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1

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245 Final EIS ­ December 2009 5.0 CHINOOK SALMON This chapter provides information on Chinook salmon biology, distribution, and current stock assessments. This chapter then analyzes the impacts of the alternatives on Chinook salmon

2

Chapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381  

E-print Network

and the island of Kyushu in the Sea of Japan. In the north they range east in the Arctic Ocean to the MackenzieChapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381 Final EIS ­ December 2009 6.0 CHUM their diet usually consists of zooplankton. By fall they move out into the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska

3

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 1020 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmonproposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containmentwill not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

4

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Impact Statement (EIS) provides decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental. The alternatives analyzed in this EIS generally involve limits or "caps" on the number of Chinook salmon that may Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Final EIS ­ December 2009 ES-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This executive summary

5

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2012 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 89 686 597 13% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 35 1,028 993 3% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 84 562 478 15% 0 BS Chinook Salmon

6

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON  

E-print Network

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON MOTHERSHIP FISHERY that the percentage of net-marked sockeye salmon in the daily catch below' Hells Gate on the Fraser River during 1943 and the USSR have reported net injuries to salmon in coastal waters. Thus, Petrova (1964) reported that up

7

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2013 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 35 686 651 5% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 127 1,028 901 12% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 134 560 426 24% 0 BS Chinook

8

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2011 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 120 686 566 17% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 164 1,028 864 16% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 76 498 422 15% 0 BS Chinook

9

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2013-10-01

10

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2014-10-01

11

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Analysis (EIS/RIR/IRFA) provides decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental pollock fishery. The alternatives analyzed in this EIS/RIR/IRFA generally involve limits or "caps-7228 #12;(blank page) #12;Executive Summary Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Draft EIS/RIR/IRFA ­ December

12

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1 Final EIS ­ December 2009 1 with an evaluation of the predicted environmental effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch developed the following problem statement for Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management: An effective

13

Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations  

E-print Network

Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon ) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from one of the Canada's largest salmon stocks. Migratory allopatry protects juvenile salmon from L. salmonis for two to three months of early marine life (2

Lewis, Mark

14

Sea Louse Infection of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon in Relation to Marine Salmon Farms on Canada's West Coast  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogens are growing threats to wildlife. The rapid growth of marine salmon farms over the past two decades has increased host abundance for pathogenic sea lice in coastal waters, and wild juvenile salmon swimming past farms are frequently infected with lice. Here we report the first investigation of the potential role of salmon farms in transmitting sea lice to juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic analyses to determine the origin of sockeye from Canada's two most important salmon rivers, the Fraser and Skeena; Fraser sockeye migrate through a region with salmon farms, and Skeena sockeye do not. We compared lice levels between Fraser and Skeena juvenile sockeye, and within the salmon farm region we compared lice levels on wild fish either before or after migration past farms. We matched the latter data on wild juveniles with sea lice data concurrently gathered on farms. Fraser River sockeye migrating through a region with salmon farms hosted an order of magnitude more sea lice than Skeena River populations, where there are no farms. Lice abundances on juvenile sockeye in the salmon farm region were substantially higher downstream of farms than upstream of farms for the two common species of lice: Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and changes in their proportions between two years matched changes on the fish farms. Mixed-effects models show that position relative to salmon farms best explained C. clemensi abundance on sockeye, while migration year combined with position relative to salmon farms and temperature was one of two top models to explain L. salmonis abundance. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate a potential role of salmon farms in sea lice transmission to juvenile sockeye salmon during their critical early marine migration. Moreover, it demonstrates a major migration corridor past farms for sockeye that originated in the Fraser River, a complex of populations that are the subject of conservation concern. PMID:21347456

Price, Michael H. H.; Proboszcz, Stan L.; Routledge, Rick D.; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Orr, Craig; Reynolds, John D.

2011-01-01

15

Bering Sea Salmon Bycatch Management Environmental Impact Statement  

E-print Network

, scoping period for the Bering Sea Salmon Bycatch Management Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS and decision-making. The EIS will serve as the central decision-making document for management measures being. The EIS will provide decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental, social

16

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 9 Final EIS December 2009  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 9 Final EIS ­ December 2009 1.5 Public Participation The EIS, and the public comment process for the draft EIS/RIR. This section describes these avenues for public in the EIS and RIR. Scoping is accomplished through written communications and consultations with agency

17

Chapter 3 Methodology Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 147  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Methodology Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 147 Final EIS ­ December 2009 3 components analyzed in this EIS. Relevant and recent information on each of the resource components analyzed in this EIS is contained in the chapter addressing that resource component and is not repeated here in Chapter

18

Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon  

E-print Network

Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon Martin Krkosek1,2*, Mark A, Canada T6G 2E7 Marine salmon farming has been correlated with parasitic sea lice infestations and concurrent declines of wild salmonids. Here, we report a quantitative analysis of how a single salmon farm

Lewis, Mark

19

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles  

E-print Network

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea) Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

20

Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish  

E-print Network

Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish Martin Krkosek of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3, Canada 3 Salmon Coast Field Station, Simoom Sound, British Columbia V0 by the migration of wild fishes, which determines the period of exposure to parasites. For Pacific salmon

Lewis, Mark

21

Assessing topical treatment interventions on Scottish salmon farms using a sea lice ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis) population model  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when sea lice control is a major issue for salmon aquaculture worldwide it has become imperative that scant veterinary medicinal resources for the treatment of fish on farms should be conserved and used effectively. This communication reports the use of the mathematical simulation model SLiDESim to investigate how best to administer cypermethrin bath treatments on Scottish salmon

Chris Robbins; George Gettinby; Fiona Lees; Mark Baillie; Chris Wallace; Crawford W. Revie

2010-01-01

22

Chapter 7 Other Groundfish, Other Prohibited Species & Forage Fish Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 411  

E-print Network

Bycatch 411 Final EIS ­ December 2009 7.0 OTHER GROUNDFISH, OTHER PROHIBITED SPECIES & FORAGE FISH & Forage Fish 412 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch EIS Final EIS ­ December 2009 Incidental catch of some

23

Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site (1) is intended as an educational resource, but is also fit for a general audience as it introduces salmon, their habitat, the need for conservation, and salmon fisheries. The next site is from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fish FAQs (2) and has several pages of salmon FAQs, all of which can be found by using the next button. The third resource from an Anthropology course at Oregon State University (3) gives an account of the changing Columbia River Basin and the status of commercial fisheries in the region. The King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Web site (4) has information on salmon conservation and recovery efforts in King County. Research papers on salmon and other Pacific Northwest fishes are provided on this Northwest Fisheries Science Center page (5). The Web site for the organization Wild Olympic Salmon (6) celebrates the successful recovery of summer chum salmon to Chimacum Creek. The Wild Salmon Center (7), a nonprofit organization formed to protect salmon and their habitat, provides numerous links to salmon conservation information. Some interesting video clips of salmon runs were caught on tape by the King County Salmon Cam (8).

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

24

Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Bumgarner, J.

2007-01-01

25

Organochlorine Fingerprinting to Determine Foraging Areas of Sea-Ranched Atlantic Salmon: A Case Study from Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used organochlorine fingerprinting to identify the principal marine foraging area in a sea-ranched population of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from Denmark. The results of this study, the first to apply the method to teleosts, suggest that Atlantic salmon released as juveniles (age 1) in the River Gudenaa, Denmark, are utilizing the North Sea and not the Baltic Sea as

Tore C. Svendsen; Katrin Vorkamp; Jon C. Svendsen; Kim Aarestrup; Jens-Ole Frier

2009-01-01

26

Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish  

PubMed Central

The ecological impact of parasite transmission from fish farms is probably mediated by the migration of wild fishes, which determines the period of exposure to parasites. For Pacific salmon and the parasitic sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, analysis of the exposure period may resolve conflicting observations of epizootic mortality in field studies and parasite rejection in experiments. This is because exposure periods can differ by 23 orders of magnitude, ranging from months in the field to hours in experiments. We developed a mathematical model of salmonlouse population dynamics, parametrized by a study that monitored naturally infected juvenile salmon held in ocean enclosures. Analysis of replicated trials indicates that lice suffer high mortality, particularly during pre-adult stages. The model suggests louse populations rapidly decline following brief exposure of juvenile salmon, similar to laboratory study designs and data. However, when the exposure period lasts for several weeks, as occurs when juvenile salmon migrate past salmon farms, the model predicts that lice accumulate to abundances that can elevate salmon mortality and depress salmon populations. The duration of parasite exposure is probably critical to salmonlouse population dynamics, and should therefore be accommodated in coastal planning and management where fish farms are situated on wild fish migration routes. PMID:19419983

Krkoek, Martin; Morton, Alexandra; Volpe, John P.; Lewis, Mark A.

2009-01-01

27

Monitoring of Atlantic salmon and sea-trout migration in the fish- ladders in Sandsfossen in 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upstream migration of Atlantic salmon and sea-trout in The River Suldalslagen was monitored in the two fish-ladders in Sandsfossen in 2004. In total, 670 salmon and 166 trout were registered ascending the southern fish-ladder. The distribution of one-, two-, and multi-seawinter salmon was 33 %, 20 % and 47 %, respectively, for wild and marked salmon combined. The proportion of

Harald Lura

2004-01-01

28

Transmission of Loma salmonae (Microsporea) to chinook salmon in sea water.  

