. Fransen; Peter A. Bisson; Jason K. Walter

    1998-01-01

    Availability of organic matter and nutrients transported from the marine environment to streams by spawning salmon was increased in two small streams in southwestern Washington, U.S.A., by adding salmon carcasses from a nearby hatchery. Response of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) rearing at these sites was compared with nearby streams where few salmon spawned. Densities of

  16. Fall Quarter: The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout Larry Dominguez: Salmon and Aquatic Ecologist (e-mail) eldominguez@comcast.net

    E-print Network

    Fall Quarter: The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout Larry Dominguez: Salmon: The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout, by Thomas P. Quinn. ISBN 0-295-98437 Other Reading history behavior and management Chapters 4-6 Wed. Oct 12 Sockeye salmon life history, behavior, research

  17. Downstream Migration of Masu Salmon Smolt at a Diversion Facility of Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, K.; Nii, H.; Kasuga, K.; Watanabe, K.

    2014-12-01

    A diversion facility was installed on the upstream of Pirika Dam in Northern Japan that produced a downstream flow into the fishway, thus allowing the fish to migrate to the sea. On the other hand, if the flow rate in the river was more than 7.00 m 3/s (design flow rate of diversion facility), masu salmon smolt were concerned about accessing the dam reservoir, because the smolt can't migrate to the sea through the diversion facility unfortunately. Therefore, the downstream migration of smolt was investigated around the diversion facility. The PIT tag system and radio transmitters as the biotelemetry were used to determine 1) whether masu salmon smolt were able to migrate downstream through the diversion facility and fishway at Pirika Dam, 2) when the smolt started to migrate downstream, 3) whether the downstream migration of smolt were affected by the flow increase in the river. It was clarified that 88% of the smolt were able to enter the diversion facility, and then 81% of the smolt were able to access the fishway. It was also clarified that smolt downstream migration had two peaks in a day (5:00 and 18:00). During the study period, although the flow rate was in the 2.21 m3/s to 30.44 m3/s range (average 6.70 m3/s), it was revealed that the diversion facility has a satisfactory function for the downstream migration of smolt as presented above. The survey clarified the downstream migration behavior of masu salmon by using two types of biotelemetry equipment. PIT tag and radio transmitter were found to be very effective in tracking the behavior of small fish such as smolt. PIT tags, in particular, require very little operating cost, because once they are inserted in the fish, they do not need human labor for tracking. It is desirable to actively introduce the biotelemetry as tracking equipment when surveying the fish migration in the river.

  18. Short sea shipping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Mulligan; Gary A. Lombardo

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies the potential environmental benefit of short sea shipping. Critical strategic issues relevant to formulating\\u000a public policy are developed. Coastal shipping has traditionally been a major sector of the maritime industry. This continues\\u000a to be the case in the European Union, but the sector has diminished in relative importance in North America as the transport\\u000a industry has become

  19. Differential metabolite levels in response to spawning-induced inappetence in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Rocco C; Smith, McKenzie L; Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Dove, Alistair D M; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-03-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar undergo months-long inappetence during spawning, but it is not known whether this inappetence is a pathological state or one for which the fish are adapted. Recent work has shown that inappetent whale sharks can exhibit circulating metabolite profiles similar to ketosis known to occur in humans during starvation. In this work, metabolite profiling was used to explore differences in analyte profiles between a cohort of inappetent spawning run Atlantic salmon and captively reared animals that were fed up to and through the time of sampling. The two classes of animals were easily distinguished by their metabolite profiles. The sea-run fish had elevated ?-9 fatty acids relative to the domestic feeding animals, while other fatty acid concentrations were reduced. Sugar alcohols were generally elevated in inappetent animals, suggesting potentially novel metabolic responses or pathways in fish that feature these compounds. Compounds expected to indicate a pathological catabolic state were not more abundant in the sea-run fish, suggesting that the animals, while inappetent, were not stressed in an unnatural way. These findings demonstrate the power of discovery-based metabolomics for exploring biochemistry in poorly understood animal models. PMID:25668602

