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1

Continuous high light intensity can induce retinal degeneration in Atlantic salmon, Atlantic cod and European sea bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal photodamage has previously been studied in teleost fish but very few have been performed on aquaculture species. To study retinal damage, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were previously acclimated to a control 12L:12D photoperiod with standard experimental low light intensity (0.1W\\/m2, equivalent to 3.2×1013photons\\/s\\/cm2) for at least 4weeks and then

L. M. Vera; H. Migaud

2009-01-01

2

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245 Final EIS ­ December 2009 5.0 CHINOOK SALMON This chapter provides information on Chinook salmon biology, distribution, and current stock assessments. This chapter then analyzes the impacts of the alternatives on Chinook salmon

3

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume II Final Regulatory Impact Review North Pacific Administration National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Region December 2009 #12;Bering Sea Chinook Salmon effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery

4

Chapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381  

E-print Network

- Chinook salmon". The category includes chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). As chum salmon represent

5

In Brief . ... Awards, Salmon, and Sea Turtles  

E-print Network

Commission of Oregon reports. Long-range adult chinook salmon escapement goals are on target and the upstreamIn Brief . ... Awards, Salmon, and Sea Turtles · ... Texas' first successful redfish spawns were hatched in late September 1974, perhaps 1,500 survived. About 99 percent of the first spawn were lost

6

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Regulatory Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Flexibility 2008 ES-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review

7

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2012 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 89 686 597 13% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 35 1,028 993 3% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 84 562 478 15% 0 BS Chinook Salmon

8

Bering Sea Non-Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Non-Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Scoping Report United States Department, scoping period for an analysis of Bering Sea Non-Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management. An analytical document non- Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fisheries. This report summarizes the issues

9

Chapter 3 Methodology Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 147  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Methodology Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 147 Final EIS ­ December 2009 3 the quantitative analysis to understand the impacts of alternatives on pollock catch (Chapter 4), Chinook salmon 3. 3.1 Estimating Chinook salmon bycatch in the pollock fishery Overall, salmon bycatch levels

10

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 14-JUN-2014 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 40 686 646 6% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 133 1,028 895 13% 1 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 95 663 568 14% 0 BS Chinook

11

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2013 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 35 686 651 5% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 127 1,028 901 12% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 134 560 426 24% 0 BS Chinook

12

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2011 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 120 686 566 17% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 164 1,028 864 16% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 76 498 422 15% 0 BS Chinook

13

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume I Final Environmental Impact Statement North Bycatch Management Volume I FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT December 2009 Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental

14

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1 Final EIS ­ December 2009 1 with an evaluation of the predicted environmental effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch developed the following problem statement for Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management: An effective

15

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 14-JUN-2014 National and allocation values are numbers of fish. Report run on: June 19, 2014 4:35 AM CDQ BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 0% 0 Total 40 686 646 6% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC Season Total Catch Allocation Remaining

16

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2011 National and allocation values are numbers of fish. Report run on: March 17, 2014 5:49 AM CDQ BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 48% 0 Total 119 686 567 17% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC Season Total Catch Allocation Remaining

17

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2012 National and allocation values are numbers of fish. Report run on: March 11, 2014 8:28 AM CDQ BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 1% 0 Total 89 686 597 13% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC Season Total Catch Allocation Remaining

18

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2013 National and allocation values are numbers of fish. Report run on: March 11, 2014 5:05 AM CDQ BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 2% 0 Total 35 686 651 5% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC Season Total Catch Allocation Remaining

19

FEATURE Connecting Independent Research Surveys of Bering Sea Salmon  

E-print Network

Although chum salmon bycatch has historically remained at low levels relative to their biomass in the Bering Sea, recent increases in chum salmon bycatch have generated concern over bycatch impacts on Alaskan salmon stocks and the effectiveness of regulatory measures used

Populations To Chum Salmon; Bycatch Bering; Sea Groundfish Fisheries; Jim Murphy

20

Sea Louse Infection of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon in Relation to Marine Salmon Farms on Canada's West  

E-print Network

fish either before or after migration past farms. We matched the latter data on wild juveniles with sea salmonis, and changes in their proportions between two years matched changes on the fish farms. MixedSea Louse Infection of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon in Relation to Marine Salmon Farms on Canada's West

Reynolds, John D.

21

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume I FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT December 2009 Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides decision-makers and the public This executive summary summarizes the Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Final Environmental Impact

22

Chapter 2 Description of Alternatives Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 27  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 Description of Alternatives Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 27 Final EIS ­ December Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery. This chapter provides a detailed description of the alternatives involves a limit or "cap" on the number of Chinook salmon that may be caught in the Bering Sea

23

Sea lice on adult Pacific salmon in the coastal waters of Central British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Pacific salmon were captured individually during their coastal migration and examined for sea lice in two marine areas in the central coast area of British Columbia. Virtually all salmon had sea lice. Pink, chum, and sockeye salmon had average intensities ranging from 41.5 to 52.0 sea lice. Chinook and coho salmon had average intensities ranging from 16.1 to 18.5

R. J. Beamish; C. M. Neville; R. M. Sweeting; N. Ambers

2005-01-01

24

Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch  

E-print Network

Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Date: February.O. Box 21668 Juneau, AK 99802 907-586-7228 Abstract: This initial regulatory flexibility analysis of the Regulatory Flexibility Act. #12;(blank page) i #12;ii Table of Contents Initial Regulatory Flexibility

25

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon PSC Transfer Request Page 1 of 3  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon PSC Transfer Request Page 1 of 3 Revised: 05/23/2014 OMB Control No. 0648-0393 Expiration Date: 09/30/2016 Application For TRANSFER OF BERING SEA CHINOOK SALMON PSC ALLOCATIONS U.S. Dept Chinook Salmon PSC Allocations must be received by NMFS A SEASON: by June 25 B SEASON: by December 1 BLOCK

26

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles  

E-print Network

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea) Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

27

Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon  

E-print Network

Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon Martin Krkosek1,2*, Mark A, Canada T6G 2E7 Marine salmon farming has been correlated with parasitic sea lice infestations and concurrent declines of wild salmonids. Here, we report a quantitative analysis of how a single salmon farm

Lewis, Mark

28

Temporal Patterns of Sea Louse Infestation on Wild Pacific Salmon in Relation to the Fallowing of Atlantic Salmon Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a 3-year study of the infestation rates of the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on wild juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. In 2002, the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food ordered farm fallowing (i.e., the removal of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from net-cages) along

Alexandra Morton; Richard D. Routledge; Rob Williams

2005-01-01

29

Sea lice treatments on salmon farms have no adverse effects on zooplankton communities: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term effects of the sea lice treatment products Excis and Slice on zooplankton communities in a Scottish sea loch were investigated at a commercially operating salmon farm over 31 months. Cypermethrin and emamectin benzoate are the active ingredients in Excis and Slice respectively, which are widely used to control ectoparasitic sea lice on farmed salmon. Excis and Slice treatments

K. J. Willis; P. A. Gillibrand; C. J. Cromey; K. D. Black

2005-01-01

30

DISCUSSION / DISCUSSION Salmon farms as a source of sea lice on juvenile  

E-print Network

". That decline supports our conclusion that salmon farms can be a major source of infection for wild fish no significant relationship between migration distance and louse infection for fish either upstream of farmsDISCUSSION / DISCUSSION Salmon farms as a source of sea lice on juvenile wild salmon; reply

Reynolds, John D.

31

Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile.  

PubMed

The decline of fisheries over recent decades and a growing human population has coincided with an increase in aquaculture production. As farmed fish densities increase, so have their rates of infectious diseases, as predicted by the theory of density-dependent disease transmission. One of the pathogen that has increased with the growth of salmon farming is sea lice. Effective management of this pathogen requires an understanding of the spatial scale of transmission. We used a two-part multi-scale model to account for the zero-inflated data observed in weekly sea lice abundance levels on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, and to assess internal (farm) and external (regional) sources of sea lice infection. We observed that the level of juvenile sea lice was higher on farms that were closer to processing plants with fish holding facilities. Further, evidence for sea lice exposure from the surrounding area was supported by a strong positive correlation between the level of juvenile sea lice on a farm and the number of gravid females on neighboring farms within 30 km two weeks prior. The relationship between external sources of sea lice from neighboring farms and juvenile sea lice on a farm was one of the strongest detected in our multivariable model. Our findings suggest that the management of sea lice should be coordinated between farms and should include all farms and processing plants with holding facilities within a relatively large geographic area. Understanding the contribution of pathogens on a farm from different sources is an important step in developing effective control strategies. PMID:23628338

Kristoffersen, A B; Rees, E E; Stryhn, H; Ibarra, R; Campisto, J-L; Revie, C W; St-Hilaire, S

2013-08-01

32

Environmental drivers of Atlantic salmon behaviour in sea-cages: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmon may sense and respond to a range of environmental variables within sea-cages, including light, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, water currents and certain chemical treatments used during production. Environments within sea-cages are typically highly variable in both space and time, with the greatest variation occurring with depth. Preferred swimming depths and densities of salmon are the result of active trade-offs

Frode Oppedal; Tim Dempster; Lars H. Stien

2011-01-01

33

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON  

E-print Network

1ca, and 6% of the chinook, O. tshawytscha, salmon on the Columbia River showed gill net that the percentage of net-marked sockeye salmon in the daily catch below' Hells Gate on the Fraser River during 1943 to 15% of the salmon ascending the Bolshaya River (USSR) in recent years had gill net injuries. She

34

Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Bumgarner, J.

2007-01-01

35

The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea,  

E-print Network

The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar., and Vuorinen, P. J. 2012. The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon) and the Bothnian Sea, the two feeding grounds of salmon originating from the northern Gulf of Bothnia rivers

36

The use of cleaner-fish to control sea lice on two Irish salmon ( Salmo salar) farms with particular reference to wrasse behaviour in salmon cages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corkwing (Crenilabrus melops (L.)) and goldsinny (Ctenolabrus rupestris (L.)) wrasse successfully controlled sea lice infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.) on two commercial fish farms off the west Irish coast. Lice levels were generally maintained below five mobile stages per fish using ratios as low as one wrasse to 250 salmon, and cleaner-fish were shown to be

Sandra Deady; Sarah J. A. Varian; Julie M. Fives

1995-01-01

37

Transmission of Loma salmonae (Microsporea) to chinook salmon in sea water.  

PubMed

Transmission studies were conducted to determine if Loma salmonae was transmissible in sea water. Transmission of L. salmonae to chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) held in sea water was achieved by exposing fish to macerated, infected gill tissue. Fish were exposed in seawater in a flow-through aquarium, and the infection was detected as soon as 5 wk after exposure. Heavily infected fish exhibited numerous xenomas in the branchial arteries, central venous sinusoids, and within the blood channels of the lamellae. The pathological changes were similar to those seen in pen-reared salmon with L. salmonae infections. The infection was not observed in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi, family Clupeidae), or shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata, family Embiotocidae), experimentally exposed using identical methods. This study suggests that L. salmonae is transmissible to chinook salmon in seawater netpens. Fish farmers and fish health specialists should consider this possibility when developing and implementing strategies to control the infection. PMID:7728735

Kent, M L; Dawe, S C; Speare, D J

1995-02-01

38

Especially Sockeye Salmon in the Bering Sea and Adjacent Waters from 1972 to the mid 2000s  

E-print Network

Abstract: We present the mean CPUE distributions of five species of Pacific salmon in the Bering Sea and adjacent waters, based on long-term data from Japanese research-gillnet operations, 1972–2002. Many populations of three abundant Pacific salmon species (pink, chum, and sockeye salmon), have feeding migrations in the Bering Sea. There are two distinct patterns in the fluctuations in CPUE of major North Pacific salmon species in the Bering Sea. The CPUEs of pink and Chinook salmon increased after 1988 and remained high to 2005. The CPUEs of sockeye and chum salmon were low prior to 1977, peaked in 1980, declined until 1989, and then increased again until 2005. The trends in CPUE of sockeye and chum salmon seem to coincide with fluctuations in Bering Sea sea surface temperatures (SST) with higher densities of sockeye and chum salmon in the Bering Sea during warm periods and lower densities during cool periods, especially in sockeye. These increases and decreases in CPUE seem to coincide with the hypothesized regime shifts in 1977 and 1989. We also discuss the effects of the semidecadal fluctuations in the Bering Sea SST, and related fluctuations in sockeye salmon abundance.

Toru Nagasawa; Tomonori Azumaya

39

International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas  

PubMed Central

The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narscius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

2014-01-01

40

How does the European seafood industry stand after the revolution of salmon farming: An economic analysis of fish prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of farmed salmon on the European fish markets has coincided with major organisational changes within the value chain. The present paper investigates the extent to which the value spread between the intermediaries has been modified thereafter not only for salmon but also for a few wild-caught species. The background of cointegration theory has been extended to refine the

Patrice Guillotreau

2004-01-01

41

Chapter 11 References Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 629  

E-print Network

Chinook Salmon Bycatch Final EIS ­ December 2009 Chapter 3 CBD (Center for Biological Diversity). 2008 Diversity, 1095 Market St., Ste. 511, San Francisco, CA 94103. CBD. 2007. Petition to List the Ribbon Seal

42

Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997-2009.  

PubMed

The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice. PMID:23311746

Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

2013-03-01

43

Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish  

E-print Network

V8P 5C2, Canada The ecological impact of parasite transmission from fish farms is probably mediated�louse population dynamics, and should therefore be accommodated in coastal planning and management where fish farmsSea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish Martin Krkosek

Lewis, Mark

44

Mathematical model of Laminaria production near a British Columbian salmon sea cage farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economical feasibility of farmingLaminaria saccharina for a food base product near a salmon sea cage farm was evaluated. Suitability of kelp for nutrient removal was also analyzed. A computer model of a conceptualized system was developed in order to make the assessments. Kelp growth was modelled as a linear function of temperature and background dissolved inorganic nitrogen

R. J. Petrell; K. Mazhari Tabrizi; P. J. Harrison; L. D. Druehl

1993-01-01

45

Modelling of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) behaviour in sea-cages: A Lagrangian approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a Lagrangian (individual-based) model of the behaviour of Atlantic salmon in sea-cages. The behaviour of individual fish was affected by a set of environmental factors and the other individuals in the population. The model was based on behavioural parameters derived from literature and comparisons between model performance and published quantitative data sets. Simulations demonstrated that the model was

Martin Føre; Tim Dempster; Jo Arve Alfredsen; Vegar Johansen; David Johansson

2009-01-01

46

Sea lice ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis ) infection rates on juvenile pink ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) and chum ( Oncorhynchus keta ) salmon in the nearshore marine environment of British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation rates on juvenile pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon in five nearshore areas of the British Columbia coast selected on the basis of proximity to salmon farms. A 10-week study in the Broughton Archipelago found sea lice were 8.8 times more abundant on wild fish near farms holding adult salmon

Alexandra Morton; Richard Routledge; Corey Peet; Aleria Ladwig

2004-01-01

47

Annual changes in the proportions of wild and hatchery Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caught in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-level information from an eight-loci microsatellite baseline database of 32 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks was used with a Bayesian estimation method to assess the stock and stock group proportions of Finnish salmon catches in the Baltic Sea area. The proportions of seven stock groups, important to fisheries management, were assessed in catch samples taken between 2000 and 2005. In

Marja-Liisa Koljonen

2006-01-01

48

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), infestation in sympatric populations of Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), and sea trout, Salmo trutta (L.), in areas near and distant from salmon farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bjørn, P. A., and Finstad, B. 2002. Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), infestation in sympatric populations of Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), and sea trout, Salmo trutta (L.), in areas near and distant from salmon farms. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 131-139. The abundance of salmon lice was examined in two stocks of sympatric anadromous Arctic char and

Bengt Finstad

49

Central European Journal of Biology Functional discrimination of sea anemone  

E-print Network

Central European Journal of Biology Functional discrimination of sea anemone neurotoxins using 3D employed isolated neurotoxins from sea anemones with established specific potential to act on voltage relationship between the sequences of amino acids from sea anemone neurotoxins, and the resulting numerical

Gokhman, Dmitry

50

Historical record of Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida among sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Penobscot River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite restoration efforts, only about 2,000 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) salmon have annually returned to New England Rivers and more than 71% of these fish migrate to the Penobscot River alone. This report provides a historical compilation on the prevalence's of both Yersinia ruckeri, cause of enteric redmouth disease, and Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis, among mature sea-run Atlantic salmon that returned to the Penobscot River from 1976 to 2003. Aeromonas salmonicida was detected in 28.6% and Yersinia ruckeri was detected among 50% of the yearly returns. Consequently, Atlantic salmon that return to the river are potential reservoirs of infection.

Cipriano, R.C.; Coll, J.

2005-01-01

51

Piscine reovirus (PRV) in wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and sea-trout, Salmo trutta L., in Norway.  

PubMed

This is the first comprehensive study on the occurrence and distribution of piscine reovirus (PRV) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., caught in Norwegian rivers. PRV is a newly discovered reovirus associated with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), a serious and commercially important disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway. A cross-sectional survey based on real-time RT-PCR screening of head kidney samples from wild, cultivated and escaped farmed Atlantic salmon caught from 2007 to 2009 in Norwegian rivers has been conducted. In addition, anadromous trout (sea-trout), Salmo trutta L., caught from 2007 to 2010, and anadromous Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), caught from 2007 to 2009, were tested. PRV was detected in Atlantic salmon from all counties included in the study and in 31 of 36 examined rivers. PRV was also detected in sea-trout but not in anadromous Arctic char. In this study, the mean proportion of PRV positives was 13.4% in wild Atlantic salmon, 24.0% in salmon released for stock enhancement purposes and 55.2% in escaped farmed salmon. Histopathological examination of hearts from 21 PRV-positive wild and one cultivated salmon (Ct values ranging from 17.0 to 39.8) revealed no HSMI-related lesions. Thus, it seems that PRV is widespread in Atlantic salmon returning to Norwegian rivers, and that the virus can be present in high titres without causing lesions traditionally associated with HSMI. PMID:23167652

Garseth, Å H; Fritsvold, C; Opheim, M; Skjerve, E; Biering, E

2013-05-01

52

Chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon discovered by linkage mapping and supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Geographical isolation has generated a distinct difference between Atlantic salmon of European and North American Atlantic origin. The European Atlantic salmon generally has 29 pairs of chromosomes and 74 chromosome arms whereas it has been reported that the North American Atlantic salmon has 27 chromosome pairs and an NF of 72. In order to predict the major chromosomal rearrangements causing these differences, we constructed a dense linkage map for Atlantic salmon of North American origin and compared it with the well-developed map for European Atlantic salmon. Results The presented male and female genetic maps for the North American subspecies of Atlantic salmon, contains 3,662 SNPs located on 27 linkage groups. The total lengths of the female and male linkage maps were 2,153?cM and 968?cM respectively, with males characteristically showing recombination only at the telomeres. We compared these maps with recently published SNP maps from European Atlantic salmon, and predicted three chromosomal reorganization events that we then tested using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The proposed rearrangements, which define the differences in the karyotypes of the North American Atlantic salmon relative to the European Atlantic salmon, include the translocation of the p arm of ssa01 to ssa23 and polymorphic fusions: ssa26 with ssa28, and ssa08 with ssa29. Conclusions This study identified major chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon. However, while gross structural differences were significant, the order of genetic markers at the fine-resolution scale was remarkably conserved. This is a good indication that information from the International Cooperation to Sequence the Atlantic salmon Genome, which is sequencing a European Atlantic salmon, can be transferred to Atlantic salmon from North America. PMID:22928605

2012-01-01

53

Organohalogen concentrations and feeding status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Baltic Sea during the spawning run.  

PubMed

Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery. PMID:24056447

Vuorinen, Pekka J; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Pöyhönen, Outi; Ikonen, Erkki; Keinänen, Marja

2014-01-15

54

European Enclosed and Semi-enclosed Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish-water seas of Europe, i.e. the Black (including the Sea of Azov), Caspian and Baltic Seas, can be regarded as\\u000a “brackish-water islands”, locked in by land masses and isolated from other major brackish-water bodies by physical (ocean\\u000a and land) barriers. During the last two centuries, more than 300 alien species have been recorded in the four seas. Introduced\\u000a species

Erkki Leppäkoski; Tamara Shiganova; Boris Alexandrov

55

Ammonium and nitrate uptake by Laminaria saccharina and Nereocystis luetkeana originating from a salmon sea cage farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the laboratory, ammonium and nitrate uptakes were measured for juvenile Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. and Nereocystis\\u000a luetkeana (Mert.) Post. et Rupr. originating from a salmon sea cage farm in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. The effect\\u000a of various concentrations of NH4+ and NO3-, which are typical of salmon farming environments, on uptakes values were examined.\\u000a Both L. saccharina and Nereocystis

Okhyun Ahn; Royann J. Petrell; Paul J. Harrison

1998-01-01

56

Ammonium and nitrate uptake by Laminaria saccharina and Nereocystis luetkeana originating from a salmon sea cage farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the laboratory, ammonium and nitrate uptakes were measured for juvenile Laminaria saccharina(L.) Lamour. and Nereocystis luetkeana(Mert.) Post. et Rupr. originating from a salmon sea cage farm in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. The effect of various concentrations of NH4C and NO3 , which are typical of salmon farming environments, on uptakes values were examined. Both L. saccharinaand Nereocystis revealed simultaneous

Okhyun Ahn; R oyann J. Petrell; J. Harrison

1998-01-01

57

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

58

Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry-matter digestibility and energy digestive efficiency were measured in six juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) fed three diets each consisting of a single species: herring, pollock, and squid. Two of the animals were also fed pink salmon. Dry-matter digestibility (DMD) and digestive efficiency (DE) were measured using the energy and manganese concentration in fecal and food samples. DE values

D. A. S. Rosen; A. W. Trites

2000-01-01

59

Extensive immigration from compensatory hatchery releases into wild Atlantic salmon population in the Baltic sea: spatio-temporal analysis over 18 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic homogenization has been recognized as a serious threat in an increasing number of species, including many salmonid fishes. We assessed the rate and impact of immigration from the main hatchery stocks of Atlantic salmon in the Gulf of Bothnia into one of the largest wild salmon populations in the Baltic Sea, the River Vindelälven, within a temporal framework of

A Vasemägi; R Gross; T Paaver; M-L Koljonen; J Nilsson

2005-01-01

60

Biomagnification of organohalogens in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from its main prey species in three areas of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Factors affecting the biomagnification of organohalogens in Baltic salmon from sprat, herring and three-spined stickleback were assessed in three feeding areas. Second sea-year salmon contained (in fresh weight of whole fish) 79-250ngg(-1) polychlorinated biphenyls (?PCB), 0.9-2.7pgg(-1) dibenzo-p-dioxins (?PCDD), 8-19pgg(-1) dibenzofurans (?PCDF), 96-246pgg(-1) coplanar PCBs, 2.4-3.6ngg(-1) polybrominated diphenylethers (?PBDE), and 39-136ngg(-1) ?(indicator) PCB6. The EU limits for WHO toxic equivalent concentrations in fish feed were already exceeded in one-year-old sprat and herring and were exceeded many-fold in older age groups. The differences in the biomagnification rates of organohalogens in salmon appeared to be related to the feeding area, principal prey species, and the fat content and growth rate of the prey species. PMID:22386234

Vuorinen, Pekka J; Keinänen, Marja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Kiljunen, Mikko; Myllylä, Timo; Pönni, Jukka; Peltonen, Heikki; Verta, Matti; Karjalainen, Juha

2012-04-01

61

How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry E300 million

Mark J. Costello

2009-01-01

62

Submergence of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in commercial scale sea-cages: A potential short-term solution to poor surface conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submergence of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in commercial scale sea-cages (1600–2000 m3) affected their behaviour, but did not alter growth rates, food conversion ratios, appetite, condition factor or fin condition in comparison with control cages held under similar environmental conditions. Four sea-cages each held 3300–4200 Atlantic salmon of 0.45 kg; two cages acted as controls, while two were submerged for 22 days

Tim Dempster; Øyvind Korsøen; Ole Folkedal; Jon-Erik Juell; Frode Oppedal

2009-01-01

63

Modelling primary production in the North Sea using the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary production module incorporated in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is described in detail. It considers two phytoplankton groups, diatoms and autotrophic flagellates, and four different nutrients: nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and silicate (only for diatoms). All the related state variables and fluxes are represented in terms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon.The potential carbon growth rate process

Ramiro A. Varela; Antonio Cruzado; Jesús E. Gabaldón

1995-01-01

64

Temporally stable population-specific differences in run timing of one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon returning to a large river system  

PubMed Central

The understanding of migration patterns can significantly contribute to conservation and management. The spawning migrations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cover thousands of kilometers from the feeding areas at sea to their natal rivers to reproduce. Migrating salmon are exposed to intensive harvest, but little is known of the population-specific differences in migration behavior. In this study, timing of return migration was investigated among one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon within a river system. By utilizing knowledge of the genetic population structure, population of origin was reliably identified for c. 1500 fish caught in mixed stock fisheries after adopting an approach to minimize the complications arising from potential nonsampled populations. Results demonstrated significant and temporally stable differences among populations as well as between sexes. Generally, female salmon from tributary populations entered fresh water first. Run timing was not however related to in-river migration distance. Rather, one-sea-winter salmon from larger populations and with a higher proportion of multi-sea-winter females arrived later in the season. These findings are a significant step toward a more thorough understanding of the salmon migration behavior and behavioral ecology, providing concrete tools for the management and conservation of the remaining indigenous Atlantic salmon stocks.

Vaha, Juha-Pekka; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Niemela, Eero; Primmer, Craig R; Saloniemi, Irma; Johansen, Morten; Svenning, Martin; Br?rs, Sturla

2011-01-01

65

Growth and production of mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) suspended at salmon cages and shellfish farms in two Scottish sea lochs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell length and tissue growth, biomass and production of 1–2-year-old mussels suspended from salmon sea cages, mussel rafts and long-lines were monitored during May 1990–May 1992 in Lochs Etive and Leven on the west coast of Scotland. Water temperature, salinity and food availability were also determined. These showed a clear seasonal cycle and, in consequence, growth of mussels was relatively

Hadrian P. Stirling

1995-01-01

66

TECHNICAL COMMENT Comment on “Declining Wild Salmon Populations in Relation to Parasites from Farm Salmon  

E-print Network

salmon farms placed wild pink salmon populations “on a trajectory toward rapid local extinction.” Their prediction is inconsistent with observed pink salmon returns and overstates the risks from sea lice and salmon farming. Krkošek et al. (1) reported that sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) spread from salmon farms in the Broughton Archipelago

Brian E. Riddell; Richard J. Beamish; Laura J. Richards; John R. C

67

Effects of metomidate anaesthesia or transfer to pur sea water on plasma parameters in ammonia-exposed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L) in sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) postsmolts weighing 150 ± 53 g were exposed to 14–15 mg l-1 TA-N (total ammonia-N) in sea water in 1 m3 tanks for 24h. Blood samples were then taken A) immediately after the fish were netted from the exposure tanks and stunned by a blow to the head; B) 2–20 min after the fish were

M. B. Knoph

1995-01-01

68

Sea to sky: impacts of residual salmon-derived nutrients on estuarine breeding bird communities.  

PubMed

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) returning to streams around the North Pacific Rim provide a nutrient subsidy to these ecosystems. While many species of animals feed directly on salmon carcasses each autumn, salmon-derived nutrients can also be stored in coastal habitats throughout the year. The effects of this storage legacy on vertebrates in other seasons are not well understood, especially in estuaries, which can receive a large portion of post-spawning salmon nutrients. We examine the effects of residual salmon-derived nutrients, forest habitats and landscape features on summer breeding birds in estuary forests. We compared models containing environmental variables and combined chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon biomass to test predictions concerning bird density and diversity. We discovered that total bird, insectivore, golden-crowned kinglet and Pacific wren densities and Shannon's diversity in the summer were strongly predicted by salmon biomass in the autumn. For most metrics, this relationship approaches an asymptote beyond 40 000 kg of salmon biomass. Foliage height diversity, watershed catchment area and estuary area were also important predictors of avian communities. Our study suggests that the legacy of salmon nutrients influences breeding bird density and diversity in estuaries that vary across a wide gradient of spawning salmon biomass. PMID:21325324

Field, Rachel D; Reynolds, John D

2011-10-22

69

Sea to sky: impacts of residual salmon-derived nutrients on estuarine breeding bird communities  

PubMed Central

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) returning to streams around the North Pacific Rim provide a nutrient subsidy to these ecosystems. While many species of animals feed directly on salmon carcasses each autumn, salmon-derived nutrients can also be stored in coastal habitats throughout the year. The effects of this storage legacy on vertebrates in other seasons are not well understood, especially in estuaries, which can receive a large portion of post-spawning salmon nutrients. We examine the effects of residual salmon-derived nutrients, forest habitats and landscape features on summer breeding birds in estuary forests. We compared models containing environmental variables and combined chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon biomass to test predictions concerning bird density and diversity. We discovered that total bird, insectivore, golden-crowned kinglet and Pacific wren densities and Shannon's diversity in the summer were strongly predicted by salmon biomass in the autumn. For most metrics, this relationship approaches an asymptote beyond 40 000 kg of salmon biomass. Foliage height diversity, watershed catchment area and estuary area were also important predictors of avian communities. Our study suggests that the legacy of salmon nutrients influences breeding bird density and diversity in estuaries that vary across a wide gradient of spawning salmon biomass. PMID:21325324

Field, Rachel D.; Reynolds, John D.

2011-01-01

70

European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

2014-05-01

71

Influence of the White Sea on tides in adjacent marginal seas of the North European Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into the interaction of surface M 2 tides in the system of marginal seas of the North European Basin is carried out using the three-dimensional finite-element hydrostatic model QUODDY-4. Three numerical experiments are performed for this purpose. In the first (control), the model equations are solved in the system of the Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, and White seas; thereby the interaction of the tides in these seas is explicitly taken into account. In the second experiment, the White Sea is excluded from consideration and the no-flux condition is posed at the entrance to the sea. The third experiment uses an approach in which the observed tidal elevations that determine the existence of a finite horizontal transport of barotropic energy to the White Sea are specified at the open boundary of the White Sea. It is shown that changes in tidal dynamics represented by changes in the amplitudes and phases of tidal elevations and in the barotropic tidal velocity ellipse parameters are within the model noise in experiments 2 and 3 when compared with the control experiment. On the contrary, changes in energy characteristics (the horizontal wave transport, density, and dissipation rate of barotropic tidal energy) are equal to or greater (in order of magnitude) than the energy characteristics themselves.