PubMed

Transmission studies were conducted to determine if Loma salmonae was transmissible in sea water. Transmission of L. salmonae to chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) held in sea water was achieved by exposing fish to macerated, infected gill tissue. Fish were exposed in seawater in a flow-through aquarium, and the infection was detected as soon as 5 wk after exposure. Heavily infected fish exhibited numerous xenomas in the branchial arteries, central venous sinusoids, and within the blood channels of the lamellae. The pathological changes were similar to those seen in pen-reared salmon with L. salmonae infections. The infection was not observed in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi, family Clupeidae), or shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata, family Embiotocidae), experimentally exposed using identical methods. This study suggests that L. salmonae is transmissible to chinook salmon in seawater netpens. Fish farmers and fish health specialists should consider this possibility when developing and implementing strategies to control the infection. PMID:7728735

Kent, M L; Dawe, S C; Speare, D J

1995-02-01

29

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles  

PubMed Central

Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure. PMID:19060188

Lohmann, Kenneth J.; Putman, Nathan F.; Lohmann, Catherine M. F.

2008-01-01

30

Susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch to experimental infection with sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis.  

PubMed

Physiological, immunological and biochemical parameters of blood and mucus, as well as skin histology, were compared in 3 salmonid species (rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and coho salmon O. kisutch) following experimental infection with sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis. The 3 salmonid species were cohabited in order to standardize initial infection conditions. Lice density was significantly reduced on coho salmon within 7 to 14 d, while lice persisted in higher numbers on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Lice matured more slowly on coho salmon than on the other 2 species, and maturation was slightly slower on rainbow trout than on Atlantic salmon. Head kidney macrophages from infected Atlantic salmon had diminished respiratory burst and phagocytic capacity at 14 and 21 d post-infection (dpi), while infected rainbow trout macrophages had reduced respiratory burst and phagocytic capacities at 21 dpi, compared to controls. The slower development of lice, coupled with delayed suppression of immune parameters, suggests that rainbow trout are slightly more resistant to lice than Atlantic salmon. Infected rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon showed increases in mucus lysozyme activities at 1 dpi, which decreased over the rest of the study. Mucus lysozyme activities of infected rainbow trout, however, remained higher than controls over the entire period. Coho salmon lysozyme activities did not increase in infected fish until 21 dpi. Mucus alkaline phosphatase levels were also higher in infected Atlantic salmon compared to controls at 3 and 21 dpi. Low molecular weight (LMW) proteases increased in infected rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon between 14 and 21 dpi. Histological analysis of the outer epithelium revealed mucus cell hypertrophy in rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon following infection. Plasma cortisol, glucose, electrolyte and protein concentrations and hematocrit all remained within physiological limits for each species, with no differences occurring between infected and control fish. Our results demonstrate that significant differences in mucus biochemistry and numbers of L. salmonis occur between these species. PMID:12517006

Fast, Mark D; Ross, Neil W; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sims, David E; Johnson, Stewart C; Conboy, Gary A; Speare, David J; Johnson, Gerald; Burka, John F

2002-11-01

31

The Interaction between Water Currents and Salmon Swimming Behaviour in Sea Cages  

PubMed Central

Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched from the traditional circular polarized group structure, seen at low and moderate current velocities, to a group structure where all fish kept stations at fixed positions swimming against the current. This type of group behaviour has not been described in sea cages previously. The structural changes could be explained by a preferred swimming speed of salmon spatially restricted in a cage in combination with a behavioural plasticity of the fish. PMID:24830443

Johansson, David; Laursen, Frida; Fern, Anders; Fosseidengen, Jan Erik; Klebert, Pascal; Stien, Lars Helge; Vgseth, Tone; Oppedal, Frode

2014-01-01

32

Chapter 9 Comment Analysis Report Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 501  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 Comment Analysis Report Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 501 Final EIS ­ December 2009 9 Management Draft EIS/RIR/IRFA. In conformance with NEPA requirements, NMFS solicited public comment's responses. Changes to the EIS and RIR from draft to final as a result of public comment are noted

33

The epidemiology of the sea lice, Caligus elongatus Nordmann, in marine aquaculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Caligus elongatus is one of two major species of sea lice that parasitize farmed salmon, its epidemiology has not been extensively studied. In this communication, the abundances of the adult stage of C. elongatus in salmon populations from 33 farms in the West of Scotland between 1997 and 2000 have been analysed for evidence of seasonal and annual patterns.

C W Revie; G Gettinby; J W Treasurer; G H Rae

2002-01-01

34

The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea,  

E-print Network

The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea, is related to the fat and thiamine content of prey fish Marja Keina¨nen1., and Vuorinen, P. J. 2012. The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon

35

Two Virtual Journeys: Salmon, Spirit of the Land and Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though most people have returned to work and school, the opportunity for travel and adventure still exists...via computer. A northern adventure comes from OneWorldJourneys.com, which is presenting a ten-day photo-documentary Webcast from the coastal waters and rivers of British Columbia's Great Bear Rainforest. This virtual journey, focuses on the natural history and future of the wild Pacific Salmon. Visitors to the site can learn how the salmon is a critical link in the health of an entire ecosystem -- a particularly timely issue in the wake of water rights and forestry disputes in the Northwest. Text, gorgeous photos, and videos can be viewed in either high or low bandwidth formats (Flash, QuickTime, RealPlayer), and the site is also available in Japanese. Salmon is the fifth Webcast expedition produced by OneWorldJourneys.com. The last OneWorldJourneys Webcast that we featured was "Jaguar: Lord of the Mayan Jungle," reviewed in the April 27, 2001 Scout Report.

36

Transmission of Loma salmonae (Microsporea) to chinook salmon in sea water.  

PubMed Central

Transmission studies were conducted to determine if Loma salmonae was transmissible in sea water. Transmission of L. salmonae to chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) held in sea water was achieved by exposing fish to macerated, infected gill tissue. Fish were exposed in seawater in a flow-through aquarium, and the infection was detected as soon as 5 wk after exposure. Heavily infected fish exhibited numerous xenomas in the branchial arteries, central venous sinusoids, and within the blood channels of the lamellae. The pathological changes were similar to those seen in pen-reared salmon with L. salmonae infections. The infection was not observed in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi, family Clupeidae), or shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata, family Embiotocidae), experimentally exposed using identical methods. This study suggests that L. salmonae is transmissible to chinook salmon in seawater netpens. Fish farmers and fish health specialists should consider this possibility when developing and implementing strategies to control the infection. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7728735

Kent, M L; Dawe, S C; Speare, D J

1995-01-01

37

Coastal sea surface temperature and coho salmon production off the north-west United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time series of mean weekly sea surface temperature (SST) images was used to investigate the relationship between fluctuations in the marine survival of hatch- ery-reared coho salmon and coastal ocean dynamics off the north-western United States (51? to 37?N) between 1985 and 1996, using univariate and nonlinear bivariate regression analysis. Ocean conditions were matched against survival for a number

James Cole

2000-01-01

38

The effect of artificial light treatment and depth on the infestation of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis on Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field studies were carried out with farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in sea cages to examine various effects of artificial light (AL) and the vertical distribution of salmon on lice infestation.The use of AL light caused an overall increase in lice infestation in both experiments. The first study showed that salmon held at 04 m depth in cages

E. M Hevry; K Boxaspen; F Oppedal; G. L Taranger; J. C Holm

2003-01-01

39

Sea-age variation in maiden Atlantic salmon spawners: phenotypic plasticity or genetic polymorphism?  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon exhibit a partially heritable polymorphism in which the morphs are distinguished by the duration and location of the sea-phase of their life-cycle. These morphs co-occur, albeit in characteristically different proportions, in most Scottish rivers and in both the spring and autumn spawner runs; early running fish being generally associated with upland spawning locations while late running fish are associated with lowland spawning. Thus, differences in riverine and marine environment appear to be linked to differences in the relative abundance of the morphs, rather than to the specific morph which is optimally adapted. In this paper, we report a model-based synthetic study aimed at understanding the key dynamic elements which determine the long-term stability of this polymorphism, and thus determine the relative abundance of the various sea-age morphs. Given the recent accumulation of evidence for a genetic basis for the polymorphism, we argue that the key dynamic mechanism which equalises the realized fitness of the sea-age morphs must be one or more morph-specific density dependencies in the riverine phase of the life-history. We explore a number of specific mechanisms, firmly based in known salmon biology, by which such morph-specific density dependence could occur and investigate the robustness of the co-existence which they imply. We conclude that the co-occurrence of multiple sea-age morphs of Atlantic salmon in Scottish rivers is a stable genetic polymorphism, maintained by some combination of physical separation and asymmetric competition between spawners of different morphs or the riverine stages of their offspring or both. PMID:21818674

Gurney, William S C; Bacon, Philip J; Speirs, Douglas C; McGinnity, Philip; Verspoor, Eric

2012-03-01

40

Aquaculture-induced changes to dynamics of a migratory host and specialist parasite: a case study of pink salmon and sea lice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchange of diseases between domesticated and wild animals is a rising concern for conservation. In the ocean, many species\\u000a display life histories that separate juveniles from adults. For pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), infection of juvenile salmon in early marine life occurs near salmon sea-cage aquaculture sites and is associated with\\u000a declining abundance of wild

Jaime Ashander; Martin Krkoek; Mark A. Lewis

41

Linkage between ocean climate, post-smolt growth, and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the North Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friedland, K. D., Hansen, L. P., Dunkley, D. A., and MacLean, J. C. 2000. Linkage between ocean climate, post-smolt growth, and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the North Sea area. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 419-429. We examined two long-term tagging studies with wild salmon stocks in the North Sea area. The salmon stocks, the

Kevin D. Friedland; Lars P. Hansen; David A. Dunkley; Julian C. MacLean

2000-01-01

42

The impact of the current expansion of the European Union on international marketing strategies on Norwegian multinational farmed salmon producers : A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of the recent European Union (EU) expansion on the international marketing strategies of Fjord Seafood, a Norwegian farmed salmon producer. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The Norwegian salmon industry provides an interesting case study because it reflects the complexities of a dynamic international environment. Not only must the industry grapple with

T. C. Melewar; Helene Mui; Suraksha Gupta; Joseann Knight

2008-01-01

43

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

44

Paranucleospora theridion (Microsporidia) infection dynamics in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar put to sea in spring and autumn.  