  20. Reduced fitness of Atlantic salmon released in the wild after one generation of captive breeding

    PubMed Central

    Milot, Emmanuel; Perrier, Charles; Papillon, Lucie; Dodson, Julian J; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Salmonids rank among the most socioeconomically valuable fishes and the most targeted species by stocking with hatchery-reared individuals. Here, we used molecular parentage analysis to assess the reproductive success of wild- and hatchery-born Atlantic salmon over three consecutive years in a small river in Québec. Yearly restocking in this river follows a single generation of captive breeding. Among the adults returning to the river to spawn, between 11% and 41% each year were born in hatchery. Their relative reproductive success (RRS) was nearly half that of wild-born fish (0.55). RRS varied with life stage, being 0.71 for fish released at the fry stage and 0.42 for fish released as smolt. The lower reproductive success of salmon released as smolt was partly mediated by the modification of the proportion of single-sea-winter/multi-sea-winter fish. Overall, our results suggest that modifications in survival and growth rates alter the life-history strategies of these fish at the cost of their reproductive success. Our results underline the potential fitness decrease, warn on long-term evolutionary consequences for the population of repeated stocking and support the adoption of more natural rearing conditions for captive juveniles and their release at a younger stage, such as unfed fry. PMID:23745139

  1. Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, Odd Terje; Karlsson, Sten; Thorstad, Eva B; Berg, Ole Kristian; Kent, Matthew P; Norum, Ine C J; Hindar, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    The river-resident Salmo salar ("småblank") has been isolated from other Atlantic salmon populations for 9,500 years in upper River Namsen, Norway. This is the only European Atlantic salmon population accomplishing its entire life cycle in a river. Hydropower development during the last six decades has introduced movement barriers and changed more than 50% of the river habitat to lentic conditions. Based on microsatellites and SNPs, genetic variation within småblank was only about 50% of that in the anadromous Atlantic salmon within the same river. The genetic differentiation (F ST) between småblank and the anadromous population was 0.24. This is similar to the differentiation between anadromous Atlantic salmon in Europe and North America. Microsatellite analyses identified three genetic subpopulations within småblank, each with an effective population size Ne of a few hundred individuals. There was no evidence of reduced heterozygosity and allelic richness in contemporary samples (2005-2008) compared with historical samples (1955-56 and 1978-79). However, there was a reduction in genetic differentiation between sampling localities over time. SNP data supported the differentiation of småblank into subpopulations and revealed downstream asymmetric gene flow between subpopulations. In spite of this, genetic variation was not higher in the lower than in the upper areas. The meta-population structure of småblank probably maintains genetic variation better than one panmictic population would do, as long as gene flow among subpopulations is maintained. Småblank is a unique endemic island population of Atlantic salmon. It is in a precarious situation due to a variety of anthropogenic impacts on its restricted habitat area. Thus, maintaining population size and avoiding further habitat fragmentation are important. PMID:24967074

  2. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P??0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9?g of n-3 fatty acids per 100?g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5?g per 100?g of product. PMID:24804010

  3. Sense of Smell Leads Salmon Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this video segment, learn about how natural cycles are related to subsistence living. Hear about the Moon's importance to the Lummi people of western Washington State, and how the lunar cycles tell them when it is time to fish and time to gather. In addition, a Coast Salish Elder from British Columbia, Canada, speaks about the interdependence of nature and explains how the scent from a fir tree helps salmon find their way back home. The background essay explains how important and central nature is to certain communities. A fascinating fact about salmons and their sense of smell will interest students even more in the ocean and ocean wildlife. The five discussion questions provided will help your students understand the topics even better. There is a helpful section that shows you the standards for your state ranging from grades K-12, as well as links to related resources.