Kagan, B. A.; Sofina, E. V.; Rashidi, E. H. A.

2013-01-01

72

Analysis of an Incentive-Based Chinook Salmon Bycatch Avoidance Proposal for the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery By  

E-print Network

Too many Chinook salmon are incidentally harvested in the Bering Sea pollock fishery and in response the North Pacific Fishery Management Council is considering measures to reduce the bycatch of Chinook salmon. In June of 2008 the Council adopted a Preferred Preliminary Alternative that allows the pollock industry, on its own initiative, to develop a program that “provides explicit incentives for each participant to avoid salmon bycatch in all years. ” This paper is a response to that invitation. The concept at the heart of this paper is an incentive-based proposal in which each pollock vessel puts up a financial ante that is redistributed among the pollock harvesting fleet in proportion to each vessel’s success in avoiding Chinook salmon. This incentive-based proposal operates to provide very strong incentives to avoid Chinook, especially when Chinook abundance is low. The paper describes the incentive-based proposal and how it interacts with a transferable hard cap to create incentives to minimize Chinook bycatch. The paper also examines the reduction in bycatch predicted to result from these incentives. 1 I.

unknown authors

73

Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea  

PubMed Central

Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

Springer, Alan M.; van Vliet, Gus B.

2014-01-01

74

Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.  

PubMed

Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

2014-05-01

75

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): The “Super-Chicken” of the Sea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the definition of sustainability is discussed, particularly in relation to the use of marine feed resources. The current review gives an overview of the development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture and how it has evolved due to changes in legal and management framework conditions. Atlantic salmon production is characterized with high utilization of nutrients, a high

Ole Torrissen; Rolf Erik Olsen; Reidar Toresen; Gro Ingunn Hemre; Albert G. J. Tacon; Frank Asche; Ronald W. Hardy; Santosh Lall

2011-01-01

76

Multivariate evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment efficacy of cypermethrin against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Background The sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is the most important ectoparasite of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norwegian aquaculture. Control of sea lice is primarily dependent on the use of delousing chemotherapeutants, which are both expensive and toxic to other wildlife. The method most commonly used for monitoring treatment effectiveness relies on measuring the percentage reduction in the mobile stages of Lepeophtheirus salmonis only. However, this does not account for changes in the other sea lice stages and may result in misleading or incomplete interpretation regarding the effectiveness of treatment. With the aim of improving the evaluation of delousing treatments, we explored multivariate analyses of bath treatments using the topical pyrethroid, cypermethrin, in salmon pens at five Norwegian production sites. Results Conventional univariate analysis indicated reductions of over 90% in mobile stages at all sites. In contrast, multivariate analyses indicated differing treatment effectiveness between sites (p-value?salmon aquaculture. PMID:24354936

2013-01-01

77

Summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals in polar ecosystems: a comparison between the European Arctic seas and the Weddell Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals was quantitatively established both in Antarctica (Weddell Sea) and in the European Arctic: Greenland, Norwegian and Barents seas. Data can directly be compared, since the same transect counts were applied by the same team from the same icebreaking ship in both regions. The main conclusion is that densities of seabirds and

Claude R Joiris

2000-01-01

78

[Ultrastructure of chloride cell of gill epithelium and body ionic composition of the fry of two species of Pacific salmon during migration to the sea].  

PubMed

Pacific salmon fry were collected in 2001-2002 in the rivers of Southern Sakhalin on the way of their migration to the sea. The comparison of the data on ionic content of chum salmon fry carcass, received in 2002, with those obtained in 2001, has shown that the dispersion of ion concentration values in 2002 samples was significantly smaller than in 2001. Similar results were obtained when the mass of smolts was compared. The significant decrease of Na+ concentration in chum salmon fry during migration to the sea supports the idea on an imperative stimulus formation by means of change of Na+ concentration in migrating fish. The analysis of gill chloride cell (CC) structure in chum salmon and masu salmon fry in fresh and salty water has shown, that in fishes from fresh water CC were located mainly in primary lamellae, at the basis of secondary lamellae. As a rule, CC are large, have a large nucleus with an active chromatin and a light cytoplasm with numerous elongated mitochondria containing dense matrix. Secondary lamellae are short, 1-3 cells thick and practically contain no CC. In some fishes secondary lamellae were more numerous and longer. Some part of secondary lamellae contained large CC; in this place their width was approximately 2 times greater. As a whole, CC number in these fishes was increased. Analyzing all the material received during 2 years, with respect to CC cell structure and functions, a conclusion was drawn that freshwater fry of two salmon species, both chum salmon and masu salmon, caught at the same time and practically in the same reservoirs, could be divided into 3 groups. Masu salmon underyearlings are characterized, as a rule, by a thickened secondary lamellae epithelium, which, however contained few CC. In the chum salmon smolts, on the contrary, epithelium was thin, but contained numerous CC, which demonstrate active structure in the beginning of migration to the sea. But as they approached the sea (and migration duration increased), CC activity fell, though their number remained unchanged. It was only after fish transition to the sea, that CC activity grew again, though their number remained the same. PMID:20593586

Maksimovich, A A

2010-01-01

79

Modelling primary production in the North Sea using the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary production module incorporated in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is described in detail. It considers two phytoplankton groups, diatoms and autotrophic flagellates, and four different nutrients: nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and silicate (only for diatoms). All the related state variables and fluxes are represented in terms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon. The potential carbon growth rate process is estimated by considering that nutrient availability acts as a limitation factor on the maximum growth rate which is itself a function of light and water temperature. Respiration, excretion of organic matter, lysis and sinking are the main carbon and nutrient loss processes. Results indicate that the model simulates well the annual phytoplankton dynamics in the central regions of the North Sea, underestimating primary production and chlorophyll in the southern North Sea. The model gave good correlations with the main dissolved nutrients, such as silicate, phosphate or nitrate. The primary production module proved to be especially sensitive to the flagellate/diatom interaction and competitive behaviour for inorganic nutrients as well as with regard to grazing losses. It is suggested that a major improvement could be made by including a third phytoplankton group ( e.g., Phaeocystis) in the model structure, and that comparison with other phytoplankton growth schemes based on the Droop formulation is advisable.

Varela, Ramiro A.; Cruzado, Antonio; Gabaldón, Jesús E.

80

Analysis of gene associated tandem repeat markers in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L. ) populations: implications for restoration and conservation in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among five wild and four hatchery populations of Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea were assessed based on eight assumedly neutral microsatellite loci and six gene-associated markers, including four expressed sequence tag (EST) linked and two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) linked tandem repeat markers (micro- and mini-satellites). The coalescent simulations based on the method

Anti Vasemägi; Riho Gross; Tiit Paaver; Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Marjatta Säisä; Jan Nilsson

2005-01-01

81

Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how ‘no effect’ thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

Brauner, C. J.; Sackville, M.; Gallagher, Z.; Tang, S.; Nendick, L.; Farrell, A. P.

2012-01-01

82

Submarine discharge into the seas of the Arctic Ocean from the European Russia territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater formation conditions in the upper hydrodynamic zone of the northern coast of European Russia are considered. This\\u000a groundwater discharges directly into the Barents and White seas. The values of submarine discharge from European Russia into\\u000a arctic seas, bypassing river network, are estimated. Estimates of subsurface dissolved-solids discharge are given. Specific\\u000a and integral characteristics of submarine discharge are analyzed. The

I. S. Zektser; A. V. Dzyuba

2010-01-01

83

Assessment of Salmon Stocks  

E-print Network

for permission to cite the reports of the ICES Working Group on North Atlantic Salmon, to NASCO for permission;Acknowledgement: This report has been compiled jointly by staff from the Cefas Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries and abbreviations used in this report 85 ANNEX 1 International Organisations and European Directives affecting

84

The Effects of Water Temperature, Salinity, and Currents on the Survival and Distribution of the Infective Copepodid Stage of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus Salmonis) Originating on Atlantic Salmon Farms in the Broughton Archipelago of British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports claim that pink salmon fry are heavily infected by Lepeoptheirus salmonis as they pass salmon farms in the Broughton Archipelago. Hydrodynamic studies reveal that the top 25 to 40 m of water generally flows seaward through the archipelago under the influence of freshwater, reducing surface salinity from 15–25% from June through November of most years. Sea lice larvae

Kenneth M. Brooks

2005-01-01

85

Fluctuations in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) recruitment resulting from environmental changes in the Sargasso Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

European eel decline is now widely observed and involves a large number of factors such as overfishing, pollution, habitat loss, dam construction, river obstruction, parasitism and environmental changes. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of envi- ronmental conditions in the Sargasso Sea and Atlantic ocean circulation on European glass eel recruitment success. Over a recent 11-yr period, we

SYLVAIN BONHOMMEAU; EMMANUEL CHASSOT; ETIENNE RIVOT

2008-01-01

86

European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a changing ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 °C) and two seawater pCO2 levels (ambient and 1,000 ?atm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 °C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 °C. Similarly, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 °C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 were significantly heavier. However, juvenile D. labrax raised under this combination of 19 °C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 also exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 °C and ambient pCO2. Most studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested that these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. Whilst the increased survival and growth observed in this study supports this view, we conclude that more work is required to investigate whether the differences in juvenile physiology observed in this study manifest as negative impacts in adult fish.

Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.

2014-05-01

87

Genetic investigation of swimbladder inflation anomalies in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the aetiology of swimbladder inflation anomalies in important aquaculture species such as European sea bass D. labrax is not fully determined, culture conditions are commonly suggested as main contributory factors. Little information is available on whether swimbladder inflation has a genetic basis for its expression too. In this work, 24 full-sibling sea bass families from a 4 dams×6 sires

Stefano Peruzzi; Jon-Ivar Westgaard; Béatrice Chatain

2007-01-01

88

The European regional seas ecosystem model, a complex marine ecosystem model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the concept, structure and implementation of the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The model dynamically simulates the biogeochemical seasonal cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon in the pelagic and benthic food webs of the North Sea, and is forced by irradiance, temperature and transport processes.The model has a coarse spatial resolution into

J. W. Baretta; W Ebenhoeh; P. Ruardij

1995-01-01

89

How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere  

PubMed Central

Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry €300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

Costello, Mark J.

2009-01-01

90

Salmon lice - impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-01

91

Aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and salmon farmed close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill  

SciTech Connect

After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal region. Subsequently, an impropitious combination of a high tide and a change in wind direction caused the resulting slick to rapidly spread into the port. Measures aimed at cleaning up affected areas and evacuating the ca. 11,215 tonnes of oil remaining in the supertanker were immediately implemented. However, within just a few days the resulting contamination had killed some 15000 turbot juveniles and larvae, which are cultivated in fish farms close to the accident site. The environmental impact of major oil spillages has been widely studied. Several scientists have suggested that, in terms of the negative effects on the seawater quality and productive capacity of the affected maritime regions, the magnitudes of the Aegean Sea and Amoco Cadiz accidents are comparable. This paper reports variations over time of aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and Atlantic salmon sampled from fish farms close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Alvarez Pineiro, M.E. [Institute of Investigation and Food Analysis, La Coruna (Spain); Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C.; Lozano, J.S. [Area Nutrition and Bromatology, La Coruna (Spain)] [and others

1996-12-31

92

[Parasite fauna of young landlocked salmon (Salmo salar m. Sebago girard) in the Pista River (the White Sea Basin)].  

PubMed

A native population of landlocked salmon of the Pista River was investigated in 2000-2002. Adult salmon in Pista River has smallest size among other populations of landlocked salmon in Karelia. Data on the biology and parasite fauna of young salmon are presented. The presence of local salmon populations in lakes of the river system is apparently one of the mechanisms keeping the magnitude of population. The presence of Gyrodactylus salaris, a harmful parasite of the young landlocked salmon, is established in this territory for the first time. This monogenean species is believed to have been introduced into the Pista River via stocking from Finland. PMID:17460940

Shul'man, B S; Shchurov, I L; Shirokov, V A; Ga?da, R V

2007-01-01

93

Genetic stock identification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations in the southern part of the European range  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anadromous migratory fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have significant economic, cultural and ecological importance, but present a complex case for management and conservation due to the range of their migration. Atlantic salmon exist in rivers across the North Atlantic, returning to their river of birth with a high degree of accuracy; however, despite continuing efforts and

Andrew M Griffiths; Gonzalo Machado-Schiaffino; Eileen Dillane; Jamie Coughlan; Jose L Horreo; Andrew E Bowkett; Peter Minting; Simon Toms; Willie Roche; Paddy Gargan; Philip McGinnity; Tom Cross; Dylan Bright; Eva Garcia-Vazquez; Jamie R Stevens

2010-01-01

94

Review of BASIS Salmon Food Habits Studies  

E-print Network

Abstract: The BASIS food habits studies of sockeye, chum, pink, and Chinook salmon conducted in 2002–2006 were summarized. These studies identified important ( ? 10 % of prey composition by weight) prey taxa of salmon. Salmon diet composition differed between the western region, where diets contained more zooplankton, and the eastern region, where diets contained more ichthyoplankton and nekton. Salmon feeding conditions, growth, and survival in the eastern region were more favorable in relatively warm years, as compared to cool years. However, warmer conditions may not be favorable for all salmon species, such as chum salmon. These studies significantly increased the available information on salmon food habits during the fall in the western, central, and eastern regions. Salmon diet composition shifted from zooplankton to fish and squid, or to larger sizes of fish prey, with increasing salmon body size, age, or maturity. Continued monitoring of salmon food habits will contribute to understanding how future climate changes will affect salmon populations in the Bering Sea.

Nancy D. Davis; Anatoly V. Volkov; Er Ya. Efimkin; Natalia A. Kuznetsova; Janet L. Armstrong; Osamu Sakai

95

National Geographic News: Sea Trout Loss Linked to Salmon Farm Parasite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is an article from National Geographic News, which describes the link between "the explosion of sea lice in farmed fish populations and the decline of Scottish sea trout." In addition to the article, visitors can view a dynamic map of Shieldaig in western Scotland.

Owen, James.

2002-01-01

96

Genotyping of two populations of Southern Baltic Sea trout Salmo trutta m. trutta using an Atlantic salmon derived SNP-array.  

PubMed

The sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is an anadromous, teleost fish species characterized by homing behaviour. The sea trout has considerable ecological and economic significance. It reproduces naturally in rivers flowing into, and is common in, the Baltic Sea. In Poland spawning aggregations occur in the Vistula River and the rivers of Pomerania. Two populations from the Vistula River (TW) and a Pomeranian river, the S?upia (TP) were mixed in the past by stocking. The main purpose of this study was an assessment of the applicability of the Atlantic salmon custom design Illumina iSelect SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) array containing 15,225 markers for identification of genetic diversity between sea trout populations. A diagnostic panel of 39 SNPs with a mean FST=0.1298 was selected from a pool of 15,225. At each locus, minor allele frequency was higher than 0.01 and mean expected heterozygosity for TW and TP populations were 0.343 and 0.271 respectively. Individuals tested were clustered in one of two groups which corresponded to their origins where the TW population was genetically more homogenous (membership coefficients ranked from 88.8% to 98.6%) while the TP population was more diverse (membership coefficients ranked from 53.8% to 98.5%). The results demonstrated the applicability of the Salmon 15K SNP-chip for determining the differences between Southern Baltic populations of the sea trout, a closely related salmonid species. PMID:23137524

Drywa, Agata; Po?wierz-Kotus, Anita; W?s, Anna; Dobosz, Stefan; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; Berna?, Rafa?; Wenne, Roman

2013-03-01

97

[Long-term changes in the epizootic of juvenile salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Keret River (White Sea basin) depending on the invasion of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957].  

PubMed

Results of long-term investigations on the population dynamics of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Keret' river (White Sea drainage basin) depending on the invading of Gyrodactylus salaris (Malmberg, 1957) and mass infestation of salmon with this parasite are presented. Gyrodactylus salaris was for the first time recorded in the Keret' river in 1992. During the period lesser than five years the parasite spread along the river. The rise in the infestation of salmon parr with G. salaris caused death of the fish host. As the abundance of juveniles decreased, adult salmon stocks dropped more than 25 times. It was shown, that after the decreasing in number of salmon juveniles following acute epizootic, infestation parameters dropped, and in some years G. salaris was not even found at all. PMID:19198173

Ieshko, E P; Shul'man, B S; Shchurov, I L; Barskaia, Iu Iu

2008-01-01

98

Salmon on the Columbia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit explores aspects of the history of salmon in the Columbia Basin. The materials provided for this unit are primarily social studies related, but include topics in both math and science and. Students have the opportunity to explore data using GIS mapping technology. The learning goals include: understanding the historical, cultural, and economic importance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin to both native and European immigrant populations; identifying technological, economic, and environmental factors that contributed to the decline in salmon populations in the Columbia Basin; use GIS and graphing software to analyze and interpret factors related to changes in the Columbia River salmon population over the last century and describe these phenomena in narrative, graphical or mathematical terms as appropriate; and evaluate the effectiveness of recent actions in helping to restore Columbia Basin salmon populations.

Thomas, Rick

99

Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been established. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a

K. Arpe; S. A. G. Leroy; H. Lahijani; V. Khan

2011-01-01

100

The microbial food web in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the complex dynamical European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) a module describing the microbial part of the pelagic ecosystem has been developed. The module contains the carbon and nutrient dynamics of pelagic bacteria, heterotrophic flagellates and microzooplankton and interacts with the other parts of the model via phytoplankton, particulate and dissolved organic matter and mesozooplankton. A

J. G. Baretta-Bekker; J. W. Baretta; E. Koch Rasmussen

1995-01-01

101

The benthic biological submodel in the European regional seas ecosystem model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submodel describing benthic biology including a bioturbation module as incorporated in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is discussed. It is linked to a nutrient dynamic model. The structure of the benthic model food web is presented. There are four macrobenthic functional groups, meiobenthos and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The modelling uses ‘standard organisms’ as basic building blocks.

W. Ebenhöh; C. Kohlmeier; P. J. Radford

1995-01-01

102

Paleogeography of the Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins in the Paleogene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published and original data on the lithology and fauna (mainly foraminifers) of the Paleogene Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins are generalized in this article. Their paleogeographic evolution and the character of development of connections with the North Atlantic, Mesotetis, and the Arctic Ocean are established from the moment of generation to their disappearance. It is shown that the paleogeographic

G. S. Kharin; N. P. Lukashina

2010-01-01

103

[Peculiarities of the biology and parasite fauna of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Pista River (White Sea Basin), according to the Gyrodactylus salaris infestation].  

PubMed

Juvenile salmon Salmo salar m. sebago Girard from the Pista River system (the White Sea Basin) was investigated. The data on species composition and occurrence peculiarities of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 are given. This monogenean is the alien species for the river system and it is recorded for the first time. It is shown that the distribution of the parasite abundance is can be described as the negative binomial distribution; variations of its parameters (k and p) were also characterized. Parasitological data obtained, as well as the data describing the characteristics of growth and age structure of juvenile salmon population, suggest the potential influence of G. salaris infection on the degree of survival of fishes in the lake-river system examined. PMID:23285741

Ieshko, E P; Shchurov, I L; Shul'man, B S; Barskaia, Iu Iu; Lebedeva, D I; Shirokov, V A

2012-01-01

104

New perspectives on sea use management: initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning.  

PubMed

Increased development pressures on the marine environment and the potential for multiple use conflicts, arising as a result of the current expansion of offshore wind energy, fishing and aquaculture, dredging, mineral extraction, shipping, and the need to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation, have led to increased interest in sea use planning with particular emphasis on marine spatial planning. Several European countries, on their own initiative or driven by the European Union's Marine Strategy and Maritime Policy, the Bergen Declaration of the North Sea Conference, and the EU Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, have taken global leadership in implementing marine spatial planning. Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany in the North Sea, and the United Kingdom in the Irish Sea, have already completed preliminary sea use plans and zoning proposals for marine areas within their national jurisdictions. This paper discusses the nature and context of marine spatial planning, the international legal and policy framework, and the increasing need for marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, the authors review briefly three marine spatial planning initiatives in the North Sea and conclude with some initial lessons learned from these experiences. PMID:18786758

Douvere, Fanny; Ehler, Charles N

2009-01-01

105

SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. • As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common SeaDataNet formats and procedures and software tools for preparing and updating metadata, processing and quality control of data, and presentation of data in viewing services, and for production of data products. • SeaDataNet maintains and operates several discovery services with overviews of marine organisations in Europe and their engagement in marine research projects, managing large datasets, and data acquisition by research vessels and monitoring programmes for the European seas and global oceans: o European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) (at present > 4300 entries from more than 600 data holding centres in Europe) is a comprehensive reference to the marine data and sample collections held within Europe providing marine scientists, engineers and policy makers with a simple discovery mechanism. It covers all marine environmental disciplines. This needs regular maintenance. o European Directory of Marine Environmental Research Projects (EDMERP) (at present > 2200 entries from more than 300 organisations in Europe) gives an overview of research projects relating to the marine environment, that are relevant in the context of data sets and data acquisition activities ( cruises, in situ monitoring networks, ..) that are covered in SeaDataNet. This needs regular updating, following activities by dataholding institutes for preparing metadata references for EDMED, EDIOS, CSR and CDI. o Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) directory (at present > 43000 entries) provides a coarse-grained inventory for tracking oceanographic data collected by research vessels. o European Directory of Oceanographic Observing Systems (EDIOS) (at present > 10000 entries) is an initiative of EuroGOOS and gives an overview of the ocean measuring and monitoring systems operated by European countries. • European Directory of Marine Organisations (EDMO) (at present > 2000 entries) contains the contact information and activity profiles for the organisations whose data and activities are described by the discovery services. • Common Vocabularies (at present > 120000

Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

2012-04-01

106

Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf seas. Well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain give exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf). Prevailing westerly winds further north drive exchange O(1 m2/s). Poleward flow along most of the upper slope has associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s), meanders and eddies. Eddies are shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay, and local exchanges occur at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s). Tidal transports are larger, but their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s). These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2-3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf. A numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5×106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea "pump" (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean). However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse, giving scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

Huthnance, J. M.; Holt, J. T.; Wakelin, S. L.

2009-12-01

107

Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf sea. Well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain give exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf). Prevailing westerly winds further north drive exchange O(1 m2/s). Poleward flow along most of the upper slope has associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s), meanders and eddies. Eddies are shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay, and local exchanges occur at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s). Tidal transports are larger, but their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s). These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2-3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf. A numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5 x 106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea 'pump' (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean). However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse, giving scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

Huthnance, John M.; Holt, Jason T.; Wakelin, Sarah L.

2010-05-01

108

Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf sea. Mechanisms include: well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain giving exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf); prevailing westerly winds further north driving exchange O(1 m2/s); poleward flow along most of the upper slope with associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s); meanders and eddies in this poleward flow; eddies shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay; local exchanges at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s). Tidal transports are larger; their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s). These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2-3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf; a numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5×106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea "pump" (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean). However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse; there is scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

Huthnance, J. M.; Holt, J. T.; Wakelin, S. L.

2009-06-01

109

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan  

E-print Network

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan May 2004 # # # # # # # # # # # LemhiRiverBig Creek PahsimeroiRiver PantherCreek LittleSalmonRiver RapidRiver E.Fk.SalmonRiver Chamberlain Creek N.Fk. SalmonRiver MidFkSalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver S.Fk.SalmonRiver Salmon River Salmon River IDAHO LEMHI CUSTER VALLEY

110

Geological maps of the European seas - the EMODNET-Geology project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support its objectives to achieve Good Environmental Status in Europe's seas by 2020, the European Commission established the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNET) to assemble existing but fragmented and inaccessible marine data and to create interoperable, contiguous and publicly available information layers which encompass whole marine basins. EMODNET is a network of existing and developing European observation systems linked by a data management structure covering all European coastal waters, shelf seas and surrounding ocean basins. The marine departments of the European Geological Surveys form the basis of a partnership that implements the EMODNET-Geology project, part of a suite of EMODNET studies that also cover bathymetry, marine chemistry, marine biology, seabed habitats, physics and human activities in the marine environment. The EMODnet-Geology project will deliver integrated geological map products through the One Geology-Europe portal. EMODNET-Geology will have a distributed map service with each of the work packages delivering a specified layer that include seafloor geology, seabed sediments, mineral resources and geological events such as submarine slides and earthquakes. Further information about the EMODNET project can be found at: http://www.emodnet.eu/

Stevenson, Alan

2014-05-01

111

75 FR 32378 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection; Workshop...for evaluating the Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management program that...plans and operations for avoiding Chinook salmon bycatch. DATES: The public...

2010-06-08

112

The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?  

PubMed Central

Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

2011-01-01

113

Contemporary ocean warming and freshwater conditions are related to later sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon spawning in Norwegian rivers  

PubMed Central

Atlantic salmon populations are reported to be declining throughout its range, raising major management concerns. Variation in adult fish abundance may be due to variation in survival, growth, and timing of life history decisions. Given the complex life history, utilizing highly divergent habitats, the reasons for declines may be multiple and difficult to disentangle. Using recreational angling data of two sea age groups, one-sea-winter (1SW) and two-sea-winter (2SW) fish originated from the same smolt year class, we show that sea age at maturity of the returns has increased in 59 Norwegian rivers over the cohorts 1991–2005. By means of linear mixed-effects models we found that the proportion of 1SW fish spawning in Norway has decreased concomitant with the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea. Furthermore, the decrease in the proportion of 1SW fish was influenced by freshwater conditions as measured by water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration. These results suggest that part of the variability in age at maturity can be explained by the large-scale changes occurring in the north-eastern Atlantic pelagic food web affecting postsmolt growth, and by differences in river conditions influencing presmolt growth rate and later upstream migration. PMID:23139878

Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik,, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

2012-01-01

114

Optimum feeding rates for European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. reared in seawater and freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, feed conversion efficiency, fillet composition and morphological indices of European sea bass (initial weight of 2.6±0.3 g) were investigated in a 6×2 factorial designed experiment employing two salinities [seawater (SW, 40 ppt) and freshwater (FW, 0.4 ppt)] and six different feeding rates (2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, 3.5%, 4.0% of their body weight (bw) day?1 and to satiation) for 60 days.

O. T Eroldo?an; M Kumlu; M Akta?

2004-01-01

115

Paleogeography of the Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins in the Paleogene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published and original data on the lithology and fauna (mainly foraminifers) of the Paleogene Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern\\u000a European Sea Basins are generalized in this article. Their paleogeographic evolution and the character of development of connections\\u000a with the North Atlantic, Mesotetis, and the Arctic Ocean are established from the moment of generation to their disappearance.\\u000a It is shown that the paleogeographic

G. S. Kharin; N. P. Lukashina

2010-01-01

116

Invasive alien plants in marine protected areas: the Spartina anglica affair in the European Wadden Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cord-grass Spartina anglica, a fertile hybrid of S. maritima and S. alterniflora, was planted in the European Wadden Sea extensively during the late 1920s and 1930s to promote sediment accretion. After\\u000a establishment, it colonised as a pioneer plant in the upper tidal zone, where it occurs frequently in coherent swards at the\\u000a seaward front of saltmarshes and in patches on

Stefan Nehring; Karl-Jürgen Hesse

2008-01-01

117

Intestinal barrier function of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post smolts is reduced by common sea cage environments and suggested as a possible physiological welfare indicator  

PubMed Central

Background Fish farmed under high intensity aquaculture conditions are subjected to unnatural environments that may cause stress. Therefore awareness of how to maintain good health and welfare of farmed fish is important. For Atlantic salmon held in sea cages, water flow, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature will fluctuate over time and the fish can at times be exposed to detrimentally low DO levels and high temperatures. This experimental study investigates primary and secondary stress responses of Atlantic salmon post smolts to long-term exposure to reduced and fluctuating DO levels and high water temperatures, mimicking situations in the sea cages. Plasma cortisol levels and cortisol release to the water were assessed as indicators of the primary stress response and intestinal barrier integrity and physiological functions as indicators of secondary responses to changes in environmental conditions. Results Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish exposed to low (50% and 60% saturation) DO levels and low temperature (9°C), at days 9, 29 and 48. The intestinal barrier function, measured as electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of mannitol at the end of the experiment, were reduced at 50% DO, in both proximal and distal intestine. When low DO levels were combined with high temperature (16°C), plasma cortisol levels were elevated in the cyclic 1:5 h at 85%:50% DO group and fixed 50% DO group compared to the control (85% DO) group at day 10 but not at later time points. The intestinal barrier function was clearly disturbed in the 50% DO group; TER was reduced in both intestinal regions concomitant with increased paracellular permeability in the distal region. Conclusions This study reveals that adverse environmental conditions (low water flow, low DO levels at low and high temperature), that can occur in sea cages, elicits primary and secondary stress responses in Atlantic salmon post smolts. The intestinal barrier function was significantly affected by prolonged hypoxic stress even when no primary stress response was observed. This suggests that intestinal barrier function is a good experimental marker for evaluation of chronic stress and that it can be a valuable tool to study the impact of various husbandry conditions on health and welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:21062437

2010-01-01

118

Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management  

PubMed Central

The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000–2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2013-01-01

119

Effect of environmental factors on swimming depth preferences of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and temporal and spatial variations in oxygen levels in sea cages at a fjord site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare of intensively farmed fish is highly dependent on water quality. Our knowledge of the variable physical environment in sea cages is limited. In particular, problems may result from high biomass and high temperature, which reduces oxygen solubility when consumption rates of the fish are high. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were farmed at normal (7–11

David Johansson; Kari Ruohonen; Anders Kiessling; Frode Oppedal; Jan-Erik Stiansen; Mark Kelly; Jon-Erik Juell

2006-01-01

120

The Impact of a Warmer Mediterranean Sea on Central European Summer Flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central European climate is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea, which experienced a strong increase in sea surface temperature (SST) during the last four decades. One example of extreme weather events are cyclones following the "Vb" pathway. These cyclones are generated over the Mediterranean Sea and travel northeastwards around the Alps and then hit countries like Poland and Germany. The cyclones carry large amounts of moisture and cause extreme precipitation, and subsequently flooding, particularly in summer. These floods, such as the Elbe flood in 2002, have devastating societal impacts and also influence ecosystems. To analyse the potential impact of increased Mediterranean SST on extreme precipitation in Europe, a series of simulations with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ECHAM5 has been carried out. ECHAM5 was run at high horizontal resolution (T159) and integrated for 40 years in each experiment. The control run is forced by SST and sea ice concentration (SIC) climatology derived from 1970-1999. A warmer climate is simulated by using global climatological SST and SIC from 2000-2012. To disentangle the impact of the Mediterranean Sea, an additional simulation was performed with the same global SST and SIC as in the control run, but with the warmer 2000-2012 SST climatology restricted to the Mediterranean and Black Seas. 20-season return levels were derived as a measure of extreme precipitation for daily as well as five day precipitation in JJA (June, July, August). These return levels are estimated as quantiles of a stationary generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution. Although the increase in the number of Vb cyclones is only modest, precipitation return levels in JJA show an increase along the Vb cyclone track, for daily (up to approximately 63 %) as well as for five day (up to approximately 76 %) precipitation extremes. This increase can be attributed to the warmer Mediterranean Sea, as it is observed in both the globally warmer and warmer Mediterranean Sea experiments. The strongest increase in both daily and five day precipitation extremes is located in western Hungary, in the catchment area of the Danube River. This finding suggests further increases in European summer flooding, should Mediterranean SST continue to increase.