PubMed

The microsporidian Paranucleospora theridion (syn. Desmozoon lepeophtheirii) is a parasite of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and also a hyperparasite of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis. The parasite develops 2 types of spores in salmon, cytoplasmic spores in phagocytes and intranuclear spores in epidermal cells. The former type of development is assumed to be propagative (autoinfection), while the epidermal spores transfer the parasite to lice. Development in lice is extensive, with the formation of xenoma-like hypertrophic cells filled with microsporidian spores. We show that salmon are infected in the absence of lice, likely through waterborne spores that initiate infections in the gills. During summer and autumn the parasite propagates in the kidney, as evidenced by peaking normalised expression of P. theridion rRNA. Lice become infected during autumn, and develop extensive infections during winter. Lice mortality in winter and spring is likely responsible for a reservoir of spores in the water. Salmon transferred to sea in November (low temperature) did not show involvement of the kidney in parasite propagation and lice on such fish did not become infected. Apparently, low temperatures inhibit normal P. theridion development in salmon. PMID:23047190

Sveen, S; verland, H; Karlsbakk, E; Nylund, A

2012-10-10

45

Temporal variation of genetic composition in Atlantic salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin: influence of anthropogenic factors?  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the temporal patterns of population genetic structure assist in evaluating the consequences of demographic and environmental changes on population stability and persistence. In this study, we evaluated the level of temporal genetic variation in 16 anadromous and 2 freshwater salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin (Russia) using samples collected between 1995 and 2008. To assess whether the genetic stability was affected by human activity, we also evaluated the effect of fishing pressure on the temporal genetic variation in this region. Results We found that the genetic structure of salmon populations in this region was relatively stable over a period of 1.5 to 2.5 generations. However, the level of temporal variation varied among geographical regions: anadromous salmon of the Kola Peninsula exhibited a higher stability compared to that of the anadromous and freshwater salmon from the Karelian White Sea coast. This discrepancy was most likely attributed to the higher census, and therefore effective, population sizes of the populations inhabiting the rivers of the Kola Peninsula compared to salmon of the Karelian White Sea coast. Importantly, changes in the genetic diversity observed in a few anadromous populations were best explained by the increased level of fishing pressure in these populations rather than environmental variation or the negative effects of hatchery escapees. The observed population genetic patterns of isolation by distance remained consistent among earlier and more recent samples, which support the stability of the genetic structure over the period studied. Conclusions Given the increasing level of fishing pressure in the Western White Sea Basin and the higher level of temporal variation in populations exhibiting small census and effective population sizes, further genetic monitoring in this region is recommended, particularly on populations from the Karelian rivers. PMID:24053319

2013-01-01

46

Survival, Migration Speed and Swimming Depth of Atlantic Salmon Kelts During Sea Entry and Fjord Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In contrast to most species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is an iteroparous species such that it may survive and return to spawn repeatedly. Little information exists on these\\u000a survivors (kelts) even though they might contribute significantly to salmon production when returning as repeat spawners.\\u000a In order to estimate survival, timing of migration, swimming progression

Elina Halttunen; Audun H. Rikardsen; Jan G. Davidsen; Eva B. Thorstad; J. Brian Dempson

47

European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

2014-05-01

48

Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea  

PubMed Central

Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

Springer, Alan M.; van Vliet, Gus B.

2014-01-01

49

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): The Super-Chicken of the Sea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the definition of sustainability is discussed, particularly in relation to the use of marine feed resources. The current review gives an overview of the development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture and how it has evolved due to changes in legal and management framework conditions. Atlantic salmon production is characterized with high utilization of nutrients, a high

Ole Torrissen; Rolf Erik Olsen; Reidar Toresen; Gro Ingunn Hemre; Albert G. J. Tacon; Frank Asche; Ronald W. Hardy; Santosh Lall

2011-01-01

50

Detecting genotypic changes associated with selective mortality at sea in Atlantic salmon: polygenic multilocus analysis surpasses genome scan.  

PubMed

Wild populations of Atlantic salmon have declined worldwide. While the causes for this decline may be complex and numerous, increased mortality at sea is predicted to be one of the major contributing factors. Examining the potential changes occurring in the genome-wide composition of populations during this migration has the potential to tease apart some of the factors influencing marine mortality. Here, we genotyped 5568 SNPs in Atlantic salmon populations representing two distinct regional genetic groups and across two cohorts to test for differential allelic and genotypic frequencies between juveniles (smolts) migrating to sea and adults (grilses) returning to freshwater after 1 year at sea. Given the complexity of the traits potentially associated with sea mortality, we contrasted the outcomes of a single-locus F(ST) based genome scan method with a new multilocus framework to test for genetically based differential mortality at sea. While numerous outliers were identified by the single-locus analysis, no evidence for parallel, temporally repeated selection was found. In contrast, the multilocus approach detected repeated patterns of selection for a multilocus group of 34 covarying SNPs in one of the two populations. No significant pattern of selective mortality was detected in the other population, suggesting different causes of mortality among populations. These results first support the hypothesis that selection mainly causes small changes in allele frequencies among many covarying loci rather than a small number of changes in loci with large effects. They also point out that moving away from the a strict 'selective sweep paradigm' towards a multilocus genetics framework may be a more useful approach for studying the genomic signatures of natural selection on complex traits in wild populations. PMID:24845361

Bourret, Vincent; Dionne, Mlanie; Bernatchez, Louis

2014-09-01

51

Report to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council Bering Sea Pollock Intercooperative Salmon Avoidance  

E-print Network

by species during the experiment: The EFP ran for both the entire pollock A and B seasons in 2008 for the 2006B season EFP). Table 1. Catch and bycatch of pollock and salmon in the directed pollock fishery

52

Migration of Pacific Rim Chum Salmon on the High Seas: Insights from Genetic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild stocks of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, have experienced recent declines in some areas of their range. Also, the release of hatchery chum salmon has escalated to\\u000a nearly three billion fish annually. The decline of wild stocks and the unknown effects of hatchery fish combined with the\\u000a uncertainty of future production caused by global climate change have renewed interest in

Lisa W. Seeb; Penelope A. Crane; Christine M. Kondzela; Richard L. Wilmot; Shigehiko Urawa; Natalya V. Varnavskaya; James E. Seeb

2004-01-01

53

Are invasive species most successful in habitats of low native species richness across European brackish water seas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

European brackish water seas (Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Azov, Caspian Sea) are subject to intense invasion of non-indigenous species (NIS). In these seas, salinity is the most important range limiting factor and native species seem to reach a minimum species richness at intermediate salinities. This trend, revealed by Remane in 1934 and later on confirmed by many

Marjo Paavola; Sergej Olenin; Erkki Leppkoski

2005-01-01

54

Warming shelf seas drive the subtropicalization of European pelagic fish communities.  

PubMed

Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. PMID:25230844

Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J

2015-01-01

55

Origin of Immature Chum Salmon Collected in the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands during the F\\/V Northwest Explorer BASIS Survey, Fall 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immature chum salmon were collected by the F\\/V Northwest Explorer between September 5 and October 8, during the 2002 BASIS survey across the eastern Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Islands (for details, see Murphy et al. 2003). Approximately 1,600 fish were aged, checked for the presence of hatchery thermal marks, and genotyped for allozyme loci. Scale aging and otolith mark

Christine M. Kondzela; James M. Murphy; Richard L. Wilmot

56

Chapter 8 Other Marine Resources Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 437  

E-print Network

Pinnipedia (seals, sea lion, and walrus), other Carnivora (sea otter and polar bear), and Cetacea (whales. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) jurisdiction (polar bear, walrus, and sea otters), were assessed

57

SURVIVAL OF SALMON SMOLTS IN SEA WATER AFTER EXPOSURE TO AIR-SUPERSATURATED WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Smolts of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were held at 117, 115, 113, 110, 108, and 100% saturation in air-supersaturated fresh water at 12.5C for 3 weeks. At 117% saturation 70% of the fish died, and at 115%, 5% died. Survivors were severely stressed and exhibited many signs...

58

How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere  

PubMed Central

Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry 300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

Costello, Mark J.

2009-01-01

59

The Portugese, Slovenian and French presidencies 2007-2008: A sea change in European spatial planning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an account of the successive presidencies of Portugal, Slovenia and France. It asks whether European spatial planning is undergoing a sea change: a transformation caused by the unintentional cumulative impact of pragmatic organisational changes. The paper also invokes the notion of a two-level game to characterise the situations in which European planners constantly have to look over

A. K. F. Faludi

2009-01-01

60

Genetic comparison of wild and cultivated European populations of the gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first large-scale population genetic analysis of the marine fish gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), one of the most significant species in the South European aquaculture. Six wild and five cultivated sample sets covering the South Atlantic and Mediterranean European area have been screened for allozyme, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Microsatellites showed higher levels of

J. A. Alarcn; A. Magoulas; T. Georgakopoulos; E. Zouros; M. C. Alvarez

2004-01-01

61

The European regional seas ecosystem model, a complex marine ecosystem model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the concept, structure and implementation of the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The model dynamically simulates the biogeochemical seasonal cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon in the pelagic and benthic food webs of the North Sea, and is forced by irradiance, temperature and transport processes.The model has a coarse spatial resolution into

J. W. Baretta; W Ebenhoeh; P. Ruardij

1995-01-01

62

The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields  

E-print Network

The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP recon- structions lack data

Koek, Frits

63

European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a changing ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 C) and two seawater pCO2 levels (ambient and 1,000 ?atm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 C. Similarly, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 were significantly heavier. However, juvenile D. labrax raised under this combination of 19 C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 also exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 C and ambient pCO2. Most studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested that these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. Whilst the increased survival and growth observed in this study supports this view, we conclude that more work is required to investigate whether the differences in juvenile physiology observed in this study manifest as negative impacts in adult fish.

Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.

2014-05-01

64

Efficacy of emamectin benzoate against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: evaluation in the absence of an untreated contemporary control.  

PubMed

The efficacy of emamectin benzoate (SLICE) against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., is typically assessed using untreated fish, or fish treated with alternative therapeutants, as controls. The State of Maine, USA, is currently under active management for the OIE-notifiable pathogen, infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV); consequently, neither control group is feasible in this region. Untreated salmon risk extensive damage from the ectoparasites, and threaten to increase vector-borne exposure or susceptibility of farms to ISAV; and the only treatment presently available in Maine is SLICE. However, because sea lice infestations are unlikely to resolve spontaneously, and response to treatment occurs within weeks, use of a pretreatment baseline is a reasonable alternative for confirmatory studies. We evaluated SLICE efficacy on Atlantic salmon farms in Cobscook Bay 2002-2005, in the absence of untreated controls, using pretreatment lice loads as a reference for calculation. Maximum efficacy ranged from 68% to 100% reduction from initial levels. Time-to-maximum efficacy ranged from 1 to 8 weeks after treatment initiation. Efficacy duration, measured between first reduction and first progressive rise in counts, ranged from 4 to 16 weeks. PMID:17026671

Gustafson, L; Ellis, S; Robinson, T; Marenghi, F; Endris, R

2006-10-01

65

Stock Origins of Chinook Salmon in the Area of the Japanese Mothership Salmon Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The record catch of 704,000 chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by the Japanese mothership salmon fishery in 1980 intensified concern about the effect of high seas interceptions of salmon reared in North America. The goal of this study was to update and refine estimates of the relative proportions of Asian and North American chinook salmon stocks in the mothership fishery area

Katherine W. Myers; Colin K. Harris; Curtis M. Knudsen; Robert V. Walker; Nancy D. Davis; Donald E. Rogers

1987-01-01

66

Offshore wind resource assessment in European Seas, state-of-the art. A survey within the FP6 "POW'WOW" Coordination Action Project.  

E-print Network

Offshore wind resource assessment in European Seas, state-of- the ­art. A survey within the FP6 in different national and European projects especially in North Europe. In other European seas differences between coastal area wind climatology in North and South European Seas is associated to stability

67

Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis infected Atlantic salmon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

68

Quantifying the Ocean, Freshwater and Human Effects on Year-to-Year Variability of One-Sea-Winter Atlantic Salmon Angled in Multiple Norwegian Rivers  

PubMed Central

Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse) from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (19792007). Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching for solutions to conserve this species. PMID:21897867

Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J.; L'Abe-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Storvik, Geir O.; Vllestad, Leif Asbjrn

2011-01-01

69

Salmon on the Columbia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit explores aspects of the history of salmon in the Columbia Basin. The materials provided for this unit are primarily social studies related, but include topics in both math and science and. Students have the opportunity to explore data using GIS mapping technology. The learning goals include: understanding the historical, cultural, and economic importance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin to both native and European immigrant populations; identifying technological, economic, and environmental factors that contributed to the decline in salmon populations in the Columbia Basin; use GIS and graphing software to analyze and interpret factors related to changes in the Columbia River salmon population over the last century and describe these phenomena in narrative, graphical or mathematical terms as appropriate; and evaluate the effectiveness of recent actions in helping to restore Columbia Basin salmon populations.

Rick Thomas

70

GLOBALISATION IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS: THE STORY OF NON-INDIGENOUS MARINE SPECIES ACROSS EUROPEAN SEAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) across the major European seas is a dynamic non-stop process. Up to September 2004, 851 NIS (the majority being zoobenthic organ- isms) have been reported in European marine and brackish waters, the majority during the 1960s and 1970s. The Mediterranean is by far the major recipient of exotic species with an average of one

NIKOS STREFTARIS; ARGYRO ZENETOS; EVANGELOS PAPATHANASSIOU

2005-01-01

71

Identification and localization of a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and host Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

Some members of the ABC-transporter superfamily, such as P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance associated protein, may confer resistance to the avermectin subclass of macrocyclic lactones. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of ABC transporters in both sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and its Atlantic salmon host (Salmo salar) using monoclonal antibodies (C219 and JSB-1, with high selectivity for P-gp) and a new polyclonal antibody (SL0525) generated against a putative sea louse ABC transporter. The antibody raised to SL0525 did not react with rat P-gp, suggesting that an ABC transporter, not necessarily P-gp, was isolated. C219 was the only antibody to localize P-gp in all 3 salmon tissues (intestine, kidney and liver). American lobster (Homarus americanus) was used as a reference crustacean for L. salmonis immunostaining reactions and showed positive staining in the hepatopancreatic and intestinal tissues with all 3 antibodies. The L. salmonis showed positive staining in the intestinal epithelial lining with all antibodies. This report represents the first documented evidence for the expression of ABC transporters in L. salmonis, its Atlantic salmon host, and the American lobster. PMID:17961285

Tribble, N D; Burka, J F; Kibenge, F S B; Wright, G M

2008-02-01

72

The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes  

SciTech Connect

Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

Jiricka, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.jiricka@boku.ac.at; Proebstl, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.proebstl@boku.ac.at

2013-01-15

73

Salmon Patch  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Salmon Patch A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Salmon patches frequently occur at the center of the forehead. Overview Salmon patch is the name given to a very ...

74

Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been established. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a

K. Arpe; S. A. G. Leroy; H. Lahijani; V. Khan

2011-01-01

75

The benthic biological submodel in the European regional seas ecosystem model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submodel describing benthic biology including a bioturbation module as incorporated in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is discussed. It is linked to a nutrient dynamic model. The structure of the benthic model food web is presented. There are four macrobenthic functional groups, meiobenthos and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The modelling uses standard organisms as basic building blocks.

W. Ebenhh; C. Kohlmeier; P. J. Radford

1995-01-01

76

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan  

E-print Network

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan May 2004 # # # # # # # # # # # LemhiRiverBig Creek PahsimeroiRiver PantherCreek LittleSalmonRiver RapidRiver E.Fk.SalmonRiver Chamberlain Creek N.Fk. SalmonRiver MidFkSalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver S.Fk.SalmonRiver Salmon River Salmon River IDAHO LEMHI CUSTER VALLEY

77

SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common SeaDataNet formats and procedures and software tools for preparing and updating metadata, processing and quality control of data, and presentation of data in viewing services, and for production of data products. SeaDataNet maintains and operates several discovery services with overviews of marine organisations in Europe and their engagement in marine research projects, managing large datasets, and data acquisition by research vessels and monitoring programmes for the European seas and global oceans: o European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) (at present > 4300 entries from more than 600 data holding centres in Europe) is a comprehensive reference to the marine data and sample collections held within Europe providing marine scientists, engineers and policy makers with a simple discovery mechanism. It covers all marine environmental disciplines. This needs regular maintenance. o European Directory of Marine Environmental Research Projects (EDMERP) (at present > 2200 entries from more than 300 organisations in Europe) gives an overview of research projects relating to the marine environment, that are relevant in the context of data sets and data acquisition activities ( cruises, in situ monitoring networks, ..) that are covered in SeaDataNet. This needs regular updating, following activities by dataholding institutes for preparing metadata references for EDMED, EDIOS, CSR and CDI. o Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) directory (at present > 43000 entries) provides a coarse-grained inventory for tracking oceanographic data collected by research vessels. o European Directory of Oceanographic Observing Systems (EDIOS) (at present > 10000 entries) is an initiative of EuroGOOS and gives an overview of the ocean measuring and monitoring systems operated by European countries. European Directory of Marine Organisations (EDMO) (at present > 2000 entries) contains the contact information and activity profiles for the organisations whose data and activities are described by the discovery services. Common Vocabularies (at present > 120000

Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

2012-04-01

78

Phylogeography of the planktonic chaetognath Sagitta setosa reveals isolation in European seas.  

PubMed

Numerous planktonic species have disjunct distribution patterns in the world's oceans. However, it is unclear whether these are truly unconnected by gene flow, or whether they are composed of morphologically cryptic species. The marine planktonic chaetognath Sagitta setosa Mller has a discontinuous geographic distribution over the continental shelf in the northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and Black Sea. Morphological variation between these populations has been described, but overlaps and is therefore unsuitable to determine the degree of isolation between populations. To test whether disjunct populations are also genetically disjunct, we sequenced a 504-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA comprising the cytochrome oxidase II region of 86 individuals. Sequences were highly variable; each represented a different haplotype. Within S. setosa, sequence divergence ranged from 0.2 to 8.1% and strong phylogeographic structure was found, with four main groups corresponding to the northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea (including Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Gulf of Gabes), Adriatic Sea, and Black Sea. Two of these (Atlantic and Black Sea) were resolved as monophyletic clades, thus gene flow between disjunct populations of S. setosa has been extremely limited and lineage sorting has taken place. The deepest divergence was between Atlantic and Mediterranean/Black Sea populations followed by a split between Mediterranean and Black Sea populations. The Mediterranean/Black Sea clade comprised three groups, with the Adriatic Sea as the most likely sister clade of the Black Sea. These data are consistent with a colonization of the Black Sea from the Mediterranean. Furthermore, a possible cryptic species was found in the Black Sea with 23.1% sequence divergence from S. setosa. Two possibilities for the evolutionary origin of this species are proposed, namely, that it represents a relict species from the ancient Paratethys, or that it represents another chaetognath species that colonized the Black Sea more recently. Even though the exact timing of disjunction of S. setosa populations remains unclear, on the basis of the geological and paleoclimatic history of the European basins and our estimates of net nucleotide divergence, we suggest that disjunct populations arose through vicariance resulting from the cyclical changes in temperature and sea levels during the Pleistocene. We conclude that these populations have remained disjunct, not because of limited dispersal ability, but because of the inability to maintain viable populations in suboptimal, geographically intermediate areas. PMID:15341150

Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Breeuwer, Johannes A J; Pierrot-Bults, Annelies C; Menken, Steph B J

2004-07-01

79

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in off- shore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth

G. T. Ruggerone; M. Zimmermann; K. W. Myers; J. L. Nielsen; D. E. Rogers

2003-01-01

80

The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?  

