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Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability.
Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.
Populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar at the edge of the species’ distribution are the most vulnerable to environmental changes. Those inhabiting southern European rivers are expected to be particularly affected by global warming. However, they are exploited as a very valuable resource for the region, attracting tourism and generating substantial income. In the central part of northern Spain (Asturias),
Over the last three decades salmon aquaculture has become both a significant coastal industry and a focus of controversy regarding its environmental impacts. Both circumstances have also provoked a great deal of environmental research. This article examines one episode in the history of this research. The Broughton Archipelago is a region of islands and channels on the Pacific coast of Canada, densely populated with salmon farms. Beginning in 2001 this region attracted researchers from several institutions, who examined the ecology of the farms, and particularly the possibility that they release large numbers of parasites (known as sea lice), which then infect wild salmon. This local research community drew on aspects of the regional environment, including its ecological conditions, and opportunities for surveys, field experiments, and ecological modeling, to construct methods that were both situated in this place, yet intended to be persuasive to audiences outside the region. Knowledge of this environment was also influenced by knowledge from elsewhere, including the results of European research on sea lice, and various disciplinary perspectives. Research results were invoked to support opposing views of the impacts of salmon farms, as well as contrasting perspectives on the region's identity. Sea lice themselves, within the context of the ecosystem that gave them meaning, were objectified as the ecological link between salmon farms and the environment, and the basis for research and debate over these farms. This historical episode therefore demonstrates the inseparability of scientific practice, knowledge and place, particularly in the context of controversy. PMID:21847601
Resource utilization in Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Baltic Sea was investigated by means of an energy analysis. A comparison was made between cage farming and sea ranching enterprises each with yearly yields of 40 t of Atlantic salmon. A variety of sea ranching options were evaluated, including (a) conventional ranching, (b) ranching employing a delayed release to the sea of young smolts, (c) harvesting salmon both by offshore fishing fleets and as they return to coastal areas, and (d) when offshore fishing is banned, harvesting salmon only as they return to coastal areas where released. Inputs both from natural ecosystems (i.e., fish consumed by ranched salmon while in the sea and raw materials used for producing dry food pellets) and from the economy (i.e., fossil fuels and energy embodied in economic goods and services) were quantified in tonnes for food energy and as direct plus indirect energy cost (embodied energy). The fixed solar energy (estimated as primary production) and the direct and indirect auxiliary energy requirements per unit of fish output were expressed in similar units. Similar quantities of living resources in tonnes per unit of salmon biomass output are required whether the salmon are feeding in the sea or are caged farmed. Cage farming is about 10 times more dependent on auxiliary energies than sea ranching. Sea ranching applying delayed release of smolts is 35 45% more efficient in the use of auxiliary energies than conventional sea ranching and cage farming. Restriction of offshore fishing would make sea ranching 3 to 6.5 times more efficient than cage farming. The fixed solar energy input to Atlantic salmon aquaculture is 4 to 63 times larger than the inputs of auxiliary energy. Thus, cage farming and sea ranching are both heavily dependent on the productivity of natural ecosystems. It is concluded that sustainable development of the aquaculture industry must be founded on ecologically integrated technologies which utilize the free production in marine ecosystems without exhausting or damaging the marine environment.
Human-mediated translocations of species beyond their native ranges can enhance evolutionary processes in populations introduced\\u000a to novel environments. We studied such processes in several generations of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha introduced to the European North of Russia using a set of morphological and life-history traits as well as molecular genetic\\u000a markers with different selective values: protein-coding loci, mtDNA, microsatellites, and
The stock composition of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka caught in the central Bering Sea in the summer of 2009 was estimated to evaluate migration patterns of salmon of Canadian origin, which have not been demonstrated previously to rear in the Bering Sea. The variation at 14 microsatellites was analyzed for 450 immature sockeye salmon, and a baseline of 387 populations
Terry D. Beacham; John R. Candy; Erin Porszt; Shunpei Sato; Shigehiko Urawa
The evolution of salmon trout farming in Finland provides an interesting example of how different trade policies can affect on the conditions of a small section of a primary industry in the global market. During the protectionist times in the 1980s, Finland became the world-leading producer of salmon trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (Saarni et al. 2003). During the global expansion of
Jarno Virtanen; Jari Setala; Kaija Saarni; Asmo Honkanen
The genetic structure and isolation pattern of the Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) throughout its range in the Baltic Sea were examined as a starting point for a conservation strategy for the species in this area. The allozyme variation in seven polymorphic loci was studied in 5125 salmon from 24 rivers in four countries. A clear dichotomy was observed between
Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Håkan Jansson; Tiit Paaver; Oleg Vasin; Jarmo Koskiniemi
The first Web site (1) is intended as an educational resource, but is also fit for a general audience as it introduces salmon, their habitat, the need for conservation, and salmon fisheries. The next site is from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fish FAQs (2) and has several pages of salmon FAQs, all of which can be found by using the next button. The third resource from an Anthropology course at Oregon State University (3) gives an account of the changing Columbia River Basin and the status of commercial fisheries in the region. The King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Web site (4) has information on salmon conservation and recovery efforts in King County. Research papers on salmon and other Pacific Northwest fishes are provided on this Northwest Fisheries Science Center page (5). The Web site for the organization Wild Olympic Salmon (6) celebrates the successful recovery of summer chum salmon to Chimacum Creek. The Wild Salmon Center (7), a nonprofit organization formed to protect salmon and their habitat, provides numerous links to salmon conservation information. Some interesting video clips of salmon runs were caught on tape by the King County Salmon Cam (8).
Pink salmon spawners introduced into the White Sea basin (the Umba River) were compared to the spawners from the basin of the Sea of Okhotsk (the Ola River) using restriction analysis of two fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One of the fragments included genes ND5\\/ND6, the other, the cytochrome b gene and the D-loop. It was found that mtDNA variation
Results from the 1993–2004 genetic monitoring of pink salmon populations reproducing in the rivers of Tauy Bay on the Sea\\u000a of Okhotsk are analyzed. A statistically significant heterogeneity of samples as determined by gene frequencies is found only\\u000a in the pink salmon generations of even years. The genetic differentiation of samples from even years (GST = 1.39 ± 0.41) is
Genetic parameters of pink salmon introduced into the White Sea basin in 1985 and 1998 were compared to the corresponding parameters of the donor population from the Ola River (Magadan oblast). The detected genetic differences indicate that colonization of a new area is accompanied by impoverishment of the gene pool of the native population. This effect was particularly marked in the odd-year line of pink salmon introduced in 1985. The probable causes of these genetic changes are discussed. PMID:12722641
Gordeeva, N V; Salmenkova, E A; Altukhov, Iu P; Makhrov, A A; Pustovo?t, S P
The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in EuropeanSeas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in Europeanseas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present.
Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched from the traditional circular polarized group structure, seen at low and moderate current velocities, to a group structure where all fish kept stations at fixed positions swimming against the current. This type of group behaviour has not been described in sea cages previously. The structural changes could be explained by a preferred swimming speed of salmon spatially restricted in a cage in combination with a behavioural plasticity of the fish. PMID:24830443
Johansson, David; Laursen, Frida; Fernö, Anders; Fosseidengen, Jan Erik; Klebert, Pascal; Stien, Lars Helge; Vågseth, Tone; Oppedal, Frode
Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched from the traditional circular polarized group structure, seen at low and moderate current velocities, to a group structure where all fish kept stations at fixed positions swimming against the current. This type of group behaviour has not been described in sea cages previously. The structural changes could be explained by a preferred swimming speed of salmon spatially restricted in a cage in combination with a behavioural plasticity of the fish.
Johansson, David; Laursen, Frida; Ferno, Anders; Fosseidengen, Jan Erik; Klebert, Pascal; Stien, Lars Helge; Vagseth, Tone; Oppedal, Frode
The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice.
Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R
Genetic parameters of pink salmon introduced into the White Sea basin in 1985 and 1998 were compared to the corresponding parameters of the donor population from the Ola River (Magadan oblast). The detected genetic differences indicate that colonization of a new area is accompanied by impoverishment of the gene pool of the native population. This effect was particularly marked in
N. V. Gordeeva; E. A. Salmenkova; Yu. P. Altukhov; A. A. Makhrov; S. P. Pustovoit
Industrial salmon farming has been correlated with infestations of parasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis in adjacent wild juvenile salmonids and declines of sympatric wild salmonid populations. Prohibitively large financial, human, and logistical resource requirements prevent the implementation of long-term, large-scale monitoring programs to assess the effect of farms on wild salmonids. We report a novel nonlethal sampling procedure for quantifying
Despite restoration efforts, only about 2,000 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) salmon have annually returned to New England Rivers and more than 71% of these fish migrate to the Penobscot River alone. This report provides a historical compilation on the prevalence's of both Yersinia ruckeri, cause of enteric redmouth disease, and Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis, among mature sea-run Atlantic salmon that returned to the Penobscot River from 1976 to 2003. Aeromonas salmonicida was detected in 28.6% and Yersinia ruckeri was detected among 50% of the yearly returns. Consequently, Atlantic salmon that return to the river are potential reservoirs of infection.
Even though most people have returned to work and school, the opportunity for travel and adventure still exists...via computer. A northern adventure comes from OneWorldJourneys.com, which is presenting a ten-day photo-documentary Webcast from the coastal waters and rivers of British Columbia's Great Bear Rainforest. This virtual journey, focuses on the natural history and future of the wild Pacific Salmon. Visitors to the site can learn how the salmon is a critical link in the health of an entire ecosystem -- a particularly timely issue in the wake of water rights and forestry disputes in the Northwest. Text, gorgeous photos, and videos can be viewed in either high or low bandwidth formats (Flash, QuickTime, RealPlayer), and the site is also available in Japanese. Salmon is the fifth Webcast expedition produced by OneWorldJourneys.com. The last OneWorldJourneys Webcast that we featured was "Jaguar: Lord of the Mayan Jungle," reviewed in the April 27, 2001 Scout Report.
Pink salmon spawners introduced into the White Sea basin (the Umba River) were compared to the spawners from the basin of the Sea of Okhotsk (the Ola River) using restriction analysis of two fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One of the fragments included genes ND5/ND6, the other, the cytochrome b gene and the control region. It was found that mtDNA variation and diversity at the earlier examined nuclear allozyme genes significantly decreased in the odd broodline of pink salmon 8 years after the introduction. The haplotype diversity in the even broodline was considerably lower than in the odd broodline exhibiting virtually no change two generations after the introduction. Based on the results obtained, a possible role of these changes in adaptation of White Sea pink salmon from the odd broodline to the new environment is discussed. PMID:15125255
Industrial salmon farms are reservoirs of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus spp.), which causes both production inefficiencies and contributes to population-level declines of wild salmon and trout. Current control methods vary in effect and stimulate controversy by the discharge of chemicals into the environment. An alternate control method uses a thin, chemical-infused oil layer on the sea surface. As farmed salmon jump through the surface, the treatment makes contact with the lipophilic carapace of sea lice and kills them. To enhance the effectiveness of this method, we tested whether the natural jumping behavior of salmon could be increased and directed. In a 2,000-m(3) experimental sea-cage, we removed the ability of groups of salmon to access the surface for different periods (0 to 48 h) and measured their surface behaviors after the surface became accessible again. Surface removal for 24 and 48 h induced 93% of salmon to jump in the 2 h after surface access was reinstated, a result that differed (P < 0.001) from the shorter duration (0 to 12 h) treatments. Salmon without surface access for 24 and 48 h jumped 2 to 3 times more often (P < 0.001), and made their first jump 2 to 3 times sooner (P = 0.003) on average after surface access became available than salmon in the shorter duration treatments. Our results indicate that removal of surface access for short periods may lead to loss of air from the physostomous swim bladder and cause negative buoyancy. This creates a behavioral drive for salmon to jump, swallow air and fill their swim bladders once surface access is reinstated. By combining the increased jumping behavior induced by this technique with a floating, oil-infused treatment, efficiency of sea lice treatments may be improved and treatment chemicals can be re-collected, thus decreasing environmental pollution. PMID:21821806
Dempster, T; Kristiansen, T S; Korsøen, Ø J; Fosseidengen, J E; Oppedal, F
Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery. PMID:24056447
High levels of sea lice generally exceeding a prevalence of 60% were found on all species of juvenile Pacific salmon and on juvenile Pacific herring in the Gulf Islands area within the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Virtually all sea lice were Caligus clemensi and most stages were maturing or mature. There are no active fish farms in this area,
R. Beamish; J. Wade; W. Pennell; E. Gordon; S. Jones; C. Neville; K. Lange; R. Sweeting
Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada, during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink salmon, the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice per fish with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the 2 main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, although the nature of this effect differed according to host species. PMID:23872858
Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Krkosek, Martin; Jones, Simon R M; Revie, Crawford W
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of the recent European Union (EU) expansion on the international marketing strategies of Fjord Seafood, a Norwegian farmed salmon producer. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Norwegian salmon industry provides an interesting case study because it reflects the complexities of a dynamic international environment. Not only must the industry grapple with
T. C. Melewar; Helene Mui; Suraksha Gupta; Joseann Knight
Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease causing negative impacts on economy of salmon farms and fish welfare. Its transmission route is horizontal, and water transport by ocean currents is an important factor for transmission. In this study, the effect of temperature changes on PD dynamics in the field has been analysed for the first time. To identify the potential time of exposure to the virus causing PD, a hydrodynamic current model was used. A cohort of salmon was assumed to be infected the month it was exposed to virus from other infective cohorts by estimated water contact. The number of months from exposure to outbreak defined the incubation period, which was used in this investigation to explore the relationship between temperature changes and PD dynamics. The time of outbreak was identified by peak in mortality based on monthly records from active sites. Survival analysis demonstrated that cohorts exposed to virus at decreasing sea temperature had a significantly longer incubation period than cohorts infected when the sea temperature was increasing. Hydrodynamic models can provide information on the risk of being exposed to pathogens from neighbouring farms. With the knowledge of temperature-dependent outbreak probability, the farmers can emphasize prophylactic management, avoid stressful operations until the sea temperature is decreasing and consider removal of cohorts at risk, if possible. PMID:23980568
Stene, A; Bang Jensen, B; Knutsen, O; Olsen, A; Viljugrein, H
The 1985 introduction into the European North of Russia resulted in the formation of a large stock of pink salmon of the odd-year\\u000a broodline. To assess the divergence of the new population and the role of various microevolutionary factors, variation of\\u000a four microsatellite loci and fifteen genes encoding proteins (allozymes) in samples of fish, running for spawning in rivers\\u000a of
Background Anadromous migratory fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have significant economic, cultural and ecological importance, but present a complex case for management and conservation due to the range of their migration. Atlantic salmon exist in rivers across the North Atlantic, returning to their river of birth with a high degree of accuracy; however, despite continuing efforts and improvements in in-river conservation, they are in steep decline across their range. Salmon from rivers across Europe migrate along similar routes, where they have, historically, been subject to commercial netting. This mixed stock exploitation has the potential to devastate weak and declining populations where they are exploited indiscriminately. Despite various tagging and marking studies, the effect of marine exploitation and the marine element of the salmon lifecycle in general, remain the "black-box" of salmon management. In a number of Pacific salmonid species and in several regions within the range of the Atlantic salmon, genetic stock identification and mixed stock analysis have been used successfully to quantify exploitation rates and identify the natal origins of fish outside their home waters - to date this has not been attempted for Atlantic salmon in the south of their European range. Results To facilitate mixed stock analysis (MSA) of Atlantic salmon, we have produced a baseline of genetic data for salmon populations originating from the largest rivers from Spain to northern Scotland, a region in which declines have been particularly marked. Using 12 microsatellites, 3,730 individual fish from 57 river catchments have been genotyped. Detailed patterns of population genetic diversity of Atlantic salmon at a sub-continent-wide level have been evaluated, demonstrating the existence of regional genetic signatures. Critically, these appear to be independent of more commonly recognised terrestrial biogeographical and political boundaries, allowing reporting regions to be defined. The implications of these results on the accuracy of MSA are evaluated and indicate that the success of MSA is not uniform across the range studied; our findings indicate large differences in the relative accuracy of stock composition estimates and MSA apportioning across the geographical range of the study, with a much higher degree of accuracy achieved when assigning and apportioning to populations in the south of the area studied. This result probably reflects the more genetically distinct nature of populations in the database from Spain, northwest France and southern England. Genetic stock identification has been undertaken and validation of the baseline microsatellite dataset with rod-and-line and estuary net fisheries of known origin has produced realistic estimates of stock composition at a regional scale. Conclusions This southern European database and supporting phylogeographic and mixed-stock analyses of net samples provide a unique tool for Atlantic salmon research and management, in both their natal rivers and the marine environment. However, the success of MSA is not uniform across the area studied, with large differences in the relative accuracy of stock composition estimates and MSA apportioning, with a much higher degree of accuracy achieved when assigning and apportioning to populations in the south of the region. More broadly, this study provides a basis for long-term salmon management across the region and confirms the value of this genetic approach for fisheries management of anadromous species.
A likely endocrine control mechanism for sexual differentiation in size-graded populations of Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is proposed by evaluating the brain expression and pituitary content of two forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), namely sea bream (sbGnRH) and salmon (sGnRH), the pituitary expression of one subtype of GnRH receptor (dlGnRH-R-2A) and the three gonadotropin (GtH) subunits, namely glycoprotein ?
G. Moles; M. Carrillo; E. Mañanós; C. C. Mylonas; S. Zanuy
The genetic structure and phylogeography of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) across the Baltic Sea basin and neighbouring areas (eastern Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Barents Sea, White Sea, and two Russian lakes, Onega and Ladoga) were studied to resolve the partly contradictory hypotheses of the species' postglacial colonization history. Thirty-eight populations (total of 2180 individuals) were studied for nine DNA microsatellite
Marjatta Säisä; Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Riho Gross; Jan Nilsson; Jaana Tähtinen; Jarmo Koskiniemi; Anti Vasemägi
This study continues the identification monitoring of local sockeye salmon stocks in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Russia\\u000a on the basis of scale criteria. This study was launched in 2002 as a part of BASIS (the Bering-Aleutian Salmon International\\u000a Survey). Scale samples of immature sockeye salmon from the trawl catches of the R\\/V TINRO in the western Bering Sea in
A. V. Bugaev; I. I. Glebov; E. V. Golub; K. W. Myers; J. Seeb; M. Foster
The 1985 introduction into the European North of Russia resulted in the formation of a large stock of pink salmon of the odd-year breeding line. To assess the divergence of the new population and the role of various microevolutionary factors, variation of four microsatellite loci and fifteen genes encoding proteins (allozymes) in samples of fish, running for spawning in rivers of the new area, and in samples from the donor population of the Ola River (Magadan oblast). In the generations 8 and 9 of the introduced pink salmon of the odd-year line, the genetic diversity (the number of alleles and the mean heterozygosity) both at allozyme and at microsatellite loci was significantly lower, than that in the donor population. The explanations of the decline in diversity are discussed. The first evidence for spatial genetic divergence in transplanted fish within the new area has been obtained; the divergence level may be comparable with that characteristic of native populations. PMID:16649661
Results of genetic monitoring of pink salmon populations breeding in the rivers Taui Bay, Sea of Okhotsk (1993-2004) are analyzed. Statistically significant heterogeneity of samples identified according to gene frequencies are found out only for pink salmon generations of even years. Genetic differentiation of the samples of even years (G(ST) = 1,39 +/- 0,41) is higher than that of odd years (G(ST) = 0,74 +/- 0,09). At the same time for the parameter of genetic variability (heterozygosity) the regularity is opposite (0,0726 +/- 0,02564 vs. 0,08760 +/- 0,01950). Hence, at a lower heterozygosity the samplings of even years are characterized by higher genetic differences than the samplings of odd years. Besides that the interpopulation part in the general size of genetic variety is always practically less than both within-year and interannual that causes a low level of interpopulation genetic distinctions. Cluster analysis has found out that the most part of the samples of 2001-2004 are united separately from the samples collected up to 2000. In our opinion the reason is the change of the dominant generation on number and the changes of gene frequencies accompanying it. PMID:20458973
A newly developed DNA microarray was applied to identify mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes of more than 2200 chum salmon in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean in September 2002 and also 2003, when the majority of maturing fish were migrating toward their natal river. The distribution of haplotypes occurring in Asian and North American fish in the surveyed area was similar in the 2 years. A conditional maximum likelihood method for estimation of stock compositions indicated that the Japanese stocks were distributed mainly in the north central Bering Sea, whereas the Russian stocks were mainly in the western Bering Sea. The North American stocks were abundant in the North Pacific Ocean around the Aleutian Islands. These results indicate that the Asian and North American stocks of chum salmon are nonrandomly distributed in the Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, and further the oligonuleotide DNA microarray developed by us has a high potential for identification of stocks among mixed ocean aggregates of high-seas chum salmon. PMID:17186428
Background Studies of the temporal patterns of population genetic structure assist in evaluating the consequences of demographic and environmental changes on population stability and persistence. In this study, we evaluated the level of temporal genetic variation in 16 anadromous and 2 freshwater salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin (Russia) using samples collected between 1995 and 2008. To assess whether the genetic stability was affected by human activity, we also evaluated the effect of fishing pressure on the temporal genetic variation in this region. Results We found that the genetic structure of salmon populations in this region was relatively stable over a period of 1.5 to 2.5 generations. However, the level of temporal variation varied among geographical regions: anadromous salmon of the Kola Peninsula exhibited a higher stability compared to that of the anadromous and freshwater salmon from the Karelian White Sea coast. This discrepancy was most likely attributed to the higher census, and therefore effective, population sizes of the populations inhabiting the rivers of the Kola Peninsula compared to salmon of the Karelian White Sea coast. Importantly, changes in the genetic diversity observed in a few anadromous populations were best explained by the increased level of fishing pressure in these populations rather than environmental variation or the negative effects of hatchery escapees. The observed population genetic patterns of isolation by distance remained consistent among earlier and more recent samples, which support the stability of the genetic structure over the period studied. Conclusions Given the increasing level of fishing pressure in the Western White Sea Basin and the higher level of temporal variation in populations exhibiting small census and effective population sizes, further genetic monitoring in this region is recommended, particularly on populations from the Karelian rivers.
We conducted surveys in Bristol Bay on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf during late August to mid-September 2000-2003, as part of the Bering-Aleutian Salmon International Survey (BASIS). Our main objective was to compare biological and physical oceanographic characteristics to the distributions of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and age-0 walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) during fall in the southeastern Bering Sea.
Lisa B. Eisner; Edward V. Farley; James M. Murphy; John H. Helle
The 10-year record of ocean color data provided by the SeaWiFS mission is an important asset for monitoring and research activities conducted on the optically complex Europeanseas. This study makes use of the SeaWiFS data set of normalized water leaving radiances LWN to study the major characteristics of temporal variability associated with optical properties across the entire European domain. Specifically, the time series of LWN and associated band ratios are decomposed into terms representing a fixed seasonal cycle, irregular variations and trends, and the contribution of these components to the total variance is described for the various basins. The diversity of the European waters is fully reflected by the range of results varying with regions and wavelengths. Generally, the Mediterranean and Baltic seas appear as two end-members with, respectively, high and low contributions of the seasonal component to the total variance. The existence of linear trends affecting the satellite products is also explored for each basin. By focusing the analysis on LWN and band ratios, the validity of the results is not limited by the varying levels of uncertainty that characterize derived products such as the concentration of chlorophyll a in optically complex waters. Statistically significant, and in some cases large, trends are detected in the Atlantic Ocean west of the European western shelf, the central North Sea, the English Channel, the Black Sea, the northern Adriatic, and various regions of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern Baltic Sea, revealing changes in the concentrations of optically significant constituents in these regions.
The understanding of migration patterns can significantly contribute to conservation and management. The spawning migrations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cover thousands of kilometers from the feeding areas at sea to their natal rivers to reproduce. Migrating salmon are exposed to intensive harvest, but little is known of the population-specific differences in migration behavior. In this study, timing of return migration was investigated among one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon within a river system. By utilizing knowledge of the genetic population structure, population of origin was reliably identified for c. 1500 fish caught in mixed stock fisheries after adopting an approach to minimize the complications arising from potential nonsampled populations. Results demonstrated significant and temporally stable differences among populations as well as between sexes. Generally, female salmon from tributary populations entered fresh water first. Run timing was not however related to in-river migration distance. Rather, one-sea-winter salmon from larger populations and with a higher proportion of multi-sea-winter females arrived later in the season. These findings are a significant step toward a more thorough understanding of the salmon migration behavior and behavioral ecology, providing concrete tools for the management and conservation of the remaining indigenous Atlantic salmon stocks.
Seabirds ( Rissa spp. and Uria spp.) and sockeye salmon ( Onchorhynchus nerka) of the eastern Bering Sea share similarities in their trophic ecology. We tested the role of seabirds as indicators of food web conditions that affect sockeye salmon at sea survival by investigating co-variation between seabirds breeding on the Pribilof Islands and returns of Bristol Bay sockeyes. We examined seabird phenology (hatching dates of eggs) against sockeye returns based on the year of ocean entry. Annual seabird hatching date was inversely related to sockeye returns, with the strongest co-variation found for sockeye which entered the ocean at 2 years of age (age 2 x smolts). The mechanism supporting this co-variation is unknown, but both birds and salmon may be responding to changes in prey availability (a "bottom-up" effect). The co-variation between seabird hatching date and sockeye returns supports the idea that variation in seabird breeding parameters indicates food web conditions that also affect other upper trophic level predators in marine systems. Coupling seabird phenology with existing annual predictions for Bristol Bay salmon may improve forecasts and fishery management.
Sydeman, William J.; Abraham, Christine L.; Vernon Byrd, G.
A newly developed DNA microarray was applied to identify mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes of more than 2200 chum salmon in\\u000a the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean in September 2002 and also 2003, when the majority of maturing fish were migrating\\u000a toward their natal river. The distribution of haplotypes occurring in Asian and North American fish in the surveyed area
The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all Europeansea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the EuropeanSeas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.
An investigation into the interaction of surface M 2 tides in the system of marginal seas of the North European Basin is carried out using the three-dimensional finite-element hydrostatic model QUODDY-4. Three numerical experiments are performed for this purpose. In the first (control), the model equations are solved in the system of the Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, and White seas; thereby the interaction of the tides in these seas is explicitly taken into account. In the second experiment, the White Sea is excluded from consideration and the no-flux condition is posed at the entrance to the sea. The third experiment uses an approach in which the observed tidal elevations that determine the existence of a finite horizontal transport of barotropic energy to the White Sea are specified at the open boundary of the White Sea. It is shown that changes in tidal dynamics represented by changes in the amplitudes and phases of tidal elevations and in the barotropic tidal velocity ellipse parameters are within the model noise in experiments 2 and 3 when compared with the control experiment. On the contrary, changes in energy characteristics (the horizontal wave transport, density, and dissipation rate of barotropic tidal energy) are equal to or greater (in order of magnitude) than the energy characteristics themselves.
Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809
The genetic structure of a small sockeye salmon population from the Ola River (Tauyskaya Inlet, the Okhotsk Sea) was shown to exhibit high heterogeneity. Significant differences of LDH-B2*and ALAT-2*gene frequencies were detected not only among samples within the spawner and juvenile groups but also between spawners and juveniles as a whole. The average heterozygosity of sockeye salmon from the Ola
A complex of adaptive changes occurring in the Pacific salmon fry in the process of migration to the sea is described, including behavior, ion content in carcasses, and morphological changes in Stannius bodies, gill epithelium, and nephron tubular epithelium. Participating in experiments with transfer from fresh water into a two-layer aquarium (the lower layer - sea water, the upper layer - fresh water) were smolts of chum salmon and underyearlings of masu salmon as well as the trachurus and leiurus forms of the three-spined stickleback Casterosteus aculeatus. All fish, regardless of their salt preference, at once after placement into the two-layer aquarium, occupied the sea water zone, at the very bottom of the aquarium. After 1 h, there started brief excursions of masu salmon and chum salmon to the upper, fresh water layer; however, both forms of the three-spined stickleback did not participate in these excursions. After 12 h, the chum salmon settled down in the lower, sea water layer, while the masu salmon - in the upper, fresh water layer. Both forms of the three-spined stickleback never left the sea water layer and felt quite comfortably on the aquarium bottom. It seems that the high tolerance of the both stickleback forms to wide salinity limits allows them to choose the convenient position regardless of the water salt composition. By analyzing the material obtained for three years (2001-2003) on structure and functions of the gill epithelium chloride cells (CC), we have come to the conclusion that the fresh water fry of two salmon species, chum and masu salmons, caught at the same time and practically in the same water reservoirs can be divided into three groups. The underyearlings of the masu salmon as a rule are characterized by the thickened epithelium of secondary gill lamellae, but by a very small number of CC. In smolts of chum salmon, on the contrary, the epithelium is sufficiently thin, but enriched in the CC that demonstrate an active structure in the very beginning of migration to sea. However, with approaching the sea (and with an increase of terms of migration) the CC activity drops, but their amount does not change. And only after migration to the sea the CC activity rises again, although their amount seems to remain unchanged. The described peculiarities of behavior and of the ion composition regulation in the migrating salmon fry confirm the hypothesis that the salmons evolutionized in fresh water, that the Oncorhynchus genus appeared in large spaces of saltish waters, such as the Japan Sea at the period of the early Pleistocene, and that learning of fry of the Oncorhynchus genus (for instance, of O. gorbuscha and O. keta) is the most specialized in the salmons migrating to the sea, whereas the fresh water species of chars (Salvelinus) and of trouts (Salmo) are more primitive. PMID:18411513
The Europeansea bass, a member of the Moronidae family, is a food fish, considered one of the first models for the intensive breeding in salt water. It has nowadays an important and increasing presence in the international fishing markets. Sea basses are carnivorous, feeding on little fishes and invertebrates. Considering the important role of the tongue during the intraoral transport and the swallowing of food, scarce data are present in literature about its morphology. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology of the tongue by means of scanning electron and light microscopy. Adult sea basses were obtained from the aquarium of the Sicilian Center of Experimental Ichthyiopathology of the University of Messina. The fishes were anaesthetized with MS 222 and the heads were then quickly removed and processed for the paraffin embedding and SEM processing. Three different tongue regions could be distinguished: an apex, a body, and a root. Scanning electron and light microscopy showed the presence of numerous canine-like teeth, surrounded by taste buds and numerous fungiform and conical papillae. The teeth were curved and their tips were posteriorly oriented. The results confirm, in teleosts too, the fundamental role of the tongue in the mechanics of food ingestion. Moreover, the presence of taste buds demonstrates the interaction of food processing and taste. These data could be a potential source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in the breeding of this fish. PMID:22505185
Abbate, Francesco; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; Montalbano, Giuseppe; De Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Ciriaco, Emilia; Germanà, Antonino
Pacific salmon fry were collected in 2001-2002 in the rivers of Southern Sakhalin on the way of their migration to the sea. The comparison of the data on ionic content of chum salmon fry carcass, received in 2002, with those obtained in 2001, has shown that the dispersion of ion concentration values in 2002 samples was significantly smaller than in 2001. Similar results were obtained when the mass of smolts was compared. The significant decrease of Na+ concentration in chum salmon fry during migration to the sea supports the idea on an imperative stimulus formation by means of change of Na+ concentration in migrating fish. The analysis of gill chloride cell (CC) structure in chum salmon and masu salmon fry in fresh and salty water has shown, that in fishes from fresh water CC were located mainly in primary lamellae, at the basis of secondary lamellae. As a rule, CC are large, have a large nucleus with an active chromatin and a light cytoplasm with numerous elongated mitochondria containing dense matrix. Secondary lamellae are short, 1-3 cells thick and practically contain no CC. In some fishes secondary lamellae were more numerous and longer. Some part of secondary lamellae contained large CC; in this place their width was approximately 2 times greater. As a whole, CC number in these fishes was increased. Analyzing all the material received during 2 years, with respect to CC cell structure and functions, a conclusion was drawn that freshwater fry of two salmon species, both chum salmon and masu salmon, caught at the same time and practically in the same reservoirs, could be divided into 3 groups. Masu salmon underyearlings are characterized, as a rule, by a thickened secondary lamellae epithelium, which, however contained few CC. In the chum salmon smolts, on the contrary, epithelium was thin, but contained numerous CC, which demonstrate active structure in the beginning of migration to the sea. But as they approached the sea (and migration duration increased), CC activity fell, though their number remained unchanged. It was only after fish transition to the sea, that CC activity grew again, though their number remained the same. PMID:20593586
The summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals was quantitatively established both in Antarctica (Weddell Sea) and in the European Arctic: Greenland, Norwegian and Barents seas. Data can directly be compared, since the same transect counts were applied by the same team from the same icebreaking ship in both regions. The main conclusion is that densities of seabirds and
Sequencing of 395 bp long fragments of cytochrome b gene occupying the 15396-15790 bp positions of mtDNA, the data on the structure and variability of the studied region in chum salmon from the Ola River (northern coast of the Sea of Okhtosk) were obtained for the first time. Nine haplotype variants and four protein modifications were obtained. The medial net was built reflecting the variability and phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes in the gene pool of the studied population of the chum salmon from the Ola River. Comparative analysis of the published and original data showed that the Ola chum salmon differs from the Canadian salmon ninth genotypically (in structure of cytochrome b gene) and in the amino acid sequence of the studied site of the enzyme. PMID:21077364
Wild stocks of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, have experienced recent declines in some areas of their range. Also, the release of hatchery chum salmon has escalated to\\u000a nearly three billion fish annually. The decline of wild stocks and the unknown effects of hatchery fish combined with the\\u000a uncertainty of future production caused by global climate change have renewed interest in
Lisa W. Seeb; Penelope A. Crane; Christine M. Kondzela; Richard L. Wilmot; Shigehiko Urawa; Natalya V. Varnavskaya; James E. Seeb
The results of phenetic studies on chum salmon populations from the rivers flowing into Taui and Yama bays, Sea of Okhotsk, are discussed. The heterogeneity of samples with respect to the frequency of a certain phene in females is not necessarily revealed when this frequency is analyzed in males. Statistically significant heterogeneity with respect to phene frequencies is observed in
Smolts of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were held at 117, 115, 113, 110, 108, and 100% saturation in air-supersaturated fresh water at 12.5C for 3 weeks. At 117% saturation 70% of the fish died, and at 115%, 5% died. Survivors were severely stressed...