  4. Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Cook, Adam M; Eddington, James D; Bentzen, Paul; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Interbreeding between artificially-selected and wild organisms can have negative fitness consequences for the latter. In the Northwest Atlantic, farmed Atlantic salmon recurrently escape into the wild and enter rivers where small, declining populations of wild salmon breed. Most farmed salmon in the region derive from an ancestral source population that occupies a nonacidified river (pH 6.0–6.5). Yet many wild populations with which escaped farmed salmon might interbreed inhabit acidified rivers (pH 4.6–5.2). Using common garden experimentation, and examining two early-life history stages across two generations of interbreeding, we showed that wild salmon populations inhabiting acidified rivers had higher survival at acidified pH than farmed salmon or F1 farmed-wild hybrids. In contrast, however, there was limited evidence for reduced performance in backcrosses, and F2 farmed-wild hybrids performed better or equally well to wild salmon. Wild salmon also survived or grew better at nonacidified than acidified pH, and wild and farmed salmon survived equally well at nonacidified pH. Thus, for acid tolerance and the stages examined, we found some evidence both for and against the theory that repeated farmed-wild interbreeding may reduce adaptive genetic variation in the wild and thereby negatively affect the persistence of depleted wild populations. PMID:25567731

  5. Salmon Spawning Effects on Streambed Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, T. H.; Buffington, J. M.; Yager, E.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Female salmon build nests ("redds") in streambeds to protect their eggs from predation and damage by bed scour. During spawning, streambed material is mixed, fine sediment is winnowed downstream, and sediment is moved into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Redd surfaces are coarser and better sorted than unspawned beds, which is thought to increase redd stability because larger grains are heavier and harder to move and sorting leads to higher friction angles for grain mobility. However, spawning also loosens sediment and creates topography that accelerates flow, both of which may increase particle mobility. We address factors controlling the relative stability of redds and unspawned beds using simulated salmon redds and water worked ("unspawned") beds composed of mixed-grain surfaces in a laboratory flume. Results show that simulated spawning lowered packing resistance to particle mobility on redds by an average of 32-39% compared to unspawned beds. Reductions in packing were sufficient to counter the higher inherent stability of relatively coarse, well sorted grains on redds, overall reducing critical shear stress by 8-20% relative to unspawned beds. In addition, boundary shear stress was 13-41% higher on redds due to flow convergence over the tailspill structure. Finally, redd instability relative to unspawned beds was observed in visual measurements of grain mobility, where bed-averaged shear stress was 22% lower at incipient motion and 29% lower at the discharge that mobilized all grain sizes on redds. Results of these complementary observations, along with sediment mass transport rates being nearly five times higher on a redd than an unspawned bed, indicate that redds are unstable compared to unspawned beds. Given these findings, further research is needed to investigate linkages between spawning disturbance and streambed mobility that may affect salmon reproduction in streams, and to assess whether a certain level of bed disturbance from spawning is required to restore ecosystem functions in streams with threatened populations of salmon.

  6. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

  7. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

  8. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

  9. Observations on the Circulation in the Alboran Sea Using ERS1 Altimetry and Sea Surface Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez-Cuervo, J.; Font, J.; Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the altimeter onboard the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS1) was used to study the circulation of the Alboran Sea between -6 to 0 degrees and 35 to 38 degrees North. The results indicate that combining sea surface temperature data and sea level data from altimetry hold promise for understanding the circulation of the Western Mediterranean.

  10. Stocking young Atlantic salmon in St. Lawrence River system

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are released into the St. Regis River system (a tributary of the St. Lawrence River) in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population. The salmon were reared at the USGS Tunison Laboratory in Cortland, N.Y., and are released by USGS scienti...