Volosciuk, Claudia; Semenov, Vladimir; Maraun, Douglas; Latif, Mojib; Tilinina, Natalia

2014-05-01

121

Playing Chicken with Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild Atlantic salmon are traditionally harvested from both the sea and spawning rivers during spawning runs. From an economic point of view, the return from sport fishing in rivers is several times higher than marine ‘for meat only’ harvests. This situation calls for a side payment regime where river owners pay marine fishermen not to fish, and where both parties

Jon Olaf Olaussen

2007-01-01

122

Salmon Patch  

MedlinePLUS

... the head. Salmon patches are different from port-wine stains (discussed as a separate topic) in that ... difference between a salmon patch and a port-wine stain. In the past, port-wine stains and ...

123

The microbial food web in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the complex dynamical European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) a module describing the microbial part of the pelagic ecosystem has been developed. The module contains the carbon and nutrient dynamics of pelagic bacteria, heterotrophic flagellates and microzooplankton and interacts with the other parts of the model via phytoplankton, particulate and dissolved organic matter and mesozooplankton. A short description of the module is given and the results are discussed. It is demonstrated that in an application of ERSEM to the North Sea there is a gradual shift in dominance from the continental coast boxes to the offshore deeper areas between the different food webs, from what in the literature is termed the classical food web to the microbial food web, concomitant with a gradual decrease in the efficiency of the microbial loop.

Baretta-Bekker, J. G.; Baretta, J. W.; Koch Rasmussen, E.

124

The European Sea Level Service (ESEAS) and the ESEAS Research Infrastructure (ESEAS-RI) project: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract describes work carried out by the ESEAS and ESEAS-RI teams (to be found at http://www.eseas.org). The ESEAS started its work in June 2001 and has the major objective to provide sea-level and sea-level related information for the European waters to scientific and non-scientific users both from inside and outside Europe. The ESEAS aims to achieve this goal in cooperation with other relevant orgaanisations such as the PSMSL, EuroGOOS, GLOSS, EUREF and IGS. The ESEAS strives to guarantee and co-ordinate the long-term monitoring activities and data exchange along the entire European coastline. This includes, among others, tasks like setting up standards for observations and data processing, quality control of the large European database of hourly sea level data, upgrading of the ESEAS Observing Sites, collocation of tide gauges with CGPS, and provision of derived products such as secular trends and estimates of extremes. The EU-funded ESEAS-RI project started on 1 November 2002 with 25 institutions from 17 countries included. The project will run over three years and provides substantial resources for improving the observational network as well as the tools for exploitation of the data. In particular, Work Package (WP) 1 (Quality Control of Sea Level Observations) will make available a quality-controlled data set of hourly tide gauge from most ESEAS Observing sites. WP2 (Absolute sea level variations) will concentrate on the determination of vertical crustal motion at the ESEAS Observing sites. WP3 (Decadal to inter-decadal sea level variations) will produce as main result an empirical model of the sea level variations in the Eurepean Seas for the last hundred years. Finally, in the frame of WP4 (Improving the sea level observing system), a number of ESEAS Observing Sites will be upgraded and/or augmented with CGPS.

Plag, H.-P.

2003-04-01

125

The impact of future sea-level rise on the European Shelf tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the effect of future sea-level rise (SLR) on the tides of the northwest European Continental Shelf. The European shelf tide is dominated by semidiurnal constituents. This study therefore focuses primarily on the changes in the M2 tidal constituent and the spring and neap tidal conditions. The validated operational Dutch Continental Shelf Model is run for the present day sea-level as well as 2 and 10 m SLR scenarios. The M2 tidal amplitude responds to SLR in a spatially non-uniform manner, with substantial amplitude increases and decreases in both scenarios. The M2 tidal response is non-linear between 2 and 10 m with respect to SLR, particularly in the North Sea. Under the 2 m SLR scenario the M2 constituent is particularly responsive in the resonant areas of the Bristol Channel and Gulf of St. Malo (with large amplitude decreases) and in the southeastern German Bight and Dutch Wadden Sea (with large amplitude increases). Changes in the spring tide are generally greater still than those in the M2 or neap tides. With 2 m SLR the spring tidal range increases up to 35 cm at Cuxhaven and decreases up to -49 cm at St. Malo. Additionally the changes in the shallow water tides are larger than expected. With SLR the depth, wave speed and wave length (tidal resonance characteristics) are increased causing changes in near resonant areas. In expansive shallow areas SLR causes reduced energy dissipation by bottom friction. Combined these mechanisms result in the migration of the amphidromes and complex patterns of non-linear change in the tide with SLR. Despite the significant uncertainty associated with the rate of SLR over the next century, substantial alterations to tidal characteristics can be expected under a high end SLR scenario. Contrary to existing studies this paper highlights the importance of considering the modification of the tides by future SLR. These substantial future changes in the tides could have wide reaching implications; including for example, correctly calculating design level requirements for flood defences, the availability of tidal renewable energy and dredging requirements.

Pickering, M. D.; Wells, N. C.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Green, J. A. M.

2012-03-01

126

Climate, Growth and Population Dynamics of Yukon River Chinook Salmon  

E-print Network

in response to fewer returning salmon. We examined annual growth of age-1.3 and age-1.4 Yukon Chinook salmon scales, 1965–2004, and tested the hypothesis that shifts in Chinook salmon abundance were related to annual growth at sea. Annual scale growth trends were not significantly correlated with salmon abundance indices, sea surface temperature, or climate indices, although growth during the first year at sea appeared to have been affected by the 1977 and 1989 ocean regime shifts. Chinook salmon scale growth was dependent on growth during the previous year, a factor that may have confounded detection of relationships among growth, environmental conditions, and abundance. Scale growth during the second year at sea was greater in oddnumbered years compared with even-numbered years, leading to greater adult length of age-1.3 salmon in oddnumbered years. The alternating-year pattern in Chinook salmon growth was opposite that observed in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon, and it may be related to the higher trophic level of Chinook salmon and indirect competition with pink salmon. This finding highlights the need to investigate alternating-year patterns in salmon growth, prey abundance, and factors that influence these patterns, such as pink salmon.

unknown authors

127

SALMON: A WORLD AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

128

THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

129

Immune effects of HFO on European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.  

PubMed

The European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to a soluble fraction of heavy fuel oil for 5 and 9 days, respectively. The organisms were then transferred to non-contaminated seawater for 1 month. The bioaccumulation and elimination of PAHs in contaminated tissues were dissimilar between species. In fish, acenaphthene and naphthalene were detected and naphthalene was still detectable 30 days after the beginning of the recovery period. In oysters, on the other hand, pyrene and phenanthrene were bioaccumulated and 14 days after exposure no more PAHs were detected. Concerning innate immune parameters, the increase of haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway in fish and the reduction of phenoloxidase activity in oysters endured, respectively, 1 and 2 weeks in contaminated organisms. This indicates that these two enzymatic cascades could be quite useful for monitoring pollution by oil. PMID:19406476

Bado-Nilles, Anne; Quentel, Claire; Auffret, Michel; Le Floch, Stéphane; Gagnaire, Béatrice; Renault, Tristan; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

2009-07-01

130

The disappearance of the European eel from the western Wadden Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cohort model for the European eel is presented, which enables the interpretation of observed catches of yellow eel and silver eel in the western Wadden Sea in terms of recruitment data of glasseel. The model builds on various assumptions on length-dependent mortality and silvering rates and on the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model which predicts length growth. DEB parameter values are estimated on the basis of literature data. The model predictions are generally in good agreement with the data, though the final decline in numbers in the 1980s occurs earlier than predicted. This suggests that the decrease in eel stock is not just a consequence of lower glasseel immigration but that local conditions must have impoverished, a phenomenon earlier observed in fresh water.

van der Meer, Jaap; van der Veer, Henk W.; Witte, Johannes IJ.

2011-11-01

131

Ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) affect behavior and brain serotonergic activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Perspectives on animal welfare.  

PubMed

Scientific research and public debate on the welfare of animals in human custody is increasing at present. Fish are in this context mentioned with particular attention to the high numbers of individuals reared in aquaculture. Research on fish has also contributed to the understanding of individual variation in the ability to cope with stress and disease. One mediator of such variation is the brain serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system, which conveys physiological and behavioral responses to stress and sub-optimal rearing conditions. Here we study links between the 5-HT response, melanin-based skin pigmentation, and behavior in laboratory-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) experimentally infested with ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Lice numbers were more variable in less pigmented fish, while the neurochemical response to ectoparastic lice-increased levels of the main 5-HT catabolite 5-HIAA in the brain stem-did not differ between pigmentation groups. A strong depression of growth and locomotor activity was seen in all infested fish but less pigmented fish grew better than fish with more skin melanization regardless of infestation status. The observed combination of neurochemical and behavioral effects clearly suggest that animal welfare concerns can be added to the list of negative effects of ectoparasitic sea lice. PMID:24792663

Øverli, Øyvind; Nordgreen, Janicke; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Janczak, Andrew M; Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida B; Horsberg, Tor E

2014-06-10

132

The spatial data infrastructure for the European Seas Observatory Network (ESONET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESONET is a Multidisciplinary European Network of Excellence (NoE) in which scientists and engineers from 50 partners and 14 countries cooperate in building the infrastructure for a lasting integration of research and development in deep sea observatories in Europe. This NoE aims to develop strong links between regional nodes of a European network of sub sea observatories and to promote multidiciplinarity and transnationality within each node. Essential for these goals is the provision of an effective data and knowledge infrastructure for both, management and archiving of observatory data as well as knowledge and data sharing among network participants. The ESONET data infrastructure roughly consists of four major components: data policies a common agreement on the data management procedures and prerequisites, data acquisition technologies serve to collect data directly from ESONET observatories, data archives care for long term data management of collected ESONET data and data integration and portal tools which ensure harmonisation of collected data and allow access to the data in a common way. Most critical for ESONET was the development of a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) by using standardised protocols to directly access observatory data in its spatial and temporal context. The ESONET SDI provides means to either access data in quasi real time or harvest locally stored data in order to transfer it to a long term data archive. ESONET SDI largely builds upon the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards. Among those, the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), the Observations & Measurements (O&M), Sensor Markup Language (SensorML) are especially important for the integration of observatory data as well as for the contribution of ESONET data to GEOSS.

Huber, Robert; Diepenbroek, Michael

2010-05-01

133

WILDERNESS SOCIETY'S SALMON STATUS DATA FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

The fish status layers show the historic distribution of freshwater habitat and current status of ten different species of anadromous fish: spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, winter chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, sea-run cutthroat, summer steel...

134

Growth, feed utilisation, appetite and health in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) fed a new type of high lipid fish meal, Sea Grain®, processed from various pelagic marine fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplex design was used to test the effects of feeding Sea Grain® (fish meal process) processed from herring by-products (Clupea harengus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), small sandeel (Ammodytes sp.), and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), to Atlantic salmon smolt (1+) for two 6-week periods. Seven diets similar in lipid (34%), protein (43%) and gross energy (24 MJ\\/kg –1) were prepared from

E. M Hevrøy; K Sandnes

2004-01-01

135

Paleogeography of the Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins in the Paleogene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published and original data on the lithology and fauna (mainly foraminifers) of the Paleogene Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins are generalized in this article. Their paleogeographic evolution and the character of development of connections with the North Atlantic, Mesotetis, and the Arctic Ocean are established from the moment of generation to their disappearance. It is shown that the paleogeographic conditions of the studied sedimentation basins depend to a great extent on the tectonic movements of lithospheric plates. Iceland Plume volcanism exerted a considerable influence on the paleoenvironment and sedimentogenesis. The paleotectonic and climatic conditions of sedimentation are reconstructed. The occurrence of bauxite-bearing continental residual soil and other data point to a tropical, humid climate in the Early Paleogene, which changed into a moderate humid climate by the end of the Late Paleogene. Terrigenous sediments, including oil-and-gas bearing ones, were formed in the sea basins; they contain products of eroded residual soil, placers of accessory minerals, pyroclastics of volcanoes of the Iceland Plume, and zeolite-bearing, amber-bearing, phosphorite-bearing, and glauconitic horizons that have practical interest.

Kharin, G. S.; Lukashina, N. P.

2010-04-01

136

EUROPEANIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract As a strategy of self-representation and a device of power, Europeanization is fundamentally reorganizing territoriality and peoplehood, the two principles of group identification that have shaped modern European order. It is the result of a new level and intensity of integration that has been a reaction to the destruction of this century's first and second world wars and the

John Borneman; Nick Fowler

1997-01-01

137

Assessment of riverine load of contaminants to European seas under policy implementation scenarios: an example with 3 pilot substances.  

PubMed

An evaluation of conventional emission scenarios is carried out targeting a possible impact of European Union (EU) policies on riverine loads to the European seas for 3 pilot pollutants: lindane, trifluralin, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The policy scenarios are investigated to the time horizon of year 2020 starting from chemical-specific reference conditions and considering different types of regulatory measures including business as usual (BAU), current trend (CT), partial implementation (PI), or complete ban (PI ban) of emissions. The scenario analyses show that the model-estimated lindane load of 745 t to European seas in 1995, based on the official emission data, would be reduced by 98.3% to approximately 12.5 t in 2005 (BAU scenario), 10 years after the start of the EU regulation of this chemical. The CT and PI ban scenarios indicate a reduction of sea loads of lindane in 2020 by 74% and 95%, respectively, when compared to the BAU estimate. For trifluralin, an annual load of approximately 61.7 t is estimated for the baseline year 2003 (BAU scenario), although the applied conservative assumptions related to pesticide use data availability in Europe. Under the PI (ban) scenario, assuming only small residual emissions of trifluralin, we estimate a sea loading of approximately 0.07 t/y. For PFOS, the total sea load from all European countries is estimated at approximately 5.8 t/y referred to 2007 (BAU scenario). Reducing the total load of PFOS below 1 t/y requires emissions to be reduced by 84%. The analysis of conventional scenarios or scenario typologies for emissions of contaminants using simple spatially explicit GIS-based models is suggested as a viable, affordable exercise that may support the assessment of implementation of policies and the identification or negotiation of emission reduction targets. PMID:23801648

Marinov, Dimitar; Pistocchi, Alberto; Trombetti, Marco; Bidoglio, Giovanni

2014-01-01

138

Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.  

PubMed

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

Rogers, Luke A; Peacock, Stephanie J; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R M; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G G; Revie, Crawford W; Krkošek, Martin

2013-01-01

139

An evaluation of Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) survival from Klamath-Trinity river hatcheries in their first-year at sea reveals unique response to local oceanographic conditions.  

E-print Network

??High interannual variability in abundance of adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) presents challenges to fishery managers in developing reliable predictive models of abundance. Variability in… (more)

Lindke, Kenneth T.

2014-01-01

140

Behavioural Stress Responses Predict Environmental Perception in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)  

PubMed Central

Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour. PMID:25264870

Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; ?verli, ?yvind; Oliveira, Rui F.; Martins, Catarina I. M.

2014-01-01

141

Fish farms, parasites, and predators: implications for salmon population dynamics.  

PubMed

For some salmon populations, the individual and population effects of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transmission from sea cage salmon farms is probably mediated by predation, which is a primary natural source of mortality of juvenile salmon. We examined how sea lice infestation affects predation risk and mortality of juvenile pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon, and developed a mathematical model to assess the implications for population dynamics and conservation. A risk-taking experiment indicated that infected juvenile pink salmon accept a higher predation risk in order to obtain foraging opportunities. In a schooling experiment with juvenile chum salmon, infected individuals had increased nearest-neighbor distances and occupied peripheral positions in the school. Prey selection experiments with cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) predators indicated that infection reduces the ability of juvenile pink salmon to evade a predatory strike. Group predation experiments with coho salmon (O. kisutch) feeding on juvenile pink or chum salmon indicated that predators selectively consume infected prey. The experimental results indicate that lice may increase the rate of prey capture but not the handling time of a predator. Based on this result, we developed a mathematical model of sea lice and salmon population dynamics in which parasitism affects the attack rate in a type II functional response. Analysis of the model indicates that: (1) the estimated mortality of wild juvenile salmon due to sea lice infestation is probably higher than previously thought; (2) predation can cause a simultaneous decline in sea louse abundance on wild fish and salmon productivity that could mislead managers and regulators; and (3) compensatory mortality occurs in the saturation region of the type II functional response where prey are abundant because predators increase mortality of parasites but not overall predation rates. These findings indicate that predation is an important component of salmon-louse dynamics and has implications for estimating mortality, reducing infection, and developing conservation policy. PMID:21639053

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M; Ford, Helen; Peacock, Stephanie; Mages, Paul; Ford, Jennifer S; Morton, Alexandra; Volpe, John P; Hilborn, Ray; Dill, Lawrence M; Lewis, Mark A

2011-04-01

142

The European regional seas ecosystem model, a complex marine ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the concept, structure and implementation of the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The model dynamically simulates the biogeochemical seasonal cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon in the pelagic and benthic food webs of the North Sea, and is forced by irradiance, temperature and transport processes. The model has a coarse spatial resolution into ten boxes, the ICES boxes, of which the five deepest have been resolved into surface (0 to 30 m) and deep (30 m to bottom) boxes. At the open boundaries, time series are prescribed for dissolved and particulate nutrients. River loads of nutrients for the rivers discharging into the North Sea are prescribed at monthly intervals. A general circulation model has been used to aggregate the exchange volumes across the box boundaries into daily in- and outflows. From these, the horizontal transports of dissolved and suspended constituents are calculated. Vertical transport is in the form of sinking and sedimentation for particulates and in the form of turbulent diffusion for dissolved constituents. The physical model contains all information specific to the area to be modelled, whereas the biological/chemical submodels have been constructed not to be site-specific. The biological variables are represented as functional groups expressed in units of organic carbon and the chemical variables as the internal pools in the biological variables and as the dissolved inorganic pools in water and sediment, expressed in units of N, P and Si. The model runs in a software environment (SESAME) developed for enabling the development of large and complex models in a modular way by a consortium of institutes, each focusing on different. aspects of the ecosystem, translating these into modules within the model. With the exception of fish populations, where size- and age-structure are explicity represented, all the other biological components have been modelled as unstructured populations aggregated into functional groups. This approach is shown to be appropriate for taxa having short generation times in relation to the annual cycle and for taxa which do not span more than one trophic level during their lifetime.

Baretta, J. W.; Ebenhöh, W.; Ruardij, P.

143

Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

2014-05-01

144

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon.  

PubMed

The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect wild salmon populations and habitats in several countries. In Canada, much attention has focused on outbreaks of parasitic copepods, sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), on farmed and wild salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Several recent studies have reached contradictory conclusions on whether the spread of lice from salmon farms affects the productivity of sympatric wild salmon populations. We analyzed recently available sea lice data on farms and spawner-recruit data for pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago and nearby regions where farms are not present. Our results show that sea lice abundance on farms is negatively associated with productivity of both pink and coho salmon in the Broughton Archipelago. These results reconcile the contradictory findings of previous studies and suggest that management and policy measures designed to protect wild salmon from sea lice should yield conservation and fishery benefits. PMID:21873246

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M; Morton, Alexandra; Lewis, Mark A; Dill, Lawrence M; Hilborn, Ray

2011-08-30

145

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon  

PubMed Central

The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect wild salmon populations and habitats in several countries. In Canada, much attention has focused on outbreaks of parasitic copepods, sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), on farmed and wild salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Several recent studies have reached contradictory conclusions on whether the spread of lice from salmon farms affects the productivity of sympatric wild salmon populations. We analyzed recently available sea lice data on farms and spawner–recruit data for pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago and nearby regions where farms are not present. Our results show that sea lice abundance on farms is negatively associated with productivity of both pink and coho salmon in the Broughton Archipelago. These results reconcile the contradictory findings of previous studies and suggest that management and policy measures designed to protect wild salmon from sea lice should yield conservation and fishery benefits. PMID:21873246

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M.; Morton, Alexandra; Lewis, Mark A.; Dill, Lawrence M.; Hilborn, Ray

2011-01-01

146

The benthic biological submodel in the European regional seas ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The submodel describing benthic biology including a bioturbation module as incorporated in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is discussed. It is linked to a nutrient dynamic model. The structure of the benthic model food web is presented. There are four macrobenthic functional groups, meiobenthos and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The modelling uses 'standard organisms' as basic building blocks. The choice of parameter values is discussed. The results demonstrate the dependence of the benthic system on the pelagic system. The importance of features such as predation within functional groups for stability of the system is investigated. Detritus input from the pelagic system and detritus recycling is most important in the benthic food web. The web of carbon and nutrient fluxes through the system is analysed. On the basis of the food web analysis, the trophic positions of the functional groups are calculated. Besides the benthic biology, the mathematical formulation of the bioturbation and diffusion enhancement is discussed. Macrobenthic presence and activity enhance diffusion in the sediment and contribute essentially to vertical transport of particulate matter. This is of great importance for the vertical distribution of detritus, and as a consequence, for microbial activity in the sediment layers.

Ebenhöh, W.; Kohlmeier, C.; Radford, P. J.

147

Expression of kisspeptins in the brain and pituitary of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

Kisspeptins are now considered key players in the neuroendocrine control of puberty and reproduction, at least in mammals. Most teleosts have two kiss genes, kiss1 and kiss2, but their sites of expression are still poorly documented. As a first step in investigating the role of kisspeptins in the European sea bass, a perciform fish, we studied the distribution of kiss1 and kiss2-expressing cells in the brain of males and females undergoing their first sexual maturation. Animals were examined at early and late in the reproductive season. We also examined the putative expression of estrogen receptors in kiss-expressing cells and, finally, we investigated whether kisspeptins are expressed in the pituitary gland. We show that kiss1-expressing cells were consistently detected in the habenula and, in mature males and females, in the rostral mediobasal hypothalamus. In both sexes, kiss2-expressing cells were consistently detected at the level of the preoptic area, but the main kiss2 mRNA-positive population was observed in the dorsal hypothalamus, above and under the lateral recess. No obvious sexual differences in kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression were detected. Additional studies based on confocal imaging clearly showed that most kiss1 mRNA-containing cells of the mediobasal hypothalamus strongly express ER? and slightly express ER?2. At the pituitary level, both sexes exhibited kiss1 mRNA expression in most FSH?-positive cells and never in LH?-positive cells. PMID:22886357

Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Kah, Olivier; Servili, Arianna

2013-03-01

148

ICOWES2013 Conference 17-19 June 2013, Lyngby WINDS OBSERVED IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN SEAS WITH  

E-print Network

ICOWES2013 Conference 17-19 June 2013, Lyngby 1 WINDS OBSERVED IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN SEAS WITH WIND LIDARS, METEOROLOGICAL MASTS AND SATELLITE C.B. Hasager1 , D. Stein2 , A. Peña1 , S Hagemann3 , T. Bingöl1 , M. Courtney1 , A. Oldroyd6 1 DTU Wind Energy, Risø Campus, Roskilde (DK), cbha@dtu.dk, aldi

Haak, Hein

149

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania

Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

2009-04-01

150

Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Levels in Turbot and Salmon Farmed Close to the Site of the Aegean Sea Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal

M. E. Alvarez Piñeiro; M. A. Lage; S. T. Carril González-Barros; J. Simal Lozano

1996-01-01

151

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

Ruggerone, G. T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K. W.; Nielsen, J. L.; Rogers, D. E.

2003-01-01

152

A top-down survival mechanism during early marine residency explains coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska  

E-print Network

, whereas chum, sockeye, and Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon generally spend 2­5 years at sea Harvest Growth rate Size Body condition a b s t r a c t Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are a vital in adult coho salmon harvest was largely explained by indices of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus

153

Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been analysed. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea level (CSL). The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot lead to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated here to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for deficient precipitation and for winter cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until the end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly). So the remaining drop of 20 cm can be expected in the months to follow if no other anomalies happen. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS. Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are also investigated, which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive quantities like surface evaporation and precipitation. The comparison with independent data and the consistency between such data for calculating the water budget over the CS gives a high confidence in the quality of the data used. This investigation provides some scope for making forecasts of the CSL few months ahead to allow for mitigating societal impacts.

Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Lahijani, H.; Khan, V.

2012-01-01

154

Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been established. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea Level (CSL). The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot have led to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for other cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly), 7 cm from October to the end of 2010 and another 5 cm to the end of May 2011. From October 2010 to February 2011 excessive precipitation occurred over the Volga basin, equivalent to an increase of the CSL of 7 cm which might just compensate the 7 cm of the remaining deficit from the summer drought. A deficit of water took however already place in the months before July 2010. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS. Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are investigated as well which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive quantities like surface evaporation and precipitation. The comparison with independent data and the consistency between such data for calculating the water budget over the CS gives a high confidence in the quality of the data used. This investigation provides some scope for making forecasts of the CSL few months ahead to allow for mitigating societal impacts.

Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Lahijani, H.; Khan, V.

2011-08-01

155

Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for a network of ocean observing systems cross many applied and research areas of earth and marine science. Many of the science areas that can be examined using such systems have direct impacts on societal health and well being and our understanding of ocean function in a shifting climate. The European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET) Network of Excellence has been evaluating ocean observatory design requirements, data management needs, standardization and interoperability concerns, social implications, outreach and education, as well as financial and legal aspects of developing such a system. ESONET has great potential to address a growing set of Earth science questions that require a broad and integrated network of ocean and seafloor observations. ESONET activities are also importantly integrating researchers in the European Community, as well as internationally. There is now wide recognition that research addressing science questions of international priority, such as understanding the potential impacts of climate change or geohazards like earthquakes and tsunamis should be conducted in a framework that can address questions across adequate temporal and spatial scales. We will present the relevant science priorities in the four interconnected fields of geoscience, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and marine ecology, and some of the practical ways in which these questions can be addressed using ESONET. Several key questions persist that will require comprehensive interdisciplinary approaches including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, fluid pore chemistry and pressure, improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? To what extent do seabed processes influence ocean physics, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems? How are physical and biogeochemical processes that occur at differing scales related? What aspects of physical oceanography and biogeochemical cycling will be most sensitive to climate change? What will the important feedbacks of potential ecological change be on biogeochemical cycles? What are the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine life and what will the influence of anthropogenic change be? We will outline a set of science objectives and observation parameters to be collected at all ESONET sites, as well as a set of rather specific objectives and thus parameters that might only be measured at some sites. We will also present the preliminary module specifications now being considered by ESONET. In a practical sense the observatory design has been divided into those that will be included in a so called ‘generic' module and those that will be part of science-specific modules. Outlining preliminary module specifications is required to move forward with studies of observatory design and operation. These specifications are importantly provisional and can be updated as science needs and feasibility change. A functional cleavage not only comes between aspects that are considered generic or specific, but also the settings in which those systems will be used. For example, some modules will be on the seabed and some will be moored in the water column. In order to address many of the questions posed above ESONET users will require other supporting data from other programs from local to international levels. Examples of these other data sources include satellite oceanographic data, climatic data, air-sea interface data, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna. Thus the connection of ESONET to other programs is integral to its success. The development of ESONET provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Furthermore, ESONET and several other developing ocean observatory programs are integrating into larger science frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programs. It is only in a greater integrated framework that the full potential of the component systems will be realized.

Ruhl, H.; Géli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colaço, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

2009-04-01

156

AL ASK A SALMON alaska Salmon  

E-print Network

189 AL ASK A SALMON UNIT 13 alaska Salmon INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon have played an important and pivotal role in the history of Alaska. Salmon, along with mining, timber, and furs, were the keystone of residents and visitors to Alaska. Alaska native peoples and their heritage have a long, colorful bond

157

PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon  

E-print Network

: Chinook, coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon. All are anadromous: they spawn in fresh water and migrate to spawn and complete their life cycle. Coho salmon and most southern U.S. runs of Chinook salmon tend on their spawning migra- tions. Chinook and coho salmon are harvested rec- reationally and commercially

158

Reprint of: Carbon flux to the deep in three open sites of the Southern European Seas (SES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the strength and efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Southern European Seas (SES), by analyzing the export of POC at three deep sites located in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED) and the Black Sea (BS). We combine estimations of satellite and algorithm-generated primary production data, calculated POC fluxes out of the euphotic layer and POC fluxes measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers during a one year period, with an ultimate goal to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of the biological pump in the SES. Annual particulate primary production based on satellite estimations (SeaWiFS) at the three sites, averages 205, 145 and 225 gC m- 2 y- 1 at the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. According to our findings, the fraction of primary production that is exported out of the euphotic zone in the SES ranges between 4.2% and 11.4%, while the fraction reaching the mesopelagic layer (1000-1400 m depth) ranges between 0.6% and 1.8%. Finally, the fraction of primary production exported at the bathypelagic layer (2000-2800 m depth) is found to be 0.6%, 0.3% and 1.4% in the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. The role of various processes responsible for the replenishment of surface waters with nutrients, giving rise to productivity episodes and organic carbon export to depth at the three SES sites is considered.

Gogou, Alexandra; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Stavrakakis, Spyros; Calafat, Antoni M.; Stabholz, Marion; Psarra, Stella; Canals, Miquel; Heussner, Serge; Stavrakaki, Ioanna; Papathanassiou, Evangelos

2014-07-01

159

Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites.  