PubMed

Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

2011-09-01

81

The effect of vaccination and sea water entry on immunocompetence and susceptibility to Kudoa thyrsites in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).  

PubMed

The effect of intraperitoneal (IP) vaccination and sea water entry (SWE) on the immunocompetence of Cascade Atlantic salmon was investigated. Smolts were IP injected with Aqua Health's Forte trade mark vaccine (Listonella (Vibrio) anguillarum, Listonella ordalii, Vibrio salmonicida and Aeromonas salmonicida) at four times (42, 238, 433 and 630 degree days, DD) prior to SWE and were examined for immunocompetence. Immune response measurements included mitogen-driven proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), head kidney leukocyte respiratory burst activity and alternative complement hemolytic titres and were measured 24h prior to SWE, 72 h post-SWE and again 3.5 weeks post-SWE. A 50% reduction in the number of PBL was observed 3 days post-vaccination. At this time LPS-driven proliferation was low (stimulation index, SI, 1.5-2.9) in all groups prior to SWE compared with that of PBL from freshwater-reared Atlantic salmon parr (6.7). By 72 h and 3.5 weeks post-SWE, the LPS-driven SI from unvaccinated salmon and those vaccinated 630 and 433 DD prior to SWE increased 3-fold. In contrast, SI from salmon vaccinated 42 and 238 DD prior to SWE remained low. A similar pattern was observed for cultured PBL stimulated with PHA, although unlike LPS-stimulated PBL, the SI of cells from parr and unvaccinated control smolts remained low following SWE but increased in fish vaccinated 433 and 630 DD prior to SWE. The respiratory burst activity of head kidney leukocytes was not affected by SWE but showed a transient 50% depression 3 days post-vaccination. The alternative complement activity (ACH50) was similar for all treatment groups prior to and at 72h post-SWE. By 3.5 weeks post-SWE, ACH50 values in salmon vaccinated 42 and 238 DD prior to SWE doubled to 874 and 860 U/ml, respectively. The prevalence and severity of Kudoa thyrsites infections, detected in all treatment groups approximately 2400 DD following SWE, were not significantly different among groups. Atlantic salmon parr should be IP vaccinated no earlier than 433 DD before SWE to avoid an enhanced risk of acquiring pathogens because of transient depression in some immune mechanisms. PMID:15312664

Funk, V A; Jones, S R M; Kim, E; Kreiberg, H; Taylor, K; Wu, S; Young, C

2004-10-01

82

SeaDataNet Pan-European infrastructure for Ocean & Marine Data Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEADATANET is developing a Pan-European data management infrastructure to insure access to a large number of marine environmental data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties), safeguard and long term archiving. Data are derived from many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. SeaDataNet allows to have information on real time and archived marine environmental data collected at a pan-european level, through directories on marine environmental data and projects. SeaDataNet allows the access to the most comprehensive multidisciplinary sets of marine in-situ and remote sensing data, from about 40 laboratories, through user friendly tools. The data selection and access is operated through the Common Data Index (CDI), XML files compliant with ISO standards and unified dictionaries. Technical Developments carried out by SeaDataNet includes: A library of Standards - Meta-data standards, compliant with ISO 19115, for communication and interoperability between the data platforms. Software of interoperable on line system - Interconnection of distributed data centres by interfacing adapted communication technology tools. Off-Line Data Management software - software representing the minimum equipment of all the data centres is developed by AWI "Ocean Data View (ODV)". Training, Education and Capacity Building - Training 'on the job' is carried out by IOC-Unesco in Ostende. SeaDataNet Virtual Educational Centre internet portal provides basic tools for informal education

Manzella, G. M.; Maillard, C.; Maudire, G.; Schaap, D.; Rickards, L.; Nast, F.; Balopoulos, E.; Mikhailov, N.; Vladymyrov, V.; Pissierssens, P.; Schlitzer, R.; Beckers, J. M.; Barale, V.

2007-12-01

83

2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008  

E-print Network

2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008 Report to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council on the Bering Sea Pollock Intercooperative Salmon Avoidance Agreement Karl Haflinger, Sea State (BSAI) Pollock Intercoop Salmon Avoidance Agreement ("ICA"). During the course of the fishery

84

AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT  

E-print Network

AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT BY JAPANESE HIGH SEAS FLEETS IN NORTH PACIFIC Marine Fish and Wildlife Service, Amie J. Suomela, Commissioner AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT by the Japanese high-seas salmon fleets indicates the dominance of 2-year-in-ocean reds in the even years and 3

85

Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jrgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

2014-06-01

86

Invasive alien plants in marine protected areas: the Spartina anglica affair in the European Wadden Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cord-grass Spartina anglica, a fertile hybrid of S.maritima and S.alterniflora, was planted in the European Wadden Sea extensively during the late 1920s and 1930s to promote sediment accretion. After\\u000a establishment, it colonised as a pioneer plant in the upper tidal zone, where it occurs frequently in coherent swards at the\\u000a seaward front of saltmarshes and in patches on

Stefan Nehring; Karl-Jrgen Hesse

2008-01-01

87

Alternative transcripts of DMRT1 in the European sea bass: Expression during gonadal differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DMRT1 is conserved from invertebrates to human and has been implicated in sex differentiation and testis function in many organisms. We report the cloning of two DMRT1 transcripts, DMRT1a and DMRT1b, encoded by a single gene in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, a teleost fish with polygenic sex determination influenced by temperature. DMRT1a and DMRT1b are specific to the

Laurence A. M. Deloffre; Rute S. T. Martins; Constantinos C. Mylonas; Adelino V. M. Canario

2009-01-01

88

Using EUNIS habitat classification for benthic mapping in European seas: present concerns and future needs.  

PubMed

The EUNIS (European Union Nature Information System) habitat classification system aims to provide a common European reference set of habitat types within a hierarchical classification, and to cover all terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats of Europe. The classification facilitates reporting of habitat data in a comparable manner, for use in nature conservation (e.g. inventories, monitoring and assessments), habitat mapping and environmental management. For the marine environment the importance of a univocal habitat classification system is confirmed by the fact that many European initiatives, aimed at marine mapping, assessment and reporting, are increasingly using EUNIS habitat categories and respective codes. For this reason substantial efforts have been made to include information on marine benthic habitats from different regions, aiming to provide a comprehensive geographical coverage of European seas. However, there still remain many concerns on its applicability as only a small fraction of Europe's seas are fully mapped and increasing knowledge and application raise further issues to be resolved. This paper presents an overview of the main discussion and conclusions of a workshop, organised by the MeshAtlantic project, focusing upon the experience in using the EUNIS habitats classification across different countries and seas, together with case studies. The aims of the meeting were to: (i) bring together scientists with experience in the use of the EUNIS marine classification and representatives from the European Environment Agency (EEA); (ii) agree on enhancements to EUNIS that ensure an improved representation of the European marine habitats; and (iii) establish practices that make marine habitat maps produced by scientists more consistent with the needs of managers and decision-makers. During the workshop challenges for the future development of EUNIS were identified, which have been classified into five categories: (1) structure and hierarchy; (2) biology; (3) terminology; (4) mapping; and (5) future development. The workshop ended with a declaration from the attendees, with recommendations to the EEA and European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, to take into account the outputs of the workshop, which identify weaknesses in the current classification and include proposals for its modification, and to devise a process to further develop the marine component of the EUNIS habitat classification. PMID:23117202

Galparsoro, Ibon; Connor, David W; Borja, Angel; Aish, Annabelle; Amorim, Patricia; Bajjouk, Touria; Chambers, Caroline; Coggan, Roger; Dirberg, Guillaume; Ellwood, Helen; Evans, Douglas; Goodin, Kathleen L; Grehan, Anthony; Haldin, Jannica; Howell, Kerry; Jenkins, Chris; Michez, Nomie; Mo, Giulia; Buhl-Mortensen, Pl; Pearce, Bryony; Populus, Jacques; Salomidi, Maria; Snchez, Francisco; Serrano, Alberto; Shumchenia, Emily; Tempera, Fernando; Vasquez, Mickal

2012-12-01

89

Synthesis of knowledge on marine biodiversity in European Seas: from census to sustainable management.  

PubMed

The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000-2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Coll, Marta; Danovaro, Roberto; Davidson, Keith; Ojaveer, Henn; Renaud, Paul E

2013-01-01

90

Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management  

PubMed Central

The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (20002010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2013-01-01

91

76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea...NMFS proposes to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for...

2011-07-18

92

77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...a final rule to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program, which will evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for the...

2012-02-03

93

Discrimination of wild and cultured european sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using chemical and isotopic analyses.  