  11. Spawning salmon and the phenology of emergence in stream insects

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jonathan W.; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Phenological dynamics are controlled by environmental factors, disturbance regimes and species interactions that alter growth or mortality risk. Ecosystem engineers can be a key source of disturbance, yet their effects on the phenologies of co-occurring organisms are virtually unexplored. We investigated how the abundance of a dominant ecosystem engineer, spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), alters the emergence phenology of stream insects. In streams with high densities of salmon, peak insect emergence occurred in early July, immediately prior to salmon spawning. By contrast, peak insect emergence in streams with low densities of salmon was weeks later and more protracted. The emergence of specific taxa was also significantly related to salmon density. A common rearing experiment revealed that differences in emergence timing are maintained in the absence of spawning salmon. We hypothesize that these patterns are probably driven by predictable and severe disturbance from nest-digging salmon driving local adaptation and being a trait filter of insect emergence. Thus, salmon regulate the timing and duration of aquatic insect emergence, a cross-ecosystem flux from streams to riparian systems. PMID:20129980

  12. HOLDING PONDS FOR ADULT SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    for artificial propagation. The characteristic reactions of the confined salmon are described. Design drawings Retention of adult salmon 2 Holding pond design 2 Prevention of self-inflicted injury 2 Factors influencing self-inflicted injuries during the holding period. An average current velocity of 0.2 fps is maintained

  13. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Productivity Nez Perce Tribe

    E-print Network

    Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Productivity Jay Hesse Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Office US Fish and Wildlife Service, PO BOX 18, Ahsahka, ID 93520 (208) 476-7242 Snake River fall Chinook) remaining critical uncertainties. Historical abundance of fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin

  14. Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery Fish & Wildlife Subbasin Plan

    E-print Network

    Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife Subbasin Plan APPENDIX B - OTHER SPECIES Lower at the subbasin level. II.A. Lower Columbia Mainstem and Estuary II.B. Estuary Tributaries II.C. Grays Subbasin II Tributaries II.I. Washougal Subbasin II.J. Wind Subbasin II.K. Little White Salmon Subbasin II.L. Columbia

  15. Spring Chinook Salmon Production in the Deschutes Basin Project Narrative

    E-print Network

    Spring Chinook Salmon Production in the Deschutes Basin Project Narrative Project Name Spring Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) Short Description Continue annual monitoring of natural and artificial production of spring Chinook salmon in streams on the Warm Springs Indian

  16. TESTS OF HATCHERY FOODS FOR BLUEBACK SALMON 1949

    E-print Network

    .... 8 Effect of the Drying Process on the Utilization of Salmon Meal 11 Comparison of Hake ^iiith Hog Spleen or Hog Liver 13 Hog Liver-Salmon Viscera vdth Various Supplements 13 Comparison of Crab Meal was a test of hake ( Merluccius productus) as a substitute for hog spleen or hog liver. The fourth was an eva

  17. Ascorbic Acid Requirements of Coho Salmon and Rainbow Trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Halver; Laurence M. Ashley; Robert R. Smith

    1969-01-01

    Duplicate groups of small coho salmon and rainbow trout were fed a water-soluble vitamin test diet containing 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 100 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g of dry diet. Both salmon and trout fed deficient diets developed acute lordosis or scoliosis with resultant high mortality. Rainbow trout appeared to exhaust ascorbic acid reserves more rapidly

  18. Listen to Our Salmon: Forests, Rivers and Oceans are Connected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Andrea; Brown, Rod

    1998-01-01

    A university-based researcher and a grade seven teacher collaborated to plan a science curriculum that would help elementary school students discover the world of salmon and understand its life cycle. Describes key components of the salmon-enhancement program and river-health project. A student's record of hatching chum fry in the classroom is…

  19. Reproductive strategies of Atlantic salmon: ecology and evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian A. Fleming

    1996-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar, Salmonidae) show a diversity of life history, behavioural and morphological adaptations for reproduction which have evolved as an outcome of competition to maximize reproductive success. Reproductive traits of females have been shaped principally by natural selection for offspring production and survival, those of males by sexual selection for access to matings. Female Atlantic salmon invest approximately

  20. Characterization of bone from red salmon and Pacific cod frames

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 estimated harvests of Pacific cod and all salmon species from Alaska waters was 207,000 mt and 322,000 mt, respectively. If all the harvest would be processed to boneless fillets it is estimated the amounts of frames produced would be 37,000 mt from cod and 58,000 mt from salmon. There is ...