PubMed

The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. PMID:23734489

Peacock, Stephanie J; Krkosek, Martin; Proboszcz, Stan; Orr, Craig; Lewis, Mark A

2013-04-01

160

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This is known as the Common Data Index (CDI) V0 system Version 1: harmonisation and upgrading of the metadatabases through adoption of the ISO 19115 metadata standard and provision of transparent data access and download services from all partner data centres through upgrading the Common Data Index and deployment of a data object delivery service. Version 2: adding data product services and OGC compliant viewing services and further virtualisation of data access. SeaDataNet Version 0: The SeaDataNet portal has been set up at http://www.seadatanet.org and it provides a platform for all SeaDataNet services and standards as well as background information about the project and its partners. It includes discovery services via the following catalogues: CSR - Cruise Summary Reports of research vessels; EDIOS - Locations and details of monitoring stations and networks / programmes; EDMED - High level inventory of Marine Environmental Data sets collected and managed by research institutes and organisations; EDMERP - Marine Environmental Research Projects ; EDMO - Marine Organisations. These catalogues are interrelated, where possible, to facilitate cross searching and context searching. These catalogues connect to the Common Data Index (CDI). Common Data Index (CDI) The CDI gives detailed insight in available datasets at partners databases and paves the way to direct online data access or direct online requests for data access / data delivery. The CDI V0 metadatabase contains more than 340.000 individual data entries from 36 CDI partners from 29 countries across Europe, covering a broad scope and range of data, held by these organisations. For purposes of standardisation and international exchange the ISO19115 metadata standard has been adopted. The CDI format is defined as a dedicated subset of this standard. A CDI XML format supports the exchange between CDI-partners and the central CDI manager, and ensures interoperability with other systems and networks. CDI XML entries are generated by participating data centres, directly from their databases. CDI-partners can make use

Schaap, D. M. A.; Maudire, G.

2009-04-01

161

Net ground speed of downstream migrating radio-tagged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) smolts in relation to environmental factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The downstream migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) and sea trout smolt (S. trutta L.) was investigated using radio telemetry in the spring of 1999 and 2000. Forty wild sea trout smolts, 20 F1 sea trout smolts, 20 hatchery salmon smolts and 20 salmon smolts from river stockings were radio tagged and released in the Danish River Lilleaa. The downstream

Kim Aarestrup; Christian Nielsen; Anders Koed

2002-01-01

162

A radio telemetry study of the migration of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and sea trout ( Salmo trutta trutta L.) in the upper Rhine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic salmon disappeared from the Rhine River in the mid-fifties when pollution and canalization of the main course of\\u000a the river blocked access to their spawning areas. After water quality improved in the 1980's, a reintroduction program was\\u000a begun in the French upper Rhine basin in 1992. To better define the difficulties encountered by the returning salmon on their\\u000a way

Matthieu Gerlier; Pascal Roche

1998-01-01

163

Salmon's Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

Shannon, Thomas A.

1994-01-01

164

Regulation of natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) genes in teleost fish, gilthead seabream and European sea bass.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant proteins also involved in inflammation and innate immunity. Prx1 and Prx2 are also known as natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF)-A and NKEF-B, respectively, by their ability to prime the mammalian NK-cells activity. In teleost fish, NKEF genes have been isolated but their regulation has been scarcely evaluated. We have identified orthologues of the NKEF-A and NKEF-B genes in the teleost European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) which showed constitutive expression and wide distribution in their tissues. In vitro, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass NKEFs were slightly up-regulated in head-kidney leucocytes after stimulation with unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, poly I:C or pathogenic bacteria. In vivo, seabream and sea bass infection with nodavirus up-regulated the expression of NKEF genes in the brain (target tissue for nodavirus) and head-kidney at different infection times. Although further studies are necessary to ascertain their role as antioxidant proteins and in the immune response in teleost fish, our results suggest a primary role of seabream and sea bass NKEFs in the innate immune response against bacterial and viral agents. PMID:23511025

Esteban, María A; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Arizcun, Marta; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto

2013-10-01

165

The tidal evolution of the NW European shelf seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to calibrate sea-level index points, to reconstruct past sediment transport patterns and long-term seasonal stratification dynamics, and to quantify the impact of relative sea-level change on the frictional dissipation of tidal energy on continental shelves, it is critical to assess the tidal evolution of shelf seas over geological timescales. Two-dimensional tidal simulations have been undertaken to investigate the evolution of the tidal regime characterising the NW European shelf seas during the last 22,000 years (since the Last Glacial Maximum, LGM). Over this period, shelf configuration has been conditioned largely by global eustatic sea-level rise of up to 130 m in combination with regional crustal isostatic rebound due to the unloading of the Fennoscandian and British ice sheets; the far-field effects of loading by distal ice sheets (Laurentide; Antarctica) are also significant. Some earlier shelf-scale modelling exercises ignored the vertical isostatic movements of the crust and concentrated solely on eustatic change; these earlier studies also assumed no changes in the ocean tide between glacial and interglacial states. Here we present the results of palaeotidal modelling experiments whose forcing accommodates both vertical crustal movements, by using the rebound model previously published by Peltier (1994) and unpublished model reconstructions by Lambeck, and modelled changes in the ocean tide along the ocean boundary; the latter are particularly important at the LGM and during early deglaciation. We present data at a shelf-wide scale on temporal changes in tidal amplitudes, peak bed stress vectors, the migration of tidal mixing fronts and the areal extent of seasonally stratified water from the LGM to the present. The data from the southern sector of the shelf are similar to results from the earlier studies forced solely by eustatic change, indicating that this component of relative sea-level is dominant in this sector. Important differences emerge in the northern sector where relative sea-level change was profoundly influenced by isostatic movements. The tidal implications of differences between the Peltier and Lambeck models are insignificant at the shelf-scale apart from in the Irish Sea and German Bight. Model data on the timing of tidal mixing front migration across the Celtic Sea are supported by geological data on the transition from mixed to seasonally stratified watermasses in the early Holocene. We also quantify changes in tidal dissipation by friction on the continental shelf between glacial and interglacial states with implications for dissipation in the deep ocean.

Uehara, K.; Scourse, J. D.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Lambeck, K.; Purcell, A. P.

2003-04-01

166

Effects of production intensity and production strategies in commercial Atlantic salmon smolt (Salmo salar L.) production on subsequent performance in the early sea stage.  

PubMed

A data set from commercial Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) producers on production intensity and production strategies in smolt tanks (N = 63-94) was obtained during 1999-2006. The effects of production intensity on subsequent fish mortality and growth during the early sea phase (90 days) were examined by principal component analysis and subsequent generalized linear model analysis. Levels of accumulated metabolites (CO(2), total ammonia nitrogen and NH(3)), and information provided by producers (production density (kg fish m(3-1)), specific water use (l kg fish(-1) min(-1)) and oxygen drop (mg l(-1)) from tank inlet to tank outlet), were used as predictor variables. In addition, several other welfare relevant variables such as disease history, temperature during freshwater and sea stage; season (S1) or off-season (S0) smolt production; and the use of seawater addition during the freshwater stage were analyzed. No strong intensity effects on mortality or growth were found. CO(2) levels alone (P < 0.001, R(2) = 0.16), and in combination with specific water use (R(2) = 0.20), had the strongest effect on mortality. In both cases, mortality decreased with increasing density. For growth, the intensity model with the most support (R(2) = 0.17) was O(2) drop, density and their interaction effects, resulting in the best growth at low and high intensity, and poorer growth at intermediate levels. Documented viral disease outbreaks (infectious pancreatic necrosis and two cases of pancreas disease) in the sea phase resulted in significantly higher mortalities at 90 days compared with undiagnosed smolt groups, although mortalities were highly variable in both categories. The temperature difference between the freshwater stage and seawater had a small, but significant, effect on growth with the best growth in groups stocked to warmer seawater (P = 0.04, R(2) = 0.06). S0 and S1 smolt groups did not differ significantly in growth, but the mortality was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in S1 groups. Seawater addition as a categorical variable had no significant effects, but when analyzed within the seawater addition group, intermediate salinities (15-25 ppt) gave the best results on growth (p = 0.04, R(2) = 0.15). Production intensity had small explanatory power on subsequent seawater performance in the analyzed smolt groups. If anything, the analysis shows a beneficial effect of intensive production strategies on subsequent performance. Analysis of the various production strategies indicates better survival of S0 compared with S1 smolt groups, improved growth when stocked in seawater warmer than freshwater, and a negative effect of viral disease outbreaks on survival. The results clearly demonstrate the difficulty of extrapolating results from experimental work on fish welfare and production intensity variables to commercial production. On the other hand, the presented results may simply demonstrate that the traditional fish welfare criteria growth and mortality may not suffice to evaluate welfare consequences of suboptimal water quality or production strategies in the aquaculture industry. PMID:22037926

Kristensen, T; Haugen, T O; Rosten, T; Fjellheim, A; Atland, A; Rosseland, B O

2012-02-01

167

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN  

E-print Network

1 A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN BRITISH COLUMBIA?" Report 1: Parasitic Sea Lice and Other Diseases of Pacific Salmon December 2012 review funded by the BC Salmon Farmers Association #12;2 Table of Contents PREAMBLE

Farrell, Anthony P.

168

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness Dylan J. Fraser,1 Adam M. Cook,1 James escapes of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recur from sea cages (Fiske et al. 2006). Escaped farmed

Fraser, Dylan J.

169

Mechanisms of oocyte development in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): investigations via application of unilateral ovariectomy.  

PubMed

Unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) was performed in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) during late pre-vitellogenesis/early vitellogenesis. Plasma steroid levels and the expression of a suite of potential oogenesis-relevant genes in the ovary, brain, and pituitary were evaluated with the aim of understanding their involvement in the compensatory oocyte development occurring within the remaining ovarian lobe. After 69 days of surgery the remaining ovarian lobe in ULO fish was gravimetrically equivalent to an intact-paired ovary of sham operated, control fish. This compensatory ovarian growth was based on an increased number of early perinucleolar oocytes and mid-late stage vitellogenic follicles without an apparent recruitment of primary oocytes into the secondary growth phase. Plasma steroid levels were similar in ULO and control females at all time points analyzed, suggesting an increased steroid production of the remaining ovarian lobe in hemi-castrated females. Results of the gene expression survey conducted indicate that the signaling pathways mediated by Fsh and Gnrh1 constitute the central axes orchestrating the observed ovarian compensatory growth. In addition, steroid receptors, Star protein, Igfs, and members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily including anti-Mullerian hormone and bone morphogenetic protein 4 were identified as potentially relevant players within this process, although their specific actions and interactions remain to be established. Our results demonstrate that ULO provides an excellent in vivo model for elucidating the interconnected endocrine and molecular mechanisms controlling oocyte development in European sea bass. PMID:21610167

García-López, Ángel; Sánchez-Amaya, María I; Tyler, Charles R; Prat, Francisco

2011-08-01

170

AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT  

E-print Network

AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT BY JAPANESE HIGH SEAS FLEETS IN NORTH PACIFIC Marine Fish and Wildlife Service, Amie J. Suomela, Commissioner AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT and 1956, and the body weight data for 1955 were taken from the Interim Reports on Research by the Japanese

171

Development of an oligo DNA microarray for the European sea bass and its application to expression profiling of jaw deformity  

PubMed Central

Background The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a marine fish of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture. Functional genomics offers the possibility to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying productive traits in farmed fish, and a step towards the application of marker assisted selection methods in this species. To this end, we report here on the development of an oligo DNA microarray for D. labrax. Results A database consisting of 19,048 unique transcripts was constructed, of which 12,008 (63%) could be annotated by similarity and 4,692 received a GO functional annotation. Two non-overlapping 60mer probes were designed for each unique transcript and in-situ synthesized on glass slides using Agilent SurePrint™ technology. Probe design was positively completed for 19,035 target clusters; the oligo microarray was then applied to profile gene expression in mandibles and whole-heads of fish affected by prognathism, a skeletal malformation that strongly affects sea bass production. Statistical analysis identified 242 transcripts that are significantly down-regulated in deformed individuals compared to normal fish, with a significant enrichment in genes related to nervous system development and functioning. A set of genes spanning a wide dynamic range in gene expression level were selected for quantitative RT-PCR validation. Fold change correlation between microarray and qPCR data was always significant. Conclusions The microarray platform developed for the European sea bass has a high level of flexibility, reliability, and reproducibility. Despite the well known limitations in achieving a proper functional annotation in non-model species, sufficient information was obtained to identify biological processes that are significantly enriched among differentially expressed genes. New insights were obtained on putative mechanisms involved on mandibular prognathism, suggesting that bone/nervous system development might play a role in this phenomenon. PMID:20525278

2010-01-01

172

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

..................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ...................................................................... 5 2.2 Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).................................................................................... 8 2.3 Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta

173

Assessment of Salmon Stocks  

E-print Network

Annual Assessment of Salmon Stocks and Fisheries in England and Wales 2009 #12;#12;SALMON STOCKS;Acknowledgement: This report has been compiled jointly by staff from the Cefas Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries and assessment of salmon stocks is funded by Defra. Both Cefas and the Environment Agency would like to extend

174

Requirement of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles: growth and fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

European sea bass juveniles (14.4±0.1 g mean weight) were fed diets containing different levels of fish oil then of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) for 12 weeks. The fish performance as well as fatty acid (FA) composition of neutral and polar lipids from whole body after 7 and 12 weeks feeding were studied. The requirements of juvenile sea

Ali Skalli; Jean H. Robin

2004-01-01

175

Salmon Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.

176

Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

None

2010-01-04

177

Effect of two sulfur-containing amino acids, taurine and hypotaurine in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sperm cryopreservation.  

PubMed

In the present work, taurine and hypotaurine were evaluated as potential additives to improve European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sperm quality after cryopreservation. For cryopreservation, three different extenders were used: control extender (NAM), supplemented with 1mM taurine or supplemented with 1mM hypotaurine, all of them containing 10% Me?SO as cryoprotectant. To evaluate sperm quality of fresh and thawed sperm, motility (CASA: computer assisted sperm analysis), viability (SYBR Green/propidium iodide), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level), protein oxidation (carbonyl content), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities and DNA fragmentation (comet assay) were quantified. The result demonstrated that 1 mM hypotaurine supplemented extender increased total motility (30.1 ± 3.2%), and that 1 mM taurine extender produced higher velocity (18.1 ± 2.6 ?m/s) and linearity (46.0 ± 4.8%) than the control extender (21.8 ± 3.2%, 15.5 ± 1.3 ?m/s, 41.8 ± 2.4%, respectively). Cell viability, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were not statistically different between treatments. Similar results were obtained for glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Only glutathione reductase showed differential activity before and after freezing, increasing its activity in thawed sperm. Regarding the comet assay results, taurine and hypotaurine significantly reduced DNA fragmentation (52.8 ± 0.9% and 51.8 ± 0.9%, respectively) in comparison to the control (55.7 ± 0.8%). In conclusion, for European sea bass sperm cryopreservation, extenders supplemented with 1 mM taurine and 1 mM hypotaurine improved some parameters of sperm quality after thawing, resulting in better motility and lower DNA damage than the control, two very important factors related to fertilization success. PMID:23583301

Martínez-Páramo, S; Diogo, P; Dinis, M T; Soares, F; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E

2013-06-01

178

Winter and summer climate patterns in the European-Middle East during recent centuries as documented in a northern Red Sea coral record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ras Umm Sidd coral 6180 record from the northern Red Sea is the northernmost centuries long coral time series that is currently available in seasonal resolution (AD 1750-1995). Here we investigate climate patterns associated with the coral 6180 time series separately for boreal winter and summer, using instrumental and reconstructed climate fields for the European-Middle East region. The winter

Norel Rimbu; Thomas Felis; Gerrit Lohmann; Jürgen Päatzold

2006-01-01

179

Trace metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) cycling in the upper water column near the shelf edge of the European continental margin (Celtic Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relative importance of processes that affect trace metal (TM) cycling in the upper water column at the shelf edge of the Celtic Sea on the western European continental margin. The examined processes include external inputs (by atmosphere and river), physical factors (upwelling, winter mixing and water mass advection) and biological processes (in situ uptake, regeneration and

Marie-Hélène Cotté-Krief; Alain J Thomas; Jean-Marie Martin

2002-01-01

180

Developmental expression of DAX1 in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: lack of evidence for sexual dimorphism during sex differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: DAX1 (NR0B1), a member of the nuclear receptors super family, has been shown to be involved in the genetic sex determination and in gonadal differentiation in several vertebrate species. In the aquaculture fish European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and in the generality of fish species, the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation have not been elucidated. The present study

Rute ST Martins; Laurence AM Deloffre; Constantinos C Mylonas; Deborah M Power; Adelino VM Canário

2007-01-01

181

DNA Methylation of the Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a) Promoter Is Involved in Temperature-Dependent Sex Ratio Shifts in the European Sea Bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive. We show in the European sea bass (sb), a fish in which temperature effects on sex ratios are maximal before the gonads form, that juvenile males have double the DNA methylation levels of

Laia Navarro-Martín; Jordi Viñas; Laia Ribas; Noelia Díaz; Arantxa Gutiérrez; Luciano Di Croce; Francesc Piferrer

2011-01-01

182

Arm regeneration frequency in eight species of ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from European sea areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight ophiuroid species, six from the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak and three from the northern Adriatic Sea, were examined for regeneration of arms. The species were separated into groups based upon mode of feeding and habitat. Comparison between groups collected in the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak showed that infaunal suspension- and deposit-feeding species ( Amphiura filiformis and A. chiajei) had significantly more scars per arm (mean number 0.78) than epibenthic suspension feeders ( Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiocomina nigra, 0.29) or epibenthic carnivores and deposit feeders ( Ophiura ophiura and O. albida, 0.13). Spatial variation in arm regeneration incidence was found between sampling sites in the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak for Amphiura filiformis and in the northern Adriatic Sea for Ophiothrix quinquemaculata. The ash-free dry weight (AFDW) and nitrogen (N) contents were measured in arms of six species of brittle-stars from the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak. Differences between species were found, with highest concentrations of AFDW and N in Amphiura filiformis, intermediate in A. chiajei, Ophiocomina nigra and Ophiothrix fragilis, and lowest in Ophiura ophiura and O. albida. As the infaunal suspension- and deposit-feeding brittle-stars ( Amphiura spp.) had the highest proportions of damaged arms and highest AFDW and N contents in their arms in this comparison, it is suggested that selective cropping of arms by demersal fish is the main cause of arm damage on Amphiura spp. in this area.

Sköld, Mattias; Rosenberg, Rutger

1996-06-01

183

Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

184

SALMON 2100 PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty eight salmon scientists and policy experts have joined forces in an innovative project to identify ways that, if adopted, likely would restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. ...

185

Antifreeze protein gene transfer in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Salmonids freeze to death if they come into contact with ice. Many marine fish species that inhabit icy sea waters synthesize antifreeze proteins (AFP) to protect them from freezing. Production of stable lines of freeze-resistant salmon and other species would greatly facilitate development of sea-pen aquaculture in many regions. We successfully introduced winter flounder AFP genes into Atlantic salmon. Research to date indicates stable genomic integration and low levels of expression of winter flounder AFP genes in a small number (approximately 3%) of salmon developed from microinjected eggs. Inheritance of the AFP gene by offspring (F1) from crosses between transgenic and wild-type salmon revealed that the transgenic flounders (F0) were germ-line mosaics. Low levels of AFP precursors could be detected in the blood of all these transgenic offspring (F1). Approximately 50% of the progeny produced by crosses between transgenic F1 and wild-types contained the AFP genes. These results demonstrate that stable germ-line transformed Atlantic salmon can be produced. PMID:1308821

Hew, C L; Davies, P L; Fletcher, G

1992-01-01

186

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products. Version 1 of its infrastructure upgrade was launched in April 2008 and is now well underway to include all 40 data centres at V1 level. It comprises the network of 40 interconnected data centres (NODCs) and a central SeaDataNet portal. V1 provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, that are managed at these data centres. The SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure comprises the following middleware services: • Discovery services = Metadata directories and User interfaces • Vocabulary services = Common vocabularies and Governance • Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting • Delivery services = Requesting and Downloading of data sets • Viewing services = Mapping of metadata • Monitoring services = Statistics on system usage and performance and Registration of data requests and transactions • Maintenance services = Entry and updating of metadata by data centres Also good progress is being made with extending the SeaDataNet infrastructure with V2 services: • Viewing services = Quick views and Visualisation of data and data products • Product services = Generic and standard products • Exchange services = transformation of SeaDataNet portal CDI output to INSPIRE compliance As a basis for the V1 services, common standards have been defined for metadata and data formats, common vocabularies, quality flags, and quality control methods, based on international standards, such as ISO 19115, OGC, NetCDF (CF), ODV, best practices from IOC and ICES, and following INSPIRE developments. An important objective of the SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 metadata service provides the link between discovery and delivery of data sets. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

2010-05-01

187

The influence of ocean acidification on nitrogen regeneration and nitrous oxide production in the North-West European shelf sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assimilation and regeneration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the concentration of N2O, was investigated at stations located in the NW European shelf sea during June/July 2011. These observational measurements within the photic zone demonstrated the simultaneous regeneration and assimilation of NH4+, NO2- and NO3-. NH4+ was assimilated at 1.82-49.12 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 3.46-14.60 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO2- was assimilated at 0-2.08 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.01-1.85 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO3- was assimilated at 0.67-18.75 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.05-28.97 nmol N L-1 h-1. Observations implied that these processes were closely coupled at the regional scale and nitrogen recycling played an important role in sustaining phytoplankton growth during the summer. The [N2O], measured in water column profiles, was 10.13 ± 1.11 nmol L-1 and did not strongly diverge from atmospheric equilibrium indicating that sampled marine regions where neither a strong source nor sink of N2O to the atmosphere. Multivariate analysis of data describing water column biogeochemistry and its links to N-cycling activity failed to explain the observed variance in rates of N-regeneration and N-assimilation, possibly due to the limited number of process rate observations. In the surface waters of 5 further stations, Ocean Acidification (OA) bioassay experiments were conducted to investigate the response of NH4+ oxidising and regenerating organisms to simulated OA conditions, including the implications for [N2O]. Multivariate analysis was undertaken which considered the complete bioassay dataset of measured variables describing changes in N-regeneration rate, [N2O] and the biogeochemical composition of seawater. While anticipating biogeochemical differences between locations, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism through which pelagic N-regeneration responded to simulated OA conditions was independent of location and that a mechanistic understanding of how NH4+ oxidation, NH4+ regeneration and N2O production responded to OA could be developed. Results indicated that N-regeneration process responses to OA treatments were location specific; no mechanistic understanding of how N-regeneration processes respond to OA in the surface ocean of the NW European shelf sea could be developed.

Clark, D. R.; Brown, I. J.; Rees, A. P.; Somerfield, P. J.; Miller, P. I.

2014-02-01

188

The influence of ocean acidification on nitrogen regeneration and nitrous oxide production in the northwest European shelf sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assimilation and regeneration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the concentration of N2O, was investigated at stations located in the NW European shelf sea during June/July 2011. These observational measurements within the photic zone demonstrated the simultaneous regeneration and assimilation of NH4+, NO2- and NO3-. NH4+ was assimilated at 1.82-49.12 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 3.46-14.60 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO2- was assimilated at 0-2.08 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.01-1.85 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO3- was assimilated at 0.67-18.75 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.05-28.97 nmol N L-1 h-1. Observations implied that these processes were closely coupled at the regional scale and that nitrogen recycling played an important role in sustaining phytoplankton growth during the summer. The [N2O], measured in water column profiles, was 10.13 ± 1.11 nmol L-1 and did not strongly diverge from atmospheric equilibrium indicating that sampled marine regions were neither a strong source nor sink of N2O to the atmosphere. Multivariate analysis of data describing water column biogeochemistry and its links to N-cycling activity failed to explain the observed variance in rates of N-regeneration and N-assimilation, possibly due to the limited number of process rate observations. In the surface waters of five further stations, ocean acidification (OA) bioassay experiments were conducted to investigate the response of NH4+ oxidising and regenerating organisms to simulated OA conditions, including the implications for [N2O]. Multivariate analysis was undertaken which considered the complete bioassay data set of measured variables describing changes in N-regeneration rate, [N2O] and the biogeochemical composition of seawater. While anticipating biogeochemical differences between locations, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism through which pelagic N-regeneration responded to simulated OA conditions was independent of location. Our objective was to develop a mechanistic understanding of how NH4+ regeneration, NH4+ oxidation and N2O production responded to OA. Results indicated that N-regeneration process responses to OA treatments were location specific; no mechanistic understanding of how N-regeneration processes respond to OA in the surface ocean of the NW European shelf sea could be developed.

Clark, D. R.; Brown, I. J.; Rees, A. P.; Somerfield, P. J.; Miller, P. I.

2014-09-01

189

The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean Sea Level Pressure back to 1750  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability at local to regional scale is to a large extent driven by processes exerted by the atmospheric circulation. Knowledge of its past changes are therefore of great importance to understand past and current changes in temperature and precipitation on various temporal and spatial scales. However, instrumental station pressure series allowing the construction of gridded sea level pressure (SLP) reanalyses only became widely available in the early 19th century. To reconstruct SLP fields further back in time, indirect information from documentary evidences or natural proxies had hitherto to be used. However, these reconstructions usually share predictors with existing temperature and precipitation reconstructions leading to circular reasoning in dynamical studies. Recently, wind information derived from ship logbooks became available as a new, direct and marine source. After extensive pre-processing to cope with the high spatial and temporal variability in the logbook availability, we combined these series with a few very long instrumental station pressure series from Europe and the eastern United States to seasonally reconstruct larger North Atlantic and European SLP fields back to 1750. Multivariate principal component regression as well as regularized expectation maximization (RegEM) were used to highlight differences due to the reconstruction methodology applied. This new reconstruction, exclusively based on information which is direct linked to the large-scale atmospheric circulation, has clearly higher skill than existing SLP reconstructions during winter and over the southern North Atlantic. This allows a more adequate representation of the Azores High and with more ship log information and instrumental pressure series becoming available from the north it is expected that the strength and location of the Icelandic Low can also be better resolved. This SLP field reconstruction, completely independent to temperature and precipitation reconstructions can then be used for e.g. dynamical studies relating past and current climate changes in the North Atlantic European realm to the large-scale circulation.

Küttel, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Wanner, H.

2008-12-01

190

Differences in risks and consequences of salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer), infestation on sympatric populations of Atlantic salmon, brown trout, and Arctic charr within northern fjords  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation on sympatric populations of fjord-migrating, Atlantic salmon post- smolts (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta) (sea trout), and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) were studied in three fjords with fish- farming activity in northern Norway during the period June-August 2000. Atlantic salmon post-smolts were only captured in the fjords during late June and early

P. A. Bjorn; B. Finstad; R. Kristoffersen; R. S. McKinley; A. H. Rikardsen

2006-01-01

191

Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in European Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind resources, but since installing and operating a meteorological mast in situ is expensive, prospective sites must be carefully evaluated. Accordingly, one can conceptualize the wind resource assessment process as a two-phase activity: ( i) an evaluation of wind resources at the regional scale to locate promising wind farm sites and ( ii) a site specific evaluation of wind climatology and vertical profiles of wind and atmospheric turbulence, in addition to an assessment of historical and possibly future changes due to climate non-stationarity. Phase ( i) of the process can involve use of in situ observations of opportunity derived from ships, lighthouses and buoys in conjunction with model tools and remote sensing products. The reliability of such data sources has been extensively investigated in different national and European projects especially in Northern Europe, and the results are summarized herein. Phase ( ii) of the project often still requires in situ observations (which may or may not be supplemented with ground-based remote sensing technologies) and application of tools to provide a climatological context for the resulting measurements. Current methodologies for undertaking these aspects of the resource assessment are reviewed.

Sempreviva, A. M.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

2008-12-01

192

Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments. PMID:24788771

Pham, Christopher K; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Alt, Claudia H S; Amaro, Teresa; Bergmann, Melanie; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Davies, Jaime; Duineveld, Gerard; Galgani, François; Howell, Kerry L; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Isidro, Eduardo; Jones, Daniel O B; Lastras, Galderic; Morato, Telmo; Gomes-Pereira, José Nuno; Purser, Autun; Stewart, Heather; Tojeira, Inês; Tubau, Xavier; Van Rooij, David; Tyler, Paul A

2014-01-01

193

Feeding habits of European pilchard late larvae in a nursery area in the Adriatic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European pilchard Sardina pilchardus late larvae were collected in the Gulf of Manfredonia, an important nursery area, during their seasonal inshore occurrence. Thanks to diel cycle sampling and to the wide range of larval lengths (from a minimum of 27 mm to a maximum of 45 mm), both feeding rhythm and ontogenetic changes were analysed. The feeding peak was observed in the afternoon, before sunset. Sardine larvae were exclusively zooplanktivorous, their diet being based on Calanoid Copepods from the genus Paracalanus (IRI% = 65.7), on the species Temora longicornis (IRI% = 15.5) and other small-sized Copepods. Other planktonic organisms appeared in the stomach contents occasionally and never reached IRI% values > 1. The number of prey per stomach increased suddenly at larval lengths around 40 mm, corresponding to the development of the stomach. Prey composition in the environment was established by contemporaneous sampling of plankton, performed by means of two plankton nets with different meshes. The main prey items were positively selected among those available in the field, but some other prey (Centropages spp., Harpacticoids, Corycaeids, Temora stylifera and Acartia spp.) were also preferred, although rare in the plankton samples. In contrast, copepod nauplii, despite their abundance in the environment (15,848 ± 4441 individuals m- 3), were only occasionally recovered in the larval gut contents (N = 0.26%). This shows that sardine late larvae have switched to larger prey items.

Borme, Diego; Tirelli, Valentina; Palomera, Isabel

2013-04-01

194

Relationships among Traits of Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Performance in Individual European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax  

PubMed Central

Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits. PMID:24019879

Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S.; Domenici, Paolo; Claireaux, Guy; McKenzie, David J.

2013-01-01

195

Chemical residues and biochemical responses in wild and cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)  

SciTech Connect

Cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Arade Estuary were sampled in summer and winter and the degree of exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) assessed, together with some biochemical responses against those and other pollutants. The highest levels of copper (up to 997 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and cadmium (up to 4.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) were detected in the liver and kidney of cultured specimens, whereas the highest exposure to PAHs was observed in wild fish. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were detected and associated to pollutant exposure. Thus, metallothionein concentrations were higher in the tissues of cultured fish and positively correlated with metal residues. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 28 pmol/min/mg protein in cultured fish to 83 pmol/min/mg protein in wild fish collected near a marina area. Cultured fish and wild fish from the marina area had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue and a parasitic infection in the gonads. The obtained results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in both wild and cultured fish.