Smolts of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were held at 117, 115, 113, 110, 108, and 100% saturation in air-supersaturated fresh water at 12.5C for 3 weeks. At 117% saturation 70% of the fish died, and at 115%, 5% died. Survivors were severely stressed and exhibited many signs...
This paper presents an overview of the concept, structure and implementation of the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The model dynamically simulates the biogeochemical seasonal cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon in the pelagic and benthic food webs of the North Sea, and is forced by irradiance, temperature and transport processes.The model has a coarse spatial resolution into
One of the major factors influencing marketability of sea urchins is their gonad colour. The effects of a prepared diet, algal diets, and rotational feeding of these diet treatments on the Europeansea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were studied to determine a diet that would provide optimal gonad colour and gonadal somatic index (GSI). P. lividus underwent six diet treatments: Ulva
Muki Shpigel; Susan C. McBride; Sharon Marciano; Shiri Ron; Ami Ben-Amotz
Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 °C) and two seawater pCO2 levels (ambient and 1,000 ?atm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 °C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 °C. Similarly, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 °C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 were significantly heavier. However, juvenile D. labrax raised under this combination of 19 °C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 also exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 °C and ambient pCO2. Most studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested that these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. Whilst the increased survival and growth observed in this study supports this view, we conclude that more work is required to investigate whether the differences in juvenile physiology observed in this study manifest as negative impacts in adult fish.
Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.
Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry euro300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950
Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGH and rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer matrix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containing reGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium alginate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulate fish growth.
The genetic structure of a small sockeye salmon population from the Ola River (Tauyskaya Inlet, the Okhotsk Sea) was shown to exhibit high heterogeneity. Significant differences of LDH-B2* and ALAT-2* gene frequencies were detected not only among samples within the spawner and juvenile groups but also between spawners and juveniles as a whole. The average heterozygosity of sockeye salmon from the Ola River was considerably lower than the corresponding values for other Asian populations. The Ola sockeye salmon is genetically similar to the population from the Pakhach River of the northwestern Kamchatka Peninsula but different from other Kamchatka populations and the Okhota River population. A hypothesis explaining the genetic differentiation of Asian sockeye populations is advanced. PMID:11785292
A native population of landlocked salmon of the Pista River was investigated in 2000-2002. Adult salmon in Pista River has smallest size among other populations of landlocked salmon in Karelia. Data on the biology and parasite fauna of young salmon are presented. The presence of local salmon populations in lakes of the river system is apparently one of the mechanisms keeping the magnitude of population. The presence of Gyrodactylus salaris, a harmful parasite of the young landlocked salmon, is established in this territory for the first time. This monogenean species is believed to have been introduced into the Pista River via stocking from Finland. PMID:17460940
Shul'man, B S; Shchurov, I L; Shirokov, V A; Ga?da, R V
A proportion of Atlantic salmon experimentally affected by amoebic gill disease (AGD) develop a serum antibody response to wild-type Neoparamoeba spp.. These antibodies bind cell-surface epitope(s) and in most cases the epitope(s) are sensitive to sodium periodate oxidation. In this study, blood was obtained from triploid and diploid sea-farmed Atlantic salmon after 8, 10 and 13 months of sea-cage culture. An
B. N. Vincent; M. B. Adams; B. F. Nowak; R. N. Morrison
The variability of 32 enzyme loci was studied in chum salmon populations with different types of reproduction—natural, mixed,\\u000a and artificial—in some Magadan Region rivers. Among the populations studied, the values of mean heterozygosity and allele\\u000a number per locus did not differ significantly. We found evidence of definite temporal stability of the populations, and also\\u000a found that their genetic variability was
E. A. Salmenkova; V. T. Omelchenko; D. V. Politov; K. I. Afanasiev; G. A. Rubtzova
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides like dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), aldrin, dieldrin and trace elements (Cd, Cu, Se, Pb, Zn and Hg) were analysed in the muscle of Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sampled in Atlantic coastal regions near several important European river mouths (Gironde, Charente, Loire, Seine and Scheldt). High contamination levels were measured in the muscles of Europeansea bass sampled in the coastal regions near those river mouths (e.g. ? ICES PCB=133-10,478 ?g kg(-1) lw and Hg=250-2000 ?g kg(-1) dw). The Scheldt and the Seine are still among the most contaminated estuaries in Europe. Each region presented their specific contamination patterns reflecting different sources due to the input of the respective rivers. As fish and fishery products are the main contributors of the total dietary intake of organochlorinated pollutants, regular consumption of Europeansea bass with the reported contamination levels may represent a significant exposure route for the general human population. PMID:21719074
Schnitzler, Joseph G; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Lepage, Mario; Das, Krishna
The record catch of 704,000 chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by the Japanese mothership salmon fishery in 1980 intensified concern about the effect of high seas interceptions of salmon reared in North America. The goal of this study was to update and refine estimates of the relative proportions of Asian and North American chinook salmon stocks in the mothership fishery area
Katherine W. Myers; Colin K. Harris; Curtis M. Knudsen; Robert V. Walker; Nancy D. Davis; Donald E. Rogers
A potential demand exists in sea farming for premigratory juvenile Pacific salmon that have been acclimated to seawater. This paper reports experiments on growth of premigratory chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to water of 33% salinity...
In this study, we investigate the strength and efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Southern EuropeanSeas (SES), by analyzing the export of POC at three deep sites located in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED) and the Black Sea (BS). We combine estimations of satellite and algorithm-generated primary production data, calculated POC fluxes out of the euphotic layer and POC fluxes measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers during a one year period, with an ultimate goal to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of the biological pump in the SES.
Gogou, Alexandra; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Stavrakakis, Spyros; Calafat, Antoni M.; Stabholz, Marion; Psarra, Stella; Canals, Miquel; Heussner, Serge; Stavrakaki, Ioanna; Papathanassiou, Evangelos
The diseases causing the highest ecological and socio-economical impacts in European farmed finfish are produced by RNA viruses. Salmon, trout, sea bream, sea bass, carp and turbot, suffer viral nervous necrosis produced by betanodaviruses (VNNV), infectious pancreatic necrosis produced by aquabirnaviruses (IPNV), viral haemorrhagic septicemia (VHSV) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHNV) produced by novirhabdoviruses, spring viremia of carp produced by
Nodularin (NODLN) is a hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, which occurs regularly in the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this study was to study the transfer of NODLN to three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.), herring (Clupea harengus membras L.), and salmon (Salmo salar L.), which were caught from the northern Baltic Sea between August 2002 and August 2003. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used for NODLN analysis. NODLN was found in both herring (0-90 microgkg(-1)dw) and three-spined sticklebacks samples (2.8-700 microgkg(-1)dw). The recovery for the spiked stickleback samples in vitro was 28%. Only 1 salmon of a total of 10 contained a small amount of NODLN (10 microgkg(-1)dw). However, the high concentrations in individual stickleback suggest that possible transfer to higher trophic levels deserves more research. PMID:16616370
Sipiä, V; Kankaanpää, H; Peltonen, H; Vinni, M; Meriluoto, J
A study of microfauna, associated with pathological changes in the gills of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was conducted over 2001-2002. Monthly samples of 1(+) salmon smolts were taken, protozoan populations were quantified and gill health was assessed histologically. Protozoan densities were correlated with pathological changes, in order to determine their possible role in lesions in the gills. The most severe gill tissue changes were observed in summer/autumn and the least in spring. A diverse polyphyletic protozoan community was observed colonizing the gills, including Neoparamoeba sp., other amoebae, scuticociliates, Ichthyobodo-like flagellates, trichodinid ciliates and prostomatean ciliates. The earlier gill tissue changes in the gill were not always associated with the presence of these microorganisms, whereas amoebae (other than Neoparamoeba sp.), Ichthyobodo-like flagellates and trichodinid ciliates correlated with augmenting gill lesions. Neoparamoeba sp. was present, but its abundance did not correlate with the disease. This study suggests that a diversity of protozoans including Ichthyobodo-like flagellates, trichodinid ciliates and amoebae other than Neoparamoeba sp. are involved in the aetiology of amoebic gill disease in the Irish situation. PMID:16911533
This web site is an article from National Geographic News, which describes the link between "the explosion of sea lice in farmed fish populations and the decline of Scottish sea trout." In addition to the article, visitors can view a dynamic map of Shieldaig in western Scotland.
This interdisciplinary unit explores aspects of the history of salmon in the Columbia Basin. The materials provided for this unit are primarily social studies related, but include topics in both math and science and. Students have the opportunity to explore data using GIS mapping technology. The learning goals include: understanding the historical, cultural, and economic importance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin to both native and European immigrant populations; identifying technological, economic, and environmental factors that contributed to the decline in salmon populations in the Columbia Basin; use GIS and graphing software to analyze and interpret factors related to changes in the Columbia River salmon population over the last century and describe these phenomena in narrative, graphical or mathematical terms as appropriate; and evaluate the effectiveness of recent actions in helping to restore Columbia Basin salmon populations.
Results of long-term investigations on the population dynamics of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Keret' river (White Sea drainage basin) depending on the invading of Gyrodactylus salaris (Malmberg, 1957) and mass infestation of salmon with this parasite are presented. Gyrodactylus salaris was for the first time recorded in the Keret' river in 1992. During the period lesser than five years the parasite spread along the river. The rise in the infestation of salmon parr with G. salaris caused death of the fish host. As the abundance of juveniles decreased, adult salmon stocks dropped more than 25 times. It was shown, that after the decreasing in number of salmon juveniles following acute epizootic, infestation parameters dropped, and in some years G. salaris was not even found at all. PMID:19198173
Ieshko, E P; Shul'man, B S; Shchurov, I L; Barskaia, Iu Iu
Safety matters are boring, bothersome or just a cost factor. These are some of the arguments which prevent safety issues from being treated in the same way as, for example, transport logistics, i.e., rationally aiming at optimum results. National legal evolutions, resulting in distinct rules and regulations, are another handicap for a European approach to common marine safety standards. Political
Data on the structure and variability of the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome b (cytb) gene fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in pink salmon of adjacent generations from the rivers of the continental coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and Zavyalov Island were obtained. The differences between adjacent generations were discovered. By the marker studied, pink salmon of the even-year line are characterized by a high level of genetic variability. It is shown that reproductive isolation has led to accumulation of specific mutations of the mtDNA cytb gene in each line and, consequently, to their divergence. Analysis of the data showed that the share of intrapopulation genetic variability of northern Sea of Okhotsk pink salmon accounts for about 91%. The intergroup component that was calculated for adjacent generations of the species is relatively small and is 9%, which seems to be indicative of a relatively recent divergence of adjacent generations of salmon. PMID:23662458
The submodel describing benthic biology including a bioturbation module as incorporated in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is discussed. It is linked to a nutrient dynamic model. The structure of the benthic model food web is presented. There are four macrobenthic functional groups, meiobenthos and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The modelling uses ‘standard organisms’ as basic building blocks.
In the present study, we report the characterization in Europeansea bass of the partial cDNA sequences of three nuclear receptors, retinoic acid receptor (RAR)?, RAR?, retinoid X receptor (RXR)?, involved in retinoid pathways. These pathways participate to vertebrates morphogenesis processes and may be responsible for the appearance of skeletal malformations. The predicted polypeptide encoded by each cDNA sequence contains
Laure Villeneuve; Enric Gisbert; Chantal L. Cahu; Marie-Madeleine Le Gall; Jose L. Zambonino-Infante
In this study, ultrasonographic examination was performed thrice, 15?days apart, on juvenile Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, from 330 to 360?days of age, to assess the size and the morphology of male and female. Results have proved this method as a suitable and non-invasive procedure to assess sexual differentiation. PMID:24117993
Macrì, F; Liotta, L; Bonfiglio, R; De Stefano, C; Ruscica, D; Aiudi, G
In 1994, 5828 stomachs of European hake, Merluccius merluccius (L., 1758) were analysed on commercial trawl and gill-net vessels in the Cantabrian Sea (northern Spain). Data were analysed quantitatively using fullness indices, and differences in feeding intensity and diet composition were compared statistically by quarter, by depth strata, and throughout the predator length-range. The results show that feeding is more
The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been established. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a
The transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~950-1250 AD) to the Little Ice Age (~1400-1700 AD) is believed to have been driven by an interplay of external forcing and climate system-internal variability. While the hemispheric signal seems to have been dominated by solar irradiance and volcanic eruptions, the understanding of mechanisms shaping the climate on continental scale is less robust. Examining an ensemble of transient model simulations as well as a new type of sensitivity experiments with artificial sea ice growth, we identify a sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism that amplifies the Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic-European region and produces the temperature pattern expected from reconstructions. Initiated by increasing negative forcing, the Arctic sea ice substantially expands at the beginning of the Little Ice Age. The excess of sea ice is exported to the subpolar North Atlantic, where it melts, thereby weakening convection of the ocean. As a consequence, northward ocean heat transport is reduced, reinforcing the expansion of the sea ice and the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere. In the Nordic Seas, sea surface height anomalies cause the oceanic recirculation to strengthen at the expense of the warm Barents Sea inflow, thereby further reinforcing sea ice growth in the Barents Sea. The absent ocean-atmosphere heat flux in the Barents Sea results in an amplified cooling over Northern Europe. The positive nature of this feedback mechanism enables sea ice to remain in an expanded state for decades to centuries and explain sustained cold periods over Europe such as the Little Ice Age. Support for the feedback mechanism comes from recent proxy reconstructions around the Nordic Seas.
Lehner, Flavio; Born, Andreas; Raible, Christoph C.; Stocker, Thomas F.
The nucleotide sequence of a gene fragment of cytochrome b (cytb) was determined, and data on the variability of this mtDNA region in chum salmon from certain populations on the northern\\u000a coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and eastern Kamchatka populations were obtained. It was shown that the Kamchatka chum salmon population\\u000a is characterized by the lowest values of nucleotide
Catches of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, recorded in historical documents from the 17–18th Centuries have been analysed in four locations in the basins of the White and Barents Seas. Atlantic salmon was one of the most valuable products of the local economy in the 17–18th Centuries in the northern Russia. Therefore, catches were well recorded in the account books of
Dmitry L. Lajus; Zoya V. Dmitrieva; Alexei V. Kraikovski; Julia A. Lajus; Daniel A. Alexandrov
Juvenile salmon Salmo salar m. sebago Girard from the Pista River system (the White Sea Basin) was investigated. The data on species composition and occurrence peculiarities of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 are given. This monogenean is the alien species for the river system and it is recorded for the first time. It is shown that the distribution of the parasite abundance is can be described as the negative binomial distribution; variations of its parameters (k and p) were also characterized. Parasitological data obtained, as well as the data describing the characteristics of growth and age structure of juvenile salmon population, suggest the potential influence of G. salaris infection on the degree of survival of fishes in the lake-river system examined. PMID:23285741
Ieshko, E P; Shchurov, I L; Shul'man, B S; Barskaia, Iu Iu; Lebedeva, D I; Shirokov, V A
Marine fish species exhibit low capacity to biosynthesise highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) in comparison to strict freshwater and anadromous species. It is admitted that the Delta(6) desaturase (FADS2) is a key enzyme in the HUFA biosynthetic pathway. We investigated by quantitative PCR the relative amounts of FADS2 mRNA in Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in comparison with a salmonid species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss L.). The analysis of the expression data was performed regarding the difference of the characteristics of a critical fragment of the fads2 gene promoter between sea bass and Atlantic salmon. The lower level of fads2 gene expression observed in sea bass suggested that fads2 gene putative promoter, which exhibited an E-box like Sterol Regulatory Element (SRE) site but lacked a Sp1 site, is less active in this marine species. The cytosine methylation of CpG sites in the putative promoter region including E-box like SRE and NF-Y binding sites of sea bass fads2 gene was also investigated following a nutritional conditioning of larvae. However, no significant difference of CpG methylation could be found for any of the 28 CpGs analysed between larvae fed diet with high or low HUFA contents. In conclusion, the present data revealed lower constitutive expression of the fads2 gene possibly related to different characteristics of gene promoter in sea bass in comparison with salmonid species, and indicated that long-term conditioning of fads2 gene expression did not influence the methylation of the gene promoter at potential SRE binding site. PMID:22325717
The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in off- shore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth
G. T. Ruggerone; M. Zimmermann; K. W. Myers; J. L. Nielsen; D. E. Rogers
To support its objectives to achieve Good Environmental Status in Europe's seas by 2020, the European Commission established the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNET) to assemble existing but fragmented and inaccessible marine data and to create interoperable, contiguous and publicly available information layers which encompass whole marine basins. EMODNET is a network of existing and developing European observation systems linked by a data management structure covering all European coastal waters, shelf seas and surrounding ocean basins. The marine departments of the European Geological Surveys form the basis of a partnership that implements the EMODNET-Geology project, part of a suite of EMODNET studies that also cover bathymetry, marine chemistry, marine biology, seabed habitats, physics and human activities in the marine environment. The EMODnet-Geology project will deliver integrated geological map products through the One Geology-Europe portal. EMODNET-Geology will have a distributed map service with each of the work packages delivering a specified layer that include seafloor geology, seabed sediments, mineral resources and geological events such as submarine slides and earthquakes. Further information about the EMODNET project can be found at: http://www.emodnet.eu/
Drinking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles was investigated in fresh water and following transfer to sea water. There was a significant effect of fish size\\u000a on drinking, and smolts (20–30?g) imbibed about ten times less water than alevins of 0.2–0.3?g. Freshwater smolts drank at\\u000a a rate of 0.15?± 0.03?ml?·?kg?1?·?h?1 and administration of doses of 10 or 20?mg?·?kg?1 of papaverine
Hourly sea level data from tide gauges and a barotropic model are used to explore the spatial and temporal variability of sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian peninsula on seasonal time scales. Significant spatial variability is identified in the observations in all seasons. The Atlantic stations show larger extreme values than the Mediterranean Sea primarily due to the tidal signal. When the tidal signal is removed most stations have maximum values of less than 90 cm occurring in winter or autumn. The maxima in spring and summer are less than 60 cm in most stations. The wind and atmospheric forcing contributes about 50 cm in the winter and between 20-40 cm in the other seasons. In the western Mediterranean the observed extreme values are less than 50 cm, except near the Strait of Gibraltar. Direct atmospheric forcing contributes significantly to sea level extremes. Maximum sea level values due to atmospheric forcing reach in some stations 45 cm during the winter. During the summer the contribution of the direct atmospheric forcing is between 10-20 cm. The Adriatic Sea shows a resonant behaviour with maximum extreme observed sea level values around 200 cm found at the northern part. Trends in the 99.9% percentiles are present in several areas, however most of them are removed when the 50% percentile is subtracted indicating that changes in the extremes are in line with mean sea level change. The North Atlantic Oscillation and the Mediterranean Oscillation Index are well correlated with the changes in the 99.9% winter values in the Atlantic, western Mediterranean and the Adriatic stations. The correlation of the NAO and the MOI indices in the Atlantic and western Mediterranean is significant in the autumn too. The correlations between the NAO and MOI index and the changes in the sea level extremes become insignificant when the 50% percentile is removed indicating again that changes in extremes have been dominated by changes in the mean sea level.
Atlantic salmon populations are reported to be declining throughout its range, raising major management concerns. Variation in adult fish abundance may be due to variation in survival, growth, and timing of life history decisions. Given the complex life history, utilizing highly divergent habitats, the reasons for declines may be multiple and difficult to disentangle. Using recreational angling data of two sea age groups, one-sea-winter (1SW) and two-sea-winter (2SW) fish originated from the same smolt year class, we show that sea age at maturity of the returns has increased in 59 Norwegian rivers over the cohorts 1991–2005. By means of linear mixed-effects models we found that the proportion of 1SW fish spawning in Norway has decreased concomitant with the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea. Furthermore, the decrease in the proportion of 1SW fish was influenced by freshwater conditions as measured by water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration. These results suggest that part of the variability in age at maturity can be explained by the large-scale changes occurring in the north-eastern Atlantic pelagic food web affecting postsmolt growth, and by differences in river conditions influencing presmolt growth rate and later upstream migration.
Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'Abee-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik,, Geir O; V?llestad, Leif Asbj?rn
The common cord-grass Spartina anglica, a fertile hybrid of S. maritima and S. alterniflora, was planted in the European Wadden Sea extensively during the late 1920s and 1930s to promote sediment accretion. After\\u000a establishment, it colonised as a pioneer plant in the upper tidal zone, where it occurs frequently in coherent swards at the\\u000a seaward front of saltmarshes and in patches on
The shaping forces of parasite community structure still is the main subject in the ecological parasitology whilst community predictability and repeatability showed that hardly a generally applicable role is ever going to be assessed. Defining and describing parasite communities can be very useful from the epizootiological point, in order to help in the assessment of the medical and economical impact of certain parasitosis, moreover when hosts are economically valuable species. Since parasite assemblages in reared Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) in Adriatic cage systems can play an important role in the economic feasibility of the rearing process, we evaluated their character through assessing diversity indices, nestedness of parasite communities and their differences in respect to season and composition, as well as fish growth. We observed colonization of a new monogenean species (Furnestinia echeneis) and general impoverishment of parasites populations over time in the Adriatic-reared fish parasite assemblages. Parasite assemblages differed significantly between seasons for both fish species, while species richness, evenness, diversity indices and nestedness of parasitic communities in the sea bream showed to be significantly higher compared to those in the sea bass. Such characteristics define parasite communities of both Adriatic-reared fish as species poor although structured and ordered assemblages. PMID:20837380
Mx proteins are key components of the antiviral state triggered by interferon type I in response to viral infections. In this study, two different Mx genes have been identified in Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and their sequences were cloned and characterized. MxA cDNA consists of 1881 bp coding for a putative 626 aminoacids protein, while MxB cDNA has 1920 bp and results in a protein with 639 residues. Their corresponding genomic sequences contain 3538 bp and 5326 bp, respectively, and both present 12 exons and 11 introns. The expression patterns of the two Mx genes after an in vivo challenge with the viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV), a serious pathogen in farmed Europeansea bass, have been characterized by real-time PCR. The results showed interesting differences in the transcription profile of both Mx, thus suggesting a differential role for each Mx isoform in the immune response of Europeansea bass to VNNV, and most likely in the general viral response of this species. PMID:23548865
Novel, P; Fernández-Trujillo, M A; Gallardo-Gálvez, J B; Cano, I; Manchado, M; Buonocore, F; Randelli, E; Scapigliati, G; Alvarez, M C; Béjar, J
Cryptosporidium molnari was experimentally transmitted to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Europeansea bass (Dicentrachus labrax) by oral infection with infected stomach scrapings. The infection was also cross-transmitted from infected gilthead sea bream to sea bass by cohabitation. The course of the infection was assessed after necropsy by three microscopic diagnostic methods and their sensitivity was compared. At the end of all the experiments the prevalence of infection reached 100%. In the oral experiments, both fish hosts appeared infected as early as 7 days post exposure (p.e.), but gilthead sea bream exhibited a higher intensity of infection and infection proceeded at a faster rate than in sea bass. The cellular host reaction was stronger in sea bass than in sea bream, whereas the histopathological effect was lower in the former. Transmission could be favoured by cannibalism among cohabiting fish. This is the first report on piscine Cryptosporidium transmission. The implications for the aquaculture industry are discussed. PMID:12923629
Background Fish farmed under high intensity aquaculture conditions are subjected to unnatural environments that may cause stress. Therefore awareness of how to maintain good health and welfare of farmed fish is important. For Atlantic salmon held in sea cages, water flow, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature will fluctuate over time and the fish can at times be exposed to detrimentally low DO levels and high temperatures. This experimental study investigates primary and secondary stress responses of Atlantic salmon post smolts to long-term exposure to reduced and fluctuating DO levels and high water temperatures, mimicking situations in the sea cages. Plasma cortisol levels and cortisol release to the water were assessed as indicators of the primary stress response and intestinal barrier integrity and physiological functions as indicators of secondary responses to changes in environmental conditions. Results Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish exposed to low (50% and 60% saturation) DO levels and low temperature (9°C), at days 9, 29 and 48. The intestinal barrier function, measured as electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of mannitol at the end of the experiment, were reduced at 50% DO, in both proximal and distal intestine. When low DO levels were combined with high temperature (16°C), plasma cortisol levels were elevated in the cyclic 1:5 h at 85%:50% DO group and fixed 50% DO group compared to the control (85% DO) group at day 10 but not at later time points. The intestinal barrier function was clearly disturbed in the 50% DO group; TER was reduced in both intestinal regions concomitant with increased paracellular permeability in the distal region. Conclusions This study reveals that adverse environmental conditions (low water flow, low DO levels at low and high temperature), that can occur in sea cages, elicits primary and secondary stress responses in Atlantic salmon post smolts. The intestinal barrier function was significantly affected by prolonged hypoxic stress even when no primary stress response was observed. This suggests that intestinal barrier function is a good experimental marker for evaluation of chronic stress and that it can be a valuable tool to study the impact of various husbandry conditions on health and welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon.
Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other Europeanseas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to underline the future challenges for European marine research in terms of the integrated coastal zone management of these highly significant coastal zones. PMID:18061212
In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.
The duration of infections with Myxidium salvelini, a freshwater myxosporean, in the kidneys of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts from Cultus Lake, Fraser River system, British Columbia, was followed both in fresh water (FW) and in sea water (SW). The smolts were collected at the outlet of the lake as they migrated seaward, were subsequently held captive in M. salvelini-free FW or SW, and were sampled for presence of the parasite biweekly. Initial prevalence of infection was 80% or higher. In FW-held fish, spores were detectable over the 28-wk period of sampling, but the prevalence of infection with spores and prespore forms declined sharply after 22 wk. Nine weeks after the fish were transferred to SW, spores no longer were present but prespore forms continued to be present at high prevalences for up to 25 wk. SW-held fish were reacclimated to FW 4 wk after the last detection of spores. Spore production was resumed in this group of fish within 8 wk and continued for the next 5 wk, when the study was terminated. This indicates that M. salvelini persisted in an arrested prespore form during the SW holding period. This is the first report of arrested development in a prespore stage of a myxosporean. The physiological changes in the kidney that accompany migration of anadromous salmon from fresh to sea water likely inhibit spore production in M. salvelini. In FW salmonids, M. salvelini appears to have an annual life cycle. PMID:8501598
Delaying sexual maturation can lead to larger body size and higher reproductive success, but carries an increased risk of death before reproducing. Classical life history theory predicts that trade-offs between reproductive success and survival should lead to the evolution of an optimal strategy in a given population. However, variation in mating strategies generally persists, and in general, there remains a poor understanding of genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying this variation. One extreme case of this is in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), which can show variation in the age at which they return from their marine migration to spawn (i.e. their 'sea age'). This results in large size differences between strategies, with direct implications for individual fitness. Here, we used an Illumina Infinium SNP array to identify regions of the genome associated with variation in sea age in a large population of Atlantic salmon in Northern Europe, implementing individual-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and population-based FST outlier analyses. We identified several regions of the genome which vary in association with phenotype and/or selection between sea ages, with nearby genes having functions related to muscle development, metabolism, immune response and mate choice. In addition, we found that individuals of different sea ages belong to different, yet sympatric populations in this system, indicating that reproductive isolation may be driven by divergence between stable strategies. Overall, this study demonstrates how genome-wide methodologies can be integrated with samples collected from wild, structured populations to understand their ecology and evolution in a natural context. PMID:24931807
Johnston, Susan E; Orell, Panu; Pritchard, Victoria L; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; Niemelä, Eero; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R
The EUNIS (European Union Nature Information System) habitat classification system aims to provide a common European reference set of habitat types within a hierarchical classification, and to cover all terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats of Europe. The classification facilitates reporting of habitat data in a comparable manner, for use in nature conservation (e.g. inventories, monitoring and assessments), habitat mapping and environmental management. For the marine environment the importance of a univocal habitat classification system is confirmed by the fact that many European initiatives, aimed at marine mapping, assessment and reporting, are increasingly using EUNIS habitat categories and respective codes. For this reason substantial efforts have been made to include information on marine benthic habitats from different regions, aiming to provide a comprehensive geographical coverage of Europeanseas. However, there still remain many concerns on its applicability as only a small fraction of Europe's seas are fully mapped and increasing knowledge and application raise further issues to be resolved. This paper presents an overview of the main discussion and conclusions of a workshop, organised by the MeshAtlantic project, focusing upon the experience in using the EUNIS habitats classification across different countries and seas, together with case studies. The aims of the meeting were to: (i) bring together scientists with experience in the use of the EUNIS marine classification and representatives from the European Environment Agency (EEA); (ii) agree on enhancements to EUNIS that ensure an improved representation of the European marine habitats; and (iii) establish practices that make marine habitat maps produced by scientists more consistent with the needs of managers and decision-makers. During the workshop challenges for the future development of EUNIS were identified, which have been classified into five categories: (1) structure and hierarchy; (2) biology; (3) terminology; (4) mapping; and (5) future development. The workshop ended with a declaration from the attendees, with recommendations to the EEA and European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, to take into account the outputs of the workshop, which identify weaknesses in the current classification and include proposals for its modification, and to devise a process to further develop the marine component of the EUNIS habitat classification. PMID:23117202
During a study on shelf life, different parameters were analyzed. For this reason, one group of farm raised Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from Canary Islands (Spain) sea waters were stored in melting ice for a period of 21 days from the time of harvest. The samples were assessed for their total volatile basic nitrogen contents (TVBN) at regular intervals
Pedro Castro; Juan Carlos Penedo Padrón; Ma José Caballero Cansino; Esther Sanjuán Velázquez; Rafael Millán De Larriva
The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000–2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in EuropeanSeas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in EuropeanSeas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout EuropeanSeas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity.
The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000-2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in EuropeanSeas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in EuropeanSeas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout EuropeanSeas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045
Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Coll, Marta; Danovaro, Roberto; Davidson, Keith; Ojaveer, Henn; Renaud, Paul E
... the head. Salmon patches are different from port-wine stains (discussed as a separate topic) in that ... difference between a salmon patch and a port-wine stain. In the past, port-wine stains and ...
The physical and chemical processes of the sea greatly affect the reproductive biology of fishes, mainly influencing both the numbers of spawned eggs and the survivorship of early stages up to the recruitment period. In the central Mediterranean, the European anchovy constitutes one of the most important fishery resource. Because of its short living nature and of its recruitment variability, associated to high environmental variability, this small pelagic species undergo high interannual fluctuation in the biomass levels. Despite several efforts were addressed to characterize fishes spawning habitat from the oceanographic point of view, very few studies analyze the air-sea exchanges effects. To characterize the spawning habitat of these resources a specific technique (quotient rule analysis) was applied on air-sea heat fluxes, wind stress, sea surface temperature and turbulence data, collected in three oceanographic surveys during the summer period of 2004, 2005 and 2006. The results showed the existence of preferred values in the examined physical variables, associated to anchovy spawning areas. Namely, for heat fluxes the values were around -40 W/m2, for wind stress 0.04-0.11 N/m2, for SST 23°C, and 300 - 500 m3s-3 for wind mixing. Despite the obtained results are preliminary, this is the first relevant analysis on the air-sea exchanges and their relationship with the fish biology of pelagic species.
...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea...NMFS proposes to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for...
...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...a final rule to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program, which will evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for the...