PubMed

Recent legislation in the European Union (EC/2065/2001) requires that seafood must provide the consumer with information that describes geographical origin and production method. The present studies aimed to establish methods, based on chemical and stable isotopic analysis, that could reliably differentiate between wild and farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The study measured fatty acid and isotopic compositions (delta13C and delta18O) of total flesh oil, delta15N of the glycerol/choline fraction, and compound-specific analysis of fatty acids (delta13C) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The sample set comprised 10 wild and 10 farmed sea bass from England (wild) and Scotland or Greece (farmed). Discrimination was achieved using fatty acid composition with 18:0, 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, and 22:6n-3 providing the highest contributions for discrimination. Principal component analysis of the data set provided good discrimination between farmed and wild sea bass where factor 1 and factor 2 accounted for 60% of the variation in the data. PMID:17595104

Bell, J Gordon; Preston, Tom; Henderson, R James; Strachan, Fiona; Bron, James E; Cooper, Karen; Morrison, Douglas J

2007-07-25

94

Determination of the Diversity of Rhodopirellula Isolates from European Seas by Multilocus Sequence Analysis ?  

PubMed Central

In the biogeography of microorganisms, the habitat size of an attached-living bacterium has never been investigated. We approached this theme with a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) study of new strains of Rhodopirellula sp., an attached-living planctomycete. The development of an MLSA for Rhodopirellula baltica enabled the characterization of the genetic diversity at the species level, beyond the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene. The alleles of the nine housekeeping genes acsA, guaA, trpE, purH, glpF, fumC, icd, glyA, and mdh indicated the presence of 13 genetically defined operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in our culture collection. The MLSA-based OTUs coincided with the taxonomic units defined by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. BOX-PCR supported the MLSA-based differentiation of two closely related OTUs. This study established a taxon-area relationship of cultivable Rhodopirellula species. In European seas, three closely related species covered the Baltic Sea and the eastern North Sea, the North Atlantic region, and the southern North Sea to the Mediterranean. The last had regional genotypes, as revealed by BOX-PCR. This suggests a limited habitat size of attached-living Rhodopirellula species. PMID:19948850

Winkelmann, Nadine; Jaekel, Ulrike; Meyer, Carolin; Serrano, Wilbert; Rachel, Reinhard; Rossell-Mora, Ramon; Harder, Jens

2010-01-01

95

Modelling of European hake nurseries in the Mediterranean Sea: An ecological niche approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ecological niche modelling (ENM) approach was developed to model the suitable habitat for the 0-group European hake, Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, in the Mediterranean Sea. The ENM was built combining knowledge on biological traits of hake recruits (e.g. growth, settlement, mobility and feeding strategy) with patterns of selected ecological variables (chlorophyll-a fronts and concentration, bottom depth, sea bottom current and temperature) to highlight favourable nursery habitats. The results show that hake nurseries require stable bottom temperature (11.8-15.0 C), low bottom currents (<0.034 m s-1) and a frequent occurrence of productive fronts in low chlorophyll-a areas (0.1-0.9 mg m-3) to support a successful recruitment. These conditions mostly occur recurrently in outer shelf and shelf break areas. The prediction explains the relative balance between biotic and abiotic drivers of hake recruitment in the Mediterranean Sea and the primary role of unfavourable environmental conditions on low recruitment in specific years (i.e. 2011). The ENM outputs particularly agree spatially with biomass data of recruits, although processes such as fishing and natural mortality are not accounted for. The seasonal mapping of suitable habitats provides information on potential nurseries and recruitment carrying capacity which are relevant for spatial fisheries management of hake in the Mediterranean Sea.

Druon, Jean-Nol; Fiorentino, Fabio; Murenu, Matteo; Knittweis, Leyla; Colloca, Francesco; Osio, Chato; Mrigot, Bastien; Garofalo, Germana; Mannini, Alessandro; Jadaud, Anglique; Sbrana, Mario; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Carlucci, Roberto; Heikkonen, Jukka

2015-01-01

96

EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping - Developing a higher resolution digital bathymetry for the European seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). The EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping projects made good progress in developing the EMODNet Hydrography portal to provide overview and access to available bathymetric survey datasets and to generate an harmonised digital bathymetry for Europe's sea basins. Up till end 2012 more than 8400 bathymetric survey datasets, managed by 14 data centres from 9 countries and originated from 118 institutes, have been gathered and populated in the EMODNet Hydrography Data Discovery and Access service, adopting SeaDataNet standards. These datasets have been used as input for analysing and generating the EMODNet digital terrain model (DTM), so far for the following sea basins: the Greater North Sea, including the Kattegat the English Channel and Celtic Seas Western and Central Mediterranean Sea and Ionian Sea Bay of Biscay, Iberian coast and North-East Atlantic Adriatic Sea Aegean - Levantine Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Azores - Madeira EEZ The Hydrography Viewing service gives users wide functionality for viewing and downloading the EMODNet digital bathymetry: water depth in gridded form on a DTM grid of a quarter a minute of longitude and latitude option to view QC parameters of individual DTM cells and references to source data option to download DTM tiles in different formats: ESRI ASCII, XYZ, CSV, NetCDF (CF), GeoTiff and SD for Fledermaus 3 D viewer software option for users to create their Personal Layer and to upload multibeam survey ASCII datasets for automatic processing into personal DTMs following the EMODNet standards The NetCDF (CF) DTM files are fit for use in a special 3D Viewer software package which is based on the existing open source NASA World Wind JSK application. It has been developed in the frame of the EU Geo-Seas project (another sibling of SeaDataNet for marine geological and geophysical data) and is freely available. The 3D viewer also supports the ingestion of WMS overlay maps. The EMODNet consortium is actively seeking cooperation with Hydrographic Offices, research institutes, authorities and private organisations for additional data sets (single and multibeam surveys, sounding tracks, composite products) to contribute to an even better geographical coverage. These datasets will be used for upgrading and extending the EMODNet regional Digital Terrain Models (DTM). The datasets themselves are not distributed but described in the metadata service, giving clear information about the background survey data used for the DTM, their access restrictions, originators and distributors and facilitating requests by users to originators. This way the portal provides originators of bathymetric data sets an attractive shop window for promoting their data sets to potential users, without losing control. The EMODNet Hydrography Consortium consists of MARIS (NL), ATLIS (NL), IFREMER (FR), SHOM (FR), IEO (ES), GSI (IE), NERC-NOCS (UK), OGS (IT), HCMR (GR), and UNEP/GRID-Arendal (NO) with associate partners CNR-ISMAR (IT), OGS-RIMA (IT), IHPT (PT), and LNEG (PT). Website: http://www.emodnet-hydrography.eu

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Moussat, Eric

2013-04-01

97

Request for a new exempted fishing permit (EFP) to continue research on salmon bycatch reduction devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one  

E-print Network

Request for a new exempted fishing permit (EFP) to continue research on salmon bycatch reduction devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one field season to improve to Chinook salmon fishing permit for our continuing research on salmon excluders for the Bering Sea pollock fishery

98

Impact of flood defences and sea-level rise on the European Shelf tidal regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tidal response of the European Shelf to moderate (<1 m) levels of sea level rise is investigated using a high resolution, well established tidal model. The model is validated for present day conditions and the tidal response to sea level rise by comparing the modelled response to long term tide gauge data. The effects of coastal defence schemes are tested, with three levels of present day coastal defences simulated. Full walls are added at the present day coastline, no coast defence schemes are used and a set of present day coastal defence schemes is simulated. The simulations show that there is a significant tidal response to moderate levels of SLR and that the response is strongly dependant on level of coastal defence simulated. The simulation using coastal defence data resulted in the strongest response as the tide was able to build up behind the coastal defence walls and create a patchwork of sea and land at the coastline. This had a strong impact on the spatial tidal energy dissipation field and in turn this has large effects on the tidal regime throughout the domain.

Pelling, Holly E.; Mattias Green, J. A.

2014-08-01

99

European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation  

PubMed Central

The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S.T.; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M.; Bonhomme, Franois; Canario, Adelino V. M.; Reinhardt, Richard

2014-01-01

100

European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation.  

PubMed

The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S T; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A M; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M; Bonhomme, Franois; Canario, Adelino V M; Reinhardt, Richard

2014-01-01

101

Article published in Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 4, 1 (2004) : 162-174. `WE ARE NOT GREEK, BUT...' DEALING WITH THE GREEK ALBANIAN BORDER AMONG THE  

E-print Network

Article published in Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 4, 1 (2004) : 162-174. `WE international borders, particularly in Europe, were rapidly and radically changing. In this context in "Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 4, 1 (2004) 162-174" #12;`WE ARE NOT GREEK, BUT

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) affect behavior and brain serotonergic activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Perspectives on animal welfare.  

PubMed

Scientific research and public debate on the welfare of animals in human custody is increasing at present. Fish are in this context mentioned with particular attention to the high numbers of individuals reared in aquaculture. Research on fish has also contributed to the understanding of individual variation in the ability to cope with stress and disease. One mediator of such variation is the brain serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system, which conveys physiological and behavioral responses to stress and sub-optimal rearing conditions. Here we study links between the 5-HT response, melanin-based skin pigmentation, and behavior in laboratory-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) experimentally infested with ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Lice numbers were more variable in less pigmented fish, while the neurochemical response to ectoparastic lice-increased levels of the main 5-HT catabolite 5-HIAA in the brain stem-did not differ between pigmentation groups. A strong depression of growth and locomotor activity was seen in all infested fish but less pigmented fish grew better than fish with more skin melanization regardless of infestation status. The observed combination of neurochemical and behavioral effects clearly suggest that animal welfare concerns can be added to the list of negative effects of ectoparasitic sea lice. PMID:24792663

verli, yvind; Nordgreen, Janicke; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Janczak, Andrew M; Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida B; Horsberg, Tor E

2014-06-10

103

The European Sea Level Service (ESEAS) and the ESEAS Research Infrastructure (ESEAS-RI) project: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract describes work carried out by the ESEAS and ESEAS-RI teams (to be found at http://www.eseas.org). The ESEAS started its work in June 2001 and has the major objective to provide sea-level and sea-level related information for the European waters to scientific and non-scientific users both from inside and outside Europe. The ESEAS aims to achieve this goal in cooperation with other relevant orgaanisations such as the PSMSL, EuroGOOS, GLOSS, EUREF and IGS. The ESEAS strives to guarantee and co-ordinate the long-term monitoring activities and data exchange along the entire European coastline. This includes, among others, tasks like setting up standards for observations and data processing, quality control of the large European database of hourly sea level data, upgrading of the ESEAS Observing Sites, collocation of tide gauges with CGPS, and provision of derived products such as secular trends and estimates of extremes. The EU-funded ESEAS-RI project started on 1 November 2002 with 25 institutions from 17 countries included. The project will run over three years and provides substantial resources for improving the observational network as well as the tools for exploitation of the data. In particular, Work Package (WP) 1 (Quality Control of Sea Level Observations) will make available a quality-controlled data set of hourly tide gauge from most ESEAS Observing sites. WP2 (Absolute sea level variations) will concentrate on the determination of vertical crustal motion at the ESEAS Observing sites. WP3 (Decadal to inter-decadal sea level variations) will produce as main result an empirical model of the sea level variations in the Eurepean Seas for the last hundred years. Finally, in the frame of WP4 (Improving the sea level observing system), a number of ESEAS Observing Sites will be upgraded and/or augmented with CGPS.