Fernandes, Denise [C.I.M.A., University of Algarve, F.C.M.A., Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139-Faro (Portugal); Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es; Bebianno, Maria Joao [C.I.M.A., University of Algarve, F.C.M.A., Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139-Faro (Portugal)

2007-02-15

196

Genetic Inactivation of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Eggs Using UV-Irradiation: Observations and Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Androgenesis is a form of uniparental reproduction leading to progenies inheriting only the paternal set of chromosomes. It has been achieved with variable success in a number of freshwater species and can be attained by artificial fertilization of genetically inactivated eggs following exposure to gamma (?), X-ray or UV irradiation (haploid androgenesis) and by restoration of diploidy by suppression of mitosis using a pressure or thermal shock. The conditions for the genetic inactivation of the maternal genome in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were explored using different combinations of UV irradiation levels and durations. UV treatments significantly affected embryo survival and generated a wide range of developmental abnormalities. Despite the wide range of UV doses tested (from 7.2 to 720 mJ.cm?2), only one dose (60 mJ.cm?2.min?1 with 1 min irradiation) resulted in a small percentage (14%) of haploid larvae at hatching in the initial trials as verified by flow cytometry. Microsatellite marker analyses of three further batches of larvae produced by using this UV treatment showed a majority of larvae with variable levels of paternal and maternal contributions and only one larva displaying pure paternal inheritance. The results are discussed also in the context of an assessment of the UV-absorbance characteristics of egg extracts in this species that revealed the presence of gadusol, a compound structurally related to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) with known UV-screening properties. PMID:25329931

Colleter, Julie; Penman, David J.; Lallement, Stephane; Fauvel, Christian; Hanebrekke, Tanja; Osvik, Renate D.; Eilertsen, Hans C.; D'Cotta, Helena; Chatain, Beatrice; Peruzzi, Stefano

2014-01-01

197

Carbon cycling and phytoplankton responses within highly-replicated shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European Shelf Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which in part likely reflects inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series of highly replicated (n = 8), short term (2-4 days) multi-level (? 4 conditions) carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically different experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterized by a suppression of net growth for small sized cells (< 10 ?m), were observed in the majority of the experiments, irrespective of nutrient status. Remaining between-experiment variability was potentially linked to initial community structure and/or other site-specific environmental factors. Analysis of carbon cycling within the experiments revealed the expected increased sensitivity of carbonate chemistry to biological processes at higher pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasize how biological-chemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

Richier, S.; Achterberg, E. P.; Dumousseaud, C.; Poulton, A. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Tyrrell, T.; Zubkov, M. V.; Moore, C. M.

2014-03-01

198

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

assessments for lower Columbia River chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmon, steelhead, bull trout.0 WASHOUGAL RIVER SUBBASIN 16.0 WIND RIVER SUBBASIN 17.0 LITTLE WHITE SALMON SUBBASIN 18.0 COLUMBIA GORGELOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD RECOVERY AND SUBBASIN PLAN Technical Foundation Volume II

199

@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

200

Conservation genomics of Atlantic salmon: SNPs associated with QTLs for adaptive traits in parr from four trans-Atlantic backcrosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) differ in skin pigmentation and shape from the North American lineage of Atlantic salmon but the genetic basis of these differences are poorly understood. We created four large (N=300) backcross families by crossing F1 hybrid male siblings to two females from the European and two from the North American aquacultural strains. We recorded 15 morphological

E G Boulding; M Culling; B Glebe; P R Berg; S Lien; T Moen

2008-01-01

201

Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD\\/Fs, 4pg WHO-TEQ\\/g fresh weight (fw), was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic

Pirjo Isosaari; Anja Hallikainen; Hannu Kiviranta; Pekka J. Vuorinen; Raimo Parmanne; Jaana Koistinen; Terttu Vartiainen

2006-01-01

202

Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.  

PubMed

Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (P<0.05) in the very first stages after the dietary shift, but the difference in TGC between diets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, P<0.05). This work identified moderate heritabilities (0.18 to 0.46) for BW with both diets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most efficient way to increase growth on plant-based diets, meaning that, in this case, indirect selection should be more efficient than direct selection. PMID:23100583

Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

2013-01-01

203

Phytoplankton responses and associated carbon cycling during shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which may reflect community/environment-specific responses or inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series (n = 8) of short-term (2-4 days) multi-level (?4 conditions) carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically separated experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterised by a suppression of net growth for small-sized cells (<10 ?m), were observed in the majority of the experiments, irrespective of natural or manipulated nutrient status. Remaining between-experiment variability was potentially linked to initial community structure and/or other site-specific environmental factors. Analysis of carbon cycling within the experiments revealed the expected increased sensitivity of carbonate chemistry to biological processes at higher pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasise how biogeochemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

Richier, S.; Achterberg, E. P.; Dumousseaud, C.; Poulton, A. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Tyrrell, T.; Zubkov, M. V.; Moore, C. M.

2014-09-01

204

The salmon-forest.  

E-print Network

??Cross-habitat subsidies of nutrients and prey can structure community processes in receiving ecosystems. Every autumn throughout the northern Pacific region, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) return… (more)

Hocking, Morgan David

2005-01-01

205

Efectos del cultivo de salmón sobre crustáceos bénticos Effects of salmon farming on benthic Crustacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scotland is the largest aquaculture producer in the European Union and utilizes almost all of its fjords for salmon culture. Recent UK policy has encouraged the movement of farm cages away from enclosed sites to areas with strong tidal flow because salmon farms are known to cause organic-enrichment of muddy substrata in areas with low tidal flow. This has resulted

J Hall-Spencer; R Bamber; Drake Circus

2007-01-01

206

Salmon in the Arctic and How They Avoid Lethal Low Temperatures  

E-print Network

Abstract: With climate change, scientists and others are interested in the future of Pacific salmon in the Arctic. Chum, pink, sockeye, coho, and chinook salmon have been encountered in the Beaufort Sea, well within Canadian Arctic waters. Chum is the only salmon species regarded as natal to the Mackenzie River watershed, although both pink and chum salmon appear to be natal to Alaska’s North Slope rivers. It is not possible to say whether apparent recent increases in the frequency of occurrence of salmonids in the Arctic is an effect of climate change, but it appears there are either increases in the survival of natal fish from the Mackenzie, or in the wandering of non-natal fish to the Mackenzie, or both. We propose three hypotheses to explain how chum salmon survive cold marine winter conditions, and thereby persist in the North American Arctic: (1) Bering Sea Refuge – young salmon migrate to the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska where they remain until they are ready to return to spawn; (2) Atlantic Layer Beaufort Refuge – salmon remain in the Beaufort Sea, wintering offshore deep under pack ice; and (3) Freshwater Beaufort Refuge – salmon remain in the Beaufort Sea region, wintering in the brackish, under-ice Mackenzie River plume or in fresh water adjacent to the Beaufort Sea. As a preliminary test of these hypotheses, we examined the strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr:Ca) of otoliths from chum salmon from the Colville (Alaska’s North Slope) and Tanana (Yukon River drainage) rivers. Yukon River chum salmon were assumed to

J. R. Irvine; R. W. Macdonald; R. J. Brown; L. Godbout; J. D. Reist; E. C. Carmack

207

Areal Distribution of Marked Columbia River Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Recovered in  

E-print Network

.S.S.R. to the Amur River, in- cluding rivers of the continental coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, east and west coastsAreal Distribution of Marked Columbia River Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Recovered in Fisheries of spring chinook salmon of the 1970 and 1971 broods. Anadyr River south along the east coast of the U

208

Evolution of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) populations in New Zealand: pattern, rate, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of

Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin

2001-01-01

209

Adaptive and Neutral Genetic Variation and Colonization History of Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

I combined neutral microsatellite markers with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIB to study genetic differentiation and colonization history in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the Baltic Sea and in the north-eastern Atlantic. Baltic salmon populations have lower levels of microsatellite genetic variation, in terms of heterozygosity and allelic richness than Atlantic populations, confirming earlier findings with other genetic

Åsa Hasselquist Langefors

2005-01-01

210

Stability of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in raw and smoked atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) during frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to establish the effect of frozen storage and smoking on the stability of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in farm raised salmon. Salmon samples were obtained from two sea farms where they had been maintained on commercial feeds containing either astaxanthin or canthaxanthin. The results showed that there was no significant change in visual colour

E. M. Sheehan; T. P. O'Connor; P. J. A. Sheehy; D. J. Buckley; R. FitzGerald

1998-01-01

211

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt August 1, 2006  

E-print Network

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt Les Hatton August 1, 2006 $Date: 2003/01/15 00:05:52 $ 1 pleasure to so many. 2 Exposition It starts quite innocently with a bottle of wine, a plate of salmon penne in a Stockholm restaurant and a copy of "The Salmon of Doubt" by Douglas Adams. Whilst eating the meal with my

Hatton, Les

212

Patterns of co-variability among California Current chinook salmon, coho salmon, Dungeness crab, and physical oceanographic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary motivations for the GLOBEC NEP program was the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon populations in the Gulf of Alaska since the mid-1970s and concurrent declines in salmon populations in the California Current. The increase in abundance of some salmon species in the Gulf of Alaska can be plausibly explained based on mechanisms involving changes in physical structure, biological productivity, and salmon survival. To assess concurrent changes in salmon populations in the California Current and their possible physical and biological bases we examined temporal and spatial patterns of co-variability between biological variables and physical descriptors along the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, from 1950 to 1990. The biological variables were catch records of coho salmon, chinook salmon and an ecologically related species, Dungeness crab. The physical variables were sea surface temperature, sea surface height (SSH) and the upwelling index (UWI). We found that while California Current coho salmon declined uniformly in the mid-1970s, consistent with the proposed inverse relationship, chinook salmon did not. All three species appear to be driven by the dominant mode of co-variability in the three physical variables, an indicator of warm/cool water conditions, but in different ways. In general, warm conditions have a negative effect on salmon at the age of ocean entry and spawning return, and Dungeness crab during the larval stage, while cool conditions have a positive effect. Differences in spatio-temporal variability between the two salmon species suggest they may respond to ocean conditions differently: coho salmon vary synchronously along the coast on annual time scales, while chinook salmon vary on slightly longer time scales in a specific spatial pattern. Dungeness crab vary on 10-year time scales, synchronously along the coast, except for the most southern areas (central California) where populations collapsed in the late 1950s. The dominant, warm/cool mode of physical co-variability, which drives these populations regionally, is related to basin-scale indices; it appeared to follow these indices in the 1950s and 1975-1990, but differs from them1960-1975, in ways that may be biologically important.

Botsford, L. W.; Lawrence, C. A.

213

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

assessments for lower Columbia River chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmon, steelhead, bull troutLOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD RECOVERY AND SUBBASIN PLAN Technical Foundation Volume VI for Recovery and Subbasin Planning prepared under direction of the Washington Lower Columbia River Fish

214

Saving the Salmon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

Sprangers, Donald

2004-01-01

215

Sea Surface Temperature for Climate Applications: A New Dataset from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many datasets describing the evolution of global sea surface temperature (SST) over recent decades -- so why make another one? Answer: to provide observations of SST that have particular qualities relevant to climate applications: independence, accuracy and stability. This has been done within the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initative (CCI) project on SST. Independence refers to the fact that the new SST CCI dataset is not derived from or tuned to in situ observations. This matters for climate because the in situ observing network used to assess marine climate change (1) was not designed to monitor small changes over decadal timescales, and (2) has evolved significantly in its technology and mix of types of observation, even during the past 40 years. The potential for significant artefacts in our picture of global ocean surface warming is clear. Only by having an independent record can we confirm (or refute) that the work done to remove biases/trend artefacts in in-situ datasets has been successful. Accuracy is the degree to which SSTs are unbiased. For climate applications, a common accuracy target is 0.1 K for all regions of the ocean. Stability is the degree to which the bias, if any, in a dataset is constant over time. Long-term instability introduces trend artefacts. To observe trends of the magnitude of 'global warming', SST datasets need to be stable to <5 mK/year. The SST CCI project has produced a satellite-based dataset that addresses these characteristics relevant to climate applications. Satellite radiances (brightness temperatures) have been harmonised exploiting periods of overlapping observations between sensors. Less well-characterised sensors have had their calibration tuned to that of better characterised sensors (at radiance level). Non-conventional retrieval methods (optimal estimation) have been employed to reduce regional biases to the 0.1 K level, a target violated in most satellite SST datasets. Models for quantifying uncertainty have been developed to attach uncertainty to SST across a range of space-time scales. The stability of the data has been validated.

Merchant, C. J.; Hulley, G. C.

2013-12-01

216

Physiological mechanisms underlying individual variation in tolerance of food deprivation in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

Although food deprivation is a major ecological pressure in fishes, there is wide individual variation in tolerance of fasting, whose mechanistic bases are poorly understood. Two thousand individually tagged juvenile European sea bass were submitted to two 'fasting/feeding' cycles each comprising 3 weeks of food deprivation followed by 3 weeks of ad libitum feeding at 25°C. Rates of mass loss during the two fasting periods were averaged for each individual to calculate a population mean. Extreme fasting tolerant (FT) and sensitive (FS) phenotypes were identified that were at least one and a half standard deviations, on opposing sides, from this mean. Respirometry was used to investigate two main hypotheses: (1) tolerance of food deprivation reflects lower mass-corrected routine metabolic rate (RMR) in FT phenotypes when fasting, and (2) tolerance reflects differences in substrate utilisation; FT phenotypes use relatively less proteins as metabolic fuels during fasting, measured as their ammonia quotient (AQ), the simultaneous ratio of ammonia excretion to RMR. There was no difference in mean RMR between FT and FS over 7 days fasting, being 6.70±0.24 mmol h(-1) fish(-1) (mean ± s.e.m., N=18) versus 6.76±0.22 mmol h(-1) fish(-1) (N=17), respectively, when corrected to a body mass of 130 g. For any given RMR, however, the FT lost mass at a significantly lower rate than FS, overall 7-day average being 0.72±0.05 versus 0.90±0.05 g day(-1) fish(-1), respectively (P<0.01, t-test). At 20 h after receiving a ration equivalent to 2% body mass as food pellets, ammonia excretion and simultaneous RMR were elevated and similar in FT and FS, with AQs of 0.105±0.009 and 0.089±0.007, respectively. At the end of the period of fasting, ammonia excretion and RMR had fallen in both phenotypes, but AQ was significantly lower in FT than FS, being 0.038±0.004 versus 0.061±0.005, respectively (P<0.001, t-test). There was a direct linear relationship between individual fasted AQ and rate of mass loss, with FT and FS individuals distributed at opposing lower and upper extremities, respectively. Thus the difference between the phenotypes in their tolerance of food deprivation did not depend upon their routine energy use when fasting. Rather, it depended upon their relative use of tissue proteins as metabolic fuels when fasting, which was significantly lower in FT phenotypes. PMID:25232198

McKenzie, David J; Vergnet, Alain; Chatain, Béatrice; Vandeputte, Marc; Desmarais, Erick; Steffensen, John F; Guinand, Bruno

2014-09-15

217

Saving the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Students participate in the Salmon in the Schools Program, sponsored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine. Through this collaborative effort, students raise 300 river-specific, wild Atlantic salmon and then release them into the East Machias River at the culminating annual Salmon Release Day Field Trip. In addition to releasing salmon fry into the headwaters of the river, students perform physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the river.

Sprangers, Donald

2004-05-01

218

The southern margin of the East European Craton: new results from seismic sounding and potential fields between the North Sea and Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of eastern Avalonia from Britain through the NE German Basin into Poland is, in some sense, a virtual structure. It is covered almost everywhere by late Paleozoic and younger sediments. Evidence for this terrane is only gathered from geophysical data and age information derived from magmatic rocks. During the last two decades, much geophysical and geological information has been gathered since the European Geotraverse (EGT), which was followed by the BABEL, LT-7, MONA LISA, DEKORP-Basin'96, and POLONAISE'97 deep seismic experiments. Based on seismic lines, a remarkable feature has been observed between the North Sea and Poland: north of the Elbe Line (EL), the lower crust is characterised by high velocities (6.8-7.0 km/s), a feature which seems to be characteristic for at least a major part of eastern Avalonia (far eastern Avalonia). In addition, the seismic lines indicate that a wedge of the East European Craton (EEC) (or Baltica) continues to the south below the southern Permian Basin (SPB)—a structure which resembles a passive continental margin. The observed pattern may either indicate an extension of the Baltic crust much farther south than earlier expected or oceanic crust of the Tornquist Sea trapped during the Caledonian collision. In either case, the data require a reinterpretation of the docking mechanism of eastern Avalonia, and the Elbe-Odra Line (EOL), as well as the Elbe Fault system, together with the Intra-Sudedic Faults, appear to be related to major changes in the deeper crustal structures separating the East European crust from the Paleozoic agglomeration of Middle European terranes.

Bayer, U.; Grad, M.; Pharaoh, T. C.; Thybo, H.; Guterch, A.; Banka, D.; Lamarche, J.; Lassen, A.; Lewerenz, B.; Scheck, M.; Marotta, A.-M.

2002-12-01

219

Cytokine expression in head-kidney leucocytes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) after incubation with the probiotic Vagococcus fluvialis L-21.  

PubMed

The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is one of the most extensively farmed marine fish in the Mediterranean sea. Under the high-density condition, common in aquaculture, the infectious diseases can cause significant economic losses. Probiotics are presented as an alternative to antibiotics for the control of aquaculture diseases. This study used real-time PCR to investigate in vitro the dynamic of expression of immune-related genes in sea bass after incubation with live and inactivated (heat and Uv-light) probiotic Vagoccus fluvialis L-21 at different times (T1, T12, T24, T48). The immune associated genes, interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), TumourTumour necrosis factor- (TNF-), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Mx were studied in head-kidney (HK) leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the probiotic strain. Transcript of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-, COX-2) was highly up-regulated after 1 h of incubation with the probiotic strain V. fluvialis L-21. We found statistically significant difference in pick of expression of TNF-, after 1 h of incubation with Uv-light inactivated probiotic strain. The COX-2 expression was highly up-regulated at all times studied, with the exception of 12 and 24 h post incubation for the Uv-light inactivated bacteria. Transcript of IL-10 and Casp-3 showed the higher statistically significant differences of expression after 48 h post incubation with live bacteria. In the contrast, sea bass HK leucocytes expressed Mx at 12 and 48 h without statistically differences among treatments. Our results suggest that V. fluvialis L-21 is able to stimulate in vitro some immune-related genes associated with the early inflammatory response. Future studies in vivo are necessary to clarify this process in sea bass. PMID:23927874

Román, L; Real, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Déniz, S; Grasso, V; Acosta, F

2013-10-01

220

The domestic effects of EU cohesion policy in Greece: islands of Europeanization in a sea of traditional practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution considers whether European Union (EU) cohesion policy has contributed to the development of a more compound polity in Greece and, specifically, considers the extent to which there is a process of Europeanization characterized by emergent features of multi?level governance. After providing a brief background on the nature of domestic governance and politics, it reviews the development of cohesion

George Andreou

2010-01-01

221

Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Grilse Proportion of Atlantic Salmon in Norwegian Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the sea age at maturity of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar was studied in 158 Norwegian rivers over large spatial (58–71°N; 5–30°E) and temporal (1983–2000) scales. Age at sexual maturity was expressed as the proportion of grilse (fish with one sea winter) in the nominal salmon catch. No general temporal trend was found in the proportion of grilse in

J. H. LAbée-Lund; L. A. Vøllestad; S. Beldring

2004-01-01

222

Cooking with Canned Salmon  

E-print Network

1 /2 cup chopped onion 1 teaspoon lemon juice How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Drain the canned salmon, keeping 1 /4 cup of liquid. 3. Remove any skin and bones... that might be in the canned salmon. 4. Mix the salmon, liquid, soup, bread crumbs, eggs, onion and lemon juice. 5. Press the mixture into a greased 9- by 5-inch loaf pan. 6. Bake at 375 degrees F for about 1 hour. Cool it for 10 minutes before removing...

Anding, Jenna

2001-09-10

223

Salmon and trout farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salmon and trout farming industries are relatively new, expanding industries in the UK. Describes their current status and looks to the future by examining areas where progress is currently being made or where problems exist.

Lindsay Laird

1997-01-01

224

Physiological mechanism of homing migration in Pacific salmon from behavioral to molecular biological approaches.  

PubMed

The amazing abilities of Pacific salmon to migrate long distances from the ocean to their natal streams for spawning have been investigated intensively since 1950's, but there are still many mysteries because of difficulties to follow their whole life cycle and to wait their sole reproductive timing for several years. In my laboratory, we have tried to clarify physiological mechanisms of homing migration in Pacific salmon, using four anadromous Pacific salmon (pink, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha; chum, Oncorhynchus keta; sockeye, Oncorhynchus nerka; masu, Oncorhynchus masou) in the north Pacific Ocean as well as two lacustrine salmon (sockeye and masu) in Lake Toya and Lake Shikotsu, Hokkaido, Japan, where the lakes serve as a model "ocean". Three different approaches from behavioral to molecular biological researches have been conducted using these model fish. First, the homing behaviors of adult chum salmon from the Bering Sea to Hokkaido as well as lacustrine sockeye and masu salmon in Lake Toya were examined by means of physiological biotelemetry techniques, and revealed that salmon can navigate in open water using different sensory systems. Second, the hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis were investigated in chum salmon and lacustrine sockeye salmon during their homing migration by means of hormone specific time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) systems, and clarified that salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) plays leading roles on homing migration. Third, the olfactory functions of salmon were studied by means of electrophysiological, behavioral, and molecular biological techniques, and made clear that olfactory discriminating ability of natal stream odors. These results have discussed with the evolutional aspects of four Pacific salmon, sexual differences in homing profiles, and the possibility of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) as natal stream odors for salmon. PMID:20144612

Ueda, Hiroshi

2011-01-15

225

Pink salmon..........................................................................................................44  

E-print Network

Chinook salmon review by W. R. Heard Worksheet A – New species-specific habitat information since the EFH EIS 1. Published reports New publications related to Chinook salmon EFH-EIS not in earlier cited references. Ford, J.K.B., and G. M. Ellis.2005. Prey selection and food sharing by fish-eating “resident ’ killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia. Can.Sci. Advisory Secretariat. Res. Doc.2005/041. Fisheries

Coho Salmon; Sockeye Salmon

226

Estimating Coho Salmon Rearing Habitat and Smolt Production Losses in a Large River Basin, and Implications for Habitat Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a habitat restoration strategy for the 8,270-km Skagit River basin, we estimated changes in smolt production of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch since European settlement began in the basin, based on changes in summer and winter rearing habitat areas. We assessed changes in coho salmon smolt production by habitat type and by cause of habitat alteration. We estimated that

T. Beechie; E. Beamer; L. Wasserman

1994-01-01

227

PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

228

Pharmacokinetics and transcriptional effects of the anti-salmon lice drug emamectin benzoate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Emamectin benzoate (EB) is a dominating pharmaceutical drug used for the treatment and control of infections by sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Fish with an initial mean weight of 132 g were experimentally medicated by a standard seven-day EB treatment, and the concentrations of drug in liver, muscle and skin were examined. To investigate

Pål A Olsvik; Kai K Lie; Eva Mykkeltvedt; Ole B Samuelsen; Kjell Petersen; Anne-Kristin Stavrum; Bjørn T Lunestad

2008-01-01

229

Ocean Carrying Capacity : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 6 of 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival

Lichatowich

1993-01-01

230

Abundance, Stock Origin, and Length of Marked and Unmarked Juvenile Chinook Salmon in the Surface Waters of Greater Puget Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery)

Casimir A. Rice; Correigh M. Greene; Paul Moran; David J. Teel; David R. Kuligowski; Reginald R. Reisenbichler; Eric M. Beamer; James R. Karr; Kurt L. Fresh

2011-01-01

231

First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line, characteristics which make it distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates from Europe and North America. Conclusion In conclusion, the present work constitutes the first report of a case of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. The clinical signs and lesions are consistent with the classical descriptions of the disease in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. The outbreak was caused by ISAV of European genotype (or Genotype I) of HPR 7b but distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates. PMID:18680586

Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendaño, Fernando; Imilán, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB

2008-01-01

232

Biochemical Responses of European Sea Bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) to the Stress Induced by Off Shore Experimental Seismic Prospecting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the results of an experimental seismic survey in the open sea by an air gun, carried out to evaluate the effects of air gun acoustic waves on marine animals. Air gun blast exposition was found to have a marked influence on confined Dicentrarchus labrax. Our data, in fact, demonstrated a biochemical response to acoustic stress induced by

A Santulli; A Modica; C Messina; L Ceffa; A Curatolo; G Rivas; G Fabi; V D’Amelio

1999-01-01

233

VOLUNTEER-BASED SALMON RIVER  

E-print Network

VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS Institute Environment Canada VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS STREAM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH #12;Volunteer-Based Monitoring Program for the Salmon River

234

a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^-'^ "^  

E-print Network

Take a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^·-'^ "^ #12;\\ V 4- #12;balmon has been nourishing the human race of the easy-to-store, easy-to- use can are two good reasons for cooking and serving salmon frequently. But there are even better reasons. The protein in salmon is a complete protein, in the same food group as meat

235

Cyclic Fluctuations in Chum Salmon Abundance along the Pacific Coast of Hokkaido, Japan  

E-print Network

Some chum salmon stocks are known to exhibit a two-year cyclic variation in their biological parameters, such as age at maturity, size, marine survival, and abundance (Salo 1991). Previous studies suggest that this variation appears to be associated with pink salmon, which have a prominent two-year cyclic pattern of abundance (Salo 1991; Ruggerone and Nielsen 2004). On the Pacific coasts of Hokkaido (East Pacific, EP; West Pacific, WP) abundance of adult chum salmon, calculated on the basis of coastal and river catches, shows odd- and even-year fluctuations after the 1998 brood year. A similar fluctuation is also observed in chum salmon caught in the southern region of the Sea of Okhotsk, adjacent to the Nemuro Strait (Nemuro, NE). The objective of this study was to explain a possible mechanism causing the cyclic pattern of returning adult chum salmon. Of 48 chum salmon river-stocks along the Sea of Okhotsk and Pacific coasts of Hokkaido, 11 stocks from the Pacific coast illustrate cyclic fluctuations in abundance for brood-years 1998-2004. Only one stock from the Sea of Okhotsk exhibit these cyclic fluctuations. Findings demonstrated that a few stocks from rivers on the Pacific coast cause the cyclic patterns in brood-year abundance in the NE, EP, and WP regions. In general, mass mortality of chum salmon occurs during early marine residence and frequently affects the brood-year abundance of returning adult salmon (Saito and Nagasawa 2009; Saito et al. 2011). The mass mortality is believed to be associated with biological interactions, like predation (Duffy and Beauchamp 2008), and oceanic conditions (Saito et al. 2011). In this study, effects of Asian pink salmon and sea surface temperature

Toshihiko Saito; Kyuji Watanabe; Kei Sasaki; Shigeto Kogarumai; Shoko H. Morita

236

Atlantic Salmon Federation  

E-print Network

As a result of pressures in both freshwater and marine environments, the number of wild Atlantic salmon returning to North American river’s declined from 1.5 million in 1975 to 350,000 in 2000. The situation is particularly acute in Canada’s Bay of Fundy and Downeast Maine, where many of the populations now number fewer than 100 adult fish. Aquaculture, once thought to be the saving grace of declining salmon populations, is now accused of being a significant threat to the restoration of wild salmon stocks in eastern North America. The industry’s exponential growth has resulted in a dense array of coastal farms many of which are in close proximity to the wild salmon rivers. The growing pains of this relatively young industry have included large, documented escapes and disease outbreaks. Given the current vulnerable state of the wild salmon stocks, the potential risk of genetic dilution and disease transmission from farmed fish is a serious concern to the regulators and environmental community. Today competing mandates between governmental agencies and friction between the federal In the past 20 years aquaculture has grown expo-and local jurisdictions are clouding proper regunentially in Canada’s Bay of Fundy and Downeast

unknown authors

237

Is it possible to influence European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) juvenile metabolism by a nutritional conditioning during larval stage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to check if it is possible to influence sea bass juvenile metabolism by a conditioning of larvae from day 6 post hatching to day 45 to a low or a high HUFA compound diet (LH, 0.8% EPA+DHA and HH, 2.2% EPA+DHA) when reared at 16 or 22 °C. Following a 3-month intermediate period (at 19 °C

M. Vagner; J. L. Zambonino Infante; J. H. Robin; J. Person-Le Ruyet

2007-01-01

238

Impact of amoeba and scuticociliatidia infections on the aquaculture European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) in Portugal.  

PubMed

In this work, a survey of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for amoebae and scuticociliatidia infections was carried out to evaluate their effects on the aquaculture of this fish species. The study was conducted in two different fish farms, one using seawater and the other brackish water. Infection with parasitic amoebae was found to be fairly high (prevalence: 43-73%), being more frequent in sea bass from the brackish water system. Although it was never found to cause outbreaks of disease or mortality in the surveyed fish, amoebic gill disease (AGD) histopathological signs, i.e., hyperplasia, secondary lamellae fusion and cavity formation (interlamellar vesicles), were observed in fish manifesting no macroscopic lesions. Furthermore, some evidence was found that amoebae affects the fish's general state of health and growth rate. These results indicate that cautious and detailed surveys to detect this sort of infection, and thus carefully plan its control, are fully justified. Compared with amoebic infection, the prevalence of scuticociliatosis was found to be low (7-13%). No outbreaks of disease or mortality were ever recorded, even when scuticociliatidia was present in turbot raised in the same water system, leading to serious outbreaks of disease and mortalities in that species. This suggests that sea bass is far more resistant than turbot to such infections, and if this is the case, the former fish may be a good farming alternative when scuticociliatidia is present. PMID:20371152

Santos, Maria João; Cavaleiro, Francisca; Campos, Pamela; Sousa, André; Teixeira, Filipa; Martins, Marta

2010-07-15

239

77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BA80 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch...Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY...pertaining to Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook [[Page...