Central European climate is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea, which experienced a strong increase in sea surface temperature (SST) during the last four decades. One example of extreme weather events are cyclones following the "Vb" pathway. These cyclones are generated over the Mediterranean Sea and travel northeastwards around the Alps and then hit countries like Poland and Germany. The cyclones carry large amounts of moisture and cause extreme precipitation, and subsequently flooding, particularly in summer. These floods, such as the Elbe flood in 2002, have devastating societal impacts and also influence ecosystems. To analyse the potential impact of increased Mediterranean SST on extreme precipitation in Europe, a series of simulations with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ECHAM5 has been carried out. ECHAM5 was run at high horizontal resolution (T159) and integrated for 40 years in each experiment. The control run is forced by SST and sea ice concentration (SIC) climatology derived from 1970-1999. A warmer climate is simulated by using global climatological SST and SIC from 2000-2012. To disentangle the impact of the Mediterranean Sea, an additional simulation was performed with the same global SST and SIC as in the control run, but with the warmer 2000-2012 SST climatology restricted to the Mediterranean and Black Seas. 20-season return levels were derived as a measure of extreme precipitation for daily as well as five day precipitation in JJA (June, July, August). These return levels are estimated as quantiles of a stationary generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution. Although the increase in the number of Vb cyclones is only modest, precipitation return levels in JJA show an increase along the Vb cyclone track, for daily (up to approximately 63 %) as well as for five day (up to approximately 76 %) precipitation extremes. This increase can be attributed to the warmer Mediterranean Sea, as it is observed in both the globally warmer and warmer Mediterranean Sea experiments. The strongest increase in both daily and five day precipitation extremes is located in western Hungary, in the catchment area of the Danube River. This finding suggests further increases in European summer flooding, should Mediterranean SST continue to increase.
The Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is, along with the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), one of the most extensively cultured species in European aquaculture productions. Massive mortalities may be caused by bacterial or viral infections in intensive aquaculture production. Evaluation of the efficacy of an oral vaccine against Vibrio anguillarum (Aquavac Vibrio Oral) in sea bass revealed specific immune gene expression profiles in the gut as well as protection of fish. In the present study, we performed RNA SEQ in two different tissues: the hind gut and the head kidney. For each tissue, one control sample (where a sample presents a pool of four to five individuals) and one sample after oral vaccine against V. anguillarum were submitted to 454 next-generation sequencing. In total, 269,043 sequences were obtained, 143,007 for head kidney and 125,036 for gut. The read lengths ranged from 40 to 706 bp with an average length of 348 bp. The total number of clustered sequences for head kidney is accounting to 49,089 (?34 %) and for gut to 71,676 (~57 %). Differential expression was detected for 496 transcripts in head kidney and for 336 in gut. The results not only enrich the present collection of expressed sequence tag sequences including rare transcripts like leukocyte immune-type receptors, cullin, or supervillin but also show the efficacy of oral vaccination against V. anguillarum. PMID:22790793
Sarropoulou, E; Galindo-Villegas, J; García-Alcázar, A; Kasapidis, P; Mulero, V
Nuclei of the hypothalamus of Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum (Salmonidae) were studied morphologically after passing from the sea to the river at the period of spawning migration and then after the artificial carrying of the fish adapted to fresh water back to the sea. It was found that in peptidergic nuclei of the thalamus during first hours in fresh water there occurs activation of both the synthesis and evacuation of neurosecretion. In the preoptic nucleus the synthesis is activated in perikaryons of all the cells simultaneously, the cells being involved in elimination of the secretion in turn. In the lateral nucleus the secretion elimination takes place simultaneously in all the cells while signs of increased synthesis made their appearance later. By the end of the first day in fresh water both the synthesis and secretion in both nuclei are decreased. After the artificial carrying of gorbuscha back to the sea the preoptic nucleus is first activated and then, 1 day later, there appear signs of decreased activity. Soon after that they die. The lateral nucleus is not active after the artificial carrying of gorbuscha to the sea. Comparison of the results obtained with literature data shows that the preoptic nucleus of salmon reacts specifically to different extreme conditions and not by the type of universal stress-reaction as most vertebrates. PMID:7889159
An index, based on littoral communities assemblages (CARLIT), was applied to assess the ecological status of Northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters, following the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive. The biogeographical particularities of the Alboran Sea suggested a reassessment of this index, and that was the main objective of this work. Due to these biogeographical particularities, two regions were proposed in the studied region, with new reference conditions for each region. Subsequently, by means of a multivariate analysis, littoral community abundances and the CARLIT index were compared with factors related to geomorphology, biogeography and anthropogenic pressures. Overall, the biogeographical component determined the distribution of littoral communities. In contrast, the ecological status yielded by the index only was significantly related to anthropogenic pressures. The results pointed out that the reassessment of the CARLIT index was suitable to evaluate the ecological status of the Alboran Sea. PMID:23673205
Bermejo, Ricardo; de la Fuente, Gina; Vergara, Juan J; Hernández, Ignacio
Abstract\\u000a \\u000a The complementary DNA coding for Europeansea bass somatolactin was expressed in the pET-3a bacteria expression vector. The\\u000a recombinant somatolactin (rbSL) was purified by size exclusion chromatography, and 95% of the protein remained in the oxidized\\u000a form with negligible aggregation over prolonged cold storage. The identity of the recombinant protein was demonstrated by\\u000a Western blotting with a rabbit polyclonal
Vega-Rubín S. de Celis; Vega-Rubín P. Gómez; Vega-Rubín J. A. Calduch-Giner; Vega-Rubín F. Médale; Vega-Rubín J. Pérez-Sánchez
To investigate the extent to which European silver eels Anguilla anguilla, originating from stocking programmes in the Baltic Sea tributaries, effectively contribute to the spawning stock, two hundred and seventy-four formerly stocked A. anguilla. emigrating from the Schwentine River near Kiel, Germany, were tagged with T-Bar anchor tags. A total of 29 Anguilla spp. were recaptured (c. 11%) up to 14 months after release. Stocking history of recaptured A. anguilla. was confirmed by otolith microchemistry. Recapture locations were concentrated around the outlet of the Baltic Sea (Danish Belt Sea) with 62% of all recaptures reported here or in the Kattegat. Recaptured Anguilla spp. showed a reduction in both L(T) and mass (mean ± s.d. = -1.5 ± 0.9 cm and -125.3 ± 50.1 g) while average total fat content remained in the order of values previously reported as high enough to provide energy resources to allow successful completion of the spawning migration (mean ± s.d. = 28.4 ± 4.4%). The documented mean rate of travel (0.8 km day(-1)), however, indicated a delay in the target-oriented migration that might be interpreted as a delayed initial migration phase of orientation towards the exit of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23398076
In the biogeography of microorganisms, the habitat size of an attached-living bacterium has never been investigated. We approached this theme with a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) study of new strains of Rhodopirellula sp., an attached-living planctomycete. The development of an MLSA for Rhodopirellula baltica enabled the characterization of the genetic diversity at the species level, beyond the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene. The alleles of the nine housekeeping genes acsA, guaA, trpE, purH, glpF, fumC, icd, glyA, and mdh indicated the presence of 13 genetically defined operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in our culture collection. The MLSA-based OTUs coincided with the taxonomic units defined by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. BOX-PCR supported the MLSA-based differentiation of two closely related OTUs. This study established a taxon-area relationship of cultivable Rhodopirellula species. In Europeanseas, three closely related species covered the Baltic Sea and the eastern North Sea, the North Atlantic region, and the southern North Sea to the Mediterranean. The last had regional genotypes, as revealed by BOX-PCR. This suggests a limited habitat size of attached-living Rhodopirellula species.
In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). The EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping projects made good progress in developing the EMODNet Hydrography portal to provide overview and access to available bathymetric survey datasets and to generate an harmonised digital bathymetry for Europe's sea basins. Up till end 2012 more than 8400 bathymetric survey datasets, managed by 14 data centres from 9 countries and originated from 118 institutes, have been gathered and populated in the EMODNet Hydrography Data Discovery and Access service, adopting SeaDataNet standards. These datasets have been used as input for analysing and generating the EMODNet digital terrain model (DTM), so far for the following sea basins: • the Greater North Sea, including the Kattegat • the English Channel and Celtic Seas • Western and Central Mediterranean Sea and Ionian Sea • Bay of Biscay, Iberian coast and North-East Atlantic • Adriatic Sea • Aegean - Levantine Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). • Azores - Madeira EEZ The Hydrography Viewing service gives users wide functionality for viewing and downloading the EMODNet digital bathymetry: • water depth in gridded form on a DTM grid of a quarter a minute of longitude and latitude • option to view QC parameters of individual DTM cells and references to source data • option to download DTM tiles in different formats: ESRI ASCII, XYZ, CSV, NetCDF (CF), GeoTiff and SD for Fledermaus 3 D viewer software • option for users to create their Personal Layer and to upload multibeam survey ASCII datasets for automatic processing into personal DTMs following the EMODNet standards The NetCDF (CF) DTM files are fit for use in a special 3D Viewer software package which is based on the existing open source NASA World Wind JSK application. It has been developed in the frame of the EU Geo-Seas project (another sibling of SeaDataNet for marine geological and geophysical data) and is freely available. The 3D viewer also supports the ingestion of WMS overlay maps. The EMODNet consortium is actively seeking cooperation with Hydrographic Offices, research institutes, authorities and private organisations for additional data sets (single and multibeam surveys, sounding tracks, composite products) to contribute to an even better geographical coverage. These datasets will be used for upgrading and extending the EMODNet regional Digital Terrain Models (DTM). The datasets themselves are not distributed but described in the metadata service, giving clear information about the background survey data used for the DTM, their access restrictions, originators and distributors and facilitating requests by users to originators. This way the portal provides originators of bathymetric data sets an attractive shop window for promoting their data sets to potential users, without losing control. The EMODNet Hydrography Consortium consists of MARIS (NL), ATLIS (NL), IFREMER (FR), SHOM (FR), IEO (ES), GSI (IE), NERC-NOCS (UK), OGS (IT), HCMR (GR), and UNEP/GRID-Arendal (NO) with associate partners CNR-ISMAR (IT), OGS-RIMA (IT), IHPT (PT), and LNEG (PT). Website: http://www.emodnet-hydrography.eu
The study of mass and standard length (L(S) ) relationships showed that farmed individuals had higher values than wild fishes for both gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata and Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Such differences were more pronounced in larger individuals than smaller ones and were more noticeable in S. aurata than in D. labrax. Additionally, differences in external characteristics of scales were detected between origins. A high proportion of farmed S. aurata had a regenerated nucleus (98%) and scale malformations (73%), and there were no annual rings in the farmed D. labrax (100%). Variation in otolith morphology was examined through shape descriptors such as area, perimeter, circularity, roundness, mass, height and length relationship and elliptic Fourier descriptors (EFDs). Important differences were found within geographical origins according to each shape descriptor separately, but no clear patterns distinguished wild and farmed fish. Discriminant analysis with either all shape descriptors together or EFDs was able to classify with high accuracy both S. aurata (89·5-95·7%) and D. labrax (93·2-95·2%) according to their origin. Hence, this study suggests the use of scale characteristics as the easiest and quickest way to distinguish farmed or escaped fishes, and secondly, the usefulness of EFDs or shape descriptors to improve such separation. PMID:22551175
Arechavala-Lopez, P; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Bayle-Sempere, J T; Sfakianakis, D G; Somarakis, S
The potential muscle regeneration after nutritional dystrophy caused by high dietary DHA contents in fish and the physiological pathways involved are still unknown. To better understand this process, an experiment was conducted for 3 weeks in 14 day-old Europeansea bass larvae using different DHA ratios (1 or 5%). After this period, part of the larvae fed 5% DHA diet was switched to 1% DHA diet ("wash-out") for another 2 weeks. Larvae fed 5% DHA diet showed altered oxidative status as indicated by the highest TBARS values, antioxidant enzymes (AOE) expression and incidence of muscular lesions. Accordingly, "washed-out" larvae showed lower dry weight and ?-TOH content. IGF-I gene expression was elevated in 5% DHA larvae at 35 dph, suggesting increased muscle mitogenesis that was corroborated by the increase in myosin heavy chain expression. It can be concluded that high dietary DHA contents alter the oxidative status and cause muscular lesions in Europeansea bass larvae, with morphological and molecular aspects of mammalians muscular degenerative disease. PMID:23202658
Betancor, Mónica B; Izquierdo, Marisol; Terova, Genciana; Preziosa, Elena; Saleh, Reda; Montero, Daniel; Hernández-Cruz, Carmen María; Caballero, María José
Sixty-four samples from 46 salmon populations totalling 2369 specimens were used for polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial ND1 region. The final analyses included 3095 specimens from 60 populations in Northern Europe. A subsample was analysed by RFLP of ND3\\/4\\/5\\/6. Representative RFLP haplotypes from different parts of the distribution area were sequenced and the phylogeny
J. Nilsson; R. Gross; T. Asplund; O. Dove; H. Jansson; J. Kelloniemi; K. Kohlmann; A. LOytynoja; E. E. Nielsen; T. Paaver; C. R. Primmer; S. Titov; A. VasemAgi; A. Veselov; T. Ost; J. Lumme
The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...
The fish status layers show the historic distribution of freshwater habitat and current status of ten different species of anadromous fish: spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, winter chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, sea-run cutthroat, summer steel...
This paper investigates the effect of future sea-level rise (SLR) on the tides of the northwest European Continental Shelf. The European shelf tide is dominated by semidiurnal constituents. This study therefore focuses primarily on the changes in the M2 tidal constituent and the spring and neap tidal conditions. The validated operational Dutch Continental Shelf Model is run for the present day sea-level as well as 2 and 10 m SLR scenarios. The M2 tidal amplitude responds to SLR in a spatially non-uniform manner, with substantial amplitude increases and decreases in both scenarios. The M2 tidal response is non-linear between 2 and 10 m with respect to SLR, particularly in the North Sea. Under the 2 m SLR scenario the M2 constituent is particularly responsive in the resonant areas of the Bristol Channel and Gulf of St. Malo (with large amplitude decreases) and in the southeastern German Bight and Dutch Wadden Sea (with large amplitude increases). Changes in the spring tide are generally greater still than those in the M2 or neap tides. With 2 m SLR the spring tidal range increases up to 35 cm at Cuxhaven and decreases up to -49 cm at St. Malo. Additionally the changes in the shallow water tides are larger than expected. With SLR the depth, wave speed and wave length (tidal resonance characteristics) are increased causing changes in near resonant areas. In expansive shallow areas SLR causes reduced energy dissipation by bottom friction. Combined these mechanisms result in the migration of the amphidromes and complex patterns of non-linear change in the tide with SLR. Despite the significant uncertainty associated with the rate of SLR over the next century, substantial alterations to tidal characteristics can be expected under a high end SLR scenario. Contrary to existing studies this paper highlights the importance of considering the modification of the tides by future SLR. These substantial future changes in the tides could have wide reaching implications; including for example, correctly calculating design level requirements for flood defences, the availability of tidal renewable energy and dredging requirements.
Pickering, M. D.; Wells, N. C.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Green, J. A. M.
Seasonal cycles, mainly due to great variations in the light duration and temperature, are important and modulate several aspects of the animal behavior. In the case of poikilotherms animals such as fish this is very relevant. Thus, temperature changes fish immunity and affects disease resistance. We evaluate in this work the season variations of the Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) humoral innate parameters focusing on winter months, at which the culture of this specie is more difficult. Our results showed that not all the innate immune parameters are depressed by low temperatures. Moreover, some of them are more dependent than others to the season and both temperature and photoperiod are operating together. PMID:24852342
Valero, Yulema; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena
Scientific research and public debate on the welfare of animals in human custody is increasing at present. Fish are in this context mentioned with particular attention to the high numbers of individuals reared in aquaculture. Research on fish has also contributed to the understanding of individual variation in the ability to cope with stress and disease. One mediator of such variation is the brain serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system, which conveys physiological and behavioral responses to stress and sub-optimal rearing conditions. Here we study links between the 5-HT response, melanin-based skin pigmentation, and behavior in laboratory-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) experimentally infested with ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Lice numbers were more variable in less pigmented fish, while the neurochemical response to ectoparastic lice-increased levels of the main 5-HT catabolite 5-HIAA in the brain stem-did not differ between pigmentation groups. A strong depression of growth and locomotor activity was seen in all infested fish but less pigmented fish grew better than fish with more skin melanization regardless of infestation status. The observed combination of neurochemical and behavioral effects clearly suggest that animal welfare concerns can be added to the list of negative effects of ectoparasitic sea lice. PMID:24792663
Overli, Oyvind; Nordgreen, Janicke; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Janczak, Andrew M; Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida B; Horsberg, Tor E
The study assesses the effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) in Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) posterior intestinal lipid class composition and its possible relation to the potential prostaglandins production and Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) stimulation. Fish were fed 4 g kg(-1) MOS (Bio-Mos(®) Aquagrade, Alltech, Inc., USA) for eight weeks. Fish fed MOS presented higher (P ? 0.05) weight gain, total length, and specific and relative growth rates than fish fed the control diet. Stimulated posterior gut of fish fed MOS showed higher (P ? 0.05) prostaglandins production than fish fed the control diet. Lipid class analyses of posterior gut revealed a reduction (P ? 0.05) in the neutral lipid fraction in fish fed MOS compared to fish fed the control diet, particularly due to a reduction (P ? 0.05) in triacylglycerols content. The polar lipid fraction increased (P ? 0.05) in fish fed MOS compared to fish fed the control diet, mainly due to an increase (P ? 0.05) in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcoline contents. Light microscopy of posterior gut revealed increased number or goblet cells as well as higher level of infiltrated eosinophilic granulocytes for fish fed MOS. Transmission electron microscopy qualitative observations revealed a better preserved cytoarchitecture of the intestinal epithelial barrier in the posterior gut of fish fed MOS. Posterior gut of fish fed MOS presented more densely packed non-damaged enterocytes, better preserved tight junctions structure, healthier and more organized microvilli, and a higher presence of infiltrated lymphocytes and granulocytes compared fish fed the control diet. The present study indicates that dietary MOS enhances Europeansea bass posterior gut epithelial defense by increasing membrane polar lipids content in relation to a stimulation of the eicosanoid cascade and GALT, promoting posterior gut health status. PMID:23528875
Sequencing of 395 bp long fragments of cytochrome b gene occupying the 15396–15790 bp positions of mtDNA, the data on the\\u000a structure and variability of the studied region in chum salmon from the Ola River (northern coast of the Sea of Okhtosk) were\\u000a obtained for the first time. Nine haplotype variants and four protein modifications were obtained. The medial net
The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of new candidate lighting-technologies (50W ‘blue’ light-emitting-diode (B, ?max=465nm); 232W ‘green’ hot cathode, (G, ?max=546nm); 400W ‘red’ tungsten-halogen, (R, ?max=667–740nm)) against a standard 400W ‘white’ metal-halide used as control technology (C, broad spectrum) at suppressing sexual maturation of 1+ Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in sea-cages. A total of seven experimental
The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011 and is making good progress. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. Recently the 1st Innovation Cycle has been completed, including upgrading of the CDI Data Discovery and Access service to ISO 19139 and making it fully INSPIRE compliant. The extensive SeaDataNet Vocabularies have been upgraded too and implemented for all SeaDataNet European metadata directories. SeaDataNet is setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has also increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.4 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 90 connected data centres from 30 countries riparian to Europeanseas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for leading the data management component of the EMODNet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. In the past 4 years EMODNet portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are now being expanded to all Europeanseas in successor projects, which started mid 2013 from EU DG MARE. EMODNet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODNet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy with SeaDataNet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the Europeanseas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place in the new phase. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far, and give further insights in the EMODNet Bathymetry progress.
Polygenic sex determination, although suspected in several species, is thought to be evolutionarily unstable and has been proven in very few cases. In the Europeansea bass, temperature is known to influence the sex ratio. We set up a factorial mating, producing 5.893 individuals from 253 full-sib families, all reared in a single batch to avoid any between-families environmental effects. The proportion of females in the offspring was 18.3%, with a large variation between families. Interpreting sex as a threshold trait, the heritability estimate was 0.62 +/- 0.12. The observed distribution of family sex ratios was in accordance with a polygenic model or with a four-sex-factors system with environmental variance and could not be explained by any genetic model without environmental variance. We showed that there was a positive genetic correlation between weight and sex (r(A) = 0.50 +/- 0.09), apart from the phenotypic sex dimorphism in favor of females. This supports the hypothesis that a minimum size is required for sea bass juveniles to differentiate as females. An evolution of sex ratio by frequency-dependent selection is expected during the domestication process of Dicentrarchus labrax populations, raising concern about the release of such fish in the wild. PMID:17435246
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mannan oligosaccharides derived from the outer cell wall of a select strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bio-Mos, Alltech Inc, USA) on mucus production, selected mucus immune parameters activity, gut morphology and in vivo and ex vivo gut bacterial translocation for Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Specimens were fed 4 g kg?¹ dietary MOS level of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet for eight weeks. At the end of this period, anterior gut mucosal folds height, width and folds surface area were increased by MOS supplementation (P < 0.05, n = 240). Posterior gut presented shorter folds (P < 0.05, n = 240) but wider that those fed control diet (P < 0.05, n = 240) resulting in increased total surface area (P < 0.05, n = 240). For rectum, feeding MOS reduced fold length (P < 0.05, n = 240). Gut morphological analyses showed an enhancement in the number of cells secreting acid mucins by area unit, higher density of eosinophilic granulocytes (ECGs) in the mucosa for fish fed MOS together with an improvement in gut mucus lysozyme activity which could be related to the reduced in vivo and ex vivo gut bacterial translocation found. No differences were found for the skin mucus immune parameters evaluated. PMID:21195771
In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed in cultured sea bass juveniles. We also studied the effect of liposome-vehiculated KZ included in medicated food on ichthyophoniasis. KZ causes clear toxic effects in D. labrax juveniles at doses >80 mg kg-1, apparent in the reduced survival of fish and histological alterations to livers, kidneys and spleens. Fish injected with Ichthyophonus and treated with KZ dosages of ?80 mg kg-1 d-1 presented lower ichthyophoniasis prevalence, fewer organs infected per fish, and fewer spores in the affected organs than the untreated fish. KZ seems to delay the onset of infection, but cannot stop further progression once established. However, this behaviour is not clearly reflected in the biometric and haematological data collected from these fish. We hypothesise that KZ's delaying effect would increase, if lower infective doses (more similar to natural situations) were used. The drug administration vehicle (liposomes vs. emulsions) did not affect the results. Our data confirm the potential utility of KZ in treating ichthyophoniasis and reveal its low toxicity for sea bass. Nevertheless, the optimal dose and appropriate application protocol remain to be determined. PMID:23999706
...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...that pertain to the management of Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea subarea of...
By the 1950s, pollution had extirpated Atlantic salmon in the river Mersey in northwest England. During the 1970s, an extensive restoration program began and in 2001, an adult salmon was caught ascending the river. Subsequently, a fish trap was installed and additional adults are now routinely sampled. In this study, we have genotyped 138 adults and one juvenile salmon at 14 microsatellite loci from across this time period (2001-2011). We have used assignment analysis with a recently compiled pan-European microsatellite baseline to identify their most probable region of origin. Fish entering the Mersey appear to originate from multiple sources, with the greatest proportion (45-60%, dependent on methodology) assigning to rivers in the geographical region just north of the Mersey, which includes Northwest England and the Solway Firth. Substantial numbers also appear to originate from rivers in western Scotland, and from rivers in Wales and Southwest England; nonetheless, the number of fish originating from proximal rivers to the west of the Mersey was lower than expected. Our results suggest that the majority of salmon sampled in the Mersey are straying in a southerly direction, in accordance with the predominantly clockwise gyre present in the eastern Irish Sea. Our findings highlight the complementary roles of improving water quality and in-river navigability in restoring salmon to a river and underlines further the potential benefits of restoration over stocking as a long-term solution to declining fish stocks. PMID:23145338
Ikediashi, Charles; Billington, Sam; Stevens, Jamie R
Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data. Helen Glaves1 and Colin Graham2 on behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium The Geo-Seas project will create a network of twenty six European marine geoscience data centres from seventeen coastal countries including six from the Baltic Sea area. This will be achieved through the development of a pan-European infrastructure for the exchange of marine geoscientific data. Researchers will be able to locate and access harmonised and federated marine geological and geophysical datasets and data products held by the data centres through the Geo-Seas data portal, using a common data catalogue. The new infrastructure, an expansion of the exisiting SeaDataNet, will create an infrastructure covering oceanographic and marine geoscientific data. New data products and services will be developed following consultations with users on their current and future research requirements. Common data standards will be implemented across all of the data centres and other geological and geophysical organisations will be encouraged to adopt the protocols, standards and tools which are developed as part of the Geo-Seas project. Oceanographic and marine data include a wide range of variables, an important category of which are the geological and geophysical data sets. This data includes raw observational and analytical data as well as derived data products from seabed sediment samples, boreholes, geophysical surveys (seismic, gravity etc) and sidescan sonar surveys. All of which are essential in order to produce a complete interpretation of seabed geology. Despite there being a large volume of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way between organisations due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations and also within different countries. This makes the direct use of primary data in an integrated way very difficult and also hampers use of the data sets in a harmonised way to produce multidisciplinary data products and services. To ensure interoperability with other marine environmental data types Geo-Seas ISO19115 metadata, OGC and GeoSciML standards will be used as the basis for the metadata profiles for the geological and geophysical data. This will be largely achieved by modifying the SeaDataNet metadata standard profile (Common Data Index or CDI), which is itself based upon the ISO19115 standard, to accommodate the requirements of the Geo-Seas project. The overall objective of Geo-Seas project is to build and deploy a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure within Europe which will in effect provide a data grid for the sharing of marine geological and geophysical data. This will result in a major improvement in the locating, accessing and delivery of federated marine geological and geophysical data and data products from national geological surveys and research institutes across Europe. There is an emphasis on interoperability both with other disciplines as well as with other key framework projects including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and One Geology - Europe. In addition, a key objective of the Geo-Seas project is to underpin European directives such as INSPIRE as well as recent framework programmes on both the global and European scale, for example Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), all of which are intended to encourage the exchange of data and information. Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), INETI (Portugal), IGME (Greece), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI (Poland), EGK (Estonia), LIGG (Lithuania), IO-BAS (Bulgaria), NOA (Greece), CIRIA (United Kingd
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.
Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.
The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect wild salmon populations and habitats in several countries. In Canada, much attention has focused on outbreaks of parasitic copepods, sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), on farmed and wild salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Several recent studies have reached contradictory conclusions on whether the spread of lice from salmon farms affects the productivity of sympatric wild salmon populations. We analyzed recently available sea lice data on farms and spawner–recruit data for pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago and nearby regions where farms are not present. Our results show that sea lice abundance on farms is negatively associated with productivity of both pink and coho salmon in the Broughton Archipelago. These results reconcile the contradictory findings of previous studies and suggest that management and policy measures designed to protect wild salmon from sea lice should yield conservation and fishery benefits.
Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M.; Morton, Alexandra; Lewis, Mark A.; Dill, Lawrence M.; Hilborn, Ray
Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of growth at most stations and depths. PMID:22479533
Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E
Multiple anthropogenic activities present along coastal environments may affect the health status of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, specimens of Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed for 30 days to highly contaminated sediment collected from the industrial area between Augusta and Priolo (Syracuse, Italy), defined as the most mercury polluted site in the Mediterranean. The aim was to evaluate the responses of juvenile D. labrax to highly contaminated sediments, particularly enriched in Hg, in order to enhance the scarce knowledge on the potential compensatory mechanisms developed by organisms under severe stress conditions. Apoptotic and proliferative activities [cell turnover: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and FAS Ligand (FasL)], onset of hypoxic condition [hypoxia: Hypoxia Inducibile Factor-1? (HIF-1?)], and changes in the neuroendocrine control mechanisms [neurotransmission: Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 (5-HT3)] were investigated in sea bass gill tissues. In the specimens exposed to the polluted sediment, the occurrence of altered cell turnover may result in impaired gas exchange that leads to a condition of "functional hypoxia". Changes in neurotransmission pathways were also observed, suggesting a remodeling process as an adaptive response to increase the O2-carrying capacity and restore the normal physiological conditions of the gills. Overall, these findings demonstrated that although chronic exposure to heavy metal polluted sediments alters the functioning of both the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as plasticity of the gill epithelium, fish are able to trigger a series of physiological adjustments or adaptations interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms that enable their long-term survival. PMID:23953925
Standard (SMR) and routine (RMR) metabolic rates of groups (4 to 5 individuals) of Europeansea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) were measured at combinations of the following factors: temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C), oxygenation level (air saturation to 1.5 mg dm -3) and salinity (30, 20, 10 and 5‰). The influence of these environmental conditions on fish metabolic demand was then analysed through ANOVA. At 10, 15, 20 and 25°C, standard metabolic rates were 36, 65, 89, and 91 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1, respectively, while routine oxygen consumptions covered most of the metabolic range accessible. Osmoregulatory costs are linked to metabolic activity through ventilation. This relationship was highlighted by the observed interaction between environmental salinity and temperature. We were, however, unable to detect interactions between salinity and routine metabolic rate, or between salinity and oxygenation level. In order to delineate more precisely the restrictions imposed by water oxygenation on fish metabolic performance we determined the limiting oxygen concentration curves at each experimental temperature. We followed up by modelling the bass active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) as functions of both ambient temperature and oxygenation. These mathematical models allowed the characterisation of the controlling and limiting effects of water temperature and oxygen content on the metabolic capacity of the species. Thus, AMR at 10, 15 and 20°C were estimated at 65, 160 and 360 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1, respectively. However, at higher temperature (25°C) AMR dropped slightly (to 340 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1). Bass MS increased by a factor of 9 between 10 and 20°C, but diminished at higher temperatures. The present study contributes to our current understanding of the influences of environmental factors on the metabolism of sea bass and provides a bioenergetic basis for a study of how environmental constraints govern the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of this species.
Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei) is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690) were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish.
In this study we introduce a daily high-resolution land-only observational gridded data set for sea level pressure covering the European region as a new addition to the E-OBS gridded data sets of daily temperatures and precipitation amounts. This data set improves upon existing products in terms of spatial resolution and extent. The data set is delivered on the same four spatial resolutions as the other E-OBS data sets: 0.25° by 0.25° and 0.5° by 0.5° on a regular latitude-longitude grid and 0.22° by 0.22° and 0.44° by 0.44° on a rotated pole grid. We show that there is a good agreement in the long-term mean and standard deviation with popular reanalysis grids. In areas with a relatively high number of stations, the gridded data is closer to the station data than the reanalysis products. There is also a very good agreement with daily weather charts for selected storm events.
van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Haylock, M. R.; van der Schrier, G.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.
A novel Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped gliding bacterial strain, designated 35/09(T), was isolated from diseased Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) in Spain. Colonies were pale-yellow-pigmented with uneven edges and did not adhere to the agar. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 31.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated affiliation to the genus Tenacibaculum (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum 'Bacteroidetes'). Sequence similarities between the isolate and type strains of other members of the genus were 93.1-97.3?%. The major fatty acids (>5?% of the total fatty acids) were iso-C(15?:?0) (24.8?%), iso-C(15?:?0) 3-OH (18.0?%), anteiso-C(15?:?0) (8.1?%), C(15?:?1)?6c (6.9?%) and iso-C(15?:?1) (6.2?%). Genotypic and phenotypic data indicate that strain 35/09(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 35/09(T) (?=?CECT 7612(T)?=?NCIMB 14598(T)). PMID:21460137
Kisspeptins are now considered key players in the neuroendocrine control of puberty and reproduction, at least in mammals. Most teleosts have two kiss genes, kiss1 and kiss2, but their sites of expression are still poorly documented. As a first step in investigating the role of kisspeptins in the Europeansea bass, a perciform fish, we studied the distribution of kiss1 and kiss2-expressing cells in the brain of males and females undergoing their first sexual maturation. Animals were examined at early and late in the reproductive season. We also examined the putative expression of estrogen receptors in kiss-expressing cells and, finally, we investigated whether kisspeptins are expressed in the pituitary gland. We show that kiss1-expressing cells were consistently detected in the habenula and, in mature males and females, in the rostral mediobasal hypothalamus. In both sexes, kiss2-expressing cells were consistently detected at the level of the preoptic area, but the main kiss2 mRNA-positive population was observed in the dorsal hypothalamus, above and under the lateral recess. No obvious sexual differences in kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression were detected. Additional studies based on confocal imaging clearly showed that most kiss1 mRNA-containing cells of the mediobasal hypothalamus strongly express ER? and slightly express ER?2. At the pituitary level, both sexes exhibited kiss1 mRNA expression in most FSH?-positive cells and never in LH?-positive cells. PMID:22886357
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are believed to contain relevant information and have been therefore extensively used as genetic markers in population and conservation genetics, and molecular ecology studies. This study reports on the identification of potential SNPs in a diploid Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome by using reference sequences from three assembled chromosomes and mapping all WGS datasets onto them (3× Sanger, 3× 454 and 20× SOLEXA). A total of 20,779 SNPs were identified over the 1469 gene loci and intergenic space analysed. Within chromosomes the occurrence of SNPs was the lowest in exons and higher in introns and intergenic regions, which may be explained by the fact, that coding regions are under strong selective pressure to maintain their biological function. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations was smaller than one for all the chromosomes, suggesting that most of deleterious nonsynonymous mutations were eliminated by negative selection. SNPs were not uniformly distributed over the chromosomes. Two chromosomes exhibited large regions with extremely low SNP density, which might represent homozygous regions in the diploid genome. The results of this study show how SNP detection can take profit from sequencing a single diploid individual, but also uncover the limits of such an approach. SNPs that have been identified will support marker development for genetic linkage mapping, population genetics and aquaculture related questions in general. PMID:20452842
Kuhl, Heiner; Tine, Mbaye; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Reinhardt, Richard
Early ionocytes have been studied in the Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) embryos. Structural and functional aspects were analyzed and compared with those observed in the same conditions (38 ppt) in post hatching stages. Immunolocalization of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) in embryos revealed the presence of ionocytes on the yolk sac membrane from a stage 12 pair of somites (S), and an original cluster around the first gill slits from stage 14S. Histological investigations suggested that from these cells, close to the future gill chambers, originate the ionocytes observed on gill arches and gill filaments after hatching. Triple immunocytochemical staining, including NKA, various Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl? cotransporters (NKCCs) and the chloride channel "cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator" (CFTR), point to the occurrence of immature and mature ionocytes in early and late embryonic stages at different sites. These observations were completed with transmission electronic microscopy. The degree of functionality of ionocytes is discussed according to these results. Yolk sac membrane ionocytes and enteric ionocytes seem to have an early role in embryonic osmoregulation, whereas gill slits tegumentary ionocytes are presumed to be fully efficient after hatching. PMID:21261608
Four carbonate system variables were measured in surface waters during a cruise traversing northwestern European shelf seas in the summer of 2011. High resolution surface water data were collected for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; using two independent instruments) and pHT, in addition to discrete measurements of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. We thus overdetermined the carbonate system (four measured variables, two degrees of freedom) which allowed us to evaluate the level of agreement between the variables. Calculations of carbonate system variables from other measurements generally compared well (Pearson's correlation coefficient always ? 0.94; mean residuals similar to the respective uncertainties of the calculations) with direct observations of the same variables. We therefore conclude that the four independent datasets of carbonate chemistry variables were all of high quality, and as a result that this dataset is suitable to be used for the evaluation of ocean acidification impacts and for carbon was observed in the difference between the pCO2; values obtained by the two independent analytical pCO2; systems, and this was partly attributed to irregular seawater flows to the equilibrator and partly to biological activity inside the seawater supply and one of the equilibrators. We discuss how these issues can be addressed to improve carbonate chemistry data quality on research cruises.