  1. RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

  2. PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES OF THE WORLD: STATUS, PROSPECTS, AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific have declined significantly from historic levels, but not as dramatically as have Atlantic salmon. Hatchery production has been used to maintain some runs in the southern region of the range (e.g., Japan, Kor...

  3. MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN ADULT SALMON AND STEELHEAD TROUT

    E-print Network

    332 MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN ADULT SALMON AND STEELHEAD TROUT RETURNING TO THE COLUMBIA RIVER MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN ADULT SALMON AND STEELHEAD TROUT RETURNING TO THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN AND OTHER;CONTENTS Page Mycobacteria in adult salmonid fishes returning to Federal hatcheries in Washington, Oregon

  4. Olfactory Toxicity of Copper to Salmon in Freshwater and Seawater

    E-print Network

    as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act · NOAA Fisheries is involved in effortsOlfactory Toxicity of Copper to Salmon in Freshwater and Seawater David Baldwin Photo by Desmond.) The geographical distribution of threatened and endangered Pacific salmon on the west coast of the U.S. coho (O

  5. Supplementary Material for Satellite Tagging and Cardiac Physiology Reveal Niche Expansion in Salmon Sharks

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    in Salmon Sharks MS# 1114616 #12;2 Materials and Methods The movements of salmon sharks (Lamna ditropis of the tags were used during the course of the experiments. In 1999 we tagged two salmon sharks with PAT1 tags individual salmon sharks in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Twenty-one were double-tagged with SPOT

  6. Salmon Tagging Experiments Along the South Shore of Unimak Island and the

    E-print Network

    486; Salmon Tagging Experiments Along the South Shore of Unimak Island and the Southwestern ShoreKernan, Dirrrtor Salmon Tagging Experiments Along the South Shore of Unimak Island and the Southwestern Shore Introduction 1 Methods 2 Results "7 Full-twist versus half-twist knots for tags 7 Sockeye salmon 7 Chum salmon

  7. Influence of protein intake associated with coconut or salmon oils on lipid fat-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of protein intake associated with coconut or salmon oils on lipid fat- ty acid with salmon (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: PUFA) or coconut oil (poor in AGE), on fatty acid- tar rats were fed 4 different diets: SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil), SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil

  8. 5.AnthropogenicAlterations to the Biogeography of Puget Sound Salmon

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, David R.

    5.AnthropogenicAlterations to the Biogeography of Puget Sound Salmon George Pess, David R influences have altered the biogeography of Puget Sound salmon, by which we mean their morpho- logical the biogeography of Puget Sound salmon at the regional scale because different juvenile Pacific salmon species

  9. Influence of protein intake associated with coconut or salmon oil on serum,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of protein intake associated with coconut or salmon oil on serum, VLDL, LDL and HDL of protein depletion associated with salmon (rich in w3 PUFA) or co- conut oil (poor in EFA) on various serum% casein + 5% salmon oil), SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil), COC (20% casein + 5% coconut oil), COd (2

  10. 1. Puget Sound Rivers and Salmon Recovery David R. Montgomery, Derek B. Booth, and Susan Bolton

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, David R.

    1. Puget Sound Rivers and Salmon Recovery David R. Montgomery, Derek B. Booth, and Susan Bolton listing of various runs and stocks of Pacific salmon under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) has focused Strategy to Recover Salmon" by the Governor's Salmon Recovery Office (GSRO 1999). Public and governmen- tal

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Fine-scale spatiotemporal influences of salmon on

    E-print Network

    Reimchen, Thomas E.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Fine-scale spatiotemporal influences of salmon on growth and nitrogen: The marine-terrestrial transfer of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) provides a substantial pulse of nutrients-watershed investigation of the influence of salmon on conifers has never been previously investigated. In a small salmon