2012-03-09

240

Developmental expression of DAX1 in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: lack of evidence for sexual dimorphism during sex differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background DAX1 (NR0B1), a member of the nuclear receptors super family, has been shown to be involved in the genetic sex determination and in gonadal differentiation in several vertebrate species. In the aquaculture fish European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and in the generality of fish species, the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation have not been elucidated. The present study aimed at characterizing the European DAX1 gene and its developmental expression at the mRNA level. Methods A full length European sea bass DAX1 cDNA (sbDAX1) was isolated by screening a testis cDNA library. The structure of the DAX1 gene was determined by PCR and Southern blot. Multisequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis were used to compare the translated sbDAX1 product to that of other vertebrates. sbDAX1 expression was analysed by Northern blot and relative RT-PCR in adult tissues. Developmental expression of mRNA levels was analysed in groups of larvae grown either at 15°C or 20°C (masculinising temperature) during the first 60 days, or two groups of fish selected for fast (mostly females) and slow growth. Results The sbDAX1 is expressed as a single transcript in testis and ovary encoding a predicted protein of 301 amino acids. A polyglutamine stretch of variable length in different DAX1 proteins is present in the DNA binding domain. The sbDAX1 gene is composed of two exons, separated by a single 283 bp intron with conserved splice sites in same region of the ligand binding domain as other DAX1 genes. sbDAX1 mRNA is not restricted to the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis and is also detected in the gut, heart, gills, muscle and kidney. sbDAX1 mRNA was detected as early as 4 days post hatching (dph) and expression was not affected by incubation temperature. Throughout gonadal sex differentiation (60–300 dph) no dimorphic pattern of expression was observed. Conclusion The sbDAX1 gene and putative protein coding region is highly conserved and has a wide pattern of tissue expression. Although gene expression data suggests sbDAX1 to be important for the development and differentiation of the gonads, it is apparently not sex specific. PMID:17537257

Martins, Rute ST; Deloffre, Laurence AM; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Power, Deborah M; Canario, Adelino VM

2007-01-01

241

Societal need for improved understanding of climate change, anthropogenic impacts, and geo-hazard warning drive development of ocean observatories in European Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society’s needs for a network of in situ ocean observing systems cross many areas of earth and marine science. Here we review the science themes that benefit from data supplied from ocean observatories. Understanding from existing studies is fragmented to the extent that it lacks the coherent long-term monitoring needed to address questions at the scales essential to understand climate change and improve geo-hazard early warning. Data sets from the deep sea are particularly rare with long-term data available from only a few locations worldwide. These science areas have impacts on societal health and well-being and our awareness of ocean function in a shifting climate. Substantial efforts are underway to realise a network of open-ocean observatories around European Seas that will operate over multiple decades. Some systems are already collecting high-resolution data from surface, water column, seafloor, and sub-seafloor sensors linked to shore by satellite or cable connection in real or near-real time, along with samples and other data collected in a delayed mode. We expect that such observatories will contribute to answering major ocean science questions including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, pore fluid chemistry and pressure, and gas hydrate stability improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? What aspects of physical oceanography, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystems will be most sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic change? What are natural versus anthropogenic changes? Most fundamentally, how are marine processes that occur at differing scales related? The development of ocean observatories provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Here we also describe some basic attributes of network design. Observatory networks provide the means to coordinate and integrate the collection of standardised data capable of bridging measurement scales across a dispersed area in European Seas adding needed certainty to estimates of future oceanic conditions. Observatory data can be analysed along with other data such as those from satellites, drifting floats, autonomous underwater vehicles, model analysis, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna in order to address some of the questions posed above. Standardised methods for information management are also becoming established to ensure better accessibility and traceability of these data sets and ultimately to increase their use for societal benefit. The connection of ocean observatory effort into larger frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and the Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) is integral to its success. It is in a greater integrated framework that the full potential of the component systems will be realised.

Ruhl, Henry A.; André, Michel; Beranzoli, Laura; Ça?atay, M. Namik; Colaço, Ana; Cannat, Mathilde; Dañobeitia, Juanjo J.; Favali, Paolo; Géli, Louis; Gillooly, Michael; Greinert, Jens; Hall, Per O. J.; Huber, Robert; Karstensen, Johannes; Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; Lykousis, Vasilios; Mienert, Jürgen; Miguel Miranda, J.; Person, Roland; Priede, Imants G.; Puillat, Ingrid; Thomsen, Laurenz; Waldmann, Christoph

2011-10-01

242

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead  

E-print Network

for Washington lower Columbia River salmon and steelhead: -- Plan Overview Synopsis of the planning process Species overviews and status assessments for lower Columbia River Chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmonPLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead To Healthy, Harvestable Levels Lower Columbia Fish

243

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming Expected to Climb The world production of pen- farmed salmon doubled during 1981-83. Of the 24,500 metric tons (t) of farmed salmon produced in 1983, almost 85 percent was Atlantic salmon, Sa/mo safar (Table 1). While the farming of Pacific salmon, On

244

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL  

E-print Network

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL An lnstruction Manual for Hatching Salmon and Trout Eggs in Classroom and Game Native Salmonids of California Map \\|/try Hatcheries? Activities Fish Journals Habitats of Salmon and Trout 11 Seagoing Salmon and Steelhead 12 Trout Life Cycle 13 Salmon and Steelhead Life Cycle 14 Making

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

245

Atlantic salmon show capability for cardiac acclimation to warm temperatures.  

PubMed

Increases in environmental temperature predicted to result from global warming have direct effects on performance of ectotherms. Moreover, cardiac function has been observed to limit the tolerance to high temperatures. Here we show that two wild populations of Atlantic salmon originating from northern and southern extremes of its European distribution have strikingly similar cardiac responses to acute warming when acclimated to common temperatures, despite different local environments. Although cardiac collapse starts at 21-23?°C with a maximum heart rate of ~150 beats per min (bpm) for 12?°C-acclimated fish, acclimation to 20?°C considerably raises this temperature (27.5?°C) and maximum heart rate (~200?bpm). Only minor population differences exist and these are consistent with the warmer habitat of the southern population. We demonstrate that the considerable cardiac plasticity discovered for Atlantic salmon is largely independent of natural habitat, and we propose that observed cardiac plasticity may aid salmon to cope with global warming. PMID:24957572

Anttila, Katja; Couturier, Christine S; Overli, Oyvind; Johnsen, Arild; Marthinsen, Gunnhild; Nilsson, Göran E; Farrell, Anthony P

2014-01-01

246

Growth and feeding patterns of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) early life stages in the Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to describe inter- and intra-annual variations in the environmental characteristics of the North-eastern Aegean Sea and to relate these changes to the egg and larval distributions, growth and feeding of larval anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus). Four cruises, two in July and two in September in 2003 and 2004 were performed. The distributions of eggs and larvae were associated with i) salinity fronts related to the Black Sea Water and ii) shallow areas of high productivity over the continental shelf, some of them with high riverine influence. The first published description of the anchovy larval diet in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in individuals ranging from 2.2 to 17 mm standard length. The number of non-empty guts was relatively high (between 20% and 30%), and the diet was described through 15 main items. The mean size of the prey increased with larval size, and was generally dominated by prey widths smaller than 80 ?m (mainly the nauplii and copepodite stages of copepods). Small larvae positively selected copepod nauplii. As larvae grew, they shifted to larger copepod stages. At all sizes, larvae rejected abundant taxa like cladocerans. The average trophic level calculated for anchovy of all size ranges was 2.98 ± 0.16 (SE). Growth rates varied from 0.41 to 0.75 mm d -1, with the highest growth rates generally observed in September. Variability in the Black Sea Water influence and the recorded inter- and intra-annual changes in primary and secondary production, combined with marked changes in temperature over the first 20 m depth, are used to frame the discussion regarding the observed significant differences in growth rates in terms of both length and weight.

Catalán, Ignacio A.; Folkvord, Arild; Palomera, Isabel; Quílez-Badía, Gemma; Kallianoti, Fotini; Tselepides, Anastasios; Kallianotis, Argyris

2010-01-01

247

Historical biogeography in a linear system: genetic variation of sea rocket (Cakile maritima) and sea holly (Eryngium maritimum) along European coasts.  

PubMed

The exclusively coastal Cakile maritima and Eryngium maritimum represent a linear biogeographical system. Genetic variation among 25 individuals of C. maritima and 16 individuals of E. maritimum, from the coasts of Europe, North Africa and the Canary Islands, was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Genetic distances (Dice) were calculated and used to investigate the correlation between genetic and geographical distances, to construct Neighbour Joining (NJ) trees, and to compare mean genetic distances between areas within and across species. Genetic distances and geographical distances measured along the coast are well correlated in Cakile and Eryngium. This implies that dispersal in both species is largely along the coast. The NJ analyses resulted in the recognition of Atlantic and Mediterranean clusters in both Cakile and Eryngium. The genetic distance between these two clusters is much larger in Eryngium (0. 285) than in Cakile (0.037). Mean genetic distances are substantially higher in the Mediterranean than in the Atlantic clusters in both species, and higher in Cakile than in Eryngium particularly in the Atlantic cluster. It is argued that all similarities and differences between the two species can be explained with the presumed distribution of the two species in the Würm glacial as reconstructed from their extant temperature requirements, the distribution of ice cover, permafrost, and sea surface temperatures in that period, and indirect fossil evidence. PMID:11091318

Clausing, G; Vickers, K; Kadereit, J W

2000-11-01

248

Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: The case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.)  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH) has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW) due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic status is controversial. We analysed microsatellite DNA polymorphism in nine populations from the Jutland Peninsula and the Baltic Sea, representing NSH (three populations, two of which are reintroduced) and ELW (six populations). The objectives were to: 1) analyse postglacial recolonization of whitefish in the region; 2) assess the evolutionary distinctiveness of NSH, and 3) apply several approaches for defining conservation units towards setting conservation priorities for NSH. Results Bayesian cluster analyses of genetic differentiation identified four major groups, corresponding to NSH and three groups of ELW (Western Jutland, Central Jutland, Baltic Sea). Estimates of historical migration rates indicated recolonization in a north-eastern direction, suggesting that all except the Baltic Sea population predominantly represent postglacial recolonization via the ancient Elbe River. Contemporary gene flow has not occurred between NSH and ELW, with a divergence time within the last 4,000 years suggested from coalescence methods. NSH showed interbreeding with ELW when brought into contact by stocking. Thus, reproductive isolation of NSH was not absolute, although possible interbreeding beyond the F1 level could not be resolved. Conclusion Fishes of the C. lavaretus complex in the Jutland Peninsula originate from the same recolonization event. NSH has evolved recently and its species status may be questioned due to incomplete reproductive isolation from ELW, but it was shown to merit consideration as an independent conservation unit. Yet, application of several approaches for defining conservation units generated mixed outcomes regarding its conservation priority. Within the total species complex, it remains one among many recently evolved unique forms. Its uniqueness and high conservation priority is more evident at a local geographical scale, where conservation efforts will also benefit populations of a number of other endangered species. PMID:18471278

2008-01-01

249

Administration of follicle-stimulating hormone in vivo triggers testicular recrudescence of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

Follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) is thought to act early in the process of spermatogenesis; however, its action in fish has not yet been clearly established. In the present work, we analyzed the effects of recombinant Fsh in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) spermatogenesis according to two different approaches: direct injection of recombinant single-chain Fsh hormone (scFSH) and injection of scFSH coding sequence. Both approaches were efficient in increasing plasma Fsh at 7 and 15 days, respectively, after injection. The Fsh increment caused a significant increase in plasma 11-ketotestosterone levels and induced dramatic changes at the testicular level. Fsh-treated groups showed an increase in germ cell proliferation at Day 7, and cysts of spermatocytes and spermatids were observed at the end of the experiment. After treatment with Fsh, a suppression in amh transcripts and an increase of lhr transcripts were detected at Day 7 and Day 15, respectively, and an increment in fshr expression became evident at Day 23. These results show that Fsh initiates germ cell proliferation, triggering spermatogenesis in sea bass via androgen production and regulation of spermatogenesis-related genes. PMID:24258209

Mazón, María José; Gómez, Ana; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia

2014-01-01

250

Saving Coho Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.

Kqed

2012-08-08

251

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies  

E-print Network

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies R. SALESSE, J. GARNIER, B en Josas, France Summary. Pituitary gonadotropins of female and male pacific salmon Oncorhynchus) and in salmon (Donaldson et al., 1972), although physicochemical, biological or immunological evidence for two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON,  

E-print Network

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, Oncorhynchus nerka Marine Biological #12;#12;SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPJLATION OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS

253

Pacific Salmon, Nutrients, and the Dynamics of Freshwater and Riparian Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) accumulate substantial nutrients in their bodies as they grow to adulthood at sea. These nutrients are carried to predominantly\\u000a oligotrophic lakes and streams, where they are released during and after spawning. Research over more than 3 decades has shown\\u000a that the annual deposition of salmon-borne marine-derived nutrients (MD-nutrients) is important for the productivity of freshwater\\u000a communities

Robert J. Naiman; Robert E. Bilby; Daniel E. Schindler; James M. Helfield

2002-01-01

254

17-? Estradiol and 4-nonylphenol delay smolt development and downstream migration in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 17-? estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on smoltification and downstream migration of Atlantic salmon was studied in an integrated laboratory and field study. In a stock of hatchery-raised 1-year-old salmon, smoltification progressed from February until late May as judged by increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and 24h sea water (SW)-tolerance. Starting late March, three groups of 150 fish

Steffen S Madsen; Søren Skovbølling; Christian Nielsen; Bodil Korsgaard

2004-01-01

255

A field study on intraperitoneal vaccination of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) against furunculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection and side-effects after intraperitoneal (i.p.) vaccination of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) against furunculosis were studied in a field trial. Pre-smolts held in fresh water and salmon growers held in sea water were immunised with different monovalent furunculosis vaccines. In both cohorts, disease attack rates and cumulative mortalities after field challenge were significantly lower in populations given a mineral oil

P. J. MIDTLYNG

1996-01-01

256

Evolution of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) populations in New Zealand: Pattern, rate, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their\\u000a present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate\\u000a salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of

Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin

257

Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the previous biological concepts based on seasonal breeding stocks or geographical subspecies designations. The trans-Arctic herring phylogeography is notably similar to those of the amphi-boreal mollusk taxa Macoma and Mytilus, suggesting similar histories of inter-oceanic connections. We also considered the time dependency of molecular rates, critical for interpreting timing of relatively recent biogeographical events, by comparing the estimates from coding and non-coding mitochondrial regions of presumably different mutation dynamics. PMID:23510113

2013-01-01

258

The Fight Over Pacific Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

259

Development of an in vitro system for functional studies of ovarian follicular cells in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

The layers of follicular cells surrounding the oocyte and the interactions among them and the germ cells are critical for the successful maintenance of the ovarian functions. We have set up the isolation procedure and culture conditions of sea bass ovarian follicular cells. Their behaviour at three different physiological temperatures (25, 18 and 15 °C) was evaluated by verifying their steroidogenic capacity along time together with the expression of follicular specific genes (cyp19a1, fshr, lhr and star). These characteristics revealed this culture as a good in vitro alternative to short term in vivo studies at the level of the ovarian follicle. Moreover, to evaluate the suitability of this system for gene function studies conditions for transient transfection of plasmid DNA were optimized. Finally, the characteristics of the follicular culture were not affected by freezing and thawing cycles what facilitates the performance of experiments independently of the reproductive season. In conclusion, we have developed an in vitro homologous system that enables functional and gene expression studies and resembles the in vivo situation in the ovarian follicle. PMID:22760552

Crespo, B; Zanuy, S; Gómez, A

2013-03-01

260

The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields back to 1750  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local to regional climate anomalies are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) variations in former times is therefore crucial when addressing past climate changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP reconstructions lack data from the ocean, particularly in the pre-1850 period. Here we present a new statistically-derived 5° × 5° resolved gridded seasonal SLP dataset covering the eastern North Atlantic, Europe and the Mediterranean area (40°W-50°E; 20°N-70°N) back to 1750 using terrestrial instrumental pressure series and marine wind information from ship logbooks. For the period 1750-1850, the new SLP reconstruction provides a more accurate representation of the strength of the winter westerlies as well as the location and variability of the Azores High than currently available multiproxy pressure field reconstructions. These findings strongly support the potential of ship logbooks as an important source to determine past circulation variations especially for the pre-1850 period. This new dataset can be further used for dynamical studies relating large-scale atmospheric circulation to temperature and precipitation variability over the Mediterranean and Eurasia, for the comparison with outputs from GCMs as well as for detection and attribution studies.

Küttel, M.; Xoplaki, E.; Gallego, D.; Luterbacher, J.; García-Herrera, R.; Allan, R.; Barriendos, M.; Jones, P. D.; Wheeler, D.; Wanner, H.

2010-06-01

261

Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1. smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd-numbered years.

Ruggerone, G. T.; Farley, E.; Nielsen, J.; Hagen, P.

2005-01-01

262

The Changing Arctic and Subarctic Environment (CASE): a european network on marine biotic indicators of recent climate changes in the Nordic seas and adjacent domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Marie Curie Initial Training Network CASE (FP7 - ITN) is formalizing long-standing research collaborations in the field of empirical and simulated climate and oceanographic changes in the Nordic and Barents Seas. CASE offers an ideal setting for running integrated and innovative projects on recent (Holocene) Arctic and Subarctic climate changes and implementing a multidisciplinary and intersectorial training on biotic proxies of past marine environments through a Marie Curie Network. The EU-funded 12 CASE PhDs projects are concerned with the sensitivity of marine primary and secondary producers to changes in marine physical aspects, and the invaluable information on past oceanic and climatic conditions given by their fossil remains contained in sedimentary archives. Climate modelling provides complementary physical information. The investigations cover an extended field of disciplines, from micropaleontology, to organic and inorganic geochemistry, and an array of expertise such as taxonomy, molecular and stable isotope geochemistry, and climate modelling. This presentation will provide information on the structure of the consortium, the content and philosophy of the training actions, as well as the main scientific objectives of the various research projects carried out by the CASE partner institutions.

Deme, I.; Giraudeau, J.; Belt, S. T.; Hald, M.; Husum, K.; Knies, J.; Renssen, H.; Spielhagen, R. F.

2011-12-01

263

Induction of a Protective Immune Response against Viral Nervous Necrosis in the European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax by Using Betanodavirus Virus-Like Particles  

PubMed Central

Betanodaviruses are causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus particles contain a single type of coat protein that spontaneously assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed in a baculovirus expression system. In the present study, the immunogenicity of betanodavirus VLPs and the protection they confer against VNN in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and seroneutralization tests performed on plasma from fish vaccinated intramuscularly with doses as low as 0.1 ?g of VLPs indicated that the VLPs elicited the synthesis of specific antibetanodavirus antibodies with neutralizing activity. Moreover, fish vaccinated with VLPs were protected from challenge with live virus. Both the immune response and the protective effect against viral challenge were dose dependent. Reverse transcription-PCR data indicated that higher doses of vaccine also reduced the number of fish containing detectable quantities of betanodavirus RNA on day 30 after challenge. Taken together these data strongly support the hypothesis that VLPs obtained in the baculovirus expression system may represent an effective vaccine against VNN. PMID:17005697

Thiery, R.; Cozien, J.; Cabon, J.; Lamour, F.; Baud, M.; Schneemann, A.

2006-01-01

264

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 -2008  

E-print Network

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 - 2008 Peter Hassemer Idaho Department of Fish Upper Columbia Summer Chinook Salmon Coho Salmon Shad Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Spring Chinook Salmon (Includes Snake River Summers) #12;Spring

265

The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) on catch statistics in Scotland.  

PubMed

In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

Green, Darren M; Penman, David J; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; McAndrew, Brendan J

2012-01-01

266

Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

2003-01-01

267

SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

268

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming  

E-print Network

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming Ida Scheel1 salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major, worldwide. We study the data covering salmon farming in Norway from 2002 to 2005 and propose a stochastic

Aldrin, Magne

269

Synthesis and Review of US Research on the Physical and Biological Factors Affecting Ocean Production of Salmon  

E-print Network

Abstract: This paper is a synthesis and review of the results of US research in the 1990s on the physical and biological factors affecting ocean production of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). The review follows the outline of US research under the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission Science Plan, which addresses issues concerning the ocean production of salmon. The research includes studies on juvenile salmon in coastal waters, ecology of salmon in the Gulf of Alaska, retrospective analyses of long-term data series, development and application of stock identification techniques, and international cooperative high seas salmon research. Our review indicates that climate-induced variation in productivity and fishing are the two major factors affecting ocean production of salmon, but the underlying mechanisms are not well known. To understand the processes linking climate, ocean productivity, and salmon production, we need stock-specific information on salmon distribution, abundance, and migration patterns with respect to environmental conditions. We recommend continuation of this research, with a strong emphasis on (1) the development of new technologies and international baselines for salmon stock identification, (2) shipboard research and monitoring programs to provide a platform for process studies, as well as data on interannual variation in ocean growth, distribution, and run timing of key stocks, and (3) the development

Katherine W. Myersl; Robert V. Walkeri; H. Richard Carlson T; John H. Helle; Fish Comm; Bull No

270

WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

271

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon  

E-print Network

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

272

PROGRESS REPORT SPRING CHINOOK SALMON  

E-print Network

existing populations, of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) not only in the Columbia River to determine feasibility of Introducing spring chinook salmon Into Wind River, Washington, has been underway on the Columbia River and transferred to Carson National Fish Hatchery at Wind River, Washington, for subsequent

273

78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...

2013-10-22

274

Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high consumption rates and rapid growth, degree of diet overlap or consumption of lower trophic level prey, and early migration timing into the ocean. The consistent pattern of findings from multiple regions of the ocean provides evidence that interspecific competition can significantly influence salmon population dynamics and that pink salmon may be the dominant competitor among salmon in marine waters. ?? Springer 2005.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

2004-01-01

275

Secrets@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ace on the Case: Secrets@sea invites students to solve a mystery by tracking down ecological clues in an interactive story format. As students click on bubbles, they move forward through the story. Topics woven into the mystery include food webs, bioaccumulations, killer whales, salmon, plankton, salinity, and others. There is a study room where students can click on objects to get more clues. Field Guides are divided by topic and offer additional information for students.

Science NetLinks (Engaging Science;)

2004-04-29

276

In vivo effects of the soluble fraction of light cycle oil on immune functions in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linné).  

PubMed

Hydrocarbons are major contaminants that may affect biota at various trophic levels in estuaries and coastal ecosystems. The effects of accidental pollution by light cycle oil (LCO), a refined product of heavy fuel oil, on bioaccumulation, depuration processes and immune-related parameters in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were investigated in the laboratory after 7 days of exposure and a 2-week recovery period. Exposure of fish to the soluble fraction of LCO (1600ngL(-1)) for 7 days led to the bioaccumulation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in muscles: naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. After 7 days of recovery period, half-elimination of naphthalene was reported in fish muscles due to facilitated diffusive loss by the epithelium and a faster elimination rate proven by the presence of a high level of naphthalene biliary metabolites. The other bioaccumulated molecules displayed a slower depuration rate due to their elimination by the formation of hydrophobic metabolites excreted through bile or urine. Three days after the beginning of the recovery period, each contaminated fish showed severe external lesions (tissue necrosis, suppurative exudates, haemorrhagic area). The hypothesis of a possible link with inflammatory phenomenon was supported by (i) an inversion of the leucocyte sub-population percentage, (ii) a significant up-expression in the spleen of the tumour necrosis factor alpha gene, (iii) a significant increase in ACH(50). Moreover, the lack of C3 gene regulation in the spleen suggested a non-renewal of this component. The reduction of phagocytic activity and lysozyme concentration reflected immune suppression. Finally, LCO toxicity in this fish was clearly demonstrated to be related to inflammatory reaction and immune depletion. PMID:21764455

Bado-Nilles, Anne; Quentel, Claire; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, José Luis; Auffret, Michel; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Le Floch, Stéphane

2011-10-01

277

DNA Methylation of the Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a) Promoter Is Involved in Temperature-Dependent Sex Ratio Shifts in the European Sea Bass  

PubMed Central

Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive. We show in the European sea bass (sb), a fish in which temperature effects on sex ratios are maximal before the gonads form, that juvenile males have double the DNA methylation levels of females in the promoter of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a), the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens. Exposure to high temperature increased the cyp19a promoter methylation levels of females, indicating that induced-masculinization involves DNA methylation-mediated control of aromatase gene expression, with an observed inverse relationship between methylation levels and expression. Although different CpGs within the sb cyp19a promoter exhibited different sensitivity to temperature, we show that the increased methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter, which occurs in the gonads but not in the brain, is not a generalized effect of temperature. Importantly, these effects were also observed in sexually undifferentiated fish and were not altered by estrogen treatment. Thus, methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter is the cause of the lower expression of cyp19a in temperature-masculinized fish. In vitro, induced methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter suppressed the ability of SF-1 and Foxl2 to stimulate transcription. Finally, a CpG differentially methylated by temperature and adjacent to a Sox transcription factor binding site is conserved across species. Thus, DNA methylation of the aromatase promoter may be an essential component of the long-sought-after mechanism connecting environmental temperature and sex ratios in vertebrate species with temperature-dependent sex determination. PMID:22242011

Navarro-Martin, Laia; Vinas, Jordi; Ribas, Laia; Diaz, Noelia; Gutierrez, Arantxa; Di Croce, Luciano; Piferrer, Francesc

2011-01-01

278

Expression of Kisspeptins and Kiss Receptors Suggests a Large Range of Functions for Kisspeptin Systems in the Brain of the European Sea Bass  

PubMed Central

This study, conducted in the brain of a perciform fish, the European sea bass, aimed at raising antibodies against the precursor of the kisspeptins in order to map the kiss systems and to correlate the expression of kisspeptins, kiss1 and kiss2, with that of kisspeptin receptors (kiss-R1 and kiss-R2). Specific antibodies could be raised against the preprokiss2, but not the preoprokiss1. The data indicate that kiss2 neurons are mainly located in the hypothalamus and project widely to the subpallium and pallium, the preoptic region, the thalamus, the pretectal area, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mediobasal medial and caudal hypothalamus, and the neurohypophysis. These results were compared to the expression of kiss-R1 and kiss-R2 messengers, indicating a very good correlation between the wide distribution of Kiss2-positive fibers and that of kiss-R2 expressing cells. The expression of kiss-R1 messengers was more limited to the habenula, the ventral telencephalon and the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. Attempts to characterize the phenotype of the numerous cells expressing kiss-R2 showed that neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase are targets for kisspeptins, while GnRH1 neurons did not appear to express kiss-R1 or kiss-R2 messengers. In addition, a striking result was that all somatostatin-positive neurons expressed-kissR2. These data show that kisspeptins are likely to regulate a wide range of neuronal systems in the brain of teleosts. PMID:23894610

Escobar, Sebastian; Servili, Arianna; Espigares, Felipe; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Brocal, Isabel; Felip, Alicia; Gomez, Ana; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier

2013-01-01

279

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY...proposes regulations to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...and California (Salmon FMP). Amendment 17, which was transmitted by the Pacific...

2012-12-19

280

SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

281

Commercially Farmed and Wild-Caught Salmon  

E-print Network

Salmon is the second most popular type of fish eaten in America. It tastes savory and earthy, yet slightly sweet and is among the richest sources of long-chain omega-3 fats. It is also full of high quality protein, vitamins, and minerals. Research shows that eating fish like salmon promotes healthy hearts and brain development. All types of commercial salmon are healthful to eat. The most readily available kinds in the U.S. are wild Pacific and farmed Atlantic salmon. Farmed and wild salmon are similar in many ways. Frequently asked questions about salmon How do farm-raised and wild-caught salmon differ? Farm-raised and wild-caught salmon are usually different species of fish. Most farm-raised salmon are Atlantic salmon. Wild populations of Atlantic salmon are generally at very low levels and their commercial harvest is limited. Farm-raised fish are hatched, raised, and harvested under controlled conditions similar to other farmed animals except they are raised in water. Farmed Atlantic salmon are readily available year-round in fresh or frozen forms. Most wild-caught salmon are one of five species of Pacific salmon. They are harvested by fishing with a variety of gear types mostly in the north Pacific from about June through

unknown authors

282

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic  

E-print Network

..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. SalmonSalmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon of the river, to Spider's camp. Spider is making a dip-net; it's not so good. "What are you doing?" Salmon says

O'Laughlin, Jay

283

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

Wgbh; Domain, Teachers'

284

Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

2000-01-01

285

Hybrid origin of Baltic salmon-specific parasite Gyrodactylus salaris: a model for speciation by host switch for hemiclonal organisms.  

PubMed

Host switching explains the high species number of ectoparasitic, viviparous, mainly parthenogenetic but potentially hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Gyrodactylus. The starlike mitochondrial phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salaris suggested parallel divergence of several clades on grayling (also named as Gyrodactylus thymalli) and an embedded sister clade on Baltic salmon. The hypothesis that the parasite switched from grayling to salmon during the glacial diaspora was tested using a 493-bp nuclear DNA marker ADNAM1. The parasites on salmon in lakes Onega and Ladoga were heterozygous for divergent ADNAM1 alleles WS1 and BS1, found as nearly fixed in grayling parasites in the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins, respectively. In the Baltic salmon-specific mtDNA clade, the WS/BS heterozygosity was maintained in 23 out of the 24 local clones. The permanently heterozygous clade was endemic in the Baltic Sea basin, and it had accumulated variation in mtDNA (31 variable sites on 1600 bp) and in the alleles of the nuclear locus (two point mutations and three nucleotide conversions along 493 bp). Mendelian shuffling of the nuclear alleles between the local clones indicated rare sex within the clade, but the WS/BS heterozygosity was lost in only one salmon hatchery clone, which was heterozygous WS1/WS3. The Baltic salmon-specific G. salaris lineage was monophyletic, descending from a single historical hybridization and consequential host switch, frozen by permanent heterozygosity. A possible time for the hybridization of grayling parasite strains from the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins was during the Eemian interglacial 132 000 years bp. Strains having a separate divergent mtDNA observed on farmed rainbow trout, and on salmon in Russian lake Kuito were suggested to be clones derived from secondary and tertiary recombination events. PMID:17971088

Kuusela, Jussi; Zietara, Marek S; Lumme, J

2007-12-01

286

In Asia, there are two distinct types of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus  

E-print Network

- ing Kamchatka, the Sea of Okhotsk, the east coast of Sakhalin Island, and the Amur River. Later in Japan, the southern Kuril Islands, the west coast of Sahkalin Island, and the Amur River (Sano, 1966 autumn chum salmon spawn in areas of groundwater upwelling (Volobuyev et al., 1990). In major river drain

287

Organic enrichment of sediments from salmon farming in Norway: environmental factors, management practices, and monitoring techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impacts of salmon cage aquaculture resulting from deposition of organic-rich particulate matter to the sea bottom have been thought to be a function of the local environmental conditions and management practices. However, testing of these suppositions have been limited by (1) widely varying monitoring methods employed, and (2) lack of data comparability resulting from the absence of standardized national

Michael L Carroll; Sabine Cochrane; Reinhold Fieler; Roger Velvin; Patrick White

2003-01-01

288

Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built

Aoife Guiry; Denis Flynn; Sophie Hubert; Allan M O'Keeffe; Olivier LeProvost; Samantha L White; Patrick F Forde; Pamela Davoren; Benoit Houeix; Terry J Smith; Deirdre Cotter; Noel P Wilkins; Michael T Cairns

2010-01-01

289

UTILIZATION OF THE NANAIMO RIVER ESTUARY BY JUVENILE CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinook salmon are considered, nonnally, to spend from a few months to a year rearing in freshwater before migrating to sea. Although large downstream movement offry, recently emerged from spawn­ ing gravels, has been observed in several river systems, it has been suggested that most of these migrant fry are lost to the population. This report describes the fate of

M. C. HEALEY

1980-01-01

290

Genetic, environmental and interaction effects on the incidence of jacking in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jacking in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, is defined as sexual maturation of males after at least 1 year in sea water, occurring 1 year prior to any of the females of the same cohort. A breeding experiment was carried out with jack and non-jack sires nested within six dams. The resulting 12 families were reared under two different temperatures for

Daniel D Heath; Robert H Devlin; John W Heath; George K Iwama

1994-01-01

291

Nutrient fluxes and the recent collapse of coastal California salmon populations  

E-print Network

. As adults, semelparous Chinook (Oncorhyn- chus tshawytscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon imported- culaires de leurs populations de saumons. Au stade adulte, les saumons chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha et iteroparous steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) imported only 1.6 times more than

292

Fine structure of the adenohypophysis in immature sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the adenohypophysis of juvenile sockeye salmon was investigated. Pituitary glands were collected from immature fish transferred experimentally to sea water and subsequently returned to fresh water. The rostral pars distalis contained three cell types: ACTH cells, prolactin cells, and non-secretory cells. The prolactin and non-secretory cells were joined together in the form of

B. A. McKeown; John F. Leatherland

1973-01-01

293

Toward a salmon conjecture  

E-print Network

By using a result from the numerical algebraic geometry package Bertini we show that (with extremely high probability) a set of degree 6 and degree 9 polynomials cut out the secant variety $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{2}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{2} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$. This, combined with an argument provided by Landsberg and Manivel, implies set-theoretic defining equations in degrees 5, 6 and 9 for a much larger set of secant varieties, including $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{3}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$ which is of particular interest in light of the salmon prize offered by E. Allman for the ideal-theoretic defining equations.