Ribas-Ribas, M.; Rérolle, V. M. C.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Kitidis, V.; Lee, G. A.; Brown, I.; Achterberg, E. P.; Tyrrell, T.
Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) can be successfully incorporated in several fish species but have not been evaluated in marine fish. A 12-week growth trial was conducted with Europeansea bass juveniles, having an initial weight of 13.96±0.16 g (S.D.). Fish were fed to satiation, twice a day, with diets containing graded amounts of CLA (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 or 2%).
L. M. P. Valente; N. M. Bandarra; A. C. Figueiredo-Silva; A. R. Cordeiro; R. M. Simões; M. L. Nunes
The extent to which European seasonal precipitation is predictable is a topic of scientific and societal importance. Although the potential for seasonal prediction is much less over Europe than in the tropics, it is not negligible. Previous studies suggest that European seasonal precipitation skill may peak in the spring (March-April-May) period, this being the season when El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections to the North Atlantic and European sector are at their strongest. Examination of the correlation significance and temporal stability of contemporaneous and lagged ENSO links to European and North African precipitation over 98 years confirms this to be the case. The strongest ENSO links are found across the central European region (45°N-55°N,35°E-5°W). These links are symmetric with the sign of ENSO. Using a linear statistical model employing temporally stable lagged ENSO and lagged local North Atlantic sea surface temperatures as predictors, we compute the forecast skill and significance of central European spring precipitation over 30 independent years. For early March forecasts our model skill is 14-18% better than climatology, which is significant at the 95% level.
SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania
Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.
Growth, haematological (haematocrit), biochemical (serum cortisol and glucose), and non-specific immune (lysozyme, serum haemolytic and haemagglutinating activities, extracellular respiratory burst activity) parameters, were monitored in Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and blackspot sea bream Pagellus bogaraveo subjected to a 31 days starvation compared to fed fish, to assess the responses to feed deprivation of these health status indicators. While haematocrit, serum cortisol, glucose and haemolytic activity of both species did not undergo significant variation following starvation, probably due to the short period applied, some non-specific immune parameters were affected significantly. In the starved sea bass, mucus lysozyme content doubled (1.8 U/mL) compared to the initial value. Haemagglutinating activity was significantly lower in starved sea bass than in fed fish after 31 days. In blackspot sea bream, a slight, not significant, reduction in haemagglutinating activity occurred 11 days after starvation. Respiratory burst activity decreased significantly in the starved fish. In spite of the limited number of examined parameters, the opportunity to use a panel of several indicators to obtain a more complete picture of health status in fish was underlined. PMID:21664688
This activity is about sea surface temperatures and its impact on salmon populations. After reading background information on Northwest salmon and graphing data provided, learners will give short presentations about the relationship between sea surface temperature, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and salmon populations. Links to materials and additional resources, as well as extensions to this activity, are provided. This the second of two activities on "The Impact of Climate Change on Chinook Salmon" in Climate Change, Wildlife and Wildlands: A Toolkit for Formal and Informal Educators.
In this study we investigate the functioning of the biological pump in the Southern EuropeanSeas (SES). In order to constrain the rates of carbon production and export to depth, we combine estimations of satellite primary production data, algorithm-generated fluxes out of the euphotic layer and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes, as measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers in three sites located in the Western Mediterranean (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED), and the Black Sea (BS). POC fluxes were monitored during one year period (Sept 2007 - Sept 2008) in the frame of SESAME project. Annual primary production by satellite estimations yielded values of 396 mg C m-2d-1 (EMED), 563 mg C m-2d-1 (WMED) and 617 mg C m-2d-1 (BS) (SeaWiFS; http://emis.jrc.ec.europa.eu). At the scale of the whole Mediterranean and the Black Sea basins, spatiotemporal variability of Chl-a concentrations during the time of our experiments revealed significant differences in the seasonal cycles. While the WMED site showed increased biomass centred around spring (March-April 2008), the EMED site showed higher values in mid-winter (January 2008), even thought almost one order of magnitude lower than those recorded in the western site. In contrast, the BS site showed increased Chl-a concentration in autumn (Nov 2007) and a lower increase in early spring (March 2008). Overall, the observed Chl-a seasonal patterns for the WMED and EMED sites match quite well the typical seasonal patterns ascribed to their hosting areas, corresponding to "blooming" and "non-blooming" biogeographic regions, respectively, as proposed by D'Ortenzio and Ribera d'Alcala (D'Ortenzio and Ribera d'Alcala, 2009). Moreover, based on the timing of the bloom (late fall) the seasonal pattern of the BS site is quite similar to that observed in Mediterranean regions having a "coastal" regime. Thus, specific physical and biogeochemical settings in the three contrasting sites affect the seasonality of the POC production and export to depth. The fraction of primary production that is exported out of the euphotic zone ranges from 7 to 15%, while the fraction of primary production exported below 2000 m depth was 0.61%, 0.34% and 0.97% in the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. Export rates at the BS and WMED sites found to be slightly higher, while this at the EMED site to be comparable to the global ocean average of 0.31% at 2500 m depth (Lutz et al., 2007). POC export to depth are driven by meso-scale current activity, vertical mixing events, riverine discharges and atmospheric deposition. Understanding the processes driving carbon cycle in the SES is important for assessing the impacts of the predicted climate change in this region, with an ultimate goal to be included in the global ocean carbon models. *Authors AG and AS-V contributed equally to this work
Gogou*, A.; Sanchez-Vidal*, A.; Stavrakakis, S.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Calafat, A. M.; Stabholz, M.; Psarra, S.; Canals, M.; Heussner, S.; Stavrakaki, I.; Papathanassiou, E.
The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been established. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea Level (CSL). The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot have led to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for other cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly), 7 cm from October to the end of 2010 and another 5 cm to the end of May 2011. From October 2010 to February 2011 excessive precipitation occurred over the Volga basin, equivalent to an increase of the CSL of 7 cm which might just compensate the 7 cm of the remaining deficit from the summer drought. A deficit of water took however already place in the months before July 2010. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS. Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are investigated as well which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive quantities like surface evaporation and precipitation. The comparison with independent data and the consistency between such data for calculating the water budget over the CS gives a high confidence in the quality of the data used. This investigation provides some scope for making forecasts of the CSL few months ahead to allow for mitigating societal impacts.
The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been analysed. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea level (CSL). The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot lead to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated here to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for deficient precipitation and for winter cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until the end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly). So the remaining drop of 20 cm can be expected in the months to follow if no other anomalies happen. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS. Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are also investigated, which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive quantities like surface evaporation and precipitation. The comparison with independent data and the consistency between such data for calculating the water budget over the CS gives a high confidence in the quality of the data used. This investigation provides some scope for making forecasts of the CSL few months ahead to allow for mitigating societal impacts.
Embryonic osmoregulation effected by embryonic ionocytes in the Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax has been studied at several sites, including the yolk sac membrane, the first gill slits and the gut ionocytes. D. labrax embryos, spawned in seawater (SW) (39 ‰), were exposed to dilute seawater (DSW) (5 ‰) during 48 h, from stage 10 pairs of somites (10S) to hatching time (HT). Control embryos originating from the same spawn were maintained in SW. Both SW and DSW embryos were examined after 24- and 48-h exposure. Nanoosmometric measurements of the embryonic fluids osmolality suggest that late embryos are confronted with the variations in external salinity and that they were able to slightly regulate their osmolality. Immunolocalization of Na?/K? ATPase, NKCC and CFTR has shown that DSW-exposed embryos can limit ion losses due to compensatory physiological mechanisms. CFTR and NKCC were not observed in DSW embryos in the yolk sac ionocytes and in the tegumentary ionocytes of the gill slits. The quantification of mRNA indicated that NKA, NKCC1 and CFTR transcript levels increased from stage 10S to stage HT. At stage HT, following 48 h of DSW- or SW-exposure, different responses were observed according to salinity. These results, when compared to those obtained in D. labrax juveniles and adults long-term exposed to fresh water (FW), show that in embryos the physiological response following a short-term DSW exposure is different. The mechanisms of hyper-osmoregulation observed in D. labrax embryos, although not fully efficient, allow their survival for several days in DSW. PMID:22752053
In this study, we investigate the strength and efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Southern EuropeanSeas (SES), by analyzing the export of POC at three deep sites located in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED) and the Black Sea (BS). We combine estimations of satellite and algorithm-generated primary production data, calculated POC fluxes out of the euphotic layer and POC fluxes measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers during a one year period, with an ultimate goal to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of the biological pump in the SES. Annual particulate primary production based on satellite estimations (SeaWiFS) at the three sites, averages 205, 145 and 225 gC m- 2 y- 1 at the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. According to our findings, the fraction of primary production that is exported out of the euphotic zone in the SES ranges between 4.2% and 11.4%, while the fraction reaching the mesopelagic layer (1000-1400 m depth) ranges between 0.6% and 1.8%. Finally, the fraction of primary production exported at the bathypelagic layer (2000-2800 m depth) is found to be 0.6%, 0.3% and 1.4% in the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. The role of various processes responsible for the replenishment of surface waters with nutrients, giving rise to productivity episodes and organic carbon export to depth at the three SES sites is considered.
Gogou, Alexandra; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Stavrakakis, Spyros; Calafat, Antoni M.; Stabholz, Marion; Psarra, Stella; Canals, Miquel; Heussner, Serge; Stavrakaki, Ioanna; Papathanassiou, Evangelos
The global increase in the production of domestic farmed fish in open net pens has created concerns about the resilience of wild populations owing to shifts in host-parasite systems in coastal ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of increased parasite abundance on life-history traits in wild fish populations. Here, we report the results of two separate studies in which 379 779 hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts were treated (or not) against salmon lice, marked and released. Adults were later recaptured, and we specifically tested whether the age distribution of the returning spawners was affected by the treatment. The estimates of parasite-induced mortality were 31.9% and 0.6% in the River Vosso and River Dale stock experiments, respectively. Age of returning salmon was on average higher in untreated [corrected] versus untreated fish. The percentages of fish returning after one winter at sea were 37.5% and 29.9% for the treated and untreated groups, respectively. We conclude that salmon lice increase the age of returning salmon, either by affecting their age at maturity or by disproportionately increasing mortality in fish that mature early. PMID:24478199
Vollset, Knut Wiik; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir; Skoglund, Helge; Normann, Eirik Straume; Skilbrei, Ove Tommy
Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…
...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures for Groundfish...be a novel approach to managing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery...combines a limit on the amount of Chinook salmon that may be caught incidentally with...
Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax from the Mediterranean were diagnosed with a severe encephalitis. Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) were associated with brain lesions in routine paraffin sections. These were found to share common antigens with the Piscirickettsia salmonis type-strain, LF-89, by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In addition, we compared the DNA sequences of the 16S rDNA and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) with those published for P. salmonis strains and found that the sea bass piscirickettsia-like organism (SBPLO) was another strain of P. salmonis, closely related to the salmonid pathogens. Furthermore, we showed that the SBPLO possessed at least 2 ITS regions, 1 of which contained tRNA genes. PMID:15918473
McCarthy, U; Steiropoulos, N A; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Ellis, A E; Ferguson, H W
The aim of this paper is to reconsider recent pan-European developments in teacher education and to discuss some aspects of its future. Teacher education across Europe has been largely "universitised"; therefore, both its present and future should be discussed within the context of the general changes in European higher education deeply…
The pineal organ of fish is a photosensory and neuroendocrine epithalamic structure that plays a key role in the temporal organisation of physiological and behavioural processes. In this study performed in the Europeansea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, we provided an in-depth description of the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the pineal organ and identified the presence of photoreceptor and presumed melatonin-producing cells using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, we analysed in the pineal the day-night expression (using quantitative real-time PCR) of two key enzymes in the melatonin-synthesising pathway; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). The pineal complex of sea bass consisted of a narrow and short pineal stalk that adopts a vertical disposition, a small-sized pineal end vesicle firmly attached to the skull by connective tissue, a parapineal organ and a convoluted dorsal sac. Immunohistochemical study showed the presence of abundant serotonin-positive cells. Cone opsin-like and rod opsin-like photoreceptor cells were also evidenced in the pineal stalk and vesicle. Both Aanat2 and Hiomt were expressed in sea bass pineal organ. Aanat2 exhibited higher nocturnal transcript levels, while no significant day-night differences were found for Hiomt. These results, together with ongoing studies analysing neural and neurohormonal outputs from the pineal organ of sea bass, provide the basic framework to understand the transduction integration of light stimulus in this relevant species for marine aquaculture. PMID:21310229
Herrera-Pérez, P; Servili, A; Rendón, M C; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Falcón, J; Muñoz-Cueto, J A
Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant proteins also involved in inflammation and innate immunity. Prx1 and Prx2 are also known as natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF)-A and NKEF-B, respectively, by their ability to prime the mammalian NK-cells activity. In teleost fish, NKEF genes have been isolated but their regulation has been scarcely evaluated. We have identified orthologues of the NKEF-A and NKEF-B genes in the teleost Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) which showed constitutive expression and wide distribution in their tissues. In vitro, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass NKEFs were slightly up-regulated in head-kidney leucocytes after stimulation with unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, poly I:C or pathogenic bacteria. In vivo, seabream and sea bass infection with nodavirus up-regulated the expression of NKEF genes in the brain (target tissue for nodavirus) and head-kidney at different infection times. Although further studies are necessary to ascertain their role as antioxidant proteins and in the immune response in teleost fish, our results suggest a primary role of seabream and sea bass NKEFs in the innate immune response against bacterial and viral agents. PMID:23511025
Esteban, María A; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Arizcun, Marta; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto
A data set from commercial Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) producers on production intensity and production strategies in smolt tanks (N = 63-94) was obtained during 1999-2006. The effects of production intensity on subsequent fish mortality and growth during the early sea phase (90 days) were examined by principal component analysis and subsequent generalized linear model analysis. Levels of accumulated metabolites (CO(2), total ammonia nitrogen and NH(3)), and information provided by producers (production density (kg fish m(3-1)), specific water use (l kg fish(-1) min(-1)) and oxygen drop (mg l(-1)) from tank inlet to tank outlet), were used as predictor variables. In addition, several other welfare relevant variables such as disease history, temperature during freshwater and sea stage; season (S1) or off-season (S0) smolt production; and the use of seawater addition during the freshwater stage were analyzed. No strong intensity effects on mortality or growth were found. CO(2) levels alone (P < 0.001, R(2) = 0.16), and in combination with specific water use (R(2) = 0.20), had the strongest effect on mortality. In both cases, mortality decreased with increasing density. For growth, the intensity model with the most support (R(2) = 0.17) was O(2) drop, density and their interaction effects, resulting in the best growth at low and high intensity, and poorer growth at intermediate levels. Documented viral disease outbreaks (infectious pancreatic necrosis and two cases of pancreas disease) in the sea phase resulted in significantly higher mortalities at 90 days compared with undiagnosed smolt groups, although mortalities were highly variable in both categories. The temperature difference between the freshwater stage and seawater had a small, but significant, effect on growth with the best growth in groups stocked to warmer seawater (P = 0.04, R(2) = 0.06). S0 and S1 smolt groups did not differ significantly in growth, but the mortality was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in S1 groups. Seawater addition as a categorical variable had no significant effects, but when analyzed within the seawater addition group, intermediate salinities (15-25 ppt) gave the best results on growth (p = 0.04, R(2) = 0.15). Production intensity had small explanatory power on subsequent seawater performance in the analyzed smolt groups. If anything, the analysis shows a beneficial effect of intensive production strategies on subsequent performance. Analysis of the various production strategies indicates better survival of S0 compared with S1 smolt groups, improved growth when stocked in seawater warmer than freshwater, and a negative effect of viral disease outbreaks on survival. The results clearly demonstrate the difficulty of extrapolating results from experimental work on fish welfare and production intensity variables to commercial production. On the other hand, the presented results may simply demonstrate that the traditional fish welfare criteria growth and mortality may not suffice to evaluate welfare consequences of suboptimal water quality or production strategies in the aquaculture industry. PMID:22037926
Kristensen, T; Haugen, T O; Rosten, T; Fjellheim, A; Atland, A; Rosseland, B O
Can painted wooden fish on a schoolyard fence change human behavior and help clean up the ocean for the real salmon? Stream of Dreams in British Columbia thinks so, and a lot of wooden fish and some 100,000 school kids later, they have some intriguing results to show for their effort. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.
This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…
Unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) was performed in Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) during late pre-vitellogenesis/early vitellogenesis. Plasma steroid levels and the expression of a suite of potential oogenesis-relevant genes in the ovary, brain, and pituitary were evaluated with the aim of understanding their involvement in the compensatory oocyte development occurring within the remaining ovarian lobe. After 69 days of surgery the remaining ovarian lobe in ULO fish was gravimetrically equivalent to an intact-paired ovary of sham operated, control fish. This compensatory ovarian growth was based on an increased number of early perinucleolar oocytes and mid-late stage vitellogenic follicles without an apparent recruitment of primary oocytes into the secondary growth phase. Plasma steroid levels were similar in ULO and control females at all time points analyzed, suggesting an increased steroid production of the remaining ovarian lobe in hemi-castrated females. Results of the gene expression survey conducted indicate that the signaling pathways mediated by Fsh and Gnrh1 constitute the central axes orchestrating the observed ovarian compensatory growth. In addition, steroid receptors, Star protein, Igfs, and members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily including anti-Mullerian hormone and bone morphogenetic protein 4 were identified as potentially relevant players within this process, although their specific actions and interactions remain to be established. Our results demonstrate that ULO provides an excellent in vivo model for elucidating the interconnected endocrine and molecular mechanisms controlling oocyte development in Europeansea bass. PMID:21610167
García-López, Ángel; Sánchez-Amaya, María I; Tyler, Charles R; Prat, Francisco
Viscera and muscle of a total of 40 wild 1-2kg Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from Northeast Atlantic (FAO area 27) were examined for Anisakidae larvae detection by digestion method. Extracted parasites were counted and mean intensity was calculated. Parasites were identified by genetic/molecular markers (allozymes and sequences analysis of the mtDNA cox2 gene) as belonging to the species Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto). In viscera, the main localisations of the larvae were under the gastric serosa, where several parasites alive and dead were found, and intestinal serosa. The visceral prevalence was 0.950 and the mean intensity was 96.39. The main localisation of A. simplex (s.s.) in edible parts was in belly muscles, with a prevalence of 0.425 and a mean intensity of 1.9. This is the first record on the prevalence and mean intensity of A. simplex (s.s.) in Europeansea bass muscle. This finding has an important consequence on epidemiology of anisakiasis and public health risk assessment. PMID:21620507
A long-term epidemiological study of Cryptosporidium molnari in aquacultured Europeansea bass (ESB) and gilthead sea bream (GSB) was performed in different types of facilities on the Atlantic, Cantabric, and Mediterranean coasts. Four types of studies were carried out. In study A, fish raised from juveniles to marketable size (ongrowing stage) were periodically sampled in three different types of cultures. Studies B and C focused on hatchery and nursery facilities. In study D, occasional samplings were performed during mortality or morbidity outbreaks. As a general trend, C. molnari was more prevalent in GSB than in ESB. Data on the distribution pattern of C. molnari in total sampled GSB (studies A, B, and D) had a variance higher than the mean (overdispersion). In GSB (study A), the type of ongrowing system (sea cages, earth ponds, or indoor tanks) was found to have no significant effect. There was a significant relationship between the presence of the parasite and both fish weight and season. The highest infection values were recorded in spring. Prevalence and intensity had convex weight profiles, with a peak in 30- to 100-g fish. In study D, the prevalence of infection was higher in fish recently introduced in sea cages and in preongrowing systems. In studies B and C, fish were almost never infected before entering the postlarval and nursery facilities. The parasite seems to enter the host mainly through the water in production steps with less stringent water treatment. Recirculation systems and fish cannibalism could contribute to oocyst concentration and dispersion in aquaculture facilities.
Sitja-Bobadilla, A.; Padros, F.; Aguilera, C.; Alvarez-Pellitero, P.
The aim of this study was to apply biometric measurements and analyses of proximate composition, fatty acid composition, and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) in muscle tissue to reliably differentiate between wild and farmed Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Farmed (n = 20) and wild (n = 19) Europeansea bass were purchased between March and May 2008 and used as standard samples. In the same months, a survey was conducted to evaluate the truthfulness of the statements on the labels of Europeansea bass sold in retail markets (declared farmed n = 34 and declared wild n = 33). In addition, data from the literature (reference) were employed to build the profile type of wild and farmed Europeansea bass. Primarily, an exploration and comparison of the analytical data of the standard data set based on principal component analysis and permutation test were performed. Afterward, an inferential statistical approach based on nonparametric combination test methodology (NPC) was applied on standard samples to check its suitability in discriminating the production method. This multivariate statistical analysis selected 30 variables on a total of 36 available. The validation of standard fish data set was accomplished by a novel nonparametric rank-based method according to profile type (just 1 misclassification over 39 samples). Both the NPC test and nonparametric rank-based method were then applied to survey fishes using the selected variables with the aim to classify the individual Europeansea bass as "true farmed" or "true wild". The former test segregated 10 fishes over 33 declared wild, whereas the results obtained by the nonparametric rank-based method showed that 11 of 33 declared wild Europeansea bass samples could be unquestionably attributed to the wild cluster. Moreover, considering the comparative contribution of profile type, a few surveyed farmed samples were ascribed to the wild cluster. PMID:20857938
Supplies of marine fish oils are limited, and continued growth in aquaculture production dictates that lipid substitutes in fish diets must be used without compromising fish health and product quality. In this study, the total substitution of a fish meal and fish oil by a blend of vegetable meals (corn, soybean, wheat and lupin) and linseed oil in the diet of Europeansea bass (Dicentrachus labrax) was investigated. Two groups of Europeansea bass were fed with fish diet (FD) or vegetable diet (VD) for 9months. VD, totally deprived of eicosapentaenoate (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoate (DHA; 22:6n-3), revealed a nutritional deficiency and affected growth performance. Whilst VD induced a significant increase in fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) and sterol binding regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) mRNA levels, the desaturation rate of [1-(14)C]18:3n-3 into [1-(14)C]18:4n-3, analysed in microsomal preparations using HPLC method, did not show an upregulation of FADS2 activities in liver and intestine of fish fed VD. Moreover Western-blot analysis did not revealed any significant difference of FADS2 protein amount between the two dietary groups. These data demonstrate that sea bass exhibits a desaturase (FADS2) activity whatever their diet, but a post-transcriptional regulation of fads2 RNA prevents an increase of enzyme in fish fed a HUFA-free diet. This led to a lower fish growth and poor muscle HUFA content. PMID:20363355
Geay, F; Santigosa I Culi, E; Corporeau, C; Boudry, P; Dreano, Y; Corcos, L; Bodin, N; Vandeputte, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Mazurais, D; Cahu, C L
Background The Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a marine fish of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture. Functional genomics offers the possibility to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying productive traits in farmed fish, and a step towards the application of marker assisted selection methods in this species. To this end, we report here on the development of an oligo DNA microarray for D. labrax. Results A database consisting of 19,048 unique transcripts was constructed, of which 12,008 (63%) could be annotated by similarity and 4,692 received a GO functional annotation. Two non-overlapping 60mer probes were designed for each unique transcript and in-situ synthesized on glass slides using Agilent SurePrint™ technology. Probe design was positively completed for 19,035 target clusters; the oligo microarray was then applied to profile gene expression in mandibles and whole-heads of fish affected by prognathism, a skeletal malformation that strongly affects sea bass production. Statistical analysis identified 242 transcripts that are significantly down-regulated in deformed individuals compared to normal fish, with a significant enrichment in genes related to nervous system development and functioning. A set of genes spanning a wide dynamic range in gene expression level were selected for quantitative RT-PCR validation. Fold change correlation between microarray and qPCR data was always significant. Conclusions The microarray platform developed for the Europeansea bass has a high level of flexibility, reliability, and reproducibility. Despite the well known limitations in achieving a proper functional annotation in non-model species, sufficient information was obtained to identify biological processes that are significantly enriched among differentially expressed genes. New insights were obtained on putative mechanisms involved on mandibular prognathism, suggesting that bone/nervous system development might play a role in this phenomenon.
The Late Cretaceous (100.5 - 66.0 Ma) provides perhaps the best example of how the Earth System may function under long-term extreme greenhouse conditions. Rapidly rising global temperatures indicate that we are heading 'back to the Cretaceous' within a few hundred years, so a better understanding of this time interval is essential. The beginning of the Late Cretaceous was characterized by a period of rapidly rising eustatic sea level, the Cenomanian transgression, which flooded continental margins and established large areas of new epicontinental sea that accumulated thick sequences of pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate (chalk). Highest global temperatures were reached during the early part of the Turonian Stage (93.9 - 89.8 Ma). This period of dramatic palaeoenvironmental change was accompanied by one the largest perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the Mesozoic: Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which was characterized by a 500 kyr episode of oceanic anoxia, widespread black shale deposition, biotic turnover, and a large global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion (2 - 6 ‰ ?13C) recorded in marine carbonates and both marine and terrestrial organic matter. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval exposed at Eastbourne, southern England, has become established as a European reference section for OAE2. Here, and elsewhere in Europe, the base of the ?13C excursion is coincident with a marked facies change from rhythmically bedded grey chalks and marls, to a >8 m thick package of dark greenish-grey marl - the Plenus Marl. The termination of OAE2 occurs 6 m above, in a package of pale-yellow-weathering nodular chalks with prominent marl seams. Sediments are organic lean (<0.2 wt% TOC) and bioturbated throughout, and although a case can be made for periodic oxygen depletion in bottom waters, there is no evidence here of marine surface- or bottom-water anoxia. The Plenus Marl displays a distinctive succession of 8 beds that can be correlated throughout southern England and northern France, and the formation is widely developed in the North Sea Basin where it forms an important lithostratigraphic and geophysical marker. In contrast to southern England, the Plenus Marl of the North Sea (Blodøks Formation of the Norwegian sector) consists of a succession with laminated black shales yielding TOC >10 wt%. The onshore equivalent in eastern England (the Black Band) is similarly organic-rich, as are comparable sections in northern Germany (e.g. Wunstorf), indicating likely fully anoxic episodes within some NW European basins. The exact stratigraphic equivalence between the onshore Plenus Marl, North Sea black shales and the Black Band remains controversial. Here, we compare the lithofacies, sedimentology, elemental and stable-isotope records, and palynology of Upper Cenomanian - Lower Turonian sections in southern England to those from a central North Sea cored reference well that includes a 6 m package with laminated black shales (Plenus Marl). Factors influencing carbonate and organic matter ?13C trends in the records will be considered in the context of the palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic events that accompanied eustatic sea-level change, culminating in OAE2 and the subsequent global climatic optimum. The effects of diagenesis on the stable-isotope records will be discussed.
Jarvis, Ian; Olde, Kate; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Gröcke, Darren
The effects of water temperature and light regimes on gonadal development in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were evaluated in two 12-week periods, one in spring–summer and one in winter–spring. Four different combinations of photoperiod and temperature regimes (18–26 °C) were tested in each. Sea urchins were fed a prepared diet. Food intake, growth, gonadosomatic index, biochemical composition and gametogenetic
Muki Shpigel; Susan C McBride; Sharon Marciano; Ingrid Lupatsch
The aim of this work was to do a preliminary seasonal screening of ecotoxicological biomarkers in Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax in three different fish farms, to know if the different location and typology can discriminate them. A set of selected biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, Glutathione (GSH) and gonad morphology were investigated seasonally in male Europeansea bass D. labrax (L.) reared in three different intensive farms: a land-based farm of cement tanks (T), an in-shore sea cages farm (C1) and an off-shore sea cages farm (C2). The results showed that both location and typology can discriminate AChE activity, GSH content and gonad morphology. Further investigation is needed to propose these biomarkers in the protocol of fish farm quality control. PMID:22533608
Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Corsi, Ilaria; Bonacci, Stefano; Sensini, Cristiana; Cicero, Nicola; Focardi, Silvano; Mazzola, Antonio
Sea bass change their feeding rhythms from diurnal to nocturnal in winter, returning to diurnal feeding in spring. Despite behavioral data, the physiological changes that take place during such changes remain unexplored. In this paper, blood glucose rhythms of Europeansea bass with diurnal/nocturnal self-feeding rhythms were investigated during phase inversions of their feeding behavior (in winter and spring) when both diurnal and nocturnal fish coexist. Blood glucose showed daily variations in both seasons (ANOVA, p < 0.03), fitting a cosine function (COSINOR, p < 0.05) in all cases, except in diurnal fish in spring. The average blood glucose levels of nocturnal fish in winter (2.67 ± 0.09 mmol/l, mean ± SEM) were significantly (t test, p < 0.01) higher than in spring (2.20 ± 0.08 mmol/l), while they were similar (~2.25 mmol/l) in diurnal fish in both seasons. These findings revealed for the first time insights into the seasonal physiological changes that accompany changes in behavioral rhythms in diurnal and nocturnal sea bass. PMID:23053614
del Pozo, A; Vera, L M; Montoya, A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J
In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.
The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.
Background Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. Methodology In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC?=?44 copepodites per fish; HC?=?88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. Main Findings C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality?=?251/545; LC mortality?=?544/544 and HC mortality?=?545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI?=?0.23±0.07; h2LC?=?0.17±0.08; h2HC?=?0.24±0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC?=?0.99±0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC?=??0.14±0.33; rg SI-HC?=?0.32±0.34). Conclusions/Significance C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon farming, selective breeding and conservation.
Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, Jose A.; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabano, Maria J.; Neira, Roberto
The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be
The influence of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on growth and morphogenesis during the larval development of Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was evaluated until 45days post hatching. Diets incorporated 0, 5, 15, 30, 50 or 400mg AA per kg diet to give AA-0, AA-5, AA-15, AA-30, AA-50 and AA-400 dietary treatments, respectively. Dietary AA levels lower than 15mg/kg reduced larval growth and survival was affected in specimens fed diets devoid of AA. Globally, disruption of the expression of genes involved in AA and calcium absorption in the intestine (SVCT-1, TRPV-6), skeletogenesis (BMP-4, IGF-1, RAR?) and bone mineralization (VDR?, osteocalcin) were observed in groups fed doses lower and higher than 50mg AA/kg diet. Such disturbances detected at molecular level were associated with disruptions of the ossification process and the appearance of skeletal abnormalities. PMID:21281732
Darias, Maria J; Mazurais, David; Koumoundouros, Giorgos; Le Gall, Marie M; Huelvan, Christine; Desbruyeres, Elisabeth; Quazuguel, Patrick; Cahu, Chantal L; Zambonino-Infante, Jose L
Field observations of covering (placement of objects on upper surface) and migration (movement between upper and lower rock surfaces) by the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea), were conducted at Lough Hyne, Ireland. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain such behaviour in echinoids but have failed to consider the importance of multiple abiotic and biotic factors. Our study aimed
Until around 5500 BC the Black Sea was a (smaller) freshwater-lake. The breaking Bosporus sill led to a flood commonly referred to as Noah's Flood (Pitman\\/Ryan). Although heavily attacked, just recently this theory has gained support from new studies. We propose that Atlantis was an early Neolithic settlement at the former shoreline of that lake. With regard to the interactions
Approximately 6% of the freshwater living northern straight-mouth nase Pseudochondrostoma duriense in two Spanish rivers had attached post-metamorphic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Minimum prey size was 16·1?cm fork length and 56·3?g mass. The condition factor of attacked P. duriense was 16% lower than that of unattacked conspecifics. PMID:23639169
Silva, S; Servia, M J; Vieira-Lanero, R; Nachón, D J; Cobo, F
The sea bass is a teleost that is able to regulate its energy intake by selecting from pure macronutrient sources, although the regulatory mechanisms involved in this selection are unknown. Nutrient preloads are known to reduce food intake and modify macronutrient selection patterns in mammals, but no information is available on its effects in fish. The aim of the present
Early puberty affects a considerable amount of males in commercially farmed fish species. It results in additional annual production costs for aquaculture that need to be reduced. The present study is focused in the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), an important marine teleost fish in European aquaculture that exhibits 25–30% of precocious males under farming conditions. Thus, the effects of
The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (aCDOM) has been found to be correlated with fluorescence emission (excitation at 355 nm). In the coastal European Atlantic area and in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions), a significant statistical dependence has been found between aCDOM and fluorescence with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. The relationship shows that, in the
The aim of this work was to do a preliminary seasonal screening of ecotoxicological biomarkers in Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax in three different fish farms, to know if the different location and typology can discriminate them. A set of selected biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, Glutathione (GSH) and gonad morphology were investigated seasonally in male
Maria Vittoria Cangialosi; Ilaria Corsi; Stefano Bonacci; Cristiana Sensini; Nicola Cicero; Silvano Focardi; Antonio Mazzola
This paper describes the validation of a method for the determination of 24 priority substances from the European Framework Directive in estuarine and sea water using the new extraction technique known as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by thermal desorption using capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We studied linearity, detection and quantitation limits and accuracy (which includes determination of trueness
Cristina Huertas; José Morillo; José Usero; Ignacio Gracia-Manarillo
In the present work, taurine and hypotaurine were evaluated as potential additives to improve Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sperm quality after cryopreservation. For cryopreservation, three different extenders were used: control extender (NAM), supplemented with 1mM taurine or supplemented with 1mM hypotaurine, all of them containing 10% Me?SO as cryoprotectant. To evaluate sperm quality of fresh and thawed sperm, motility (CASA: computer assisted sperm analysis), viability (SYBR Green/propidium iodide), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level), protein oxidation (carbonyl content), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities and DNA fragmentation (comet assay) were quantified. The result demonstrated that 1 mM hypotaurine supplemented extender increased total motility (30.1 ± 3.2%), and that 1 mM taurine extender produced higher velocity (18.1 ± 2.6 ?m/s) and linearity (46.0 ± 4.8%) than the control extender (21.8 ± 3.2%, 15.5 ± 1.3 ?m/s, 41.8 ± 2.4%, respectively). Cell viability, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were not statistically different between treatments. Similar results were obtained for glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Only glutathione reductase showed differential activity before and after freezing, increasing its activity in thawed sperm. Regarding the comet assay results, taurine and hypotaurine significantly reduced DNA fragmentation (52.8 ± 0.9% and 51.8 ± 0.9%, respectively) in comparison to the control (55.7 ± 0.8%). In conclusion, for Europeansea bass sperm cryopreservation, extenders supplemented with 1 mM taurine and 1 mM hypotaurine improved some parameters of sperm quality after thawing, resulting in better motility and lower DNA damage than the control, two very important factors related to fertilization success. PMID:23583301
Martínez-Páramo, S; Diogo, P; Dinis, M T; Soares, F; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E
HE life cycle of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is typically divided between freshwater and marine environments. Spawning occurs in rivers and the juvenile salmon, known as parr, remain in this habitat for from 1 to 7 years before changing into smolts and migrating to the sea. Little is known of the marine life of the salmon except that
In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.
Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.
The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) protein is a member of the TRP ion channels superfamily that has been proposed as a potential fish osmosensor in previous studies. TRPV4 has been widely studied in mammals, particularly for its involvement in sensing the hypotonicity. The Europeansea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, is a euryhaline teleost that is exposed to salinity changes due to its migrations between the sea and estuaries/lagoons. TRPV4 expression and localization in D. labrax was studied in seawater (SW)-adapted fish and in fish exposed to freshwater (FW) over different time-courses from 10 min to 30 days. TRPV4 mRNA expression was detected in gills, kidney and brain. In gills, the expression increased significantly in FW from 24 h to 30 d. In contrast, in the kidney, the TRPV4 expression decreased from 10 min to 7d of exposure to FW and then it increased at 30 d. In the brain, its expression was relatively low in SW compared to other organs and a significant decrease occurred in FW. The TRPV4 protein was localized in the basement membranes in branchial lamellae, the cartilage of gills, the posterior pituitary gland and in the collecting ducts. Possible roles of TRPV4 are discussed. PMID:21575738
In recent years the cloning of genes coding for immuno-regulatory peptides, as well as the sequencing of genomes, provided fish immunologists with a growing amount of information on nucleotide sequences. Research is now also addressed in investigating the functional immunology counterpart of nucleotide sequence transcripts in various fish species. In this respect, studies on functional immunology of T cell activities are still at their beginning, and much work is needed to investigate T cell responses in teleost fish species. In this review we summarise the current knowledge on the group of genes coding for main T cell-related peptides in fish, and the expression levels of these genes in organs and tissues. Particular attention is paid to Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine species in which some information on functional immunology has been obtained, and we reassume here the expression of some T cell-related genes in basal conditions. In addition, we provide original data showing that T cells purified from the intestinal mucosa of sea bass with a specific mAb, express transcripts for TR?, TR?, CD8?, and RAG-1, thus showing similarities with intra-epithelial leucocytes of mammals. PMID:20950688
Boschi, I; Randelli, E; Buonocore, F; Casani, D; Bernini, C; Fausto, A M; Scapigliati, G
The Europeansea bass expresses three GnRH (Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone) forms that exert pleiotropic actions via several classes of receptors. The GnRH-1 form is responsible for the endogenous regulation of gonadotrophin release by the pituitary gland but the role of GnRH-2 and GnRH-3 remains unclear in fish. In a previous study performed in sea bass, we have provided evidence of direct links between the GnRH-2 cells and the pineal organ and demonstrated a functional role for GnRH-2 in the modulation of the secretory activity of this photoreceptive organ. In this study, we have investigated the possible relationship between the GnRH-3 system and the retina in the same species. Thus, using a biotinylated dextran-amine tract-tracing method, we reveal the presence of retinopetal cells in the terminal nerve of sea bass, a region that also contains GnRH-3-immunopositive cells. Moreover, GnRH-3-immunoreactive fibers were observed at the boundary between the inner nuclear and the inner plexiform layers, and also within the ganglion cell layer. These results strongly suggest that the GnRH-3 neurons located in the terminal nerve area represent the source of GnRH-3 innervation in the retina of this species. In order to clarify whether the retina is a target for GnRH, the expression pattern of GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR) was also analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. RT-PCR revealed the retinal expression of dlGnRHR-II-2b, -1a, -1b and -1c, while in situ hybridization only showed positive signals for the receptors dlGnRHR-II-2b and -1a. Finally, double-immunohistochemistry showed that GnRH-3 projections reaching the sea bass retina end in close proximity to tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic) cells, which also expressed the dlGnRHR-II-2b receptor subtype. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for GnRH-3 in the modulation of dopaminergic cell activities and retinal functions in sea bass. PMID:22138555
Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Pérez, Patricia; Kah, Olivier; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio
Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650km of the French coast and 1100km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much
Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...
Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...
In the present study, we developed and validated real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for a suite of genes involved in the brain-pituitary gonadal axis in fish including kisspeptin genes and its receptor (Kiss1, kiss2, kissr4) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes (sbGnRH, sGnRH, cGnRHII) in the brain, and gonadotropin genes (fsh? and lh?) in the pituitary. Sex steroid profiles (T and 11-KT) and gonadal development were also studied over a full annual reproductive cycle in adult male sea bass. The cDNA partial sequence of sea bass kissr4 encoding 185 amino acids showed a high degree of conservation with other fish kissr4 subtype. Results clearly showed a seasonal profile for Kiss1, kiss2 and kissr4 mRNAs. Kissr4, fsh? and lh? levels increased gradually and peaked during spermatogenesis (January) while Kiss1, kiss2, cGnRH-II as well as steroids showed peaks during early spawning (March). No significant seasonal changes were observed for sbGnRH and sGnRH expression. These results support the possible involvement of the kiss genes and their receptor (kissr4) in the seasonal control sea bass reproduction. However, a lack of correlation between kiss genes and sbGnRH expression and the mismatch between kisspeptin and the onset of gonadotropin surge contrast with previous findings. PMID:23036731
Salmon Homing Instincts is an activity that enables learners to experience what it is like to be a returning salmon attempting to find its home by smell. Scientific research suggests that salmon use the smell of water to find their home stream; even after being out in the open ocean as many as six years. The activity allows the entire class to participate in the life cycle of the Pacific salmon and the hazards (i.e. pollution) of their journey.
Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…
By exploiting the available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences - spanning over a sampling period of more than 10 yr - retrieved from sediments of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV), Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) and eastern Mediterranean (Amsterdam and Kazan mud volcanoes; AMSMV, KZNMV) mud volcanoes/pockmarks, we investigated whether these systems are characterized by high (interconnectivity) or low (isolation) connection degree based on shared bacterial and archaeal phylotypes. We found only two archaeal and two bacterial phylotypes to occur in all three sites and a few more that were found in two of the three sites. Although the number of shared species depends a lot on the analysis depth of each sample, the majority of the common phylotypes were related mostly to cold seep deep-sea habitats, while for some of them their relative abundance was high enough to be considered as key-species for the habitat they were found. As new tools, like next generation sequencing platforms, are more appropriate for revealing greater depth of diversity but also allow sample replication and uniform sampling protocols, and gain wider recognition and usage, future attempts are more realistic now for fully elucidating the degree of specificity in deep-sea mud volcanoes and pockmarks microbial communities.
Differences in salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation on sympatric populations of fjord-migrating, Atlantic salmon post- smolts (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta) (sea trout), and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) were studied in three fjords with fish- farming activity in northern Norway during the period June-August 2000. Atlantic salmon post-smolts were only captured in the fjords during late June and early
P. A. Bjorn; B. Finstad; R. Kristoffersen; R. S. McKinley; A. H. Rikardsen
A comparative study of gastric evacuation rates (GERs) and digesta content, moisture and pH values along the gastrointestinal tract was performed between gilthead sea bream and Europeansea bass. In order to distinguish species-specific differences from diet-elicited effects, all parameters were determined under either a fishmeal diet or a carob seed germ meal diet that contained high levels of total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides. GERs were significantly different between species and they were not affected by diet. Similarly, species-specific patterns were revealed in the distribution of digesta and water content along the gastrointestinal tract. In sea bream, stomach digesta and water content decreased with time, whereas in sea bass stomach retained the highest digesta and water content throughout the sampling period. The anterior and distal intestine exhibited the lowest accommodating capacities of digesta and water in either species. Overall, sea bream performed stomach digestion at lower hydration levels and higher pH compared with sea bass. Diet affected stomach moisture in both species and pH of stomach digesta in sea bass and of all intestinal sections in sea bream. The results obtained indicated that water and inorganic ion exchanges through the gut may differentiate between the species and warrant further investigation. PMID:21130892
Nikolopoulou, D; Moutou, K A; Fountoulaki, E; Venou, B; Adamidou, S; Alexis, M N
Climate variability at local to regional scale is to a large extent driven by processes exerted by the atmospheric circulation. Knowledge of its past changes are therefore of great importance to understand past and current changes in temperature and precipitation on various temporal and spatial scales. However, instrumental station pressure series allowing the construction of gridded sea level pressure (SLP) reanalyses only became widely available in the early 19th century. To reconstruct SLP fields further back in time, indirect information from documentary evidences or natural proxies had hitherto to be used. However, these reconstructions usually share predictors with existing temperature and precipitation reconstructions leading to circular reasoning in dynamical studies. Recently, wind information derived from ship logbooks became available as a new, direct and marine source. After extensive pre-processing to cope with the high spatial and temporal variability in the logbook availability, we combined these series with a few very long instrumental station pressure series from Europe and the eastern United States to seasonally reconstruct larger North Atlantic and European SLP fields back to 1750. Multivariate principal component regression as well as regularized expectation maximization (RegEM) were used to highlight differences due to the reconstruction methodology applied. This new reconstruction, exclusively based on information which is direct linked to the large-scale atmospheric circulation, has clearly higher skill than existing SLP reconstructions during winter and over the southern North Atlantic. This allows a more adequate representation of the Azores High and with more ship log information and instrumental pressure series becoming available from the north it is expected that the strength and location of the Icelandic Low can also be better resolved. This SLP field reconstruction, completely independent to temperature and precipitation reconstructions can then be used for e.g. dynamical studies relating past and current climate changes in the North Atlantic European realm to the large-scale circulation.
Küttel, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Wanner, H.
The assimilation and regeneration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the concentration of N2O, was investigated at stations located in the NW European shelf sea during June/July 2011. These observational measurements within the photic zone demonstrated the simultaneous regeneration and assimilation of NH4+, NO2- and NO3-. NH4+ was assimilated at 1.82-49.12 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 3.46-14.60 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO2- was assimilated at 0-2.08 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.01-1.85 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO3- was assimilated at 0.67-18.75 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.05-28.97 nmol N L-1 h-1. Observations implied that these processes were closely coupled at the regional scale and nitrogen recycling played an important role in sustaining phytoplankton growth during the summer. The [N2O], measured in water column profiles, was 10.13 ± 1.11 nmol L-1 and did not strongly diverge from atmospheric equilibrium indicating that sampled marine regions where neither a strong source nor sink of N2O to the atmosphere. Multivariate analysis of data describing water column biogeochemistry and its links to N-cycling activity failed to explain the observed variance in rates of N-regeneration and N-assimilation, possibly due to the limited number of process rate observations. In the surface waters of 5 further stations, Ocean Acidification (OA) bioassay experiments were conducted to investigate the response of NH4+ oxidising and regenerating organisms to simulated OA conditions, including the implications for [N2O]. Multivariate analysis was undertaken which considered the complete bioassay dataset of measured variables describing changes in N-regeneration rate, [N2O] and the biogeochemical composition of seawater. While anticipating biogeochemical differences between locations, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism through which pelagic N-regeneration responded to simulated OA conditions was independent of location and that a mechanistic understanding of how NH4+ oxidation, NH4+ regeneration and N2O production responded to OA could be developed. Results indicated that N-regeneration process responses to OA treatments were location specific; no mechanistic understanding of how N-regeneration processes respond to OA in the surface ocean of the NW European shelf sea could be developed.
Clark, D. R.; Brown, I. J.; Rees, A. P.; Somerfield, P. J.; Miller, P. I.
The annual report summarizes various projects undertaken by the Oregon State University Sea Grant Program during the period 1973-1974. Areas under consideration include: Food from the sea (with specific studies in salmon marketing and sea urchin gonads); ...
Our aim was to investigate the level of genetic differentiation in northern European populations of Atlantic salmon, to establish\\u000a the genetic relationship among major salmon populations in Russia and North Norway, and to compare these to populations from\\u000a the western Atlantic lineage. Samples were collected along an east—west axis, from Pechora River in Russia to Restigouche\\u000a River in Quebec, Canada.
Vidar Wennevik; Øystein Skaala; Sergej F. Titov; Igor Studyonov; Gunnar Nævdal
Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits.
Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S.; Domenici, Paolo; Claireaux, Guy; McKenzie, David J.
Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits. PMID:24019879
Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments. PMID:24788771
Pham, Christopher K; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Alt, Claudia H S; Amaro, Teresa; Bergmann, Melanie; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Davies, Jaime; Duineveld, Gerard; Galgani, François; Howell, Kerry L; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Isidro, Eduardo; Jones, Daniel O B; Lastras, Galderic; Morato, Telmo; Gomes-Pereira, José Nuno; Purser, Autun; Stewart, Heather; Tojeira, Inês; Tubau, Xavier; Van Rooij, David; Tyler, Paul A
The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind resources, but since installing and operating a meteorological mast in situ is expensive, prospective sites must be carefully evaluated. Accordingly, one can conceptualize the wind resource assessment process as a two-phase activity: ( i) an evaluation of wind resources at the regional scale to locate promising wind farm sites and ( ii) a site specific evaluation of wind climatology and vertical profiles of wind and atmospheric turbulence, in addition to an assessment of historical and possibly future changes due to climate non-stationarity. Phase ( i) of the process can involve use of in situ observations of opportunity derived from ships, lighthouses and buoys in conjunction with model tools and remote sensing products. The reliability of such data sources has been extensively investigated in different national and European projects especially in Northern Europe, and the results are summarized herein. Phase ( ii) of the project often still requires in situ observations (which may or may not be supplemented with ground-based remote sensing technologies) and application of tools to provide a climatological context for the resulting measurements. Current methodologies for undertaking these aspects of the resource assessment are reviewed.
Sempreviva, A. M.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.
Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments.
Pham, Christopher K.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Alt, Claudia H. S.; Amaro, Teresa; Bergmann, Melanie; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B.; Davies, Jaime; Duineveld, Gerard; Galgani, Francois; Howell, Kerry L.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Isidro, Eduardo; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Lastras, Galderic; Morato, Telmo; Gomes-Pereira, Jose Nuno; Purser, Autun; Stewart, Heather; Tojeira, Ines; Tubau, Xavier; Van Rooij, David; Tyler, Paul A.
A real-time PCR-based gene expression survey was performed on isolated Europeansea bass follicles from primary growth to late vitellogenesis. Expression levels of 18 transcripts with demonstrated relevance during oogenesis, encoding gonadotropin, thyrotropin, estrogen, androgen, and vitellogenin receptors, steroidogenesis-related as well as growth and transcription factors were measured. Primary oocytes showed high mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, estrogen receptor 2b, androgen receptor b, and SRY-box containing gene 17 together with low transcript amounts of gonadotropin receptors. Follicles at the lipid vesicles stage (i.e., the beginning of the secondary growth phase) showed elevated mRNA amounts of follicle stimulating hormone receptor (fshr) and anti-Mullerian hormone. Early-to-mid vitellogenic follicles showed high mRNA levels of fshr and cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a while mid-to-late vitellogenic follicles expressed increasing transcript amounts of luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and estrogen receptors 1 and 2a. The molecular data presented here may serve as a solid base for future studies focused on unraveling the specific mechanisms orchestrating follicular development in teleost fish. PMID:21782032
García-López, Angel; Sánchez-Amaya, María Isabel; Prat, Francisco
One of the most pertinent environmental factors influencing the marine organism life is temperature. It has been demonstrated that an increase of temperature is able to induce the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSP). In this study we investigated the expression of HO-1 mRNA, also referred to as HSP32, in different tissues of Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) at several time points after increased temperature exposure (from 12degC to 30degC). Our results showed that HO-1 was not expressed in gills, heart, muscle and brain while it was expressed at a basal level in intestine. In liver, spleen and kidneys, HO-1 expression was influenced by temperature increases. In the spleen, we found a significant decrease of the HO-1 expression at the end of 4 weeks. In kidneys a very fast collapse of HO-1 expression level was recorded reaching null value as soon as one hour after exposure to 30degC. In liver, HO-1 expression increased from one hour of exposure to 30degC confirming HO-1 involvement to heat shock response in this organ. This increasing trend reached a 4.5-fold higher value than the initial level after 4 weeks. PMID:22992441
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of freshwater rearing on the fatty acid profiles of the whole body\\u000a and muscle tissue of the Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Half of initial fish were gradually acclimated to freshwater (FW) kept at the same temperature to salt water and grown\\u000a in same conditions as their counterparts in saltwater
One hundred and sixty Europeansea-bass (78.5±8.9 g) were randomly assigned to 8 fibreglass tanks (160 l) according to a 2×2 experimental design [2 processing techniques: extruded diet (E) vs pelleted diet (P); 2 feeding levels: 0.86 (1) vs 1.06% b.w. (2)], with 2 replicates for each treatment. After 195 days, E2 fed fish reached the highest live weight (329
A quantitative approach is presented to evaluate fatty acid incorporation in fish. Fatty acid composition of Europeansea bass juvenile was studied during an experiment using 6 isoproteic (54%) and isolipidic (18%) diets containing 0.23, 0.56, 0.72, 0.86, 1.01 and 1.86% DM n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA). Whole body fatty acid compositions were studied at the beginning and
Dicentrarchus labrax migrates between sea (SW), brackish and fresh water (FW) where chloride concentrations and requirements for chloride handling change: in FW, fish absorb chloride and restrict renal losses; in SW, they excrete chloride. In this study, the expression and localization of ClC-3 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) were studied in fish adapted to SW, or exposed to FW from 10 min to 30 days. In gills, NKA-?1 subunit expression transiently increased from 10 min and reached a stabilized intermediate expression level after 24 h in FW. ClC-3 co-localized with NKA in the basolateral membrane of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) at all conditions. The intensity of MRC ClC-3 immunostaining was significantly higher (by 50 %) 1 h after the transfer to FW, whereas the branchial ClC-3 protein expression was 30 % higher 7 days after the transfer as compared to SW. This is consistent with the increased number of immunopositive MRCs (immunostained for NKA and ClC-3). However, the ClC-3 mRNA expression was significantly lower in FW gills. In the kidney, after FW transfer, a transient decrease in NKA-?1 subunit expression was followed by significantly higher stable levels from 24 h. The low ClC-3 protein expression detected at both salinities was not observed by immunocytochemistry in the SW kidney; ClC-3 was localized in the basal membrane of the collecting ducts and tubules 7 and 30 days after transfer to FW. Renal ClC-3 mRNA expression, however, seemed higher in SW than in FW. The potential role of this chloride channel ClC-3 in osmoregulatory and osmosensing mechanisms is discussed. PMID:23292336
Sea lice cause significant issues in the mariculture of salmonids. However, there have been no reports about sea lice from salmonid farming in Australia. Here, we investigated the presence of sea lice on salmonids in Australian mariculture. Caligus longirostris was present on Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (archival samples only) farmed in Tasmania. C. longirostris was found on salmon only
B. F. Nowak; C. J. Hayward; L. González; N. J. Bott; R. J. G. Lester
The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of the major players in informatics in oceanography and collaborative relationships have been created with other EU and non EU projects. In particular SeaDataNet has recognised roles in the continuous serving of common vocabularies, the provision of tools for data management, as well as giving access to metadata, data sets and data products of importance for society. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users not only background information about SeaDataNet and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools, but also a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, and highlight a number of key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far.
The effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS; 4?g?kg(-1) ; Bio-Mos, Alltech Inc, USA) in diets for Europeansea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), juveniles in relation to disease and stress resistance, combining intestinal infection with Vibrio anguillarum and stress challenge by confinement, were assessed in this study. After 8?weeks of MOS supplementation, fish were exposed to a pathogen challenge test against V. anguillarum by direct gut inoculation combined with a confinement stressor panel. Cumulative mortality of fish fed MOS caused by anally inoculated V. anguillarum decreased from 66% to 12.5% and from 54.1% to 25% in infected and infected?+?stressed fish, respectively, compared to fish fed control diet. Results for Europeansea bass revealed a positive effect of MOS dietary inclusion on disease resistance, in terms of cumulative mortality, against gut inoculated V. anguillarum, as well as reduced effects of stress on microbiota diversity. Both of these findings, together with the enhanced innate immune response and the higher gut mucus production and density of eosinophil granulocytes in gut mucosa obtained in previous studies after MOS supplementation (Torrecillas et al. 2007, 2011a,b) suggest that general reinforcement of the innate immune system, and particularly of the intestinal barrier efficiency, is the main defence mechanism of Europeansea bass fed MOS against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:22690841
Torrecillas, S; Makol, A; Caballero, M J; Montero, D; Dhanasiri, A K S; Sweetman, J; Izquierdo, M
Salmon populations face several serious threats, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. In this publication, the reason for the downward spiral of salmon populations is discussed. This video segment features Elders discussing the decline in the local population of salmon, which are at the heart of the cultural identity of the Native American Lummi Nation of Washington State. Fish were very abundant a few decades ago, but now even the fishermen have to buy fish. The background essay explains the many threats that the salmon population faces. There is also a brief description of the salmon lifecycle. The four discussion questions asks the reasons why the salmon population is depleting, and what people can do to help. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.
World production of salmon has been increasing steadily in the last decade and has exceeded historic high levels in some geographic areas due to ranching. Ranched salmon currently contribute more than 20 percent of the world supply. Japan has the largest salmon ranching industry, and the U.S.S.R. is close behind. The Soviets plan a five-fold increase in their industry by
In the context of food deprivation in fish (wild and farmed), understanding of cellular responses is necessary in order to develop strategies to minimize stress caused by starvation in the aquaculture section. The present study evaluates the effects of long term starvation (1F-3S: one-month feeding-three-month starvation) and starvation/re-feeding (2S-2F: two-month starvation-two-month re-feeding) compared to the control group (4F-0S: four-month feeding-zero month starvation) on cellular stress response and antioxidant defense in organs, like the intestine, the liver, the red and white muscle of Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Molecular responses were addressed through the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90, the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases and particularly p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/2). For the determination of the effect of the oxidative stress caused by food deprivation and/or re-feeding, the (maximum) activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidise (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were studied. The experimental feeding trials caused a tissue distinct and differential response on the cellular and antioxidant capacity of sea bass not only during the stressful process of starvation but also in re-feeding. Specifically, the intestine phosphorylation of ERKs and antioxidant enzymatic activities increased in the 2S-2F fish group, while in the 1F-3S group an increase was detected in the levels of the same proteins except for GPx. In the liver and the red muscle of 2S-2F fish, decreased Hsp70 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK levels and increased Hsp90 levels were observed. Additionally, SOD activity decreased in the red muscle of 2S-2F and 1F-3S groups. In the liver and red muscle of 1F-3S group Hsp70 levels increased, while the activation of p38 MAPK in the liver decreased. In the white muscle, Hsp90 levels decreased and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK increased in both feeding regimes compared to control. In the same tissue, GPx and catalase levels were decreased in 2S-2F regime, while SOD levels were decreased in 1F-3S regime. PMID:23462223
Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (P<0.05) in the very first stages after the dietary shift, but the difference in TGC between diets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, P<0.05). This work identified moderate heritabilities (0.18 to 0.46) for BW with both diets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most efficient way to increase growth on plant-based diets, meaning that, in this case, indirect selection should be more efficient than direct selection. PMID:23100583
Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B
The present state and behaviour of the Shallow Earth System is a consequence of processes on a wide range of time scales. These include the long term tectonic effects on uplift, subsidence and river systems, residual effects of the ice ages on crustal movement and geochemistry, natural climate to environmental changes over recent millennia and up to the present, and the powerful anthropogenic impacts of the last century. If we are to understand the present state of the system, to predict its future and to engineer our use of it, this spectrum of processes, operating concurrently but on different time scales, needs to be better understood. The challenge to the Geosciences is to describe the state of the system, to monitor its changes, to forecast its evolution and, in collaboration with others, to evaluate modes of sustainable use by human society. Land, water and sea level changes can seriously affect the sustainability of ecological and human habitats in Europe. When sea water or surface water levels rise, or land subsides, the risk of flooding increases, directly inflicting on local ecosystems and human habitats. The effects on society are widely known as many of the affected areas in Europe are densely populated and the financial loss foreseen is tremendous. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of desertification. These changes are caused by both natural processes and human activities, but the absolute and relative contributions of each of these processes are still little understood. Only very recently, the impact of processes located in the underlying subsurface of intraplate areas has been recognized in the coastal realm, leading to the newly coined term ‘Environmental Earth System Dynamics’. The members of the Geo-Motion consortium have joined forces in order to create a fully integrated pan-European research infrastructure (a virtual scientific centre) on a hitherto not existing scale. It runs monitoring programs including satellite, surface and borehole monitoring instruments. It integrates large scale and excellent geo-mechanical, geo-chemical and geo-biological laboratory facilities. Based on existing structures and data sets it develops a new geo data infrastructure containing historical data on global and regional changes in combination with the vulnerability of natural and human habitats. Most significant milestones are a large scale and excellent know-how base on geo-motion modelling and simulation, as well as on risk and impact assessment. The development of a foresight and assessment competency represents a long-term strategic scientific objective for the consortium. It is vital that it is also promoted in education, which will be done through the development of a European School for Predictive Geoscience, in which parallel masters programmes will be offered by the university partners based on their pooled expertise. The national geoscience surveys play a key role in delivering the outputs of research into the public, policy and industrial domains.
Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a severe pathological condition caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Nodaviridae family, genus Betanodavirus. The disease, described in more than 50 fish species worldwide, is considered as the most serious viral threat affecting marine farmed species in the Mediterranean region, thus representing one of the bottlenecks for further development of the aquaculture industry. To date, four different genotypes have been identified, namely red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, with the RGNNV genotype appearing as the most widespread in the Mediterranean region, although SJNNV-type strains and reassortant viruses have also been reported. The existence of these genetically different strains could be the reason for the differences in mortality observed in the field. However, very little experimental data are available on the pathogenicity of these viruses in farmed fish. Therefore, in this study, the pathogenicity of 10 isolates has been assessed with an in vivo trial. The investigation was conducted using the Europeansea bass, the first target fish species for the disease in the Mediterranean basin. Naive fish were challenged by immersion and clinical signs and mortality were recorded for 68 days; furthermore, samples collected at selected time points were analysed to evaluate the development of the infection. Finally, survivors were weighed to estimate the growth reduction. The statistically supported results obtained in this study demonstrated different pathogenicity patterns, underlined the potential risk represented by different strains in the transmission of the infection to highly susceptible species and highlighted the indirect damage caused by a clinical outbreak of VER/VNN. PMID:23662921
Vendramin, N; Toffan, A; Mancin, M; Cappellozza, E; Panzarin, V; Bovo, G; Cattoli, G; Capua, I; Terregino, C
We used temperature and depth data from 25 archival tags carried by Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at sea to explore whether and how these fish alter their patterns of habi- tat use in response to variable oceanographic conditions off the coasts of Oregon and California. The Chinook salmon persistently used a narrow range of thermal habitats (8 to 12°C) during
Jefferson T. Hinke; David G. Foley; Cara Wilson; George M. Watters
We review studies of interactions between hatchery and wild Pacific salmon in the Russian Far East. This includes the role of hatchery practices that result in premature migration to the sea and increased mortality, and data on feeding and territorial competition between juveniles of hatchery and wild origin. In the course of downstream migration many juvenile hatchery salmon are eliminated
The objective of the present study was to establish the effect of frozen storage and smoking on the stability of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in farm raised salmon. Salmon samples were obtained from two sea farms where they had been maintained on commercial feeds containing either astaxanthin or canthaxanthin. The results showed that there was no significant change in visual colour
E. M. Sheehan; T. P. O'Connor; P. J. A. Sheehy; D. J. Buckley; R. FitzGerald
Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of
Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin
To examine the link between early experience and subsequent reproductive performance, we experimentally manipulated the early experience of Atlantic salmon (Sabno sola). Salmon of a common genetic background were reared as juveniles either naturally in the river or artificially in a hatchery (sea ranched), depriving them of river experience, and then allowed to grow to maturity naturally in the ocean.
Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) virus produces great mortalities in fish having susceptible and reservoir species between the most important marine aquaculture species. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) is considered, towards the interferon (IFN), the most important mechanism of the immune response to fight against viral infections but it has been very scarcely evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the effects of VNNV infection in the reservoir gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and susceptible Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Firstly, after experimental infection we found mortalities in the sea bass (55%) but no in the seabream. Moreover, VNN virus replicates in the brain of both species as it was reflected by the high up-regulation of the Mx gene expression. Interestingly, the head-kidney leucocyte cell-mediated cytotoxic activity was significantly increased in both species reaching highest activity at 7 days: 3.65- and 2.7-fold increase in seabream and sea bass, respectively. This is supported by the significant up-regulation of the non-specific cytotoxic cell receptor (NCCRP-1) in the two fish species. By contrast, phagocytosis was unaffected in both species. The respiratory burst was increased in seabream 7 days post-infection whilst in sea bass this activity was significantly decreased at days 7 and 15. Our results demonstrate the significance of the CMC activity in both gilthead seabream and Europeansea bass against nodavirus infections but further studies are still needed to understand the role of cytotoxic cells in the antiviral immune response and the mechanisms involved in either reservoir or susceptible fish species. PMID:22981914
Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Guardiola, Francisco A; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A; Cuesta, Alberto
In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…
In the present study, the risk to humans by consuming Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), captured at three sites along a Hg contamination gradient, was evaluated by comparing muscle and kidney total Hg (T-Hg) levels with the European regulations for marketed fish. Moreover, T-Hg and organic Hg (O-Hg) levels in muscle were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) and the Reference Dose (RfD). Although T-Hg levels in muscle were below the European value allowable for marketed fish, kidney's levels were higher than the set value, stressing the importance of redefining the concept of edible tissue and which tissues should be considered. Mercury weekly ingestion in the contaminated areas was higher than the PTWI, and O-Hg daily ingestion rates were higher than the RfD in all sampling sites. Thus, populations consuming sea bass from the contaminated sites may be at risk, with particular relevance for children and pregnant women. PMID:22041498
Mieiro, C L; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E
In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Students participate in the Salmon in the Schools Program, sponsored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine. Through this collaborative effort, students raise 300 river-specific, wild Atlantic salmon and then release them into the East Machias River at the culminating annual Salmon Release Day Field Trip. In addition to releasing salmon fry into the headwaters of the river, students perform physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the river.