  12. The effect of chronic chromium exposure on the health of Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aïda M. Farag; Thomas May; Gary D. Marty; Michael Easton; David D. Harper; Edward E. Little; Laverne Cleveland

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine fish health impairment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to chromium. Juvenile Chinook salmon were exposed to aqueous chromium concentrations (0–266?gl?1) that have been documented in porewater from bottom sediments and in well waters near salmon spawning areas in the Columbia River in the northwestern United States. After Chinook salmon parr were exposed to

  13. Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Aaen, Stian Mørch; Helgesen, Kari Olli; Bakke, Marit Jørgensen; Kaur, Kiranpreet; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2015-02-01

    Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites with vast reproductive potential and affect a wide variety of fish species. The number of parasites causing morbidity is proportional to fish size. Natural low host density restricts massive parasite dispersal. However, expanded salmon farming has shifted the conditions in favor of the parasite. Salmon farms are often situated near wild salmonid migrating routes, with smolts being particularly vulnerable to sea lice infestation. In order to protect both farmed and wild salmonids passing or residing in the proximity of the farms, several measures are taken. Medicinal treatment of farmed fish has been the most predictable and efficacious, leading to extensive use of the available compounds. This has resulted in drug-resistant parasites occurring on farmed and possibly wild salmonids. PMID:25639521

  14. Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and

    E-print Network

    Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and salmon D.A.S. Rosen and A.W. Trites Abstract: Dry-matter digestibility and energy digestive efficiency-matter digestibility (DMD) and digestive efficiency (DE) were measured using the energy and manganese concentration

  15. Behavioral and Physiological Response of White Sturgeon to an Electrical Sea Lion Barrier System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Ostrand; William G. Simpson; Cory D. Suski; Amanda J. Bryson

    2009-01-01

    Action agencies have encouraged the development of a modified electrical fish barrier system to deter upstream movements of California sea lions Zalophus californianus as a means to reduce their predation on returning adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. within rivers along the West Coast of North America. Given that the barrier system does not discriminate which species will experience electrical shock,

  16. Effect of Inclusion of Salmon Roe on Characteristics of Salmon Baby Food Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree +chunks, puree +pink row, puree +pink row +chunks, puree +red row, puree +red roe +chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristi...

  17. ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND FEEDING HABITS OF FRY OF PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, AND CHUM SALMON,

    E-print Network

    ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND FEEDING HABITS OF FRY OF PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, AND CHUM Alaska, fed little in freshwater but fed heavily in the estuary, mainly on pelagic zooplankters. Fry did.8°C to 16 h at 8.5°C. The abundance of zooplankton ranged from 9 to 154 organisms per liter

  18. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  19. THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT: OPTIONS TO PROTECT, RESTORE, ANE ENHANCE SALMON ALONG THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  20. Changes in Salmon Spawning and Rearing Habitat from Increased Delivery of Fine Sediment to the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Platts; Richard J. Torquemada; Michael L. McHenry; Charles K. Graham

    1989-01-01

    Levels of surface and subsurface fine sediment (<4.75 mm in diameter) were measured annually from 1965 to 1985 in spawning and rearing areas for chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) in the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Between 1950 and 1965, logging and road construction, in combination with large storm events of 1964 and 1965,

  1. Relation of Water Temperature to Bacterial Cold-Water Disease in Coho Salmon, Chinook Salmon, and Rainbow Trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Holt; A. Amandi; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer

    1989-01-01

    The effect of water temperature on the progress of experimentally induced Cytophaga psychrophila infection was investigated in juveniles of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, and rainbow trout O. mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri). A virulent strain of C. psychrophila was administered to fish by subcutaneous injection. Infected fish were held in tanks containing pathogen-free well water at temperatures

  2. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  3. American dippers indicate contaminant biotransport by Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Pollet, Ingrid L; Ormerod, Steve J; Elliott, John E