Oeding, Luke

2010-01-01

294

Physiological disturbances in Atlantic salmon exposed to crude oil  

SciTech Connect

In Southern Australia, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming is undertaken in marine areas where extensive oil exploration, exploitation and transport are taking place. Pen-reared juvenile fish are at high risk of oil exposure through frequent small spills or major accidents. When exposed, commercial fisheries have to face million-dollar loses due to potential tainting of their stocks. In this study, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed to Bass Strait light crude oil in a fashion simulating an accidental oil spill at sea i.e. exposure to crude oil followed by a deputation period. Temporal trends in enzymatic bioindicators of exposure were investigated through exposure and deputation periods, as well as several biochemical and chemical measurements. The main objective of the study was to relate tainting with easily measured biological indicators of exposure to crude oil. Good correlations between bioindicators of exposure and tainting could assist fish farming industry to decide on the fate of fish stocks affected by oil taint.

Gagnon, M.M.; Holdway, D.A. [RMIT-Univ., Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

1995-12-31

295

THE KING SALMON OF COOK INLET, ALASKA  

E-print Network

, Alaska ABSTRACT Runs of king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Cook Inlet, Alaska, are de- clining for spawning. INTRODUCTION Historically, the king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is one of the most

296

PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND  

E-print Network

, spinning, or casting. #12;THE PACIFIC SI Five salmon species are native to the Paci- fic coast from San of their birth to spawn and complete their life cycle. All Pacific salmon die after they have spawned. NL

297

Salmon: SIO 212 Chapter 1 Fundamentals  

E-print Network

Salmon: SIO 212 Chapter 1 1 1 Fundamentals This first chapter reviews the fundamental principles of the size of V for a considerable range of sizes, that is, only if the smallest #12;Salmon: SIO 212 Chapter

Salmon, Rick

298

Epidemiology of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea) in the River Tornionjoki, a Baltic wild salmon river.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Gyrodactylus salaris in the River Tornionjoki was investigated in 2000-2004. Infection of salmon parr, Salmo salar, was common in the uppermost reach of the river system but decreased downstream and was rare in the lowermost reach. This pattern was consistent across the study period regardless of varying water temperatures. The oldest age groups of parr were more often infected than younger ones throughout the river system, irrespective of their origin (wild or stocked). Parasite-free hatchery-reared 1-year-old parr became infected during their first summer in the wild. Downmigrating salmon smolts had a high prevalence of infection, but their role in the distribution of infection seemed unimportant. On grayling, Thymallus thymallus, we observed only the grayling-specific clade of Gyrodactylus. We found no indication of grayling participating in the epidemiology of infection on salmon. The salmon parr and smolt population in the Tornionjoki has been at its height during the late 1990s and 2000s. Our results indicate that G. salaris infection in this Baltic river has no devastating effects on the salmon population as it has had in salmon rivers flowing into the North Atlantic and White Sea. PMID:18355178

Anttila, P; Romakkaniemi, A; Kuusela, J; Koski, P

2008-05-01

299

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.  

PubMed

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dalvin, Sussie T; Bron, James E; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

300

Physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.  

PubMed

After several years of feeding at sea, salmonids have an amazing ability to migrate long distances from the open ocean to their natal stream to spawn. Three different research approaches from behavioural to molecular biological studies have been used to elucidate the physiological mechanisms underpinning salmonid imprinting and homing migration. The study was based on four anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, migrating from the North Pacific Ocean to the coast of Hokkaido, Japan, as well as lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya, Hokkaido, where the lake serves as the model oceanic system. Behavioural studies using biotelemetry techniques showed swimming profiles from the Bering Sea to the coast of Hokkaido in O. keta as well as homing behaviours of lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya. Endocrinological studies on hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of O. keta, and lacustrine O. nerka identified the hormonal changes during homing migration. Neurophysiological studies revealed crucial roles of olfactory functions on imprinting and homing during downstream and upstream migration, respectively. These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in anadromous and lacustrine salmonids. PMID:22803723

Ueda, H

2012-07-01

301

-----WESLEy C. SALMON-----Confirmation and Relevance ,  

E-print Network

-----WESLEy C. SALMON----- Confirmation and Relevance , Item: One of the earliest surprises of Probability (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), sec. 1l0A. ~ Wesley C. Salmon, "Partial Entailment Foundations, secs. 86-88. #12;Wesley C. Salmon that the first edition had been unclear with regard

Fitelson, Branden

302

USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON  

E-print Network

353 USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRARY Of. zi 1960 WOODS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON by Richard W Page The effect of dynamite on salmon 2 Description and results of variables tested 3 Effect of water

303

L'originalit de Juglar Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

L'originalité de Juglar Pierre Salmon Thèse complémentaire soutenue le 28 mars 1966 Université de -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Version verbatim avec quelques corrections de forme mars 2011 Pierre Salmon Université de Bourgogne Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion (UMRS CNRS 5118) pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract This is a version

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

305

BLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka  

E-print Network

and Wildlife Service, John L . Farley, Director BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARDBLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARD MIGRATION PAST BONNEVILLE DAM Marine Summary and conclusions 35 Literature cited 36 Appendix 37 #12;#12;BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCOHYNCHUS NERKA AGE

306

Ocean Carrying Capacity : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 6 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival of coho salmon appears to be determined in the first month at sea while the fish are still in local marine areas in the upwelling zone. There is stronger evidence that upwelling might influence vulnerability to predation. A broader ecosystem view which considers salmon as a member of a complex marine community offers additional insight and raises new questions regarding the marine mortality of salmon. The pelagic fish community in the upwelling zone has undergone dramatic change in the last 50 years. That change is consistent with the historical record, however, the system has not completed a full cycle of change (as it has in the past) since the stocks have been subjected to intense commercial and sport exploitation. Salmon seem to be responding to shifts in productivity in the coastal upwelling zone.

Lichatowich, Jim

1993-06-01

307

Risk factors for outbreaks of infectious salmon anemia in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a viral disease occurring in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that is characterized by lethargy, anorexia, anemia and death. To control the disease in New Brunswick, Canada, 7.5 million fish from outbreak cages have been destroyed since 1997. Despite changes made by farmers, 2002 was the worst year ever for ISA losses in the region. We evaluated the associations between potential risk factors and ISA outbreaks in the Atlantic-salmon sites in New Brunswick. This was a multilevel study in which the site-level design was a retrospective cohort study while the cage-level design was a modified case-cohort study. The questionnaire was divided into site-level questions, cage-level questions and hatchery information. The important factors identified by this study can be categorized as environmental, farmer controlled or industry controlled according to the capacity to change or eliminate them. Environmental risk factors such as increasing the depth of the net (if nets were 3m, OR=3.34) are for the most part dictated by site location. Wild pollock (Pollachius virens) in the cage reflects the number of wild pollock that live in the site location. If there were >or=1000 pollock in the cage, the odds of disease in the cage increased 4.43-fold. Risk factors that are under farm control include increasing the number of times that the salmon are treated for sea lice (OR=3.31 if lice treatments are 99 g) and improving on the adaptation of smolts to seawater to reduce post-transfer mortalities (OR=4.52 if there was at least one cage with post-transfer mortalities >5%). The industry-controlled factors need to be addressed by the industry as a whole. Organizing boat travel to minimize the time and frequency of boats travelling to or by sites currently is being reviewed. This will be extremely important because the OR=9.43 if processing boats travel within 1 km of the site and the OR=4.03 if the site has dry feed delivered by the feed company. Because the hazard ratio increased stepwise from 1 if the nearest neighbor with ISA was >or=5 km up to 5.5 if the nearest site with ISA was within 0.5 km, increasing the distance between sites might be necessary for effective control. PMID:16188335

McClure, Carol A; Hammell, K Larry; Dohoo, Ian R

2005-12-12

308

New insights into the diets of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Salish Sea revealed by  

E-print Network

and southern Strait of Georgia in the Salish Sea were analyzed for fatty acid composition, along with 269 fish- ica, including Pacific Herring (Clu- pea pallasii), Chinook Salmon (On- corhynchus tshawytscha

309

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 14.1 Basin Overview The Salmon Creek Basin comprises approximatelyDRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004 14 Lower Columbia Mainstem Subbasin ­ Salmon Creek Figure 14-1. Location of the Salmon Creek Basin

310

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

Subbasin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 18.1 Basin Overview The Little White Salmon SubbasinDRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004 18 Little White Salmon Subbasin Figure 18-1. Location of the Little White Salmon River

311

Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

Farley, Jr. , E. V.; Murphy, J. M.; Adkison, M. D.; Eisner, L. B.; Helle, J. H.; Moss, J. H.; Nielsen, J.

2007-01-01

312

Comparison of genetic diversity in the recently founded Connecticut River Atlantic salmon population to that of its primary donor stock, Maine's Penobscot River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to the Connecticut River (CR) from 1996 to 1999 were assayed for variability at nine microsatellite DNA loci. Heterozygosity and allele frequencies were compared to the anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to Maine's Penobscot River from 1998 to 2000. The Penobscot River was the primary source of the salmon used to found the previously extirpated population in the Connecticut River. While there were no significant differences in heterozygosity between the source population and the Connecticut River sea-run spawners, microsatellite allele frequencies were significantly different between the populations. Two techniques of estimating effective population size (Ne) suggested a healthy level of genetic variation in the Connecticut River population of anadromous Atlantic salmon. This is significant because the sea-run population is maintained almost entirely through hatchery production. Healthy ratios of Ne to N indicate that hatchery production has not resulted in excessive inbreeding to date. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

2004-01-01

313

Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differ

Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

2009-03-09

314

Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM) or fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Results We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD), but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD). Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663). Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein catabolism, amino acid transaminations, RNA splicing and blood coagulation were also found to be regulated by diet, while the expression of genes involved in protein and ATP synthesis differed between the half-sibfamilies. Conclusions Overall, the combined gene expression, compositional and biochemical studies demonstrated a large panel of metabolic and physiological effects induced by total substitution of both FM and FO in the diets of European sea bass and revealed physiological characteristics associated with the two half-sibfamilies. PMID:22017880

2011-01-01

315

Evolution of introduced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Lake Huron  

E-print Network

Evolution of introduced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Lake Huron: emergence divergence; rapid evolution Introduction Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Wal- baum) in Lake Huron October 21, 2011 Abstract ­ Population genetic structure was detected in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus

Neff, Bryan D.

316

Abstract.-Chinook salmon. Onco-rhynchus tshawytscha, transplanted  

E-print Network

colonizing suitable habitat. Origin and genetic structure of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ofchinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. used in the genetic comparison with New Zealand populations. San506 Abstract.-Chinook salmon. Onco- rhynchus tshawytscha, transplanted from the Sacramento River

317

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

318

WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

319

PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

320

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon  

E-print Network

) The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect phase, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), have shown depressed productivity [defined as the natural

Dill, Lawrence M.

321

Managing High Volume Astronimical Data with Heterogeneous Beowulf Clusters John Salmon, Daniel F. Savarese, and Thomas Sterling  

E-print Network

Managing High Volume Astronimical Data with Heterogeneous Beowulf Clusters John Salmon, Daniel F with the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Caltech has investigated the application of Beowulf clusters. Using char- acterstic workloads, we #12;nd that a Beowulf cluster can gen- erate astronomical data

Lumetta, Steve

322

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms  

E-print Network

of pathogen transmission from farmed fish on species interactions or other ecosystem components. Coho salmon. The finding that species interactions may cause the effects of pathogen transmission from farmed to wild fish to intensify pathogen transmission from farmed to wild fish, (ii) the ecosystem impact of louse transmission

Dill, Lawrence M.

323

Quantitative links between Pacific salmon and freshwater ecosystem structure.  

E-print Network

??Spawning Pacific salmon affect freshwater ecosystems through substrate disturbance and the marine-derived nutrient pulse they deliver. I examined relations between a) salmon abundance and stream… (more)

Verspoor, Jan Joel

2010-01-01

324

Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.  

PubMed

Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival. PMID:22233513

Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

2012-02-01

325

Patterns of covariability among California Current chinook salmon, coho salmon, Dungeness crab, and physical oceanographic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the primary motivations for the GLOBEC NEP program was the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon populations in the Gulf of Alaska since the mid-1970s and concurrent declines in salmon populations in the California Current. The increase in abundance of some salmon species in the Gulf of Alaska can be plausibly explained based on mechanisms involving

L. W Botsford; C. A Lawrence

2002-01-01

326

THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

327

Which Genetic Markers and GSI Methods are More Appropriate for Defining Marine Distribution and Migration of Salmon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential for increased statistical power in stock discrimination gained through employing more polymorphic marker types such as microsatellites is attractive for applications in determining the distribution and migration of salmon in the high seas. Increased sampling requirements owing to the many character types (alleles) that typify microsatellites, however, raise question about accuracy. While increasing the number of individuals characterized for

Michael A. Banks; David P. Jacobson

328

Influence of high content of dietary soybean oil on quality of large fresh, smoked and frozen Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was grown in sea cages from 700 g to a market size of 3.2 kg on diets containing either 29% Peruvian high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) fish oil (FO) or 29% soybean oil (SO) as oil source. Chemical analyses and a triangular consumer test were performed on fresh muscle, while colour, texture and liquid holding capacity (LHC) analyses

Anna Maria Bencze Rørå; Bente Ruyter; Jon Skorve; Rolf K. Berge; Karl-Erik Slinning

2005-01-01

329

Effects of different dietary levels of fish protein hydrolysates on growth, digestive enzymes, gut microbiota, and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) were incorporated into four diets prepared for start-feeding sea bass larvae, at two different levels (10% and 19% of total ingredients): a commercial FPH, CPSP, in which the molecular mass of the main fraction of soluble peptides (51%) was between 500–2500 Da, and an experimental FPH obtained by acidic silage of sardine offal, SH, with a

Y. P. Kotzamanis; E. Gisbert; F. J. Gatesoupe; J. Zambonino Infante; C. Cahu

2007-01-01

330

Acoustic tracking of migrating salmon.  

PubMed

Annual salmon migrations vary significantly in annual return numbers from year to year. In order to determine when a species' sustainable return size has been met, a method for counting and sizing the spawning animals is required. This project implements a probability hypothesis density tracker on data from a dual frequency identification sonar to automate the process of counting and sizing the fish crossing an insonified area. Data processing on the sonar data creates intensity images from which possible fish locations can be extracted using image processing. These locations become the input to the tracker. The probability hypothesis density tracker then solves the multiple target tracking problem and creates fish tracks from which length information is calculated using image segmentation. The algorithm is tested on data from the 2010 salmon run on the Kenai river in Alaska and compares favorably with statistical models from sub-sampling and manual measurements. PMID:25324076

Kupilik, Matthew J; Petersen, Todd

2014-10-01

331

Long-term environmental exposure to metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) activates the immune cell stress response in the common European sea star (Asterias rubens).  

PubMed

The common sea star Asterias rubens represents a key-species of the North-Eastern Atlantic macro benthic community. The cells of their immune system, known as coelomocytes, are the first line of defence against environmental hazards. Here, we report the results of investigations on the immune cells response of sea stars exposed to marine environmental pollution for long periods. We show that levels of the heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) in coelomocytes from A. rubens, which were collected during a field study in the S?rfjord (North Sea, SW coast of Norway) along a contamination gradient, are directly associated with the long-term accumulation of Cd, Cu heavy metals exclusively in the tegument. Conversely, Pb and Zn accumulation in the tegument did not relate to HSC70 levels and none of the metals were found accumulated in the pyloric coeca. In addition the coelomocytes from A. rubens, collected in high and low metal impacted stations were examined by a proteomic approach using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). By comparison of the proteomic maps, we observed that 31 protein spots differed in their relative abundance, indicating a gene expression response to the metal mixture exposure. All together, our results confirm that the echinoderm immune cells are a suitable model for the assessment of long-term exposure to environmental pollution, moreover that the increased level of HSC70 can be considered a signal of an acquired tolerance within a large spectrum of protein profile changes occurring in response to metal contamination. PMID:22000270

Matranga, V; Pinsino, A; Randazzo, D; Giallongo, A; Dubois, P

2012-05-01

332

Phylogenetic Evidence of Long Distance Dispersal and Transmission of Piscine Reovirus (PRV) between Farmed and Wild Atlantic Salmon  

PubMed Central

The extent and effect of disease interaction and pathogen exchange between wild and farmed fish populations is an ongoing debate and an area of research that is difficult to explore. The objective of this study was to investigate pathogen transmission between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations in Norway by means of molecular epidemiology. Piscine reovirus (PRV) was selected as the model organism as it is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Norway, and because infection not necessarily will lead to mortality through development of disease. A matrix comprised of PRV protein coding sequences S1, S2 and S4 from wild, hatchery-reared and farmed Atlantic salmon in addition to one sea-trout (Salmo trutta L.) was examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference indicate long distance transport of PRV and exchange of virus between populations. The results are discussed in the context of Atlantic salmon ecology and the structure of the Norwegian salmon industry. We conclude that the lack of a geographical pattern in the phylogenetic trees is caused by extensive exchange of PRV. In addition, the detailed topography of the trees indicates long distance transportation of PRV. Through its size, structure and infection status, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has the capacity to play a central role in both long distance transportation and transmission of pathogens. Despite extensive migration, wild salmon probably play a minor role as they are fewer in numbers, appear at lower densities and are less likely to be infected. An open question is the relationship between the PRV sequences found in marine fish and those originating from salmon. PMID:24349221

Garseth, Ase Helen; Ekrem, Torbj?rn; Biering, Eirik

2013-01-01

333

Phylogenetic evidence of long distance dispersal and transmission of piscine reovirus (PRV) between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

The extent and effect of disease interaction and pathogen exchange between wild and farmed fish populations is an ongoing debate and an area of research that is difficult to explore. The objective of this study was to investigate pathogen transmission between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations in Norway by means of molecular epidemiology. Piscine reovirus (PRV) was selected as the model organism as it is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Norway, and because infection not necessarily will lead to mortality through development of disease. A matrix comprised of PRV protein coding sequences S1, S2 and S4 from wild, hatchery-reared and farmed Atlantic salmon in addition to one sea-trout (Salmo trutta L.) was examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference indicate long distance transport of PRV and exchange of virus between populations. The results are discussed in the context of Atlantic salmon ecology and the structure of the Norwegian salmon industry. We conclude that the lack of a geographical pattern in the phylogenetic trees is caused by extensive exchange of PRV. In addition, the detailed topography of the trees indicates long distance transportation of PRV. Through its size, structure and infection status, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has the capacity to play a central role in both long distance transportation and transmission of pathogens. Despite extensive migration, wild salmon probably play a minor role as they are fewer in numbers, appear at lower densities and are less likely to be infected. An open question is the relationship between the PRV sequences found in marine fish and those originating from salmon. PMID:24349221

Garseth, Åse Helen; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Biering, Eirik

2013-01-01

334

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST?"  

E-print Network

2: An Analysis of Annual Trends for Wild Pacific Salmon in British Columbia DECEMBER 2012)................................................................... 10 b) Fraser River Sockeye Salmon............................................................................................. 12 c) Fraser River Pink Salmon

Farrell, Anthony P.

335

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) EFH includes all streams...Conception. (b) Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) EFH includes...Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) EFH...

2013-10-01

336

THERMAL TOLERANCE OF JUVENILE PACIFIC SALMON AND STEELHEAD TROUT IN RELATION TO SUPERSATURATION OF  

E-print Network

chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (0. kisutch), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri (1952) listed maximum temperatures for survival of young Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) be- tween 23

337

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) EFH includes all streams...Conception. (b) Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) EFH includes...Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) EFH...

2010-10-01

338

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) EFH includes all streams...Conception. (b) Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) EFH includes...Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) EFH...

2011-10-01

339

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) EFH includes all streams...Conception. (b) Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) EFH includes...Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) EFH...

2012-10-01

340

GENETIC ESTIMATES OF STOCK COMPOSITIONS OF 1983 CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, HARVESTS  

E-print Network

GENETIC ESTIMATES OF STOCK COMPOSITIONS OF 1983 CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, HARVESTS ofchinook salmon populations. Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, runs returning to Pacific drainages

341

THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

342

Propagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture  

E-print Network

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) (ThorudPropagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture BH Dannevig K Falk CMcL Press Summary ― A long-term cell line supporting growth of the infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus has

Boyer, Edmond

343

2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008  

E-print Network

, based on high bycatch rates for chinook or chum salmon, experienced by vessels working in the area salmon" category includes all non-chinook salmon. Observer data for both offshore and shoreside that triggered the closure. The procedure is as follows: Year A pollock A other salmon A chinook B pollock B

344

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. By CHARLES H. GILBERT,  

E-print Network

in sufficient numbers to constitute distinct runs. These are the king or chinook salmon, the chum or dog salmonTHE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. ~ By CHARLES H. GILBERT, Professor of Zoology, Stanford University. " .. " .. " .. " .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 The king salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) " , .. .. . 318 Rate of travel

345

HOMING AND FISHERIES CONTRIBUTION OF MARKED COHO SALMON,  

E-print Network

AT TWO COLUMBIA RIVER LOCATIONS In 1970 we conducted an experiment to deter- mine if coho salmon salmon fisheries of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California, the Columbia River fisheries White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, located near Cook, Wash., on the Little White Salmon River about 1

346

SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION FEBRUARY 73, 7995  

E-print Network

#12;Al SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 73, 7995 LIONS CLUB HALL, SALMON ARM #12;I SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 13, 1995, I DOE FRAP 1995-01 \\ Compiled Salmon River Watershed Ecosystem Goals and Objectives Tyhson Banighen

347

Snake River sockeye salmon estimated adult LGR  

E-print Network

Snake River sockeye salmon # smolts estimated adult LGR migrating from returns returns Valley the understanding of sockeye salmon survival and SAR. For the 2005 outmigration the valley to valley SAR is 0 we estimated that 78% (651) of the returning adults out-migrated in the 2007 juvenile migration

348

Echo characteristics of two salmon species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game relies on split-beam hydroacoustic techniques to estimate Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returns to the Kenai River. Chinook counts are periodically confounded by large numbers of smaller sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Echo target-strength has been used to distinguish fish length classes, but was too variable to separate Kenai River chinook and sockeye distributions. To

Patrick A. Nealson; John K. Horne; Debby L. Burwen

2005-01-01

349

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

350

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

351

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

352

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON  

E-print Network

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory FEB !) ~iy;)9, Commissioner WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON By John A. Coates* and John E. Halver Western, John A Wiiti'i-sohilile vitamin ivcjuireineiits of silver sahnon, by John A. CoiUes and John E. Ilalver

353

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role  

E-print Network

(Calif.) Salmon Hatchery of the Fish and Wildlife Service. In foreground, diversion dam in stream, fish interfered with by pollution and by dams that cut off the salmon from their natural spawning grounds-fishery mainte- nance. Streams required for the natural reproduction of the species have been polluted and dammed

354

Chinook Salmon Recovery in the Stillaguamish Watershed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show explores the threats to the Chinook salmon population in the Stillaguamish River watershed of Snohomish County, Washington. Topics include the status of the present population, factors contributing to the decline of the population, habitat needs for healthy salmon, and steps that are necessary for the recovery of the population.

2003-07-10

355

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY...Management Act (MSA) to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...Salmon FMP). NMFS approved Amendment 17 on February 5, 2013. Among other...

2013-02-14

356

Contrasting Early Marine Ecology of Chinook Salmon and Coho Salmon in Southeast Alaska: Insight into Factors Affecting Marine Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify processes potentially contributing to the differential marine survival rates of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon O. kisutch originating from Southeast Alaska, we compared the early marine ecology of the two species during the critical first summer in marine waters. We predicted that the higher survival rates for coho salmon relative to Chinook salmon were related to

L. A. Weitkamp; J. A. Orsi; K. W. Myers; R. C. Francis

2011-01-01

357

Efficacy of the treatments used for the control of Caligus rogercresseyi infecting Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in a new fish-farming location in Region XI, Chile.  

PubMed

Caligus rogercresseyi is the most important parasite affecting Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout farming in sea water in Chile. After the outbreaks of the infectious salmon anaemia recorded in Region X from 2007, the salmon industry has expanded southwards to Region XI, where 60% of Atlantic salmon in Chile is now produced. In parallel with the relocation of salmon production, sea lice infestation has also spread to Region XI, and today C. rogercresseyi is the most serious threat to the salmon-farming industry in this region. The results obtained through a year of monitoring between September 2007 and August 2008 on a farm located in the 'Las Guaitecas Archipelago' in Region XI (44°S; 74°W) showed that treatments with emamectin benzoate and deltamethrin did not give the expected control of Caligus. Failures of the treatments were associated with the loss of sensitivity recorded for C. rogercresseyi to emamectin benzoate in Region X. In addition, a major influence was the lack of delousing coordination measures with the neighbouring farms sharing the same area in that period. PMID:23347203

Bravo, S; Nuñez, M; Silva, M T

2013-03-01

358

Isolation and characterization of Ff1 and Gsdf family genes in European sea bass and identification of early gonadal markers of precocious puberty in males.  

PubMed

Puberty represents the transition from an immature to a mature reproductive stage. The mechanisms underlying the onset of normal or precocious puberty have not yet been elucidated. With the goal of gaining an understanding of early events that occur in the testes of precocious animals during this process, a hemigonadectomy was performed on male juvenile sea bass and expression levels of candidate mRNAs were determined through quantitative real-time RT-PCR. For this purpose, the gonadal soma-derived factors gsdf1 and gsdf2, the nuclear receptor 5 subfamily members nr5a1a (ff1b), nr5a1b (ff1d), nr5a2 (ff1a) and nr5a5 (ff1c) and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen or pcna, genes with a putative role in the beginning of spermatogenesis, were isolated and cloned. Hemigonadectomy proved to be a suitable strategy for the study of gonadal stages prior to the appearance of histological differences between precocious and non-precocious fish, as it allowed the subsequent classification of these gonads. The upregulation of the gene encoding the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star) in precocious testes indicates that sex steroids could play a role in the onset of spermatogenesis in sea bass. In contrast, the downregulation observed in ff1b expression indicates that this initial surge in star expression is not the result of Ff1b transactivation, suggesting an alternative pathway for this transcriptional activation. Finally, a decrease in gsdf1 expression in precocious animals suggests that this gene may play a role in the onset of puberty, while its correlation with ff1b expression points to gsdf1 as a putative target for Ff1b-mediated transactivation. PMID:23791759

Crespo, Berta; Gómez, Ana; Mazón, María José; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia

2013-09-15

359

SEA TURTLES Sea Turtles  

E-print Network

the loggerhead, Kemp's ridley, olive ridley, green, leatherback, and hawks- bill turtles. In the Pacific Ocean317 SEA TURTLES UNIT 24 Sea Turtles Unit 24 PROTECTED RESOURCES STAFF NMFS Office of Protected Center La Jolla, CA INTRODUCTION Sea turtles are highly migratory and widely distributed throughout

360

Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea!  

E-print Network

Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea! Herald Shoal Hanna Shoal Barrow Canyon Herald Canyon Bering Strait of the Alaska Coastal Current (a) Bering Strait! (b) Central Shelf! (c) BCH! (d) BCC/DBO! (e) BCM! BCC avg the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait is transported across the shallow and expansive Chukchi Sea through

Pickart, Robert S.

361

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

362

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested for competition,between,pink salmon,(Oncorhynchus,gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984–1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years experienced 59% lower survival

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

363

Improved water-level forecasting for the Northwest European Shelf and North Sea through direct modelling of tide, surge and non-linear interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In real-time operational coastal forecasting systems for the northwest European shelf, the representation accuracy of tide-surge models commonly suffers from insufficiently accurate tidal representation, especially in shallow near-shore areas with complex bathymetry and geometry. Therefore, in conventional operational systems, the surge component from numerical model simulations is used, while the harmonically predicted tide, accurately known from harmonic analysis of tide gauge measurements, is added to forecast the full water-level signal at tide gauge locations. Although there are errors associated with this so-called astronomical correction (e.g. because of the assumption of linearity of tide and surge), for current operational models, astronomical correction has nevertheless been shown to increase the representation accuracy of the full water-level signal. The simulated modulation of the surge through non-linear tide-surge interaction is affected by the poor representation of the tide signal in the tide-surge model, which astronomical correction does not improve. Furthermore, astronomical correction can only be applied to locations where the astronomic tide is known through a harmonic analysis of in situ measurements at tide gauge stations. This provides a strong motivation to improve both tide and surge representation of numerical models used in forecasting. In the present paper, we propose a new generation tide-surge model for the northwest European Shelf (DCSMv6). This is the first application on this scale in which the tidal representation is such that astronomical correction no longer improves the accuracy of the total water-level representation and where, consequently, the straightforward direct model forecasting of total water levels is better. The methodology applied to improve both tide and surge representation of the model is discussed, with emphasis on the use of satellite altimeter data and data assimilation techniques for reducing parameter uncertainty. Historic DCSMv6 model simulations are compared against shelf wide observations for a full calendar year. For a selection of stations, these results are compared to those with astronomical correction, which confirms that the tide representation in coastal regions has sufficient accuracy, and that forecasting total water levels directly yields superior results.