Sea bass and sea bream fingerlings of 3–4 g initial weight were fed four diets supplemented with 250 mg\\/kg of ascorbic acid (AA) supplied as the fat coated form or different phosphate ester forms. An ascorbate free diet was also fed. Before the start of the experiment, fish were fed an ascorbate free diet in order to deplete their ascorbate
Maria N Alexis; Ioannis Nengas; Eleni Fountoulaki; Eleni Papoutsi; Argiro Andriopoulou; Maria Koutsodimou; J Gaubaudan
We examined Bristol Bay and Yukon River adult chum salmon scales to determine whether climate variability, such as changes in sea surface temperature and climate indices, and high pink and Asian chum salmon abundance reduced chum salmon growth. Annual marine growth increments for 1965-2006 were estimated from scale growth measurements and were modeled as a function of potential explanatory variables using a generalized least squares regression approach. First-year growth of salmon originating from Bristol Bay and the Yukon River showed increased growth in association with higher regional ocean temperatures and was negatively affected by wind mixing and ice cover. Third-year growth was lower when Asian chum salmon were more abundant. Contrary to our hypothesis, warmer large-scale sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska were also associated with reduced third-year growth. Negative effects of high abundances of Russian pink salmon on third-year growth provided some evidence for interspecific interactions, but the effects were smaller than the effects of Asian chum salmon abundance and Gulf of Alaska sea surface temperature. Although the relative effects of Asian chum salmon and sea surface temperature on the growth of Yukon and Bristol Bay chum salmon were difficult to untangle, we found consistent evidence that high abundances of Asian chum salmon contributed to a reduction in the growth of western Alaska chum salmon.
Agler, Beverly A.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Wilson, Lorna I.; Mueter, Franz J.
Vertebrate oocytes actively contribute to follicle development by secreting a variety of growth factors, among which bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15/Bmp15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9/Gdf9) have been paid particular attention. In the present study, we describe the cellular localization, the developmental profiles, and the response to unilateral ovariectomy (a procedure implying the surgical removal of one of the ovaries) of protein and mRNA steady-state levels of Bmp15 and Gdf9 in the ovary of Europeansea bass, an important fish species for marine aquaculture industry. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the oocyte is the main production site of Bmp15 and Gdf9 in Europeansea bass ovary. During oocyte development, Bmp15 protein expression started to be detected only from the lipid vesicle stage onwards but not in primary pre-vitellogenic (i.e. perinucleolar) oocytes as the bmp15 mRNA already did. Gdf9 protein and gdf9 mRNA expression were both detected in primary perinucleolar oocytes and followed similar decreasing patterns thereafter. Unilateral ovariectomy induced a full compensatory growth of the remaining ovary in the 2-month period following surgery (Á. García-López, M.I. Sánchez-Amaya, C.R. Tyler, F. Prat 2011). The compensatory growth elicited different changes in the expression levels of mRNA and protein of both factors, although the involvement of Bmp15 and Gdf9 in the regulatory network orchestrating such process remains unclear at present. Altogether, our results establish a solid base for further studies focused on elucidating the specific functions of Bmp15 and Gdf9 during primary and secondary oocyte growth in Europeansea bass. PMID:21978589
García-López, Ángel; Sánchez-Amaya, María Isabel; Halm, Silke; Astola, Antonio; Prat, Francisco
Nd isotopes of fish debris collected from the English Chalk at Eastbourne (Sussex, UK) are used to reconstruct the history of ocean circulation in the NW European shelf sea during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2, Cenomanian-Turonian). The Eastbourne ?Nd record exhibits a 1-unit negative excursion (decreasing from ˜-9 to ˜-10), immediately followed by a 3-unit positive excursion reaching ˜-7. The onset of the negative ?Nd excursion lags the global ?13C rise characteristic of OAE 2, suggesting stable patterns of ocean circulation in the NW European shelf sea at this time. Both negative and positive Nd-isotope excursions took place during a transient cooling episode within OAE 2. The negative ?Nd excursion is interpreted as due to a change in ocean circulation with northerly sourced water masses becoming the dominant bottom waters at Eastbourne. The positive excursion is best explained by the transport of radiogenic Nd derived from a volcanic source, possibly the High Arctic or Caribbean large igneous province (LIP). An input of volcanic Nd may reconcile the Eastbourne record with coeval ?Nd records on Demerara Rise in the western tropical Atlantic. The broad synchroneity of high ?Nd values (˜-7) registered at both sites suggests a possible period with efficient oceanic mixing between the tropical Atlantic and the NW European shelf sea during the cooling episode. The Eastbourne ?Nd record of OAE 2, together with coeval temperature reconstructions, provides evidence for the coincidence of changes in ocean circulation and transient climatic cooling, implying a tight coupling between the two phenomena during this interval.
Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Gale, Andrew S.; Ward, David J.; Henderson, Gideon M.
This paper documents differences in seasonal time of river ascent and descent, and instream behavior of adult wild and sea-ranched Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of the Norwegian River Imsa stock during the period 1981–1989. Wild fish use River Imsa as a nursery, and at an age of 2 years most of them migrate to the sea as smolts. The sea
This study investigates the metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide (HHCB) in the Europeansea bass -Dicentrarchus labrax- following a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg HHCB/kg body weight. In addition, a group of fish was injected with 50 mg/kg of ketoconazole (KCZ), a fungicide that is known to interfere with different Cyp isoenzymes. HHCB was actively metabolised by sea bass and acted as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish. Both, HHCB and a hydroxylated metabolite were detected in bile. The fungicide ketoconazole was a strong inhibitor of Cyp11? and Cyp3a-catalyzed activities. The work contributes to the better understanding of the impact of synthetic musks on fish and proposes the determination of HHCB and/or its hydroxylated metabolite in bile as a tool to assess environmental exposure in wild fish. PMID:23274450
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both facility location and typology of fish farm on some ecotoxicological, qualitative and reproductive variables in Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. Several variables were investigated: gonado-somatic index (GSI), liver-somatic index (LSI); 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase and acetylcholinesterase activities; glutathione (GSH), testosterone, 17?-estradiol, total lipid, phospholipid (PL) and triglyceride contents. In addition, the histological sections of gonads were examined. Results suggest that LSI, EROD activity, GSI, GSH, PL, hormone levels and gonad morphology were influenced by different facility locations and typologies of fish farm. PMID:22489960
Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Corsi, Ilaria; Bonacci, Stefano; Sensini, Cristiana; Cicero, Nicola; Focardi, Silvano; Mazzola, Antonio
The pineal organ of fish is a photosensitive structure that receives light information from the environment and transduces it into hormonal (rhythmic melatonin secretion) and neural (efferent projections/neurotransmitters) signals. In this study, we focused on this neural output. Thus, we performed a tract-tracing study using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), a fluorescent carbocyanine dye, in order to elucidate the efferent and afferent connections of the pineal organ in the Europeansea bass. The axonal transport of DiI revealed extensive bilateral projections in the sea bass brain. The efferent projections of the sea bass pineal organ reach the habenula, ventral thalamus, periventricular pretectum, central pretectal area, posterior tubercle and medial and dorsal tegmental areas. In addition, in this study we also examined the pinealopetal system in sea bass. This analysis demonstrated that the sea bass pineal organ receives central projections from neurons located, to a large extent, in brain areas innervated by pineal efferent projections, i.e. the thalamic eminence, habenula, ventral thalamus, dorsal thalamus, periventricular pretectum, posterior commissure, posterior tubercle and medial tegmental area. This study is the first description of pinealofugal projections in a representative of Perciformes, which constitutes a derived order within teleosts. Moreover, it represents the first evidence for the presence of pinealopetal neurons in the brain of a teleost species. Our findings, together with the analysis of retinal connections, represent a step forward in the understanding of the integration of photoperiodic signals into the central nervous system of sea bass. PMID:21921581
Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Pérez, Patricia; Yáñez, Julián; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio
The Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is one of the most extensively farmed marine fish in the Mediterranean sea. Under the high-density condition, common in aquaculture, the infectious diseases can cause significant economic losses. Probiotics are presented as an alternative to antibiotics for the control of aquaculture diseases. This study used real-time PCR to investigate in vitro the dynamic of expression of immune-related genes in sea bass after incubation with live and inactivated (heat and Uv-light) probiotic Vagoccus fluvialis L-21 at different times (T1, T12, T24, T48). The immune associated genes, interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), TumourTumour necrosis factor- (TNF-), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Mx were studied in head-kidney (HK) leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the probiotic strain. Transcript of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-, COX-2) was highly up-regulated after 1 h of incubation with the probiotic strain V. fluvialis L-21. We found statistically significant difference in pick of expression of TNF-, after 1 h of incubation with Uv-light inactivated probiotic strain. The COX-2 expression was highly up-regulated at all times studied, with the exception of 12 and 24 h post incubation for the Uv-light inactivated bacteria. Transcript of IL-10 and Casp-3 showed the higher statistically significant differences of expression after 48 h post incubation with live bacteria. In the contrast, sea bass HK leucocytes expressed Mx at 12 and 48 h without statistically differences among treatments. Our results suggest that V. fluvialis L-21 is able to stimulate in vitro some immune-related genes associated with the early inflammatory response. Future studies in vivo are necessary to clarify this process in sea bass. PMID:23927874
Román, L; Real, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Déniz, S; Grasso, V; Acosta, F
Vibriosis caused by the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum leads to serious losses in Europeansea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Because of its pleiotropic activity in controlling immune and inflammatory responses against various pathogens, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is an attractive candidate for resistance to bacterial vibriosis. Four polymorphisms c.76 + 52C>T, c.76 + 157A>G, c.76 + 215A>and c76 + 310A>G of IL1B were genotyped in progeny of four families of wild sea bass captured in geographically distinct regions of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov and challenged with V. anguillarum. In the transmission disequilibrium test, the TGGG haplotype of IL1B showed significant overtransmission from parents to surviving progeny, thereby suggesting an association with higher resistance to V. anguillarum infection (Odds Ratio 0.38, P < 10(-7)). Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found a 1.4-fold increase in transcription activity of the protective IL1B TGGG variant compared to the susceptible CAAA variant of IL1B. The higher transcriptional activity of IL1B TGGG may arise from the functional effects of c.76 + 157A>G and c.76 + 215A>G polymorphisms disrupting potential binding sites for glucocorticoid receptor and YY1, both are negative transcription regulators. PMID:20690960
Chistiakov, D A; Kabanov, F V; Troepolskaya, O D; Tischenko, M M
The National Marine Fisheries Service maintains this Pacific Salmon metasite, which covers the life history, habitat, and economic status of salmon, the role of US state fisheries and Canadian agencies in managing salmon stocks, and additional salmon information. From the University of Washington's concise and informative "Salmon Life History" page, to the Pacific Salmon Alliance's proud "Stand up for Canada: Save our Salmon" page, interested users will find much information on the ecology and politics of Salmon.
Thyroid gland follicular cells were studied morphofunctionally on different stages of juvenile humpback salmon migration from the spawning sites into the sea. Salmon hybrids kept in laboratory conditions in fresh and salt water were exposed to the same examination. Juvenile humpback salmon fished out from the river mouth, when coming to the sea water had significant increase of follicular epithelium height and decrease of follicular diameter and amount of the deponated colloid. Thyroid glands follicle topography of hybrids is close to those of juvenile humpback salmon although it is more compact in hybrids. Completely formed follicles were found in three-month-old fish. Microscopic and morphometric studies revealed the increase of thyroid gland activity in hybrids in April: follicular diameter grew smaller, epithelial height significantly increased and amount of colloid in the follicles decreased. In May increased activity of the gland remained and went smaller in June. Ten days after hybrids transferation into the sea water activity of the gland cells significantly increased. Thus, thyroid gland activity is an important characteristics of smoltification both for the juvenile salmon from natural population and hybrids kept in laboratory conditions. PMID:8925051
The amazing abilities of Pacific salmon to migrate long distances from the ocean to their natal streams for spawning have been investigated intensively since 1950's, but there are still many mysteries because of difficulties to follow their whole life cycle and to wait their sole reproductive timing for several years. In my laboratory, we have tried to clarify physiological mechanisms of homing migration in Pacific salmon, using four anadromous Pacific salmon (pink, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha; chum, Oncorhynchus keta; sockeye, Oncorhynchus nerka; masu, Oncorhynchus masou) in the north Pacific Ocean as well as two lacustrine salmon (sockeye and masu) in Lake Toya and Lake Shikotsu, Hokkaido, Japan, where the lakes serve as a model "ocean". Three different approaches from behavioral to molecular biological researches have been conducted using these model fish. First, the homing behaviors of adult chum salmon from the Bering Sea to Hokkaido as well as lacustrine sockeye and masu salmon in Lake Toya were examined by means of physiological biotelemetry techniques, and revealed that salmon can navigate in open water using different sensory systems. Second, the hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis were investigated in chum salmon and lacustrine sockeye salmon during their homing migration by means of hormone specific time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) systems, and clarified that salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) plays leading roles on homing migration. Third, the olfactory functions of salmon were studied by means of electrophysiological, behavioral, and molecular biological techniques, and made clear that olfactory discriminating ability of natal stream odors. These results have discussed with the evolutional aspects of four Pacific salmon, sexual differences in homing profiles, and the possibility of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) as natal stream odors for salmon. PMID:20144612
Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the Europeansea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 ?g/g body mass) in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day–night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a), which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day–night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the Europeansea bass.
Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Perez, Patricia; del Carmen Rendon, Maria; Munoz-Cueto, Jose Antonio
Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the Europeansea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 µg/g body mass) in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day-night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a), which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day-night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the Europeansea bass. PMID:23567273
Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Pérez, Patricia; Del Carmen Rendón, María; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio
The combination of acid rain and overexploitation is seriously reducing the population numbers of Atlantic salmon. Efforts have been made to restore salmon populations in tributaries of the ocean. These programs have been successful, but more work is needed to ensure that catches satisfy global demands. Acid rain must be controlled at its source, primarily industrial emissions of sulfur dioxide, and fishing quotas should be implemented. (13 photos)
Salmon, like many other species of fish, know no political boundaries. In effect, this makes it hard for humans to craft detailed and meaningful policies for the survival and health of these important creatures. The State of the Salmon is an international consortium that is "dedicated to improving understanding of salmon status and trends across the North Pacific--and building a knowledge network that can inform salmon conservation and management decisions in the future." Given this broad range of cooperation, visitors will not be surprised to find that much of the material featured on the site is available in Russian, English, and Chinese. The materials on the site are divided into several sections, including "Monitoring", "Data & Maps", "Status & Trends", and "Collaborate". The "Data & Maps" area is quite useful, and it features a variety of interactive maps that document existing salmon populations and their movements. Moving on, the "Status & Trends" area provides updates on salmon population trends in Canada, Japan, Russia, and the United States. The site is rounded out by a glossary and information about the organization's basic operating principles.
Winds and hydrographic conditions are examined in the light of a suggested long-term change in wave climate in the northeast Atlantic. Time series of wind stress direction and wind power are computed for some selected positions between the southern North Sea and the central Barents Sea. These data are subsequently examined with respect to trends, variability and changes of the extreme values with time. Observed data of salinity and temperature are considered to investigate a possible signature of changes in the ocean climate. The variability found in the records, with time scales above 1 year, is suggested to be caused by changes in the volume fluxes to the considered sea areas. It is demonstrated that the fluxes and hence the hydrographic parameters are strongly coupled to the time variations of the mid-1970s is related to a counterclockwise change of the prevailing wind directions, leading to more southerly distributions over the North Sea. Some features of the wind-induced fluxes in the North Sea in recent years are pointed out, and connected to the exceptional algal blooms. Finally, the ice extension in the Barents Sea in relation to wind stress direction is also touched upon.
The possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the authentication of wild Europeansea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) was investigated in this study. Three different chemometric techniques to process the NIR spectra were developed, and their ability to discriminate between wild and farmed sea bass samples was evaluated. One approach used spectral information to directly build the discrimination model in a latent variable space; the second approach first used wavelets to transform the spectral information and subsequently derived the discrimination model using the transformed spectra; in the third approach a cascaded arrangement was proposed whereby very limited chemical information was first estimated from spectra using a regression model, and this estimated information was then used to build the discrimination model in a latent variable space. All techniques showed that NIRS can be used to reliably discriminate between wild and farmed sea bass, achieving the same classification performance as classification methods that use chemical properties and morphometric traits. However, compared to methods based on chemical analysis, NIRS-based classification methods do not require reagents and are simpler, faster, more economical, and environmentally safer. All proposed techniques indicated that the most predictive spectral regions were those related to the absorbance of groups CH, CH(2), CH(3), and H(2)O, which are related to fat, fatty acids, and water content. PMID:22224758
The George River is a major tributary of the Kuskokwim River and produces Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, chum O. keta, sockeye O. nerka, and coho salmon O. kisutch which contribute to subsistence and commercial salmon fisheries of the Kuskokwim River. ...
Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line, characteristics which make it distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates from Europe and North America. Conclusion In conclusion, the present work constitutes the first report of a case of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. The clinical signs and lesions are consistent with the classical descriptions of the disease in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. The outbreak was caused by ISAV of European genotype (or Genotype I) of HPR 7b but distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates.
Salmon Falls Creek fisheries and instream habitat was investigated between Lily Grade and Salmon Falls Creek Dam in 1994. This reach of Salmon Falls Creek is within a remote, narrow steep canyon with limited access. The source of most of the water within ...
A simultaneous-equation equilibrium model of international salmonid markets is used to examine the combined effect of variability in the landings of Alaska's sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and increases in the production of Chile's Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon O. kisutch, and rainbow trout O. mykiss on Alaska's sockeye salmon exvessel prices and revenues. While Atlantic salmon, coho salmon, and
Within Maine, NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries) primarily focuses on Atlantic salmon life stages in the estuarine and marine environments, while both the Maine Department of Marine Resources Bureau of Sea-Run Fisheries and Habitat an...
Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), one of the most economically important fish in Mediterranean mariculture, shows high basal cortisol concentrations compared with other teleosts. The present study aims (a) to identify cortisol diel variation in fish held under a 12L:12D cycle and minimum handling stress, and (b) to establish the effect of fish size and stressor duration on the cortisol response. The results indicate high intrapopulation variability in plasma cortisol and a significant diel fluctuation with a peak value at dusk (18 h). Stressors of different intensity and/or duration affected the cortisol stress response in a differential manner according to fish size (and/or age). Maximum cortisol values in small-size fish were found at 1 and 2 h post-stress, depending on the duration of the stressor, while at 0.5 h post-stress in large fish regardless stress duration. PMID:24343759
In this work, a survey of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for amoebae and scuticociliatidia infections was carried out to evaluate their effects on the aquaculture of this fish species. The study was conducted in two different fish farms, one using seawater and the other brackish water.Infection with parasitic amoebae was found to be fairly high (prevalence: 43–73%), being more frequent
Maria João Santos; Francisca Cavaleiro; Pamela Campos; André Sousa; Filipa Teixeira; Marta Martins
In order to identify biomarkers of oil pollution in fish we tested the effects of an experimental Light Cycle Oil (LCO) exposure on vertebral bone of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. A total of 60 adult fish were acclimated for fifteen days, then twenty were collected as controls (Day 0) while 40 were exposed to a soluble fraction of LCO (1136 ng L(-1) of ten Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) for seven days. Twenty of them were sampled at the end of the exposure period and the twenty last after a recovery period of fourteen days in clean seawater. Vertebral abnormalities were counted and bone mineralization, total bone area and bone density profiles were established for several post-cranial and caudal vertebrae. In sea bass, seven days of LCO exposure did not affect the frequency and severity of the vertebral abnormalities. No significant differences were observed in bone density and bone repartition (parameters of bone area profiles) between unexposed (Day 0), exposed (D7) and decontaminated (D21) fish. In contrast, bone mineralization of the vertebrae decreased in contaminated sea bass, but in a reversible way, which confirms a previous study in trout showing that this parameter is an early stress indicator. Our results suggest that vertebral bone mineralization could be used as a biomarker of PAH pollution in sea bass. It would be interesting to check this new biomarker in other teleost species exposed to various xenobiotics. PMID:21831432
In vertebrates, chemosensitivity of nutrients occurs through the activation of taste receptors coupled with G-protein subunits, including ?-transducin (G(?tran)) and ?-gustducin (G(?gust)). This study was aimed at characterising the cells expressing G(?tran) immunoreactivity throughout the mucosa of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. G(?tran) immunoreactive cells were mainly found in the stomach, and a lower number of immunopositive cells were detected in the intestine. Some G(?tran) immunoreactive cells in the stomach contained G(?gust) immunoreactivity. Gastric G(?tran) immunoreactive cells co-expressed ghrelin, obestatin and 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity. In contrast, G(?tran) immunopositive cells did not contain somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in any investigated segments of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. Specificity of G(?tran) and G(?gust) antisera was determined by Western blot analysis, which identified two bands at the theoretical molecular weight of ~45 and ~40 kDa, respectively, in sea bass gut tissue as well as in positive tissue, and by immunoblocking with the respective peptide, which prevented immunostaining. The results of the present study provide a molecular and morphological basis for a role of taste-related molecules in chemosensing in the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23748963
The authors examined the microflora in the regions occupied with food fish and food manufacture from Pacific salmon in order to establish its interrelations with other characteristics of the quality. With this purpose in view sea and river water in the places of catching, freshly catched salmon and salted food were studied for the presence of putrefactive bacteria, potentially pathogenic for hydrobionts and man. The data obtained have demonstrated that the main causes of the deterioration of the quality of raw material and food manufactured from Pacific salmon are of bacterial nature. Salmon with micropunctate or large skin ulcerations induced by the causative agent Aeromonas hydrophila was discovered to contain substances with pronounced toxic properties. It is concluded that salmon affected with this microorganism cannot be used for nutrition of the population without thermal treatment. PMID:2660405
Shul'gin, Iu P; Galkina, L M; Shul'gina, L V; Pliusnin, V V
Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (L.) is a coastal pelagic and euryhaline species that represents the only European species of the family Engraulidae, with a widespread distribution. In Croatia, it is marketed fresh, frozen, salted or marinated and mainly exported to Italy and Spain, however Anisakis sp. larval infection is frequently the reason for border rejection. Since it is known that the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infection varies with fish species, fishing area and season, the aim of our study was to identify Anisakis sp. parasitizing European anchovy and infer its population dynamic through a 2.5-year period. Larvae were found coiled and encysted on the external wall of intestine (94%) and reproductive organs (6%), rarely in fillets. Prevalence was 76.1% (95% confidence limits 74.51-77.56%), mean abundance 6.59 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits 5.81-7.26) and mean intensity 8.67 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits 7.82-9.35). The partial CO2 mitochondrial DNA sequence of the isolated anisakids confirmed clustering of the anchovy parasite within A. pegreffii sister group. Parasite population structure showed plasticity inferred by fishing ground, sampling year and fish gender and size. Compared to anisakid prevalence/abundance in other fish, the European anchovy in the Adriatic Sea represents a moderately high-infected paratenic host, although in the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters, anchovies have shown strikingly lesser values of prevalence. Since this host represents one of the most attractive Mediterranean fisheries products traditionally consumed without thermal preparation that in any case would not disrupt larval antigenicity and prevent human allergies, and given the high prevalence of the anisakid within the host, it is necessary to include anchovy into more firm risk assessment frames in order to develop measures that will support the safe alimentary production and consumption of seafood. PMID:22647674
The north-western Alboran Sea is a highly dynamic region in which the hydrological processes are mainly controlled by the entrance of the Atlantic Jet (AJ) through the Strait of Gibraltar. The biological patterns of the area are also related to this variability in which atmospheric pressure distributions and wind intensity and direction play major roles. In this work, we studied how changes in atmospheric forcing (from high atmospheric pressure over the Mediterranean to low atmospheric pressure) induced alterations in the physical and biogeochemical environment by re-activating coastal upwelling on the Spanish shore. The nursery area of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) in the NW Alboran Sea, confirmed to be the very coastal band around Malaga Bay, did not show any drastic change in its biogeochemical characteristics, indicating that this coastal region is somewhat isolated from the rest of the basin. Our data also suggests that anchovy distribution is tightly coupled to the presence of microzooplankton rather than mesozooplankton. Finally, we use detailed physical and biological information to evaluate a hydrological-biogeochemical coupled model with a specific hydrological configuration to represent the Alboran basin. This model is able to reproduce the general circulation patterns in the region forced by the AJ movements only including two variable external forcings; atmospheric pressure over the western Mediterranean and realistic wind fields.
Macías, D.; Catalán, I. A.; Solé, J.; Morales-Nin, B.; Ruiz, J.
Lernanthropus kroyeri (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) is a gill parasite found on the Europeansea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. During a survey of sea bass of Corsican fish farms, we studied the biology of this parasite under culture conditions. We first chose to conduct a scanning electron microscopic study to give additional information about the lifestyle of the parasite. Our examinations made it possible to reveal some unreported superficial structures including details not described previously. Specializations associated with the tegument, in particular, sensory structures and anchoring systems were studied to understand the mechanisms of survival and dispersal of the species. Patterns variation of parasites communities was examined by taking into account environmental factors, such as temperature or salinity, and physiological parameters related to host. The relation between parasites and location of fish was also studied to quantify the importance of site influence on parasite communities. Prevalence and abundances of the infections in different culture systems, fish stocks, and sampling seasons are given. L. kroyeri was significantly present during spring and summer, coinciding with a period of increasing temperature. Significant differences were found grouping data by host size, with higher infection levels in the larger-sized fish. PMID:22179262
Antonelli, Laetitia; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard
The present study addresses the role of aromatase and estrogen receptors in sex differentiation and development. With this purpose, a sea bass female- and a male-dominant group were obtained by successive size gradings since in this species females are already larger than males at the time of sex differentiation. Changes in cyp19a and cyp19b gene expression and enzymatic activity were monitored by a validated real-time PCR and a tritiated water assay, respectively, during early development and sex differentiation. Changes in mRNA expression of estrogen receptors, both erb1 and erb2, were also assessed during this period. Results show clear sex-related differences in cyp19a gene expression and enzymatic activity in gonads, with females exhibiting significantly higher levels than males at 150 days post hatching (DPH), when histological signs of sex differentiation were evident. cyp19b gene expression and activity in brain were detectable during early ontogenesis at 50 DPH but no clear sex-related differences were observed. Both erb1 and erb2 showed higher gene expression levels in testis than in ovaries around 200-250 DPH, corresponding with the time of testicular differentiation and precocious male maturation, but no sex-related differences were found in the brain. Together these results indicate that in the Europeansea bass high expression levels of cyp19a are associated with ovarian differentiation and thus cyp19a can be considered as a suitable molecular marker of ovarian differentiation. However, the involvement of cyp19b in sex differentiation cannot be concluded. In addition, the higher levels of erb1 and erb2 in males versus females during sex differentiation, coinciding with precocious male maturation in the sea bass, suggest an important role for these receptors in testicular development and maturation. PMID:18573255
In this work, a survey of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for amoebae and scuticociliatidia infections was carried out to evaluate their effects on the aquaculture of this fish species. The study was conducted in two different fish farms, one using seawater and the other brackish water. Infection with parasitic amoebae was found to be fairly high (prevalence: 43-73%), being more frequent in sea bass from the brackish water system. Although it was never found to cause outbreaks of disease or mortality in the surveyed fish, amoebic gill disease (AGD) histopathological signs, i.e., hyperplasia, secondary lamellae fusion and cavity formation (interlamellar vesicles), were observed in fish manifesting no macroscopic lesions. Furthermore, some evidence was found that amoebae affects the fish's general state of health and growth rate. These results indicate that cautious and detailed surveys to detect this sort of infection, and thus carefully plan its control, are fully justified. Compared with amoebic infection, the prevalence of scuticociliatosis was found to be low (7-13%). No outbreaks of disease or mortality were ever recorded, even when scuticociliatidia was present in turbot raised in the same water system, leading to serious outbreaks of disease and mortalities in that species. This suggests that sea bass is far more resistant than turbot to such infections, and if this is the case, the former fish may be a good farming alternative when scuticociliatidia is present. PMID:20371152
Santos, Maria João; Cavaleiro, Francisca; Campos, Pamela; Sousa, André; Teixeira, Filipa; Martins, Marta
Society’s needs for a network of in situ ocean observing systems cross many areas of earth and marine science. Here we review the science themes that benefit from data supplied from ocean observatories. Understanding from existing studies is fragmented to the extent that it lacks the coherent long-term monitoring needed to address questions at the scales essential to understand climate change and improve geo-hazard early warning. Data sets from the deep sea are particularly rare with long-term data available from only a few locations worldwide. These science areas have impacts on societal health and well-being and our awareness of ocean function in a shifting climate. Substantial efforts are underway to realise a network of open-ocean observatories around EuropeanSeas that will operate over multiple decades. Some systems are already collecting high-resolution data from surface, water column, seafloor, and sub-seafloor sensors linked to shore by satellite or cable connection in real or near-real time, along with samples and other data collected in a delayed mode. We expect that such observatories will contribute to answering major ocean science questions including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, pore fluid chemistry and pressure, and gas hydrate stability improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? What aspects of physical oceanography, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystems will be most sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic change? What are natural versus anthropogenic changes? Most fundamentally, how are marine processes that occur at differing scales related? The development of ocean observatories provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Here we also describe some basic attributes of network design. Observatory networks provide the means to coordinate and integrate the collection of standardised data capable of bridging measurement scales across a dispersed area in EuropeanSeas adding needed certainty to estimates of future oceanic conditions. Observatory data can be analysed along with other data such as those from satellites, drifting floats, autonomous underwater vehicles, model analysis, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna in order to address some of the questions posed above. Standardised methods for information management are also becoming established to ensure better accessibility and traceability of these data sets and ultimately to increase their use for societal benefit. The connection of ocean observatory effort into larger frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and the Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) is integral to its success. It is in a greater integrated framework that the full potential of the component systems will be realised.
Ruhl, Henry A.; André, Michel; Beranzoli, Laura; Ça?atay, M. Namik; Colaço, Ana; Cannat, Mathilde; Dañobeitia, Juanjo J.; Favali, Paolo; Géli, Louis; Gillooly, Michael; Greinert, Jens; Hall, Per O. J.; Huber, Robert; Karstensen, Johannes; Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; Lykousis, Vasilios; Mienert, Jürgen; Miguel Miranda, J.; Person, Roland; Priede, Imants G.; Puillat, Ingrid; Thomsen, Laurenz; Waldmann, Christoph
Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.
California ocean salmon fisheries are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) under the federal Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. This chapter describes the ocean fisheries impacting California Central Valley (CV) chinook stocks, the federal regulatory process that is followed in managing these ocean fisheries, and discusses alternative management mea- sures for protecting valuable natural resources. The CV
\\u000a Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their\\u000a present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate\\u000a salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of
Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin
Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) accumulate substantial nutrients in their bodies as they grow to adulthood at sea. These nutrients are carried to predominantly\\u000a oligotrophic lakes and streams, where they are released during and after spawning. Research over more than 3 decades has shown\\u000a that the annual deposition of salmon-borne marine-derived nutrients (MD-nutrients) is important for the productivity of freshwater\\u000a communities
Robert J. Naiman; Robert E. Bilby; Daniel E. Schindler; James M. Helfield
Aim Unclassified salmonids, generally named 'sea trout', have been spotted on occasion in the north Adriatic Sea, although autochthonous salmonids have not been reported in the Mediterranean Sea. On the basis of their phenotype, these fish were regarded as the rainbow trout or salmon-like fish. The aim of the study was to determine the taxonomic status of the 'sea trout'
Ales Snoj; Bojan Marceta; Simona Susnik; Enver Melkic; Vladimir Meglic; Peter Dovc
The objective of this work was to describe inter- and intra-annual variations in the environmental characteristics of the North-eastern Aegean Sea and to relate these changes to the egg and larval distributions, growth and feeding of larval anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus). Four cruises, two in July and two in September in 2003 and 2004 were performed. The distributions of eggs and larvae were associated with i) salinity fronts related to the Black Sea Water and ii) shallow areas of high productivity over the continental shelf, some of them with high riverine influence. The first published description of the anchovy larval diet in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in individuals ranging from 2.2 to 17 mm standard length. The number of non-empty guts was relatively high (between 20% and 30%), and the diet was described through 15 main items. The mean size of the prey increased with larval size, and was generally dominated by prey widths smaller than 80 ?m (mainly the nauplii and copepodite stages of copepods). Small larvae positively selected copepod nauplii. As larvae grew, they shifted to larger copepod stages. At all sizes, larvae rejected abundant taxa like cladocerans. The average trophic level calculated for anchovy of all size ranges was 2.98 ± 0.16 (SE). Growth rates varied from 0.41 to 0.75 mm d -1, with the highest growth rates generally observed in September. Variability in the Black Sea Water influence and the recorded inter- and intra-annual changes in primary and secondary production, combined with marked changes in temperature over the first 20 m depth, are used to frame the discussion regarding the observed significant differences in growth rates in terms of both length and weight.