    2012-01-17

    Migrating salmon can increase productivity in Pacific Northwestern streams and lakes through the deposition of nutrients from their decomposing carcasses after spawning. Several studies also report simultaneous biotransport of persistent organic pollutants that have contaminated lake food webs, although no similar effect has been shown conclusively in rivers. We tested the prediction that salmon enhance contaminants in river food webs using the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), an aquatic songbird and a recognized indicator of stream quality. Over 3 years, we analyzed 29 dipper eggs and aquatic invertebrate samples from 14 different rivers in 10 catchments in southern British Columbia, Canada to assess whether variations in autumn spawning density of Pacific salmon were reflected in dipper egg contamination or stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. ?(13)C isotope signatures, but not ?(15)N, in aquatic invertebrates and dipper eggs increased among catchments in proportion to the average density of spawning salmon. Concentrations of brominated flame retardants (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane metabolites (DDTs), and chlordane compounds were related in part to the ?(13)C measure of salmon density, but mercury, chlorobenzenes, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were explained better by dipper trophic level. We conclude that spawning Pacific salmon result in the increased availability of salmon fry as dipper prey and salmon are a significant source of PBDEs, DDTs, and chlordanes to river ecosystems. However, contrary to lake studies, postspawn concentrations of legacy PCBs in river birds, even in salmon-rich rivers, were not significantly higher than would be expected from atmospheric deposition alone. We recommend using ?(13)C isotopes to trace salmon-derived lipids which may persist over winter particularly in rivers, and are potentially a better reflection of lipophilic contaminant transfer. PMID:22145949

  4. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  5. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  6. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  7. FROM THE COVER All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    FROM THE COVER All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea THOMAS D. ALS-Euge`ne-Marchand, 1030, Avenue de la Me´decine, Universite´ Laval, QC G1V 0A6, Canada Abstract European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata

  8. Searching for a life history approach to salmon escapement management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E.E.; Symmes, E.W.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    A number of Pacific salmon populations have already been lost and many others throughout the range are in various states of decline. Recent research has documented that Pacific salmon carcasses serve as a key delivery vector of marine-derived nutrients into the freshwater portions of their ecosystems. This nutrient supply plays a critical biological feedback role in salmon sustainability by supporting juvenile salmon production. We first demonstrate how nutrient feedback potential to juvenile production may be unaccounted for in spawner-recruit models of populations under long-term exploitation. We then present a heuristic, life history-based, spreadsheet survival model that incorporates salmon carcass-driven nutrient feedback to the freshwater components of the salmon ecosystem. The productivity of a hypothetical coho salmon population was simulated using rates from the literature for survival from spawner to egg, egg to fry, fry to smolt, and smolt to adult. The effects of climate variation and nutrient feedback on survival were incorporated, as were density-dependent effects of the numbers of spawners and fry on freshwater survival of eggs and juveniles. The unexploited equilibrium population was subjected to 100 years of 20, 40, 60, and 80% harvest. Each harvest scenario greater than 20% brought the population to a reduced steady state, regardless of generous compensatory survival at low population sizes. Increasing harvest reduced the positive effects of nutrient contributions to population growth. Salmon researchers should further explore this modeling approach for establishing escapement goals. Given the importance of nutrient feedback, managers should strive for generous escapements that support nutrient rebuilding, as well as egg deposition, to ensure strong future salmon production.

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Greenland fishery inferred from mixed-stock analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier-Ouellet, M.; Dionne, M.; Caron, F.; King, T.L.; Bernatchez, L.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-stock fisheries refer to the exploitation of admixed fish stocks coming from different origins. We identified the North American origin of 2835 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Greenland mixed-stock fishery during 11 years (1995-2006) at three localities using 13 microsatellites. The study included 52 baseline populations representing nine genetically distinct regional groups. The contribution of each group ranged from <1% (Maine) to 40% (Southern Qu??bec). Decreasing temporal contributions were observed for Southern Qu??bec (-22.0%) and New Brunswick (-17.4%), whereas an increasing contribution for Labrador (+14.9%) was observed during the time course of the study. The estimated regional contribution to the Greenland fishery was significantly correlated to the number of multi-sea-winter salmon regionally produced in 2002 (r = 0.79) and 2004 (r = 0.92). No difference in contribution was found between the three Greenland sampling localities. Ungava and Southern Qu??bec regions showed the highest mortality estimates caused by the fishery, ranging from 12.10% to 18.08%, for both years tested. No regional group was overrepresented in landings compared with their respective productivity. Yet, management precautions should still be taken as the fishery strongly selects large females, which could have evolutionary impacts on populations over the long term.