Plag, H.-P.

2003-04-01

104

Controls on pH in surface waters of northwestern European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a high resolution surface water pH dataset obtained in the Northwest European shelf seas in summer 2011. This is the first time that pH has been measured at such a high spatial resolution (10 measurements h-1) in this region. The aim of our paper is to investigate the carbonate chemistry dynamics of the surface water using pH and ancillary data. The main processes controlling the pH distribution along the ship's transect, and their relative importance, were determined using a statistical approach. The study highlights the impact of biological activity, temperature and riverine inputs on the carbonate chemistry dynamics of the shelf seas surface water. For this summer cruise, the biological activity formed the main control of the pH distribution along the cruise transect. Variations in chlorophyll and nutrients explained 29% of the pH variance along the full transect and as much as 68% in the northern part of the transect. In contrast, the temperature distribution explained ca. 50% of the pH variation in the Skagerrak region. Riverine inputs were evidenced by high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels in the Strait of Moyle (northern Irish Sea) and the southern North Sea with consequent remineralisation processes and a reduction in pH. The DOC distribution described 15% of the pH variance along the full transect. This study highlights the high spatial variability of the surface water pH in shelf seawaters where a range of processes simultaneously impacts the carbonate chemistry.

Rrolle, V. M. C.; Ribas-Ribas, M.; Kitidis, V.; Brown, I.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Lee, G. A.; Shi, T.; Mowlem, M. C.; Achterberg, E. P.

2014-01-01

105

OWEMES -Offshore Wind And Other Marine Renewable Energies In Mediterranean And European Seas Civitavecchia (Italy), 20th  

E-print Network

OWEMES - Offshore Wind And Other Marine Renewable Energies In Mediterranean And European Seas Civitavecchia (Italy), 20th -22th April 2006 How to avoid Biases in Offshore Wind Power Forecasting Lueder von, adaptive system, Neural Network, single site forecast, systematic error Abstract Large-scale offshore wind

Heinemann, Detlev

106

SeaDataNet II - EMODNet - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011 and is making good progress. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. Recently the 1st Innovation Cycle has been completed, including upgrading of the CDI Data Discovery and Access service to ISO 19139 and making it fully INSPIRE compliant. The extensive SeaDataNet Vocabularies have been upgraded too and implemented for all SeaDataNet European metadata directories. SeaDataNet is setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has also increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.4 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 90 connected data centres from 30 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for leading the data management component of the EMODNet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. In the past 4 years EMODNet portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are now being expanded to all European seas in successor projects, which started mid 2013 from EU DG MARE. EMODNet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODNet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy with SeaDataNet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place in the new phase. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far, and give further insights in the EMODNet Bathymetry progress.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

2014-05-01

107

PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon  

E-print Network

to spawn and complete their life cycle. Coho salmon and most southern U.S. runs of Chinook salmon tend181 PACIFIC COAST SALMON UNIT 12 pacific Coast Salmon Unit 12 ROBERT G. KOPE NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon support important commercial

108

AL ASK A SALMON alaska Salmon  

E-print Network

189 AL ASK A SALMON UNIT 13 alaska Salmon INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon have played an important and pivotal role in the history of Alaska. Salmon, along with mining, timber, and furs, were the keystone now, the abundant salmon resources of this region continue to shape much of the con- temporary lives

109

Implementing the European SEA Directive: the Member States' margin of discretion  

SciTech Connect

Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment was officialised in July 2001. It establishes a basic framework for the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment, which should be adopted by the Member States of the European Union. In accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, the responsibility of developing a detailed procedure is left to the Member States. Within this context, this paper aims to assist the Member States with decisions concerning the implementation of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process conforming to the Directive by defining briefly some operational issues related to the Member State's discretionary margin and by analysing their consequences regarding the objectives stated by the Directive (in terms of protection of the environment, contribution to the integration of environmental considerations into the preparation and adoption of plans and programmes, and contribution to more transparent decision-making)

Risse, Nathalie; Crowley, Michel; Vincke, Philippe; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

2003-07-01

110

Paleogeography of the Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins in the Paleogene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published and original data on the lithology and fauna (mainly foraminifers) of the Paleogene Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins are generalized in this article. Their paleogeographic evolution and the character of development of connections with the North Atlantic, Mesotetis, and the Arctic Ocean are established from the moment of generation to their disappearance. It is shown that the paleogeographic conditions of the studied sedimentation basins depend to a great extent on the tectonic movements of lithospheric plates. Iceland Plume volcanism exerted a considerable influence on the paleoenvironment and sedimentogenesis. The paleotectonic and climatic conditions of sedimentation are reconstructed. The occurrence of bauxite-bearing continental residual soil and other data point to a tropical, humid climate in the Early Paleogene, which changed into a moderate humid climate by the end of the Late Paleogene. Terrigenous sediments, including oil-and-gas bearing ones, were formed in the sea basins; they contain products of eroded residual soil, placers of accessory minerals, pyroclastics of volcanoes of the Iceland Plume, and zeolite-bearing, amber-bearing, phosphorite-bearing, and glauconitic horizons that have practical interest.

Kharin, G. S.; Lukashina, N. P.

2010-04-01

111

75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...that pertain to the management of Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea subarea of...

2010-09-24

112

The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recolonizing the River Mersey in northwest England  

PubMed Central

By the 1950s, pollution had extirpated Atlantic salmon in the river Mersey in northwest England. During the 1970s, an extensive restoration program began and in 2001, an adult salmon was caught ascending the river. Subsequently, a fish trap was installed and additional adults are now routinely sampled. In this study, we have genotyped 138 adults and one juvenile salmon at 14 microsatellite loci from across this time period (20012011). We have used assignment analysis with a recently compiled pan-European microsatellite baseline to identify their most probable region of origin. Fish entering the Mersey appear to originate from multiple sources, with the greatest proportion (4560%, dependent on methodology) assigning to rivers in the geographical region just north of the Mersey, which includes Northwest England and the Solway Firth. Substantial numbers also appear to originate from rivers in western Scotland, and from rivers in Wales and Southwest England; nonetheless, the number of fish originating from proximal rivers to the west of the Mersey was lower than expected. Our results suggest that the majority of salmon sampled in the Mersey are straying in a southerly direction, in accordance with the predominantly clockwise gyre present in the eastern Irish Sea. Our findings highlight the complementary roles of improving water quality and in-river navigability in restoring salmon to a river and underlines further the potential benefits of restoration over stocking as a long-term solution to declining fish stocks. PMID:23145338

Ikediashi, Charles; Billington, Sam; Stevens, Jamie R

2012-01-01

113

Absence of anisakid larvae in farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in Southeast Spain.  

PubMed

In the present study, a total of 871 farmed fish, 612 gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and 259 European sea bass (Dicentrarchux labrax L.), were examined for the presence of anisakid larvae. Two diagnostic methods were applied, visual inspection and artificial digestion based on the degradation of fish soft tissue in an acidified pepsin enzyme solution. None of the samples examined in this study contained any anisakid parasite. The results suggest that consumption of these farmed fish species carries a minimal risk of exposure to these nematodes in this region. PMID:20615348

Pealver, J; Dolores, E Mara; Muoz, P

2010-07-01

114

Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data. Helen Glaves1 and Colin Graham2 on behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium The Geo-Seas project will create a network of twenty six European marine geoscience data centres from seventeen coastal countries including six from the Baltic Sea area. This will be achieved through the development of a pan-European infrastructure for the exchange of marine geoscientific data. Researchers will be able to locate and access harmonised and federated marine geological and geophysical datasets and data products held by the data centres through the Geo-Seas data portal, using a common data catalogue. The new infrastructure, an expansion of the exisiting SeaDataNet, will create an infrastructure covering oceanographic and marine geoscientific data. New data products and services will be developed following consultations with users on their current and future research requirements. Common data standards will be implemented across all of the data centres and other geological and geophysical organisations will be encouraged to adopt the protocols, standards and tools which are developed as part of the Geo-Seas project. Oceanographic and marine data include a wide range of variables, an important category of which are the geological and geophysical data sets. This data includes raw observational and analytical data as well as derived data products from seabed sediment samples, boreholes, geophysical surveys (seismic, gravity etc) and sidescan sonar surveys. All of which are essential in order to produce a complete interpretation of seabed geology. Despite there being a large volume of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way between organisations due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations and also within different countries. This makes the direct use of primary data in an integrated way very difficult and also hampers use of the data sets in a harmonised way to produce multidisciplinary data products and services. To ensure interoperability with other marine environmental data types Geo-Seas ISO19115 metadata, OGC and GeoSciML standards will be used as the basis for the metadata profiles for the geological and geophysical data. This will be largely achieved by modifying the SeaDataNet metadata standard profile (Common Data Index or CDI), which is itself based upon the ISO19115 standard, to accommodate the requirements of the Geo-Seas project. The overall objective of Geo-Seas project is to build and deploy a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure within Europe which will in effect provide a data grid for the sharing of marine geological and geophysical data. This will result in a major improvement in the locating, accessing and delivery of federated marine geological and geophysical data and data products from national geological surveys and research institutes across Europe. There is an emphasis on interoperability both with other disciplines as well as with other key framework projects including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and One Geology - Europe. In addition, a key objective of the Geo-Seas project is to underpin European directives such as INSPIRE as well as recent framework programmes on both the global and European scale, for example Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), all of which are intended to encourage the exchange of data and information. Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), INETI (Portugal), IGME (Greece), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI (Poland), EGK (Estonia), LIGG (Lithuania), IO-BAS (Bulgaria), NOA (Greece), CIRIA (United Kingd

Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

2010-05-01

115

Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

2014-05-01

116

Gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) expressed sequence tags: Characterization, tissue-specific expression and gene markers.  