The results of examining mtDNA variability in populations of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from the rivers of the basins of the seas of Japan and Okhotsk and in the chum salmon seasonal races of the Amur River are\\u000a presented. A significant level of polymorphism between the majority of the populations studied was detected. The groups of\\u000a chum salmon from the
The chronic effects of exposing sea bass (average initial weight 100 g) to ammonia in water at 22 °C were first evaluated over a 61-day period (period 1, P1) during which nine different groups were submitted to nine ambient ammonia levels ranging from 0.014 to 0.493 mg l–1 NH3-N (0.53–16.11 mg l–1 total ammonia nitrogen (TA-N)) and fed using self-feeders. At the end of P1,
Antoine Dosdat; Jeanine Person-Le Ruyet; Denis Covès; Gilbert Dutto; Eric Gasset; Annick Le Roux; Gilles Lemarié
Background Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH) has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW) due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic status is controversial. We analysed microsatellite DNA polymorphism in nine populations from the Jutland Peninsula and the Baltic Sea, representing NSH (three populations, two of which are reintroduced) and ELW (six populations). The objectives were to: 1) analyse postglacial recolonization of whitefish in the region; 2) assess the evolutionary distinctiveness of NSH, and 3) apply several approaches for defining conservation units towards setting conservation priorities for NSH. Results Bayesian cluster analyses of genetic differentiation identified four major groups, corresponding to NSH and three groups of ELW (Western Jutland, Central Jutland, Baltic Sea). Estimates of historical migration rates indicated recolonization in a north-eastern direction, suggesting that all except the Baltic Sea population predominantly represent postglacial recolonization via the ancient Elbe River. Contemporary gene flow has not occurred between NSH and ELW, with a divergence time within the last 4,000 years suggested from coalescence methods. NSH showed interbreeding with ELW when brought into contact by stocking. Thus, reproductive isolation of NSH was not absolute, although possible interbreeding beyond the F1 level could not be resolved. Conclusion Fishes of the C. lavaretus complex in the Jutland Peninsula originate from the same recolonization event. NSH has evolved recently and its species status may be questioned due to incomplete reproductive isolation from ELW, but it was shown to merit consideration as an independent conservation unit. Yet, application of several approaches for defining conservation units generated mixed outcomes regarding its conservation priority. Within the total species complex, it remains one among many recently evolved unique forms. Its uniqueness and high conservation priority is more evident at a local geographical scale, where conservation efforts will also benefit populations of a number of other endangered species.
The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm salmon. Offspring of farm and "hybrids" (i.e. all F(1), F(2) and BC(1) groups) showed reduced survival compared with wild salmon but grew faster as juveniles and displaced wild parr, which as a group were significantly smaller. Where suitable habitat for these emigrant parr is absent, this competition would result in reduced wild smolt production. In the experimental conditions, where emigrants survived downstream, the relative estimated lifetime success ranged from 2% (farm) to 89% (BC(1) wild) of that of wild salmon, indicating additive genetic variation for survival. Wild salmon primarily returned to fresh water after one sea winter (1SW) but farm and 'hybrids' produced proportionately more 2SW salmon. However, lower overall survival means that this would result in reduced recruitment despite increased 2SW fecundity. We thus demonstrate that interaction of farm with wild salmon results in lowered fitness, with repeated escapes causing cumulative fitness depression and potentially an extinction vortex in vulnerable populations.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) is thought to act early in the process of spermatogenesis; however, its action in fish has not yet been clearly established. In the present work, we analyzed the effects of recombinant Fsh in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) spermatogenesis according to two different approaches: direct injection of recombinant single-chain Fsh hormone (scFSH) and injection of scFSH coding sequence. Both approaches were efficient in increasing plasma Fsh at 7 and 15 days, respectively, after injection. The Fsh increment caused a significant increase in plasma 11-ketotestosterone levels and induced dramatic changes at the testicular level. Fsh-treated groups showed an increase in germ cell proliferation at Day 7, and cysts of spermatocytes and spermatids were observed at the end of the experiment. After treatment with Fsh, a suppression in amh transcripts and an increase of lhr transcripts were detected at Day 7 and Day 15, respectively, and an increment in fshr expression became evident at Day 23. These results show that Fsh initiates germ cell proliferation, triggering spermatogenesis in sea bass via androgen production and regulation of spermatogenesis-related genes. PMID:24258209
This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.
Background Regime shifts are abrupt changes encompassing a multitude of physical properties and ecosystem variables, which lead to new regime conditions. Recent investigations focus on the changes in ecosystem diversity and functioning associated to such shifts. Of particular interest, because of the implication on climate drivers, are shifts that occur synchronously in separated basins. Principal Findings In this work we analyze and review long-term records of Mediterranean ecological and hydro-climate variables and find that all point to a synchronous change in the late 1980s. A quantitative synthesis of the literature (including observed oceanic data, models and satellite analyses) shows that these years mark a major change in Mediterranean hydrographic properties, surface circulation, and deep water convection (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient). We provide novel analyses that link local, regional and basin scale hydrological properties with two major indicators of large scale climate, the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Northern Hemisphere Temperature index, suggesting that the Mediterranean shift is part of a large scale change in the Northern Hemisphere. We provide a simplified scheme of the different effects of climate vs. temperature on pelagic ecosystems. Conclusions Our results show that the Mediterranean Sea underwent a major change at the end of the 1980s that encompassed atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological systems, for which it can be considered a regime shift. We further provide evidence that the local hydrography is linked to the larger scale, northern hemisphere climate. These results suggest that the shifts that affected the North, Baltic, Black and Mediterranean (this work) Seas at the end of the 1980s, that have been so far only partly associated, are likely linked as part a northern hemisphere change. These findings bear wide implications for the development of climate change scenarios, as synchronous shifts may provide the key for distinguishing local (i.e., basin) anthropogenic drivers, such as eutrophication or fishing, from larger scale (hemispheric) climate drivers.
Conversi, Alessandra; Fonda Umani, Serena; Peluso, Tiziana; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Santojanni, Alberto; Edwards, Martin
Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the previous biological concepts based on seasonal breeding stocks or geographical subspecies designations. The trans-Arctic herring phylogeography is notably similar to those of the amphi-boreal mollusk taxa Macoma and Mytilus, suggesting similar histories of inter-oceanic connections. We also considered the time dependency of molecular rates, critical for interpreting timing of relatively recent biogeographical events, by comparing the estimates from coding and non-coding mitochondrial regions of presumably different mutation dynamics.
Increases in environmental temperature predicted to result from global warming have direct effects on performance of ectotherms. Moreover, cardiac function has been observed to limit the tolerance to high temperatures. Here we show that two wild populations of Atlantic salmon originating from northern and southern extremes of its European distribution have strikingly similar cardiac responses to acute warming when acclimated to common temperatures, despite different local environments. Although cardiac collapse starts at 21-23?°C with a maximum heart rate of ~\
Anttila, Katja; Couturier, Christine S; Overli, Oyvind; Johnsen, Arild; Marthinsen, Gunnhild; Nilsson, Göran E; Farrell, Anthony P
Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.
The antenna and transmitter described in this report were designed for integration into the remote acoustic assessment system for detection of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay region of the Bering Sea. The assessment system configuration consists of an upward directed sonar buoy anchored 150 ft below the surface and attached by cable to a spar buoy tethered some 300 ft laterally. The spar buoy contains a telemetry transmitter, power supply, data processing electronics, an antenna and a beacon light.
Local to regional climate anomalies are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) variations in former times is therefore crucial when addressing past climate changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP reconstructions lack data from the ocean, particularly in the pre-1850 period. Here we present a new statistically-derived 5° × 5° resolved gridded seasonal SLP dataset covering the eastern North Atlantic, Europe and the Mediterranean area (40°W-50°E; 20°N-70°N) back to 1750 using terrestrial instrumental pressure series and marine wind information from ship logbooks. For the period 1750-1850, the new SLP reconstruction provides a more accurate representation of the strength of the winter westerlies as well as the location and variability of the Azores High than currently available multiproxy pressure field reconstructions. These findings strongly support the potential of ship logbooks as an important source to determine past circulation variations especially for the pre-1850 period. This new dataset can be further used for dynamical studies relating large-scale atmospheric circulation to temperature and precipitation variability over the Mediterranean and Eurasia, for the comparison with outputs from GCMs as well as for detection and attribution studies.
Küttel, M.; Xoplaki, E.; Gallego, D.; Luterbacher, J.; García-Herrera, R.; Allan, R.; Barriendos, M.; Jones, P. D.; Wheeler, D.; Wanner, H.
The layers of follicular cells surrounding the oocyte and the interactions among them and the germ cells are critical for the successful maintenance of the ovarian functions. We have set up the isolation procedure and culture conditions of sea bass ovarian follicular cells. Their behaviour at three different physiological temperatures (25, 18 and 15 °C) was evaluated by verifying their steroidogenic capacity along time together with the expression of follicular specific genes (cyp19a1, fshr, lhr and star). These characteristics revealed this culture as a good in vitro alternative to short term in vivo studies at the level of the ovarian follicle. Moreover, to evaluate the suitability of this system for gene function studies conditions for transient transfection of plasmid DNA were optimized. Finally, the characteristics of the follicular culture were not affected by freezing and thawing cycles what facilitates the performance of experiments independently of the reproductive season. In conclusion, we have developed an in vitro homologous system that enables functional and gene expression studies and resembles the in vivo situation in the ovarian follicle. PMID:22760552
Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...
The roles of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the regulation of glucose metabolism were assessed in Europeansea bass juveniles fed with distinct dietary carbohydrate levels. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 10% (10%PGS) or 30% (30%PGS) pregelatinized starch or no starch (control). The highest plasma glucose and insulin levels were observed 6h after feeding in fish receiving the 30%PGS diet. Although plasma IGF-I was higher at 6h than at 24h after feeding, no effect of dietary carbohydrate level was noticed within each sampling time. Increasing dietary carbohydrate level resulted in an increase of liver but not of muscle glycogen content. Hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities increased with the dietary carbohydrate content, whereas pyruvate kinase (PK) activity was higher in fish fed the carbohydrate containing diets than the carbohydrate-free diet. GK activity was higher 6h than 24h after feeding, whereas the opposite was observed for G6PD activity. Data suggest that under the nutritional conditions assayed plasma glucose is an insulin secretagogue. Furthermore, insulin appears to have a more important role than IGF-I in stimulating hepatic glucose uptake, thus enhancing GK activity and leading to an increase in liver glycogen content to maintain glucose homeostasis. PMID:20696267
Enes, P; Sanchez-Gurmaches, J; Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Oliva-Teles, A
The European Marie Curie Initial Training Network CASE (FP7 - ITN) is formalizing long-standing research collaborations in the field of empirical and simulated climate and oceanographic changes in the Nordic and Barents Seas. CASE offers an ideal setting for running integrated and innovative projects on recent (Holocene) Arctic and Subarctic climate changes and implementing a multidisciplinary and intersectorial training on biotic proxies of past marine environments through a Marie Curie Network. The EU-funded 12 CASE PhDs projects are concerned with the sensitivity of marine primary and secondary producers to changes in marine physical aspects, and the invaluable information on past oceanic and climatic conditions given by their fossil remains contained in sedimentary archives. Climate modelling provides complementary physical information. The investigations cover an extended field of disciplines, from micropaleontology, to organic and inorganic geochemistry, and an array of expertise such as taxonomy, molecular and stable isotope geochemistry, and climate modelling. This presentation will provide information on the structure of the consortium, the content and philosophy of the training actions, as well as the main scientific objectives of the various research projects carried out by the CASE partner institutions.
Deme, I.; Giraudeau, J.; Belt, S. T.; Hald, M.; Husum, K.; Knies, J.; Renssen, H.; Spielhagen, R. F.
ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...
Since the late 1980s, gonadotropins have been isolated and characterized in several fish species, but specific immunoassays for the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have only been developed for a few. The present study reports the development and use of a specific and homologous competitive ELISA for measuring FSH in Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using a recombinant FSH and its specific antiserum. Recombinant Europeansea bass FSH? and FSH heterodimer were produced in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and a baculovirus expression system, respectively. Specific polyclonal antibodies, generated by rabbit immunization against recombinant FSH?, were used at a final dilution of 1:8000. Recombinant FSH heterodimer was used to generate a standard curve and for coating of microplates (166 ?g/ml). The sensitivity of the assay was 0.5 ng/ml [B(0)-2SD], and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 2.12% (n=10) and 5.44% (n=16) (B(i)/B(0) ?45%), respectively. A high degree of parallelism was observed between the standard curve and serially diluted plasma and pituitary samples of Europeansea bass. The ELISA developed was used to study the plasma FSH profiles of mature males and females during the reproductive cycle, and those of immature juvenile males under different light regimes. The analysis showed that FSH increased significantly during the intermediate stages of spermatogenesis and during vitellogenesis. Analyses in immature juvenile males showed that the continuous light photoperiod significantly reduced plasma FSH levels, and consequently, testicular growth and precocious puberty. In conclusion, the immunoassay developed has proven to be sensitive, specific and accurate for measuring Europeansea bass FSH, and it represents a valuable tool for future studies on the reproductive endocrinology of this species. PMID:22227219
...Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...
The effects of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and prostaglandins (PGs) on oocyte maturation were investigated in a marine teleost, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Follicle-enclosed postvitellogenic, preovulatory oocytes were cultured in vitro and maturation was verified by assessing volume increase, lipid droplet coalescence, yolk clarification, and germinal vesicle migration and breakdown. Human chorionic gonadotropin was administered as the maturation-inducing gonadotropin (GTH) and was capable of inducing maturation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Free AA induced maturation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and enhanced GTH-induced maturation, while EPA, DHA, and oleic acid were ineffective. Maturation induced by GTH was significantly suppressed by a phospholipase A(2) blocker, suggesting that mobilization of AA was involved in GTH-induced maturation. Moreover, EPA and DHA exhibited a significant, dose-dependent attenuation of GTH-induced maturation. Maturation induced by GTH was inhibited in the presence of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, and this inhibition was reversed by addition of AA, PGE(2), or PGF(2alpha). PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) alone were both effective stimulators of maturation, while PGE(1) and PGE(3) were ineffective. The effect of PUFAs on oocyte maturation in vitro were corroborated with studies in vivo. Oocytes were obtained from females fed a commercial, PUFA-enriched diet (RD) and maturational behavior was compared with oocytes from females fed a natural diet (ND) with a higher EPA content and n-3:n-6 ratio. Although no significant difference was observed in the rate of spontaneous oocyte maturation, a higher percentage of GTH-induced maturation and lower percentage of atresia were observed in RD oocytes. Moreover, while basal PGE production from oocytes from both groups was the same, RD oocytes produced significantly higher levels of PGE in the presence of hCG. The results from this study provide evidence for the participation of AA metabolism in GTH-induced oocyte maturation, and suggest that other PUFAs and PGs may play important roles in the induction of maturation in a marine teleost. PMID:11133697
Sorbera, L A; Asturiano, J F; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S
Downstream migration of young coho salmon in the northern part of the range is observed at different ontogenetic stages. Three migration periods were identified: passive migration of yearlings within the spawning river; migration of parr older than 1 year from the spawning tributary to the main river; and migration of smoltifying fish from the river to the sea. The smoltification and seaward migration of the bulk of young salmons from the Kalkaveem River takes place at the age of 2 years. Mass downstream migration of young coho salmons starts in early June at 9 degrees C. No clear diel pattern was observed in the migration of young coho salmon. The lowest migration activity was observed from sunrise to noon (3:00-12:00) when the feeding activity of young salmons increases. PMID:16771145
Atlantic salmon populations, even after correcting for differences in stock size. The phylogeo- graphic origin of the populations also had a significant effect on the genetic diversity characteristics of populations: anadromous populations from the basins of the Atlantic Ocean, White Sea and Barents Sea possessed higher levels of genetic diversity than anadromous populations from the Baltic Sea basin. Among the
A. Tonteri; A. Je. Veselov; S. Titov; J. Lumme; C. R. Primmer
Due to hydropower development, the upstream migration of wild anadromous salmon and brown trout is impaired in many European\\u000a rivers, causing negative effects on the long-term survival of natural salmonid populations. This study identified problems\\u000a for Atlantic salmon during upstream migration in a regulated river in northern Sweden. Umeälven (mean flow: 430 m3s?1). Tagging from 1995 to 2005 involved radio
H. Lundqvist; P. Rivinoja; K. Leonardsson; S. McKinnell
Due to hydropower development, the upstream migration of wild anadromous salmon and brown trout is impaired in many European\\u000a rivers, causing negative effects on the long-term survival of natural salmonid populations. This study identified problems\\u000a for Atlantic salmon during upstream migration in a regulated river in northern Sweden, Umeälven (mean flow: 430 m3 s?1). Tagging from 1995 to 2005 involved radio tags
H. Lundqvist; P. Rivinoja; K. Leonardsson; S. McKinnell
The distinctions of the average values and dispersions of the length and the weight of a body in homo-and heterozygotic groupings of five loci (G3PDH*, sMDH-B 1,2*, PGDH*, FDHG* and PGM-2*) were analysed in a population of pink salmon of the river Ola. It was shown that the character of correlation between genotypical structure and morphological trait is not obligatory and identical for each gene. In our opinion polygenic complexes and not separate genes determine the morphological traits. PMID:17385411
The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet. PMID:19523283
Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration performance during their 6 mo in the mesocosm; this performance was found to be inversely proportional to growth rate. PMID:23099467
Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A
Hydrocarbons are major contaminants that may affect biota at various trophic levels in estuaries and coastal ecosystems. The effects of accidental pollution by light cycle oil (LCO), a refined product of heavy fuel oil, on bioaccumulation, depuration processes and immune-related parameters in the Europeansea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were investigated in the laboratory after 7 days of exposure and a 2-week recovery period. Exposure of fish to the soluble fraction of LCO (1600ngL(-1)) for 7 days led to the bioaccumulation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in muscles: naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. After 7 days of recovery period, half-elimination of naphthalene was reported in fish muscles due to facilitated diffusive loss by the epithelium and a faster elimination rate proven by the presence of a high level of naphthalene biliary metabolites. The other bioaccumulated molecules displayed a slower depuration rate due to their elimination by the formation of hydrophobic metabolites excreted through bile or urine. Three days after the beginning of the recovery period, each contaminated fish showed severe external lesions (tissue necrosis, suppurative exudates, haemorrhagic area). The hypothesis of a possible link with inflammatory phenomenon was supported by (i) an inversion of the leucocyte sub-population percentage, (ii) a significant up-expression in the spleen of the tumour necrosis factor alpha gene, (iii) a significant increase in ACH(50). Moreover, the lack of C3 gene regulation in the spleen suggested a non-renewal of this component. The reduction of phagocytic activity and lysozyme concentration reflected immune suppression. Finally, LCO toxicity in this fish was clearly demonstrated to be related to inflammatory reaction and immune depletion. PMID:21764455
Bado-Nilles, Anne; Quentel, Claire; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, José Luis; Auffret, Michel; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Le Floch, Stéphane
This study, conducted in the brain of a perciform fish, the Europeansea bass, aimed at raising antibodies against the precursor of the kisspeptins in order to map the kiss systems and to correlate the expression of kisspeptins, kiss1 and kiss2, with that of kisspeptin receptors (kiss-R1 and kiss-R2). Specific antibodies could be raised against the preprokiss2, but not the preoprokiss1. The data indicate that kiss2 neurons are mainly located in the hypothalamus and project widely to the subpallium and pallium, the preoptic region, the thalamus, the pretectal area, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mediobasal medial and caudal hypothalamus, and the neurohypophysis. These results were compared to the expression of kiss-R1 and kiss-R2 messengers, indicating a very good correlation between the wide distribution of Kiss2-positive fibers and that of kiss-R2 expressing cells. The expression of kiss-R1 messengers was more limited to the habenula, the ventral telencephalon and the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. Attempts to characterize the phenotype of the numerous cells expressing kiss-R2 showed that neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase are targets for kisspeptins, while GnRH1 neurons did not appear to express kiss-R1 or kiss-R2 messengers. In addition, a striking result was that all somatostatin-positive neurons expressed-kissR2. These data show that kisspeptins are likely to regulate a wide range of neuronal systems in the brain of teleosts.
For generations, Native Americans have depended on their observations of nature for their survival. In this video segment adapted from Northwest Indian College, an Elder recalls how fishermen suspected the water was warming after observing salmon retreating to deeper waters.
In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.
What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.
Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C. R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J. E.
Host switching explains the high species number of ectoparasitic, viviparous, mainly parthenogenetic but potentially hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Gyrodactylus. The starlike mitochondrial phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salaris suggested parallel divergence of several clades on grayling (also named as Gyrodactylus thymalli) and an embedded sister clade on Baltic salmon. The hypothesis that the parasite switched from grayling to salmon during the glacial diaspora was tested using a 493-bp nuclear DNA marker ADNAM1. The parasites on salmon in lakes Onega and Ladoga were heterozygous for divergent ADNAM1 alleles WS1 and BS1, found as nearly fixed in grayling parasites in the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins, respectively. In the Baltic salmon-specific mtDNA clade, the WS/BS heterozygosity was maintained in 23 out of the 24 local clones. The permanently heterozygous clade was endemic in the Baltic Sea basin, and it had accumulated variation in mtDNA (31 variable sites on 1600 bp) and in the alleles of the nuclear locus (two point mutations and three nucleotide conversions along 493 bp). Mendelian shuffling of the nuclear alleles between the local clones indicated rare sex within the clade, but the WS/BS heterozygosity was lost in only one salmon hatchery clone, which was heterozygous WS1/WS3. The Baltic salmon-specific G. salaris lineage was monophyletic, descending from a single historical hybridization and consequential host switch, frozen by permanent heterozygosity. A possible time for the hybridization of grayling parasite strains from the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins was during the Eemian interglacial 132 000 years bp. Strains having a separate divergent mtDNA observed on farmed rainbow trout, and on salmon in Russian lake Kuito were suggested to be clones derived from secondary and tertiary recombination events. PMID:17971088
The American Fisheries Society herein provides a list of depleted Pacific salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat stocks from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, to accompany the list of rare inland fishes reported by Williams et al. (1989). The list includes 214 native naturally-spawning stocks: 101 at high risk of extinction, 58 at moderate risk of extinction, 54 of special concern,
Jack E. Williams; Willa Nehlsen; James A. Lichatowich
In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic
L. Norrgren; T. Andersson; P.-A. Bergqvist; I. Bjoerklund
Research conducted under the Sound Ecosystem Assessment (SEA) Program during the mid-1990s indicated that juvenile pink salmon survival in Prince William Sound was positively correlated with the abundance of the large-bodied copepod, Neocalanus, and negatively correlated with the abundance of walleye pollock. From 2000 to 2006, the Prince William Sound Science Center conducted annual monitoring of the spring abundance and
The occurrence of Gyrodactylus salaris in the River Tornionjoki was investigated in 2000-2004. Infection of salmon parr, Salmo salar, was common in the uppermost reach of the river system but decreased downstream and was rare in the lowermost reach. This pattern was consistent across the study period regardless of varying water temperatures. The oldest age groups of parr were more often infected than younger ones throughout the river system, irrespective of their origin (wild or stocked). Parasite-free hatchery-reared 1-year-old parr became infected during their first summer in the wild. Downmigrating salmon smolts had a high prevalence of infection, but their role in the distribution of infection seemed unimportant. On grayling, Thymallus thymallus, we observed only the grayling-specific clade of Gyrodactylus. We found no indication of grayling participating in the epidemiology of infection on salmon. The salmon parr and smolt population in the Tornionjoki has been at its height during the late 1990s and 2000s. Our results indicate that G. salaris infection in this Baltic river has no devastating effects on the salmon population as it has had in salmon rivers flowing into the North Atlantic and White Sea. PMID:18355178
1. Individuals of the same species often exhibit consistent differences in metabolic rate, but the effects of such differences on ecologically important behaviours remain largely unknown. In particular, it is unclear whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between metabolic rate and the tendency to take risks while foraging. Individuals with higher metabolic rates may need to take greater risks while foraging to obtain the additional food required to satisfy their energy requirements. Such a relationship could be exacerbated by food deprivation if a higher metabolic demand also causes greater mass loss and hunger. 2. We investigated relationships among metabolic rate, risk-taking and tolerance of food deprivation in juvenile Europeansea bass. Individual fish were tested for risk-taking behaviours following a simulated predator attack, both before and after a 7-day period of food deprivation. The results were then related to their routine metabolic rate (RMR), which was measured throughout the period of food deprivation. 3. The amount of risk displayed by individual fish before food deprivation showed no relationship with RMR. After food deprivation, however, the amount of risk among individuals was positively correlated with RMR. In general, most fish showed an increase in risk-taking after food deprivation, and the magnitude of the increase in risk-taking was correlated with the rate of individual mass loss during food deprivation, which was itself strongly correlated with RMR. 4. The observation that RMR was related to risk-taking behaviour after food deprivation, but not before, suggests that although RMR can influence risk-taking, the strength of the relationship is flexible and context dependent. The effects of RMR on risk-taking may be subtle or non-existent in regularly feeding animals, but may lead to variability in risk-taking among individuals when food is scarce or supply is unpredictable. This synergistic relationship between RMR and food deprivation could lead to an increased likelihood of being predated for individuals with a relatively high intrinsic energy demand during times when food is scarce. PMID:21790592
Killen, Shaun S; Marras, Stefano; McKenzie, David J
Collisional structures from the closure of the Tornquist Ocean and subsequent amalgamation of Avalonia and Baltica during the Caledonian Orogeny in the northern part of the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in the SW Baltic Sea are investigated. A grid of marine reflection seismic lines was gathered in 1996 during the DEKORP-BASIN '96 campaign, shooting with an airgun array of 52 l total volume and recording with a digital streamer of up to 2.1 km length. The detailed reflection seismic analysis is mainly based on post-stack migrated sections of this survey, but one profile has also been processed by a pre-stack depth migration algorithm. The data provides well-constrained images of upper crustal reflectivity and lower crustal/uppermost mantle reflections. In the area of the Caledonian suture, a reflection pattern is observed with opposing dips in the upper crust and the uppermost mantle. Detailed analysis of dipping reflections in the upper crust provides evidence for two different sets of reflections, which are separated by the O-horizon, the main decollement of the Caledonian deformation complex. S-dipping reflections beneath the sub-Permian discontinuity and above the O-horizon are interpreted as Caledonian thrust structures. Beneath the O-horizon, SW-dipping reflections in the upper crust are interpreted as ductile shear zones and crustal deformation features that evolved during the Sveconorwegian Orogeny. The Caledonian deformation complex is subdivided into (1) S-dipping foreland thrusts in the north, (2) the S-dipping suture itself that shows increased reflectivity, and (3) apparently NE-dipping downfaulted sedimentary horizons south of the Avalonia-Baltica suture, which may have been reactivated during Mesozoic normal faulting. The reflection Moho at 28-35 km depth appears to truncate a N-dipping mantle structure, which may represent remnant structures from Tornquist Ocean closure or late-collisional compressional shear planes in the upper mantle. A contour map of these mantle reflections indicates a consistent northward dip, which is steepest where there is strong bending of the Caledonian deformation front. The thin-skinned character of the Caledonian deformation complex and the fact that N-dipping mantle reflections do not truncate the Moho indicate that the Baltica crust was not mechanically involved in the Caledonian collision and, therefore, escaped deformation in this area.
In the final phase of their spawning migration, Pacific salmon use chemical cues to identify their home river, but how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic. To test the hypothesis that salmon imprint on the magnetic field that exists where they first enter the sea and later seek the same field upon return, we analyzed a 56-year fisheries data set on Fraser River sockeye salmon, which must detour around Vancouver Island to approach the river through either a northern or southern passageway. We found that the proportion of salmon using each route was predicted by geomagnetic field drift: the more the field at a passage entrance diverged from the field at the river mouth, the fewer fish used the passage. We also found that more fish used the northern passage in years with warmer sea surface temperature (presumably because fish were constrained to more northern latitudes). Field drift accounted for 16% of the variation in migratory route used, temperature 22%, and the interaction between these variables 28%. These results provide the first empirical evidence of geomagnetic imprinting in any species and imply that forecasting salmon movements is possible using geomagnetic models. PMID:23394828
Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Emily M; Quinn, Thomas P; Klimley, A Peter; Noakes, David L G
After several years of feeding at sea, salmonids have an amazing ability to migrate long distances from the open ocean to their natal stream to spawn. Three different research approaches from behavioural to molecular biological studies have been used to elucidate the physiological mechanisms underpinning salmonid imprinting and homing migration. The study was based on four anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, migrating from the North Pacific Ocean to the coast of Hokkaido, Japan, as well as lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya, Hokkaido, where the lake serves as the model oceanic system. Behavioural studies using biotelemetry techniques showed swimming profiles from the Bering Sea to the coast of Hokkaido in O. keta as well as homing behaviours of lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya. Endocrinological studies on hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of O. keta, and lacustrine O. nerka identified the hormonal changes during homing migration. Neurophysiological studies revealed crucial roles of olfactory functions on imprinting and homing during downstream and upstream migration, respectively. These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in anadromous and lacustrine salmonids. PMID:22803723
Long reciprocal migrations from fresh water to the sea give its specificity to the metamorphosis observed in salmons, eels and lampreys, where the most significant physiological changes concern the hydromineral equilibrium. These events have been more specifically studied in the transition towards a marine environment which accompanies smoltification in salmons, the acquisition of a silver livery in yellow eels and
The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival of coho salmon appears to be determined in the first month at sea while the fish are still in local marine areas in the upwelling zone. There is stronger evidence that upwelling might influence vulnerability to predation. A broader ecosystem view which considers salmon as a member of a complex marine community offers additional insight and raises new questions regarding the marine mortality of salmon. The pelagic fish community in the upwelling zone has undergone dramatic change in the last 50 years. That change is consistent with the historical record, however, the system has not completed a full cycle of change (as it has in the past) since the stocks have been subjected to intense commercial and sport exploitation. Salmon seem to be responding to shifts in productivity in the coastal upwelling zone.
In this video segment, learn about subsistence fishing and harvesting. Hear from an Elder who speaks about how he used to go trolling (fishing) for salmon with his father, uncles, and cousins when he was young. He recalls that they noticed that the salmon were moving farther offshore, into deeper water. They suspected it was because the water was warming. The video segment was adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham, Washington. The background essay explains the huge significance of climate change for people who rely on the earth so much, and the correlation between the temperature of water and the abundance of salmon is further explained. The Discussion questions will help kids think about the issues,and therefore understand them in a better way. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.
Only two river basins in which the European pearl mussel has survived to date are known in Arkhangelsk oblast. These are the\\u000a Solza and Kozha basins. The northeastern boundary of the European range of this species passes along the watershed between\\u000a the basins of the Solza and the Shirshema (the Onega Peninsula) and then along the Onega-Northern Dvina watershed. The
Anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to the Connecticut River (CR) from 1996 to 1999 were assayed for variability at nine microsatellite DNA loci. Heterozygosity and allele frequencies were compared to the anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to Maine's Penobscot River from 1998 to 2000. The Penobscot River was the primary source of the salmon used to found the previously extirpated population in the Connecticut River. While there were no significant differences in heterozygosity between the source population and the Connecticut River sea-run spawners, microsatellite allele frequencies were significantly different between the populations. Two techniques of estimating effective population size (Ne) suggested a healthy level of genetic variation in the Connecticut River population of anadromous Atlantic salmon. This is significant because the sea-run population is maintained almost entirely through hatchery production. Healthy ratios of Ne to N indicate that hatchery production has not resulted in excessive inbreeding to date. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
...Part 300 RIN 0648-XZ20 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The orders...
...Administration RIN 0648-ZC16 Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund AGENCY: National Marine...announces the availability of Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Funding (PCSRF), as authorized...restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and their...
...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...action establishes Class E airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance...Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of...
1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA
...Review)] Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead...
2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA
In high intensive fish production systems, hyperoxygenation and reduced flow are often used to save water and increase the holding capacity. This commonly used husbandry practice has been shown to be stressful to fish and increase mortality after infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) challenge, but the cause and effect relationship is not known. Salmonids are particularly sensitive to stress during smoltification and the first weeks after seawater (SW) transfer. This work aimed at investigating the impact of hyperoxygenation combined with reduced flow in fresh water (FW), on the intestinal barrier in FW as well as during later life stages in SW. It further aims at investigating the role of the intestinal barrier during IPNV challenge and possible secondary infections. Hyperoxygenation in FW acted as a stressor as shown by significantly elevated plasma cortisol levels. This stressful husbandry condition tended to increase paracellular permeability (P(app)) as well as translocation of Aeromonas salmonicida in the posterior intestine of Atlantic salmon. After transfer to SW and subsequent IPNV challenge, intestinal permeability, as shown by P(app), and translocation rate of A. salmonicida increased in the anterior intestine, concomitant with further elevation in plasma cortisol levels. In the anterior intestine, four of five fish displayed alterations in intestinal appearance. In two of five fish, IPNV caused massive necrosis with significant loss of cell material and in a further two fish, IPNV caused increased infiltration of lymphocytes into the epithelium and granulocytes in the lamina propria. Hyperoxygenation and reduced flow in the FW stage may serve as stressors with impact mainly during later stages of development. Fish with an early history of hyperoxygenation showed a higher stress response concomitant with a disturbed intestinal barrier function, which may be a cause for the increased susceptibility to IPNV infection and increased susceptibility to secondary infections. PMID:19500205
The estimates of genetic diversity in populations of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from different regions of Sakhalin Island, Iturup Island, and the Anadyr’ River were obtained on the basis of analysis of\\u000a allozyme variability. These estimates together with our published earlier data on chum salmon from the Amur River basin and\\u000a the rivers of the northern coast of the Sea
E. A. Salmenkova; V. T. Omel’chenko; K. I. Afanas’ev; G. A. Rubtsova
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...