  10. Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infects Atlantic salmon erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Finstad, Oystein Wessel; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa; Lindholm, Tone Hæg; Nyman, Ingvild Berg; Løvoll, Marie; Wallace, Christian; Olsen, Christel Moræus; Storset, Anne K; Rimstad, Espen

    2014-01-01

    Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) belongs to the Reoviridae family and is the only known fish virus related to the Orthoreovirus genus. The virus is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and high loads of PRV in the heart are consistent findings in HSMI. The mechanism by which PRV infection causes disease remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the presence of PRV in blood and erythrocytes using an experimental cohabitation challenge model. We found that in the early phases of infection, the PRV loads in blood were significantly higher than in any other organ. Most virus was found in the erythrocyte fraction, and in individual fish more than 50% of erythrocytes were PRV-positive, as determined by flow cytometry. PRV was condensed into large cytoplasmic inclusions resembling viral factories, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. By electron microscopy we showed that these inclusions contained reovirus-like particles. The PRV particles and inclusions also had a striking resemblance to previously reported viral inclusions described as Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). We conclude that the erythrocyte is a major target cell for PRV infection. These findings provide new information about HSMI pathogenesis, and show that PRV is an important factor of viral erythrocytic inclusions. PMID:24694042

  11. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  12. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  13. Trouble Brewing in the Bering Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Payne, Laura X.

    1999-01-01

    Earlier this week, just after the conclusion of the "Year Of The Ocean" (1998), scientists sounded an alarm about the health of an entire ocean ecosystem -- the Bering Sea. Located between Alaska and Russia in the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea provides nearly half of the fish and shellfish caught in the US. However, unusual atmospheric and oceanic conditions during the summers of 1997 and 1998 (including El Nino) gave rise to warmer ocean temperatures, changes in ocean currents and atmospheric conditions, several typically-rare algal blooms, extensive seabird die-offs, and unprecedented low salmon runs. While alarming, some of these changes are not new to the Bering Sea. Over the past three decades, scientists have documented 50 to 90 percent declines in Steller sea lions and harbor seals in some areas, and populations of seabirds (common and thick-billed murres, red-legged and black-legged kittiwakes) have also fared poorly. Given the potential significance of these changes, increased attention is being paid to the processes, linkages, and organisms in the Bering Sea ecosystem. This week's In The News focuses on recent changes in the Bering Sea ecosystem. The eleven resources discussed offer background information, current research, and commentary.

  14. Genetic evidence against panmixia in the European eel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Wirth; Louis Bernatchez

    2001-01-01

    The panmixia hypothesis-that all European eel (Anguilla anguilla) migrate to the Sargasso Sea for reproduction and comprise a single, randomly mating population-is widely accepted. If true, then this peculiar life history strategy would directly impact the population genetics of this species, and eels from European and north African rivers should belong to the same breeding population through the random dispersal

  15. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  16. Impact of Predation by Salmon Sharks (Lamna ditropis) and Daggertooth (Anotopterus nikparini) on Pacific Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Stocks in the North Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Nagasawa; Tomonori Azumaya; Yukimasa Ishida

    Various species of fishes, seabirds and marine mammals are known as predators of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the North Pacific Ocean. However, there is little quantitative information about impact of predation by such predators on Pacific salmon populations. In this paper, we focus on predation by salmon sharks (Lamna ditropis) in oceanic offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean

  17. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

  18. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

  19. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

  20. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...