Zijl, Firmijn; Verlaan, Martin; Gerritsen, Herman

2013-07-01

364

75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the species Atlantic salmon (Salmon Salar) marketed as specified herein; the order excludes all other species of salmon: Danube salmon, Chinook (also called ``king'' or ``quinnat''), Coho (``silver''), Sockeye (``redfish''...

2010-06-08

365

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

E-print Network

of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O to the extinct tusk-tooth salmon group related to sockeye salmon-- Oncorhynchus (Smilodonichthys) rastrosus, from

Montgomery, David R.

366

Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns  

PubMed Central

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-01

367

Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.  

PubMed

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-01

368

Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.  

PubMed

Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

2014-10-01

369

Wild chinook salmon survive better than hatchery salmon in a period of poor production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Cowichan River on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada are used by the Pacific Salmon Commission as an index\\u000a of the general state of chinook salmon coast wide. In recent years the production declined to very low levels despite the\\u000a use of a hatchery that was intended to increase production by

R. J. Beamish; R. M. Sweeting; C. M. Neville; K. L. Lange; T. D. Beacham; D. Preikshot

370

Quantifying the behavioral response of spawning chum salmon to elevated discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta that spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River, USA, are periodically subjected to elevated discharges that may alter spawning behaviour. We investigated behavioural responses of spawning chum salmon to increased water velocities associated with experimental increases in tailwater elevation using acoustic telemetry and a dual-frequency identification sonar. Chum salmon primarily remained near their redds at base tailwater elevations (3.5 m above mean sea level), but displayed different movement and behavioural responses as elevations were increased to either 4.1 or 4.7m for 8-h periods. When velocities remained suitable (<0.8m s-1) during elevated-tailwater tests, female chum salmon remained near their redds but exhibited reduced digging activity as water velocities increased. However, when velocities exceeded 0.8m s-1, the females that remained on their redds exhibited increased swimming activity and digging virtually ceased. Female and male chum salmon that left their redds when velocities became unsuitable moved mean distances ranging from 32 to 58 m to occupy suitable velocities, but returned to their redds after tailwaters returned to base levels. Spawning events (i.e. egg deposition) were observed for five of nine pairs of chum salmon following tests indicating any disruptions to normal behaviour caused by elevated tailwaters were likely temporary. We believe a chum salmon's decision to either remain on, or leave, its redd during periods of unsuitably high water velocities reflects time invested in the redd and the associated energetic costs it is willing to incur. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tiffan, K. F.; Haskell, C. A.; Kock, T. J.

2010-01-01

371

Probing Electrical Conductivity of the Trans-European Suture Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) isthe largest tectonic boundary in Europe,crossing northwest-southeast through centralEurope from the North Sea to the Black Sea.More than 2000 kilometers long, it constitutesa complex transition between the thick andcold East European Craton (EEC)\\/BalticShield, created more than 650 million yearsago (Ma) during the Precambrian, and thewarmer, younger Paleozoic (650 to 250 Ma)central European mobile belts.

Heinrich Brasse; Anja Kreutzmann; Vaclav Cerv; Tomasz Ernst; Jerzy Jankoski; Waldemar Jozwiak; Anne Neska; Laust Börsting Pedersen; Maxim Smirnov; Gerhard Schwarz; Elena Sokolova; Ivan Mikhail Varentsov; Norbert Hoffmann; Nikolay Palshin; Toivo Korja

2006-01-01

372

SALMON SPAWNING & REARING HABITAT IN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Spawning & rearing, rearing only, and essential habitat identified by Oregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife for chum, coho, fall chinook, and spring chinook salmon in Oregon. Each of the species workspaces contains coverages specific to individual USGS hydrologic cataloging unit; each co...

373

Impacts of salmon on riparian plant diversity.  

PubMed

The study of natural gradients in nutrient subsidies between ecosystems allows for predictions of how changes in one system can affect biodiversity in another. We performed a large-scale empirical test of the role of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in structuring riparian plant communities. A comparison of 50 watersheds in the remote Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia's central coast in Canada shows that salmon influence nutrient loading to plants,shifting plant communities toward nutrient-rich species, which in turn decreases plant diversity.These effects are mediated by interactions between salmon density and the physical characteristics of watersheds. Predicting how salmon affect terrestrial ecosystems is central to conservation plans that aim to better integrate ecosystem values into resource management. PMID:21442794

Hocking, Morgan D; Reynolds, John D

2011-03-25

374

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

375

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean circulation, Monte Carlo method 1. Introduction Equilibrium statistical mechanics applies to systems

Salmon, Rick

376

REVIEW OF 2011 OCEAN SALMON FISHERIES  

E-print Network

, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Mr. Aaron Jenkins and Mr. Eric Schindler, Oregon Department. #12;Review of 2011 Ocean Salmon Fisheries i FEBRUARY 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES....................................................................................................................................... iv LIST OF FIGURES

377

State-dependent shifts between nocturnal and diurnal activity in salmon  

PubMed Central

Animal species have usually evolved to be active at a specific time of the daily cycle, and so are either diurnal, nocturnal or crepuscular. However, we show here that the daily timing of activity in juvenile Atlantic salmon is related to the life-history strategy that they have adopted (i.e. the age at which they will migrate to the sea) and their current state (body size/relative nutritional state). Salmon can detect food more easily by day than by night, but the risk of predation is greater. Nocturnal foraging should generally be preferred, but the greater the need for growth, the greater should be the shift towards diurnal activity. In line with this prediction, all fish were predominantly nocturnal, but salmon preparing to migrate to the sea, which would experience size-dependent mortality during the forthcoming migration, were more diurnal than fish of the same age and size that were delaying migration for a further year. Moreover, the proportion of activity by day was negatively correlated with body size within the intending migrants. It has previously been shown that overwinter survival in fish delaying migration is maximized not by growth but by minimizing exposure to predators. As predicted, daytime activity in these fish was correlated with the prior rate of weight loss, fish being more diurnal when their risk of starvation was greater. To our knowledge, these are the first quantitative demonstrations of state-dependent variation in the timing of daily activity.

Metcalfe, N. B.; Fraser, N. H. C.; Burns, M. D.

1998-01-01

378

Immunocytochemistry of somatotrophs, gonadotrophs, prolactin and adrenocorticotropin cells in larval sea bream ( Sparus auratus ) pituitaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronological appearance of endocrine cells in the pituitary of sea-bream (Sparus auratus) larvae was studied using antisera against salmon prolactin, trout growth hormone, salmon gonadotropin and N-terminal human adrenocorticotropin. The larval pituitary (1–12 days after hatching) was oval in shape and was composed of a dense mass of cells with few neurohypophysial fibres. By 60 days after hatching it

D. M. Power; A. V. M. Canario

1992-01-01

379

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

Rowe, Mike

1991-12-01

380

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01

381

Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be intensively monitored. Planners recommended that a combination of natural and hatchery production

Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-06-12

382

Water quality limits for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exposed to short term reductions in pH and increased aluminum simulating episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidification has caused the loss or reduction of numerous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations on both sides of the North Atlantic. Acid deposition peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers. At present, water quality is improving in all affected rivers due to reduced acid deposition. However, spring snow melt, heavy rainfall and sea

F. Kroglund; B. O. Rosseland; H.-C. Teien; B. Salbu; T. Kristensen; B. Finstad

2008-01-01

383

Whole animal transepithelial potential (TEP) of coho salmon during the parr-smolt transformation and effects of thyroxine, prolactin and hypophysectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole animal transepithelial potentials (TEP) of yearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in fresh water and after transfer to seawater were recorded throughout parr-smolt transformation (smoltification) from February to August 1984, along with plasma Na+ and Cl? concentrations and osmolality. Based on plasma ion regulation in seawater, the yearling coho in this study completed smoltification and attained sea-water adaptability in April.

Munehico Iwata; Richard S. Nishioka; Howard A. Bern

1987-01-01

384

Modelling the spread of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) among salmon farms based on  

E-print Network

successfully used to disentangle infection path- ways and risk factors in fish and animal farming. Keeling etModelling the spread of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) among salmon farms based on seaway distances between farms and genetic relationships between ISA virus isolates Aldrin, M.a , Lyngstad, T

Aldrin, Magne

385

Risk factors for outbreaks of infectious salmon anemia in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a viral disease occurring in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that is characterized by lethargy, anorexia, anemia and death. To control the disease in New Brunswick, Canada, 7.5 million fish from outbreak cages have been destroyed since 1997. Despite changes made by farmers, 2002 was the worst year ever for ISA losses in the region.We

Carol A. McClure; K. Larry Hammell; Ian R. Dohoo

2005-01-01

386

Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hindar, K., Fleming, I. A., McGinnity, P., and Diserud, O. 2006. Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results. ? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63: 1234e1247. Cultured salmonids are released or escape into the wild in large numbers and may make up significant proportions of wild salmonid populations in fresh- and saltwater, causing

Kjetil Hindar; Ian A. Fleming; Philip McGinnity; Ola Diserud

2006-01-01

387

PREFERENCES FOR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ATTRIBUTES OF FARMED SALMON AMONGST SOUTHERN ONTARIO SALMON CONSUMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research was to shed light on the trade-offs that salmon consumers make between five types of production and health attributes of farmed salmon. In Canada, the major southern Ontario market cleaved into five distinct consumer segments that varied according to age and income, ‘tastes’, and threat perceptions. There was strong consumer aversion to increased levels of

Murray A. Rudd; Nathan Pelletier; Peter Tyedmers

2011-01-01

388

Biogeomorphic impacts of migration and disturbance: Implications of salmon spawning and decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphologic processes often involve a biotic element that acts to regulate landform development. This biotic element can be plant or animal-based with a feedback that ultimately benefits the ecology of the organism. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) are an example of an animal biogeomorphic agent exhibiting such feedbacks and, because of long migrations from the sea to freshwater spawning grounds, are a species of interest that act on both local and regional scales. Upon returning to their natal streams, salmon generate a dual disturbance, resuspending large amounts of sediment as they construct nests while at the same time generating a substantial nutrient pulse through post-spawn die-off and decay. The retention and export of these nutrients are of importance to any hypothesized productivity boost driven by the marine derived nutrients (MDNs). Using experimental enclosures in the Horsefly River spawning channel in north-central British Columbia, our objectives for this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of organic and inorganic sediment export and retention from an active-spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of fine sediment MDN storage. Using a suspended sediment mass balance model, marine isotope enrichment and a time series of gravel bed sediment infiltration, we found strongly linear relationships between sediment infiltration and marine-derived nutrient enrichment. Elevated suspended sediment produced by salmon redd (nest) construction acted as an effective vector for MDN infiltration into the gravel bed. This study demonstrated that localized patterns of sediment deposition are regulated by salmon activity which in turn act to control MDN storage within, and release from, the gravel bed. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the ability of a biogeomorphic agent like salmon to establish a feedback mechanism that creates favorable conditions which ultimately benefit the organism.

Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

2013-11-01

389

Fall Quarter: The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout Larry Dominguez: Salmon and Aquatic Ecologist (e-mail) eldominguez@comcast.net  

E-print Network

Shroder WA Department of Fish and Wildlife Chum salmon, Chinook salmon Sat. Oct 29 Field trip to KennedyFall Quarter: The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout Larry Dominguez: Salmon: The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout, by Thomas P. Quinn. ISBN 0-295-98437 Other Reading

390

Request for a new exempted fishing permit (EFP) to continue research on salmon bycatch reduction devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one  

E-print Network

devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one field season to improve to Chinook salmon success on Chinook salmon bycatch through our previous EFP work on salmon excluders, to date none of our objective under this EFP is to examine two promising ideas to improve the Chinook salmon bycatch reduction

391

Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems. PMID:16620373

Rajasingh, Hannah; ?yehaug, Leiv; Vage, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

2006-01-01

392

Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of above and below average strength of the Aleutian Low pressure system. During periods of stronger low pressure, sea surface temperature anomalies are warm in the northeast Pacific and cool in the central and northwest Pacific, a condition referred to as the positive phase of the Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation (PDO). Historically, during positive phases of the PDO Alaska salmon abundance is generally high. Consistent with this pattern, records of reconstructed sockeye salmon generally show higher abundance during warm periods over the past 300 years. However, the long-term trend suggests generally higher abundance during the cooler Little Ice Age, which southern Alaska glacial records suggest occurred between about 1200 - 1900 AD. The apparent complexity of salmon-climate relationships may be due to several factors. Long-term paleoclimate records from this region suggest additional modes of North Pacific climate variability, relative to the PDO. In addition, data on primary and secondary production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean indicates that climatic forcing has a direct impact on lower trophic levels, which subsequently affects salmon production. Thus records of ocean productivity, which are currently unavailable, may provide a mechanistic linkage between climate change and salmon abundance. The long-term perspective provided by the paleodata suggest that historical observations provide a limited understanding of how Pacific salmon respond to climatic change, and point to important areas of research necessary to better predict future responses.

Finney, B.

2002-12-01

393

European Mistletoe  

MedlinePLUS

... campaign . Top Sources American mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 7, 2009. European mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on ...

394

Salmon 2100: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

395

ESTIMATING NATURAL AND FISHING MORTALITIES OF CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA,  

E-print Network

ESTIMATING NATURAL AND FISHING MORTALITIES OF CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA for 1961 and 1962 brood Columbia River hatchery fall chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, based, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha,2 from the Columbia River using selected values of natural mortality. Cleaver

396

Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon  

E-print Network

Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon Steven W. Schlosser1, Gregory Foundation, via grant #CNS-0326453. Brandon Salmon is supported in part by an NSF Fellowship. #12;Keywords

397

MARKING SOCKEYE SALMON SCALES BY SHORT PERIODS OF STARVATION  

E-print Network

that the scale pattern of Columbia River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka can be recognizably modified Seaward migrations of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka 1 from Lake Wenatchee, Wash,, are composed of both

398

An assessment of salmon farms and wild salmonids as sources of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) copepodids in the water column in Loch Torridon, Scotland.  

PubMed

Wild salmonids and farmed salmon can both be sources of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1838) larvae. Farmed salmon smolts free of L. salmonis infections are stocked in sea cages and may subsequently contract L. salmonis infections, probably from wild fish. The contribution of gravid L. salmonis at Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms to populations of L. salmonis larvae in the water column has in the past been based on estimated parameters, such as louse fecundity. This present study augments these calculations by combining empirical data on densities of infective L. salmonis copepodids in the field with estimates of the number of gravid L. salmonis on farmed and wild salmonids in Loch Torridon. Data collected between 2002 and 2007 show a significant correlation between mean densities of L. salmonis copepodids recovered in the water column and the numbers of gravid L. salmonis at the local salmon farms. Generally, the farms with greatest numbers of salmon were observed to have stronger correlations with densities of copepodids in the water than the farms with fewer fish. The study suggests that louse management approaches, e.g. treatment trigger levels, need to take account of individual farm biomass, or numbers of fish. This study highlights the importance of control of L. salmonis on salmon farms for the co-existence of both wild salmonid populations and the aquaculture industry. PMID:19245632

Penston, M J; Davies, I M

2009-01-01

399

Anisakis simplex (s.s.) larvae in wild Alaska salmon: no indication of post-mortem migration from viscera into flesh.  

PubMed

The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of Anisakis nematode third-stage larvae (L3) in the muscle and viscera of wild-caught chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, pink salmon O. gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka were compared immediately after catch. Salmon were collected during the fishing season in July 2007 in Bristol Bay and Prince William Sound close to Cordova, Alaska (USA). All fish were infected, and more than 90% of the nematode larvae were found in the edible muscle meat. The isolated anisakid L3 were genetically identified as A. simplex (s.s.). The distribution of nematodes in the muscle meat of fresh-caught salmon was examined in 49 O. keta, 50 O. nerka and 12 O. gorbuscha from Cordova. Most of the larvae were detected in the muscle parts around the body cavity, but nematodes were also found in the tail meat and epaxial muscle (loins). The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in the edible part was 21 individuals for O. gorbuscha, 62 individuals for O. keta and 63 individuals for O. nerka. No difference in the intensity of Anisakis larvae in the hypaxial muscle was found between fresh-caught and immediately gutted salmon and individuals stored ungutted for 24 h either on ice or in refrigerated sea water. PMID:21790067

Karl, Horst; Baumann, Florian; Ostermeyer, Ute; Kuhn, Thomas; Klimpel, Sven

2011-05-01

400

European Community.  

PubMed

The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

1987-05-01

401

Stocking may increase mitochondrial DNA diversity but fails to halt the decline of endangered Atlantic salmon populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 50 years, Spanish Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations have been in decline. In order to bolster these populations, rivers were stocked with fish of northern European\\u000a origin during the period 1974–1996, probably also introducing the furunculosis-inducing pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida. Here we assess the relative importance of processes influencing mitochondrial (mt)DNA variability in these populations from\\u000a 1948 to 2002.

K. L. Ciborowski; S. Consuegra; C. García de Leániz; J. Wang; M. A. Beaumont; W. C. Jordan

2007-01-01

402

[The variation in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) mitochondrial DNA and its connection with the paleogeographic events in the Northwest Pacific].  

PubMed

The results of examining mtDNA variation in populations of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from the rivers of the basins of the seas of Japan and Okhotsk and in the chum salmon seasonal races of the Amur River are presented. A significant level of polymorphism between the majority of the populations studied was detected. The groups of chum salmon from the Japan and Okhotsk Seas displayed the most pronounced differences. Analysis of genetic variation demonstrated that periodic paleontologic and climatic changes in the past of this region were the most probable factor that caused the divergence of these populations. The advances and retreats of glaciers and the accompanying regressions and transgressions of the ocean level caused isolation of chum salmon in the refugia belonging hypothetically to the paleo-Suifun and paleo-Amur regions. These population groups diverged presumably 350-450 thousand years ago. Differences between the seasonal races of the Amur chum salmon are insignificant, and their emergence dates back to the period of the last Wisconsin glaciation. Probably, the main isolation factor now is the genetically determined time of spawning. PMID:17152708

Poliakova, N E; Semina, A V; Brykov, V A

2006-10-01

403

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

2009-10-01

404

76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Total 2010 ex-vessel value of the Council-managed non-Indian commercial salmon fishery was...California had its first commercial salmon fishery since 2007. The 2010 ex-vessel value of the commercial fishery was 28...

2011-10-24

405

Migration Problems of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Flow  

E-print Network

) and smolts of salmon and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied in the flow controlled areas of two northern#12;Migration Problems of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Flow Regulated Rivers. Peter Rivinoja. 2005. Migration Problems of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Flow Regulated Rivers. Doctor

406

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL  

E-print Network

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGA- TIONSKenian, Director ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS season 35 Parasites 39 SCUBA 41 Part IV. Limnology and its relation to sockeye salmon 43 Plankton and its

407

Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were

D HERTZLER

1990-01-01

408

Predictors of Chinook salmon extirpation in California's Central Valley  

E-print Network

Predictors of Chinook salmon extirpation in California's Central Valley S . C . Z E U G Department, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Abstract Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus. These results suggest that regional extirpation of Chinook salmon has been driven by multiple forms

Cardinale, Bradley J.

409

The Idaho Update recent trends in salmon and steelhead  

E-print Network

information for Snake River sp/su Chinook, fall Chinook, sockeye, and steelhead 2.Snake River sockeye salmon 2004 2006 2008 S teelhead S p/S u C hinook Adult returns of wild/natural spring/summer Chinook salmon Center (www.fpc.org). Adult returns of wild/natural spring/summer Chinook salmon and steelhead

410

FALL CHINOOK SALMON RETURNS TO HATCHERIES IN THE  

E-print Network

437 E FALL CHINOOK SALMON RETURNS TO HATCHERIES IN THE BONNEVILLE DAM POOL AREA, 1945-60 mame, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director FALL CHINOOK SALMON RETURNS 13 ill #12;#12;FALL CHINOOK SALMON RETURNS TO HATCHERIES IN THE BONNEVILLE DAM POOL AREA, 1945

411

Marine growth of Columbia River hatchery Chinook salmon  

E-print Network

Marine growth of Columbia River hatchery Chinook salmon Brian Beckman (presenter) numerous co* are apparent for Columbia River spring Chinook Salmon** *competition may occur between individuals, stocks differences exist between Columbia River Chinook salmon populations **ESA Snake River Spring** Fall** Spring

412

BIOLOGY OF CHINOOK AND BLUEBACK SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

304 BIOLOGY OF CHINOOK AND BLUEBACK SALMON AND STEELHEAD IN THE WENATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM Marine Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Cominissioner BIOLOGY OF CHINOOK AND BLUEBACK SALMON is as follows: French, Robert R Biology of Chinook and blueback salmon and steelhead in the AVenatchee River

413

Spring Chinook Salmon Production in the Deschutes Basin Project Narrative  

E-print Network

Spring Chinook Salmon Production in the Deschutes Basin Project Narrative Project Name Spring Chinook Salmon Production in The Deschutes River Basin Project Number 2008-311-00 Proposer Confederated of natural and artificial production of spring Chinook salmon in streams on the Warm Springs Indian

414

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Productivity Nez Perce Tribe  

E-print Network

or unutilized. Harvest of Snake River fall Chinook salmon still occurs in ocean and mainstem Columbia RiverSnake River Fall Chinook Salmon Productivity Jay Hesse Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries) remaining critical uncertainties. Historical abundance of fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin

415

SALMON RUNS -UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57  

E-print Network

364; SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57 Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS HOLE, MAt L. McKernan, Director SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER. 1956-57 by R. R. French and R. J. Wahle FIGURES 1. Columbia River watershed between Rock Island and Grand Coulee Dams iv 2. Chinook salmon p

416

STATUS OF COLUMBIA RIVER BLUEBACK SALMON RUNS, 1951  

E-print Network

STATUS OF COLUMBIA RIVER BLUEBACK SALMON RUNS, 1951 Marine Biological Laboratory J'JN13 1952 WOODS AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;STATUS OF COLUMBIA RIVER BLUEBACK SALMON RUNS, 1951 Marine Biological Laboratory J ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Known blueback salmon rearing areas of the Columbia River River System

417

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RETURN OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON  

E-print Network

445 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RETURN OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) TO SPRING THE RETURN OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) TO SPRING CREEK HATCHERY by Charles O. Junge, Jr THE RETURN OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) TO SPRING CREEK HATCHERY by Charles O. Junge, Jr

418

AbstractJuvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from natal  

E-print Network

244 Abstract­Juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from natal streams in California). Physiological ecology of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the southern end salmon (Oncorhynchus spring run, once forming the dominant tshawytscha) from natal streams in the chinook

419

Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain  

E-print Network

Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel Peter Guttorp NRCSET juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel and Peter Guttorp National Research.S.A SUMMARY We describe movement patterns of hatchery-raised, juvenile, spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus

Washington at Seattle, University of

420

North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation  

E-print Network

North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation Paper Prepared for the Norway between cooperating on joint management of Pacific salmon harvests and squabbling over their respective shares of the catch. In June 1999, the two nations signed the Pacific Salmon Agreement, which amends

Miller, Kathleen

421

LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS  

E-print Network

LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS 1819-1904 Lecture by Roderick Gow 6 April 2005 1 #12;The of George Salmon, mathematician, theologian and Provost of Trinity College from 1888. We are not aware of any commemoration of Salmon's life and work that occurred in 2004, and it is our intention, somewhat

Gow, Rod

422

The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential  

E-print Network

1 In Oregon The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential A summary overview Bruce Introduction Fisheries in Oregon and wild caught salmon in particular have been critical to many Native American tribes both culturally and economically. Salmon continue to play a central economic role today

423

WalnutCrusted Salmon cup finely chopped Walnuts  

E-print Network

WalnutCrusted Salmon ¼ cup finely chopped Walnuts 1 tablespoon dry bread crumbs 1 teaspoon grated Tablespoon ground flax seed 1 salmon fillets, skin-on 1 teaspoon brown mustard 2 lemon slices (thinly sliced slightly stick together; set aside. 2. Place salmon fillet, skin side down, and brush top with mustard

Jawitz, James W.

424

Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population , John Wakeley*  

E-print Network

Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population Size Can Cenik¤ , John Wakeley* Department Abstract Pacific salmon include several species that are both commercially important and endangered. Here we use a coalescent approach to analyze a model of the complex life history of salmon, and derive

425

Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

May 2013 Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings by Pierre Salmon Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion Universit� de Bourgogne and CNRS pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract Governments the influence of three guiding thoughts. 1 Some other aspects are briefly discussed in Salmon (2006). 2 Several

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

427

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) experience relatively high mortality  

E-print Network

-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Edward V. Farley Jr1 James M. Murphy1 Milo D--We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska121 Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) experience relatively high mortality rates during the first

428

Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources  

E-print Network

(Rogers and Rug- gerone, 1993). Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second355 Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources in the North Pacific

429

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

430

Effects of organic effluents from a salmon farm on a fjord system. I. Vertical export and dispersal processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical flux of organic waste from a Norwegian salmon farm (which produced 2910 tonnes of fish in 19 months) located in 230-m-deep water was measured nine times in the course of 2 years by sediment traps along a transect stretching from the farm and 3 km out towards the sea. The chemical composition of the trapped material and the sediment below the

Tina Kutti; Arne Ervik; Pia Kupka Hansen

2007-01-01

431

Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishm

Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

2004-10-01

432

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2008-02-01

433

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2010-10-01

434

75 FR 21600 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XW07 Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and Tanner Crab Fisheries in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands; Scallop and Salmon Fisheries Off the Coast of Alaska AGENCY: National...

2010-04-26

435

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

2012-07-26

436

History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

Parsons, John W.

1973-01-01

437

North European Transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland image a collage of older continental fragments and intervening basins that have been welded together in Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogenies. The Lapland-Kola orogen record the collision of Baltica and Laurentia during the compilation of the Columbia supercontinent. The collisional structures were overprinted by extension associated with the dispersal of Columbia. The Russian Arctic line 1-AR focuses on the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover of the Barents Sea Basin. The line images the transition from Paleoproterozoic Baltica to Neoproterozoic Barentsia. As part of the Rodinia supercontinent formation, Baltica collided with Barentsia resulting in Timanide orogeny. During the break-up of Rodinia an aborted rift was formed within the Barentsia. Later peripheral tectonic events modified the interior parts of Barentsia that acted first as a back arc basin and later as a foreland basin to the Uralian and Caledonian orogen during the formation of the Pangea supercontinent.

Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

2010-05-01

438

Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to grilsing and late sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

In Atlantic salmon aquaculture, early sexual maturation represents a major problem for producers. This is especially true for grilse, which mature after one sea winter before reaching a desirable harvest weight, rather than after two sea winters. Salmon maturing as grilse have a much lower market value than later maturing individuals. For this reason, most companies desire fish that grow fast and mature late. Marker-assisted selection has the potential to improve the efficiency of selection against early maturation and for late sexual maturation; however, studies identifying age of sexual maturation-related genetic markers are lacking for Atlantic salmon. Therefore, we used a 6.5K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to genotype five families from the Mainstream Canada broodstock program and search for SNPs associated with early (grilsing) or late sexual maturation. There were 529 SNP loci that were variable across all five families, and this was the set that was used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. GridQTL identified two chromosomes, Ssa10 and Ssa21, containing QTL related to grilsing. In contrast, only one QTL, on Ssa18, was found linked to late maturation in Atlantic salmon. Our previous work on these five families did not identify genome-wide significant growth-related QTL on Ssa10, Ssa21, or Ssa18. Therefore, taken together, these results suggest that both grilsing and late sexual maturation are controlled independently of one another and also from growth-related traits. The identification of genomic regions associated with grilsing or late sexual maturation provide an opportunity to incorporate this information into selective breeding programs that will enhance Atlantic salmon farming. PMID:23912817

Gutierrez, Alejandro P; Lubieniecki, Krzysztof P; Fukui, Steve; Withler, Ruth E; Swift, Bruce; Davidson, William S

2014-02-01

439

Life history reconstruction of modern and fossil sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) by oxygen isotopic analysis of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth: Implication for paleoenvironmental reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the use of oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite for tracking freshwater to marine migration in modern and fossil Pacific sockeye salmon. Oxygen isotope analyses of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth of three anadromous modern sockeye salmon from Alaska establish a basis for the interpretation of fossil vertebrae and tooth apatite from Pleistocene sockeye salmon of the Skokomish River Valley, Washington. High resolution ?18O profiles in salmon otoliths provide, at a monthly resolution, a detailed record of individual history including continental rearing, migration to sea, seasonal variation in sea surface temperatures during marine life, and spawning migration before capture. Pacific salmon teeth are constantly renewed with the last set of teeth forming under the influence of freshwater. Therefore, they do not allow inference concerning sea-run versus landlocked life history in fossil salmon. Salmon vertebrae are also ambiguous indicators of life history regarding fresh versus marine water because centra are minimally ossified in the freshwater stages of life and the outermost layer of vertebral bone might be resorbed to provide nutrients during the non-feeding phase of the spawning migration. Therefore, ?18O values of accretionary growth rings in sea-run salmon vertebrae are dominated by the marine signal only if they are not diagenetically altered in freshwater deposits. In Pleistocene sockeye reported here, neither the teeth nor vertebral apatite present clear marine ?18O values due to the combined effects of tooth replacement and diagenetic alteration of bone and dentine. ?18O(PO 4) values of fossil vertebrae are intermediate between ?18O(PO 4) values of enamel and basal tooth dentin. Assuming a similar rate of isotope exchange of vertebrae and dentine with freshwater during diagenesis, these results are interpreted to reflect formation of the teeth under the influence of freshwater, and formation of the vertebrae under the influence of oceanic water. Our approach demonstrates that when appropriate knowledge of tissue formation is available, isotopic differences between altered and unaltered tissue holds promise of distinguishing between marine and freshwater origin of the tissues.

Zazzo, A.; Smith, G. R.; Patterson, W. P.; Dufour, E.

2006-09-01

440

Black Sea in Bloom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01