...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...
...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...
A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to measure cortisone in Atlantic salmon plasma. Diatomaceous earth microcolumn chromatography was used to separate the cortisone from other steroids. The RIA method following chromatography was validated by analyzing each of six samples of blood by double isotope derivative assay (DIDA) and RIA. The RIA gave significantly lower plasma cortisone concentrations (P less than 0.05) than the DIDA: the correlation coefficient was 0.84. Accuracy of the RIA was also demonstrated by addition of radioinert cortisone and measurement of increasing volumes of plasma. Specificity of the antisera was very good. Sensitivity of the RIA was 11 pg/RIA tube or 0.025 micrograms cortisone/dl plasma corrected for recovery and fraction assayed. Plasma cortisone concentrations in adult Atlantic salmon ranged from 2 to 26 micrograms/dl. The mean plasma cortisone concentration of salmon in fresh water was not significantly different from that in sea water. The mean cortisone/cortisol ratio in both adult and juvenile Atlantic salmon was between 1.40 and 1.92 indicating that cortisone and not cortisol may be the principal corticosteroid in Atlantic salmon. PMID:6468920
The relationship between poor water quality and migration opportunities for fish remains poorly documented, although it is an essential research step in implementing EU water legislation. In this paper, we model the environmental constraints that control the movements of anadromous and catadromous fish populations that migrate through the tidal watershed of River Scheldt, a heavily impacted river basin in Western Europe. Local populations of sturgeon, sea lamprey, sea trout, Atlantic salmon, houting and allis shad were essentially extirpated around 1900. For remaining populations (flounder, three-spined stickleback, twaite shad, thinlip mullet, European eel and European smelt), a data driven logistic model was parameterized. The presence or absence of fish species in samples taken between 1995 and 2004 was modelled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, river flow and season. Probabilities to catch individuals from all diadromous species but three-spined stickleback increased as a function of the interaction between temperature and dissolved oxygen. The hypoxic zone situated in the freshwater tidal part of the estuary was an effective barrier for upstream migrating anadromous spawners since it blocked the entrance to historical spawning sites upstream. Similarly, habitat availability for catadromous fish was greatly reduced and restricted to lower brackish water parts of the estuary. The model was applied to infer preliminary dissolved oxygen criteria for diadromous fish, to make qualitative predictions about future changes in fish distribution given anticipated changes in water quality and to suggest necessary measures with respect to watershed management.
Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world’s oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since
Mixture modeling is shown to outperform classical individual assignments for both estimating stock compo- sition and identifying individuals' sources in a case study of an eight-locus DNA microsatellite database from 26 At- lantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks of the Baltic Sea. Performance of the estimation methods was compared using self- assignment tests applied to each of the baseline samples and
Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Jerome J. Pella; Michele Masuda
Smoltification is a complex developmental phase encompassing hormonal, metabolic and osmoregulatory changes, enabling the Atlantic salmon to migrate from fresh water to sea water. The biological interface between fish and their aqueous environment is a mucus coat composed of biochemically diverse secretions, which have been implicated in respiration, disease resistance and osmoregulation. In this study mucus and blood were sampled
M. S. Fagan; N. O'Byrne-Ring; R. Ryan; D. Cotter; K. Whelan
. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was grown in sea cages from 700 g to a market size of 3.2 kg on diets containing either 29% Peruvian high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) fish oil (FO) or 29% soybean oil (SO) as oil source. Chemical analyses and a triangular consumer test were performed on fresh muscle, while colour, texture and liquid holding capacity (LHC) analyses
Anna Maria Bencze Rørå; Bente Ruyter; Jon Skorve; Rolf K. Berge; Karl-Erik Slinning
This interim report from the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine is a prepublication of the March 2002 report provided by National Academy Press. The once abundant populations of Atlantic Salmon in Maine have declined in recent years, now listed as endangered. The NRC Committee believes that "understanding the genetic makeup of Maine's salmon is important for recovery efforts." This 48-page report includes information on the salmon's biology, evolution, genetics, its current state, and the committee's conclusions. It can be viewed online or downloaded for printing.
This paper explores the relationships between the spatial patterns of the distribution of the young hakes of the year (YOY) and the oceanographical features in two areas of the Central Mediterranean (the Ligurian Sea and the Strait of Sicily), characterised by the occurrence of straits and channels. Comparative and correlative approaches were used to investigate coupling between biological and physical patterns. Density indices of the YOY were derived from annual trawl surveys from 1994 to 2004 in spring and autumn. Mean patterns of the YOY distributions were compared with the mesoscale oceanographical features reported in literature. No evident trends in recruitment strength were found in either areas. Inter-annual variability in YOY abundance in the Ligurian Sea was higher than in the Strait of Sicily. The location of nursery grounds in the study areas coincides with zones of relatively higher production, where upwelling and other enrichment processes regularly occur. The presence of predictable eddies and the frontal systems play a major role in the localization of nursery areas in the Strait of Sicily, maintaining their stable position throughout the years. The strongest transport of southern waters from the Tyrrhenian to the Ligurian Sea, due to the East Corsica Current, which is negatively correlated to winter North Atlantic Oscillation, is associated with the highest abundance of hake recruits in the nurseries of the Northern Ligurian Sea.
Abella, A.; Fiorentino, F.; Mannini, A.; Orsi Relini, L.
The North Sea ecosystem has recently under- gone dramatic changes, observed as altered biomass of indi- vidual species spanning a range of life forms from algae to birds, with evidence for an approximate doubling in the abun- dance of both phytoplankton and benthos as part of a regime shift after 1987. Remarkably, these changes, in part recorded in the Phytoplankton
Triplicate groups of Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), of initial mass 5 g, were fed one of three practical type diets for 64 weeks. The three diets differed only in the added oil and were 100% fish oil (FO; diet A), 40% FO\\/60% vegetable oil blend (VO; diet B) where the VO blend was rapeseed oil, linseed oil and palm oil
Vasa is a protein expressed mainly in germ cells and conserved across taxa. However, sex-related differences and environmental influences on vasa expression have not been documented. This study characterized the cDNA of a vasa homolog in the Europeansea bass, Dicentrarchuslabrax (sb-vasa), a gonochoristic fish with temperature influences on gonadogenesis. The 1911 bp open reading frame predicted a 637-amino acid protein with the eight conserved domains typical of Vasa proteins. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequence with those of other vertebrates and invertebrates revealed the highest homology (68-85%) with those of other teleosts. An updated tree with the full-length sequences for Vasa proteins in 66 species belonging to six different phyla was constructed, establishing the evolutionary relationships of Vasa amino acid sequences. Europeansea bass vasa was highly expressed in gonads with little or no expression in other tissues. Real time RT-PCR quantification of the temporal expression of sb-vasa from early development throughout sex differentiation showed that mRNA levels were high in unfertilized eggs, decreased during larval development and increased again during the period of germ cell proliferation. Rearing of fish at high temperature resulted in further increased sb-vasa levels, most likely reflecting temperature effects on both somatic and gonadal growth. Differences in expression were also found well before sex differentiation and persisted until the end of the first year, with higher levels present in females. These differences in expression demonstrate the implication of vasa during the initial stages of fish sex differentiation and gametogenesis and suggest that, through its helicase activity, it might be implicated in the translational regulation of mRNAs involved in the specification and differentiation of gonadal-specific cell types. PMID:20955711
This video segment features Native American Elders discussing the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world. A Native educator describes having taken students to a river's headwaters to watch salmon spawn, only to observe the deadly effects of water temperature rise on the fish eggs. She explains that even a small change in temperature can result in a population decline that could threaten Native peoples and their way of life. Included is a background essay explaining how important the fishing is to certain parts of the world, and how the warming waters are negatively affecting the fish and people. There is a helpful section that shows you the standards for your state ranging from grades K-12, as well as links to related resources.
Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.
Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger
In the last decade, a new gene family encoding non-rearranging receptors, called novel immune-type receptors (NITRs), has been discovered in teleost fish. NITRs belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and represent an extraordinarily divergent and rapidly evolving gene complex. Genomic analysis of a region spanning 270 kb led to the discovery of a NITR gene cluster in the Europeansea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In total, 27 NITR genes and three putative pseudogenes, organised in a tandemly arrayed cluster, were identified. Sea bass NITR genes maintain the three major genomic organisations that appear to be essentially conserved among fish species along with new features presumably involving processes of intron loss, exon deletion and acquisition of new exons. Comparative and evolutionary analyses suggest that these receptors have evolved following a “birth-and-death” model of gene evolution in which duplication events together with lineage-specific gain and loss of individual members contributed to the rapid diversification of individual gene families. In this study, we demonstrate that species-specific gene expansions provide the raw material for diversifying, positive Darwinian selection favouring the evolution of a highly diverse array of molecules. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-009-0398-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Kuhl, Heiner; Milan, Massimo; Ritchie, David W.; Secombes, Christopher J.; Reinhardt, Richard; Bargelloni, Luca
The extent and effect of disease interaction and pathogen exchange between wild and farmed fish populations is an ongoing debate and an area of research that is difficult to explore. The objective of this study was to investigate pathogen transmission between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations in Norway by means of molecular epidemiology. Piscine reovirus (PRV) was selected as the model organism as it is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Norway, and because infection not necessarily will lead to mortality through development of disease. A matrix comprised of PRV protein coding sequences S1, S2 and S4 from wild, hatchery-reared and farmed Atlantic salmon in addition to one sea-trout (Salmo trutta L.) was examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference indicate long distance transport of PRV and exchange of virus between populations. The results are discussed in the context of Atlantic salmon ecology and the structure of the Norwegian salmon industry. We conclude that the lack of a geographical pattern in the phylogenetic trees is caused by extensive exchange of PRV. In addition, the detailed topography of the trees indicates long distance transportation of PRV. Through its size, structure and infection status, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has the capacity to play a central role in both long distance transportation and transmission of pathogens. Despite extensive migration, wild salmon probably play a minor role as they are fewer in numbers, appear at lower densities and are less likely to be infected. An open question is the relationship between the PRV sequences found in marine fish and those originating from salmon.
Garseth, Ase Helen; Ekrem, Torbj?rn; Biering, Eirik
Two fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) were incorporated into four diets prepared for start-feeding sea bass larvae, at two different levels (10% and 19% of total ingredients): a commercial FPH, CPSP, in which the molecular mass of the main fraction of soluble peptides (51%) was between 500–2500 Da, and an experimental FPH obtained by acidic silage of sardine offal, SH, with a
Y. P. Kotzamanis; E. Gisbert; F. J. Gatesoupe; J. Zambonino Infante; C. Cahu
The present work aimed at evaluating the potential of intramuscular injection of a hormone-coding gene as an approach for gene therapy in fish. A plasmid containing luteinizing hormone (Lh) in a single-chain (sc) form, pCMV-scLh, was chosen as the coding gene, and sea bass was chosen as the target species. In vivo injection of pCMV-scLh in muscle of juvenile sea bass rendered plasma Lh levels higher than 50 ng/ml in 40% of the injected fish, while these Lh levels were only detected in 4% of controls. Injections performed on spermiating broodstock demonstrated that this strategy produced an active Lh able to increase sperm production without affecting its quality, in terms of density. Compared with the injection of a recombinant single-chain Lh, plasmid injection provoked longer-lasting and higher plasma Lh levels. These results show that sea bass skeletal muscle is able to uptake plasmid DNA and to secrete the encoded protein to the bloodstream. Therefore, we propose somatic gene transfer as a realistic approach for hormone therapy of dysfunctions due to low hormone levels in fish or just to synchronize spawning. PMID:23255338
Mazón, María José; Zanuy, Silvia; Muñoz, Iciar; Carrillo, Manuel; Gómez, Ana
Genetic variation at 19 enzyme (including 11 polymorphic) and 10 microsatellite loci was examined in the population samples\\u000a of odd-and even-broodline pink salmon from the southern part of Sakhalin Island, Southern Kuril Islands, and the northern\\u000a coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The estimates of relative interpopulation component of genetic variation for the allozyme loci,\\u000a per broodline, were on average
E. A. Salmenkova; N. V. Gordeeva; V. T. Omel’chenko; Yu. P. Altukhov; K. I. Afanas’ev; G. A. Rubtsova; Yu. V. Vasil’eva
Mechanisms of host-parasite co-adaptation have long been of interest in evolutionary biology; however, determining the genetic basis of parasite resistance has been challenging. Current advances in genome technologies provide new opportunities for obtaining a genome-scale view of the action of parasite-driven natural selection in wild populations and thus facilitate the search for specific genomic regions underlying inter-population differences in pathogen response. European populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exhibit natural variance in susceptibility levels to the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957, ranging from resistance to extreme susceptibility, and are therefore a good model for studying the evolution of virulence and resistance. However, distinguishing the molecular signatures of genetic drift and environment-associated selection in small populations such as land-locked Atlantic salmon populations presents a challenge, specifically in the search for pathogen-driven selection. We used a novel genome-scan analysis approach that enabled us to i) identify signals of selection in salmon populations affected by varying levels of genetic drift and ii) separate potentially selected loci into the categories of pathogen (G. salaris)-driven selection and selection acting upon other environmental characteristics. A total of 4631 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in Atlantic salmon from 12 different northern European populations. We identified three genomic regions potentially affected by parasite-driven selection, as well as three regions presumably affected by salinity-driven directional selection. Functional annotation of candidate SNPs is consistent with the role of the detected genomic regions in immune defence and, implicitly, in osmoregulation. These results provide new insights into the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in Atlantic salmon and will enable future searches for the specific genes involved. PMID:24670947
Zueva, Ksenia J; Lumme, Jaakko; Veselov, Alexey E; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R
The annual global production of farmed salmon has increased by a factor of 40 during the past two decades. Salmon from farms in northern Europe, North America, and Chile are now available widely year-round at relatively low prices. Salmon farms have been criticized for their ecological effects, but the potential human health risks of farmed salmon consumption have not been
Ronald A. Hites; Jeffery A. Foran; David O. Carpenter; M. Coreen Hamilton; Barbara A. Knuth; Steven J. Schwager
This study describes a purification protocol of salmon fibrinogen that gives a consumable and highly clottable fibrinogen. Some characteristics of salmon and human fibrinogen are compared. Fibrinogen was purified from barium sulphate adsorbed plasma of Atlantic salmon, using two steps of 25% ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The clottability of the purified salmon fibrinogen was 91%. The A? chains
Even Manseth; Per O Skjervold; Svein O Fjæra; Frank R Brosstad; Stine Bjørnson; Ragnar Flengsrud
Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...
Spinal deformities in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are often observed in intensive farming systems and result in production losses. Many putative factors have been implicated with the formation of spinal deformities in larger salmon. This condition has been described as broken back syndrome, curvy back disease, and short tails.
This slide show explores the threats to the Chinook salmon population in the Stillaguamish River watershed of Snohomish County, Washington. Topics include the status of the present population, factors contributing to the decline of the population, habitat needs for healthy salmon, and steps that are necessary for the recovery of the population.
Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...
Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...
Vibrio anguillarum is the main causative agent of vibriosis in cultured sea bass. Unfortunately, available vaccines against this disease do not achieve the desired protection. In this study, to accomplish uptake, processing, and presentation of luminal antigens, a commercial sea bass oral vaccine against V. anguillarum was improved with the addition of recombinant fish-self tumor necrosis factor ? (rTNF?), as adjuvant. To explore mechanisms, systemic and local responses were analyzed through serum specific IgM titers, gene expression, lymphocytes spatial distribution in the gut, and in vitro functional assays. We found along the trial, over expressed transcripts of genes encoding cytokines and antimicrobial molecules at the gut of rTNF? supplied group. Orally immunized fish with vaccine alone confer protection against V. anguillarum challenge throughout a short time period. In contrast, adjuvant-treated group significantly extended the response. In both cases, achieved protection was independent of serum IgM. Yet, IgT transcripts were found to increase in the gut of rTNF?-treated fish. More importantly, fish treated with rTNF? showed a dramatic change of their T lymphocytes distribution and localization in gut mucosal tissue, suggesting specific antigen recognition and further intraepithelial T lymphocytes (IEL) activation. To determine the mechanism behind IEL infiltration, we characterized the constitutive and activated pattern of chemokines in sea bass hematopoietic tissues, identifying for the first time in fish gut, an intimate relation between the chemokine ligand/receptor CCL25/CCR9. Ex-vivo, chemotaxis analyses confirmed these findings. Together, our results demonstrate that improved oral vaccines targeting key cytokines may provide a means to selectively modulate fish immune defence. PMID:23932985
Estimates of extreme sea levels and return periods have been based mainly on hourly sampling rates. Technological development has enabled the sampling rates to increase and sampling rates of 5-10 min are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we explore the relationship between extreme sea levels and estimated return periods based on hourly and shorter sampling periods in three tide-gauges one at the Atlantic coasts of Spain (Coruña), one in the western Mediterranean (Malaga) and one in the N. Adriatic (Trieste). Significant differences of several centimetres are found in the hourly and 5 min extremes. These reflect in significant underestimation of the 50-year return levels which in Trieste reach 38 cm. A theoretical relationship between the high and the low sampling rate of extremes is also tested. Thus updated 50-year return levels for the Mediterranean and the coasts of the Iberian peninsula are produced assuming that the differences identified in the various stations generalise to other tide-gauge (hourly) records for which hourly values have been analysed earlier.
Tsimplis, M. N.; Marcos, M.; Pérez, B.; Challenor, P.; Garcia-Fernandez, M. J.; Raicich, F.
Aquaculture is one of the main sources of income in many countries worldwide. Intensive farms are often affected by different infectious diseases that can decrease their final production. To control this situation, several antibiotics are frequently used with known environmental consequences. The aim of this study was to analyze different bacterial strains isolated from of gilthead sea bream, sea bass, sole and meagre guts, for use as probiotics in aquaculture. The strains were evaluated in vitro through various mechanisms of selection, such as the production of antagonistic effects against pathogens, production of antibacterial substance, adhesion to the intestinal mucus, competition for nutrients or binding site, and growth in intestinal mucus. A total of 50 bacterial strains were analyzed and only one showed excellent in vitro results for consideration as a candidate to be analyzed in vivo. The strain, identified as Vagococcus fluvialis, showed good protection against Vibrio anguillarum 975-1 in vivo in the experimental challenge, showing a relative percent survival of 42.3% higher than positive control group. Therefore, in conclusion we consider this strain to be a good candidate for use as a future probiotic in aquaculture. PMID:21962409
Sorroza, L; Padilla, D; Acosta, F; Román, L; Grasso, V; Vega, J; Real, F
...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries Â§ 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...
...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries Â§ 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...
...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries Â§ 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...
...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...
...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...
Juveniles of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and trout S. trutta populating the system of the Tornio River (the Baltic Sea basin) are investigated. The obtained parasitological data indicate\\u000a the absence of rigid spatial and food competition between juvenile salmon and trout in the case of their cohabitation.
Yu. Yu. Barskaya; E. P. Ieshko; M. Kaukoranta; Yu. A. Shustov
Background Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE®, Schering Plough Animal Health). The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. Conclusions/Significance Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated.
Lees, Fiona; Baillie, Mark; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W.
In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.
Norrgren, L. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, T. (Univ. of Goteborg, (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. (Univ. of Umea, (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden))
Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214
Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G
The population dynamics of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Cowichan River on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada are used by the Pacific Salmon Commission as an index\\u000a of the general state of chinook salmon coast wide. In recent years the production declined to very low levels despite the\\u000a use of a hatchery that was intended to increase production by
R. J. Beamish; R. M. Sweeting; C. M. Neville; K. L. Lange; T. D. Beacham; D. Preikshot
Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.
Pacific salmon fishery near the northwestern Sakhalin coast is based on fish spawning both in the island and continental rivers. Salmon fishery near the Sakhalin coast of Amur Estuary has significantly lost contact with the main salmon rivers of the region. Pink salmon is the most abundant salmon species of the region rivers. Biology of the northwestern Sakhalin pink salmon
Alexander N. Ivanov; Alexej Shershnev; Nina P. Kaplanova; Konstantin L. Pusankov; Lubov V. Ivanova; Ekaterina N. Pusankova
In real-time operational coastal forecasting systems for the northwest European shelf, the representation accuracy of tide-surge models commonly suffers from insufficiently accurate tidal representation, especially in shallow near-shore areas with complex bathymetry and geometry. Therefore, in conventional operational systems, the surge component from numerical model simulations is used, while the harmonically predicted tide, accurately known from harmonic analysis of tide gauge measurements, is added to forecast the full water-level signal at tide gauge locations. Although there are errors associated with this so-called astronomical correction (e.g. because of the assumption of linearity of tide and surge), for current operational models, astronomical correction has nevertheless been shown to increase the representation accuracy of the full water-level signal. The simulated modulation of the surge through non-linear tide-surge interaction is affected by the poor representation of the tide signal in the tide-surge model, which astronomical correction does not improve. Furthermore, astronomical correction can only be applied to locations where the astronomic tide is known through a harmonic analysis of in situ measurements at tide gauge stations. This provides a strong motivation to improve both tide and surge representation of numerical models used in forecasting. In the present paper, we propose a new generation tide-surge model for the northwest European Shelf (DCSMv6). This is the first application on this scale in which the tidal representation is such that astronomical correction no longer improves the accuracy of the total water-level representation and where, consequently, the straightforward direct model forecasting of total water levels is better. The methodology applied to improve both tide and surge representation of the model is discussed, with emphasis on the use of satellite altimeter data and data assimilation techniques for reducing parameter uncertainty. Historic DCSMv6 model simulations are compared against shelf wide observations for a full calendar year. For a selection of stations, these results are compared to those with astronomical correction, which confirms that the tide representation in coastal regions has sufficient accuracy, and that forecasting total water levels directly yields superior results.
The oocytes of many fish species accumulate high amounts of neutral lipids as a caloric reserve for embryonic and larval development. We propose that lipoprotein lipase (LPL, EC 126.96.36.199) plays an important role in supplying the oocytes with fatty acids and we have cloned its cDNA from the ovary of sea bass, and determined the patterns of LPL activity and LPL mRNA expression in the ovary. The cDNA obtained was 3051 bp long with an open reading frame encoding 518 amino acids. The amino acid sequence has a high similarity and shows similar structural features to LPL of other species. Northern blot analysis revealed LPL expression in adipose tissue and gonads only. LPL activity and LPL mRNA expression in the ovary was very high in fish with a gonadosomatic index (GSI) above 5, coinciding with the appearance of a high number of lipid droplets in the ooplasm. The LPL mRNA expression was localised to the follicle cells surrounding the oocyte. Our results suggest that LPL is likely to play an important role in the incorporation of neutral lipids into the oocytes, and that follicle cells, in addition to participating in steroidogenesis, also may be important in building up oocyte lipid reserves. PMID:18511315
José Ibáñez, Antonio; Peinado-Onsurbe, Julia; Sánchez, Elisa; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Prat, Francisco
Increasing acceptance of the idea that evolution can proceed rapidly has generated considerable interest in understanding the consequences of ongoing evolutionary change for populations, communities and ecosystems. The nascent field of ‘eco-evolutionary dynamics' considers these interactions, including reciprocal feedbacks between evolution and ecology. Empirical support for eco-evolutionary dynamics has emerged from several model systems, and we here present some possibilities for diverse and strong effects in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We specifically focus on the consequences that natural selection on body size can have for salmon population dynamics, community (bear-salmon) interactions and ecosystem process (fluxes of salmon biomass between habitats). For example, we find that shifts in body size because of selection can alter fluxes across habitats by up to 11% compared with ecological (that is, numerical) effects. More generally, we show that selection within a generation can have large effects on ecological dynamics and so should be included within a complete eco-evolutionary framework.
Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook salmon in the classroom and later release them into a nearby stream. (TW)
Spawning & rearing, rearing only, and essential habitat identified by Oregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife for chum, coho, fall chinook, and spring chinook salmon in Oregon. Each of the species workspaces contains coverages specific to individual USGS hydrologic cataloging unit; each co...
Transport of sufficient oxygen to the salmon egg capsule to sustain its metabolic growth is critical to fish egg survival. In this study. measurements were confined to collecting data relating to interstitial flows, which related to both hydraulic head lo...
During three summer campaigns in January/February 2000, 2001, and 2002 the ionic composition of the aerosol at the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) deep-drilling site at Kohnen Station was measured in daily resolution. In 2000 and 2002 we observed mean (±std) non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) concentrations of 353 ± 100 ng m-3 and 320 ± 250 ng m-3, as well as methane sulfonate (MS) concentrations of 59 ± 36 ng m-3 and 74 ± 80 ng m-3, respectively. For the summer campaign in 2001, significantly lower nss-SO42- and MS levels of 164 ± 150 ng m-3 and 19 ± 12 ng m-3, respectively, were typical. The mean MS/nss-SO42- ratio ranged from about 0.1 to 0.2. MS and nss-SO42- concentrations and their variability were roughly comparable to coastal stations at summer. Supported by air mass back trajectory analyses, this finding documented an efficient long-range transport to Kohnen via the free troposphere. MS/nss-SO42- ratios exhibited a strong dependence on the MS concentration with systematically higher ratios at higher MS concentrations, a peculiarity which is also evident in a firn core drilled at this site.
Previous studies have indicated that when Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., are exposed to Neoparamoeba sp. the fish produce anti-Neoparamoeba sp. antibodies. It appears unlikely that these antibodies elicit any specific protection against amoebic gill disease (AGD) as fish with demonstrable activities have been affected by AGD. Experiments were conducted on Atlantic salmon cultured throughout Tasmania to assess the natural production of antibodies towards Neoparamoeba sp. Fish were sampled from areas where AGD was prevalent and from areas where there had been no reported cases. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure anti-Neoparamoeba sp. antibody activities in serum. All fish from sea water had antibody activities greater than the negative control fish, including fish from areas with no reported cases of AGD. Time trial samples indicated that time after transfer to sea water did not appear to be a significant (P > 0.05) factor in antibody activity, however location was (P < 0.05). There was no agreement (corrected kappa value, 0.16) between the ELISA result and the isolation of Neoparamoeba sp. from the gills of the same fish. The results suggest that Atlantic salmon in seawater culture in Tasmania produce anti-Neoparamoeba sp. antibodies regardless of infection history, suggesting the presence of Neoparamoeba sp. in the environment. PMID:15009249
Fibrin sealants and topical thrombin preparations are often used for haemostatic and sealing applications in clinical practice. Some of these preparations contain coagulation factors from bovine sources. To minimize the risk of infection and immunogenicity connected with mammalian blood products, proteins derived from the plasma of farmed Atlantic salmon have been considered as an alternative to these mammalian sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize the immunogenicity of salmon fibrin glue in an animal model focusing on crossreactivity of IgG antibodies to host endogenous counterparts. After two immunizations with salmon fibrin glue, rats developed antibodies of IgG and IgM type to both fibrin glue components. Weak crossreactivity to endogenous fibrinogen and thrombin was seen in a subset of rats after the second application of salmon proteins. Coagulation tests showed that salmon fibrin application has no effect on coagulation profiles in mammalian hosts, consistent with previous reports that found no evidence of significant crossreactivity with host proteins. These studies support the potential suitability of salmon fibrin glue for the development of preparations with clinical impact. Before human use can be considered, however, additional data about safety of this preparation in other animal models, including large animal studies, should be obtained. PMID:22245545
Laidmäe, Ivo; Belozjorova, Jevgenia; Sawyer, Evelyn S; Janmey, Paul A; Uibo, Raivo
Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an aquatic orthomyxovirus causing a multisystemic disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) where disease development, clinical signs, and histopathology vary to a large extent. Here, an experimental trial was designed to determine the effect of variation in viral genes on virus-host interactions, as measured by disease susceptibility and immune responses. The fish were infected using cohabitant transmission, representing a natural route of infection. Variation caused by host factors was minimized using MHC compatible A. salmon half-siblings as experimental fish. Virus isolates were selected according to HE genotype, as European ISAV isolates can be genotyped according to deletion patterns in their hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) surface glycoprotein, and the course of disease they typically induce, classified as acute versus protracted. The different ISAV isolates induced large variations in death prevalence, ranging from 0-47% in the test-group and 3-75% in the cohabitant fish. The use of MHC compatible experimental fish made it possible to determine the relative contribution of humoral versus cellular response in protection against ISA. Ability to induce a strong proliferative response correlated with survival and virus clearance, while induction of a humoral response was less protective. PMID:16012784
Mjaaland, S; Markussen, T; Sindre, H; Kjøglum, S; Dannevig, B H; Larsen, S; Grimholt, U
The geographical and ecotypical differentiation of masu salmon populations is analyzed based on the study of the scale structure and other biological characteristics of fish from different rivers of Primorye and Sakhalin. The possibility of identification of different populations (during the sea life period as well) using the indicated characteristics is discussed.
Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were
Marek S. Zi?tara; Jussi Kuusela; Alexei Veselov; Jaakko Lumme
Acidification has caused the loss or reduction of numerous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations on both sides of the North Atlantic. Acid deposition peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers. At present, water quality is improving in all affected rivers due to reduced acid deposition. However, spring snow melt, heavy rainfall and sea
F. Kroglund; B. O. Rosseland; H.-C. Teien; B. Salbu; T. Kristensen; B. Finstad
Acidification has caused the loss or reduction of numerous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations on both sides of the North Atlantic. Acid deposition peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers. At present, water quality is improving in all affected rivers due to reduced acid deposition. However, spring snow melt, heavy rainfall and sea
F. Kroglund; B. O. Rosseland; H.-C. Teien; B. Salbu; T. Kristensen; B. Finstad
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is the main disease affecting the salmon industry in Australia. Little information is available on the epidemiology of AGD and the biology of Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis [Page, 1987], the disease-causing organism of AGD. In previous studies, N. pemaquidensis was found on biofouled netting of sea cages, and a reduction in AGD prevalence was achieved with increasing number
G. M. Douglas-Helders; C. Tan; J. Carson; B. F. Nowak
The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.
Data on catching humpback salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha at the age of 0?+ and chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta at the age of 1+ in the Ilyushina River (Kunashir Island) in the period of spawning migration are given. The sex of fish, the body length, the stage of gonad maturity, and the number and width of sclerites on scales are indicated.
In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon…
Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, infects and causes disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Previous studies have shown Atlantic salmon endothelial cells to be the primary targets of ISAV infection. However, it is not known if cells other than endothelial cells play a role in ISAV tropism. To further assess cell tropism, we examined ISAV infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ISAV infection. On comparison of primary gill epithelial cell cultures with ISAV permissive fish cell cultures, we found the virus yield in primary gill epithelial cells to be comparable with that of salmon head kidney (SHK)-1 cells, but lower than TO or Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK)-II cells. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the primary gill cells possessed characteristics consistent with epithelial cells. Virus histochemistry showed that gill epithelial cells expressed 4-O-acetylated sialic acid which is recognized as the ISAV receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ISAV infection in Atlantic salmon primary gill epithelial cells. This study thus broadens our understanding of cell tropism and transmission of ISAV in Atlantic salmon.
The goal of this research was to shed light on the trade-offs that salmon consumers make between five types of production and health attributes of farmed salmon. In Canada, the major southern Ontario market cleaved into five distinct consumer segments that varied according to age and income, ‘tastes’, and threat perceptions. There was strong consumer aversion to increased levels of
Geomorphologic processes often involve a biotic element that acts to regulate landform development. This biotic element can be plant or animal-based with a feedback that ultimately benefits the ecology of the organism. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) are an example of an animal biogeomorphic agent exhibiting such feedbacks and, because of long migrations from the sea to freshwater spawning grounds, are a species of interest that act on both local and regional scales. Upon returning to their natal streams, salmon generate a dual disturbance, resuspending large amounts of sediment as they construct nests while at the same time generating a substantial nutrient pulse through post-spawn die-off and decay. The retention and export of these nutrients are of importance to any hypothesized productivity boost driven by the marine derived nutrients (MDNs). Using experimental enclosures in the Horsefly River spawning channel in north-central British Columbia, our objectives for this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of organic and inorganic sediment export and retention from an active-spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of fine sediment MDN storage. Using a suspended sediment mass balance model, marine isotope enrichment and a time series of gravel bed sediment infiltration, we found strongly linear relationships between sediment infiltration and marine-derived nutrient enrichment. Elevated suspended sediment produced by salmon redd (nest) construction acted as an effective vector for MDN infiltration into the gravel bed. This study demonstrated that localized patterns of sediment deposition are regulated by salmon activity which in turn act to control MDN storage within, and release from, the gravel bed. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the ability of a biogeomorphic agent like salmon to establish a feedback mechanism that creates favorable conditions which ultimately benefit the organism.