PubMed

The gilthead sea bream, Sparus auratus, and the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, are two of the most important marine species cultivated in Southern Europe. This study aimed at increasing genomic resources for the two species and produced and annotated two sets of 30,000 expressed sequence tags (EST) each from 14 normalized tissue-specific cDNA libraries from sea bream and sea bass. Clustering and assembly of the ESTs formed 5268 contigs and 12,928 singletons for sea bream and 4573 contigs and 13,143 singletons for sea bass, representing 18,196 and 17,716 putative unigenes, respectively. Assuming a similar number of genes in sea bass, sea bream and in the model fish Gasterosteus aculeatus genomes, it was estimated that approximately two thirds of the sea bream and the sea bass transcriptomes were covered by the unigene collections. BLAST sequence similarity searches (using a cut off of e-value <10(-5)) against fully the curated SwissProt (and TrEMBL) databases produced matches of 28%(37%) and 43%(53%) of the sea bream and sea bass unigene datasets respectively, allowing some putative designation of function. A comparative approach is described using human Ensembl peptide ID homolog's for functional annotation, which increased the number of unigenes with GO terms assigned and resulted in more GO terms assigned per unigene. This allowed the identification of tissue-specific genes using enrichment analysis for GO pathways and protein domains. The comparative annotation approach represents a good strategy for transferring more relevant biological information from highly studied species to genomic resource poorer species. It was possible to confirm by interspecies mRNA-to-genomic alignments 25 and 21 alternative splice events in sea bream and sea bass genes, respectively. Even using normalized cDNA from relatively few pooled individuals it was possible to identify 1145 SNPs and 1748 microsatellites loci for genetic marker development. The EST data are being applied to a range of projects, including the development microarrays, genetic and radiation hybrid maps and QTL genome scans. This highlights the important role of ESTs for generating genetic and genomic resources of aquaculture species. PMID:21798212

Louro, Bruno; Passos, Ana Lcia S; Souche, Erika L; Tsigenopoulos, Costas; Beck, Alfred; Lagnel, Jacques; Bonhomme, Franois; Cancela, Leonor; Cerd, Joan; Clark, Melody S; Lubzens, Esther; Magoulas, Antonis; Planas, Josep V; Volckaert, Filip A M; Reinhardt, Richard; Canario, Adelino V M

2010-01-01

117

Biological responses of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to contaminated sediments.  

PubMed

Multiple anthropogenic activities present along coastal environments may affect the health status of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, specimens of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed for 30 days to highly contaminated sediment collected from the industrial area between Augusta and Priolo (Syracuse, Italy), defined as the most mercury polluted site in the Mediterranean. The aim was to evaluate the responses of juvenile D. labrax to highly contaminated sediments, particularly enriched in Hg, in order to enhance the scarce knowledge on the potential compensatory mechanisms developed by organisms under severe stress conditions. Apoptotic and proliferative activities [cell turnover: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and FAS Ligand (FasL)], onset of hypoxic condition [hypoxia: Hypoxia Inducibile Factor-1? (HIF-1?)], and changes in the neuroendocrine control mechanisms [neurotransmission: Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 (5-HT3)] were investigated in sea bass gill tissues. In the specimens exposed to the polluted sediment, the occurrence of altered cell turnover may result in impaired gas exchange that leads to a condition of "functional hypoxia". Changes in neurotransmission pathways were also observed, suggesting a remodeling process as an adaptive response to increase the O2-carrying capacity and restore the normal physiological conditions of the gills. Overall, these findings demonstrated that although chronic exposure to heavy metal polluted sediments alters the functioning of both the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as plasticity of the gill epithelium, fish are able to trigger a series of physiological adjustments or adaptations interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms that enable their long-term survival. PMID:23953925

De Domenico, Elena; Mauceri, Angela; Giordano, Daniela; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Natalotto, Antonino; D'Agata, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Fasulo, Salvatore

2013-11-01

118

The Relationship between Phytoplankton Distribution and Water Column Characteristics in North West European Shelf Sea Waters  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the Ellett Line cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN?DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN?DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of growth at most stations and depths. PMID:22479533

Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J. S.; Brand, Tim D.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2012-01-01

119

Influence of temperature, oxygen and salinity on the metabolism of the European sea bass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard (SMR) and routine (RMR) metabolic rates of groups (4 to 5 individuals) of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) were measured at combinations of the following factors: temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25C), oxygenation level (air saturation to 1.5 mg dm -3) and salinity (30, 20, 10 and 5). The influence of these environmental conditions on fish metabolic demand was then analysed through ANOVA. At 10, 15, 20 and 25C, standard metabolic rates were 36, 65, 89, and 91 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1, respectively, while routine oxygen consumptions covered most of the metabolic range accessible. Osmoregulatory costs are linked to metabolic activity through ventilation. This relationship was highlighted by the observed interaction between environmental salinity and temperature. We were, however, unable to detect interactions between salinity and routine metabolic rate, or between salinity and oxygenation level. In order to delineate more precisely the restrictions imposed by water oxygenation on fish metabolic performance we determined the limiting oxygen concentration curves at each experimental temperature. We followed up by modelling the bass active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) as functions of both ambient temperature and oxygenation. These mathematical models allowed the characterisation of the controlling and limiting effects of water temperature and oxygen content on the metabolic capacity of the species. Thus, AMR at 10, 15 and 20C were estimated at 65, 160 and 360 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1, respectively. However, at higher temperature (25C) AMR dropped slightly (to 340 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1). Bass MS increased by a factor of 9 between 10 and 20C, but diminished at higher temperatures. The present study contributes to our current understanding of the influences of environmental factors on the metabolism of sea bass and provides a bioenergetic basis for a study of how environmental constraints govern the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of this species.

Claireaux, G.; Lagardre, J.-P.

1999-09-01

120

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

2003-01-01

121

Daily Mean Sea Level Pressure Reconstructions for the EuropeanNorth Atlantic Region for the Period 18502003  

E-print Network

Institute, Norrköping, Sweden g University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain h KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands i of a daily historical European­North Atlantic mean sea level pressure dataset (EMSLP) for 1850­2003 on a 5 distributed over the region 25°­70°N, 70°W­50°E blended with marine data from the International Comprehensive

Brandsma, Theo

122

Daily Mean Sea Level Pressure Reconstructions for the European North Atlantic Region for the Period 1850 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a daily historical European-North Atlantic mean sea level pressure dataset (EMSLP) for 1850-2003 on a 5 latitude by longitude grid is described. This product was produced using 86 continental and island stations distributed over the region 25-70N, 70W-50E blended with marine data from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS). The EMSLP fields for 1850-80 are based

T. J. Ansell; P. D. Jones; R. J. Allan; D. Lister; D. E. Parker; M. Brunet; A. Moberg; J. Jacobeit; P. Brohan; N. A. Rayner; E. Aguilar; H. Alexandersson; M. Barriendos; T. Brandsma; N. J. Cox; P. M. Della-Marta; A. Drebs; D. Founda; F. Gerstengarbe; K. Hickey; T. Jnsson; J. Luterbacher; . Nordli; H. Oesterle; M. Petrakis; A. Philipp; M. J. Rodwell; O. Saladie; J. Sigro; V. Slonosky; L. Srnec; V. Swail; A. M. Garca-Surez; H. Tuomenvirta; X. Wang; H. Wanner; P. Werner; D. Wheeler; E. Xoplaki

2006-01-01

123

ICOWES2013 Conference 17-19 June 2013, Lyngby WINDS OBSERVED IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN SEAS WITH  

E-print Network

ICOWES2013 Conference 17-19 June 2013, Lyngby 1 WINDS OBSERVED IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN SEAS WITH WIND LIDARS, METEOROLOGICAL MASTS AND SATELLITE C.B. Hasager1 , D. Stein2 , A. Peña1 , S Hagemann3 , T. Bingöl1 , M. Courtney1 , A. Oldroyd6 1 DTU Wind Energy, Risø Campus, Roskilde (DK), cbha@dtu.dk, aldi

Haak, Hein

124

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania

Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

2009-04-01

125

Net ground speed of downstream migrating radio-tagged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) smolts in relation to environmental factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The downstream migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) and sea trout smolt (S. trutta L.) was investigated using radio telemetry in the spring of 1999 and 2000. Forty wild sea trout smolts, 20 F1 sea trout smolts, 20 hatchery salmon smolts and 20 salmon smolts from river stockings were radio tagged and released in the Danish River Lilleaa. The downstream

Kim Aarestrup; Christian Nielsen; Anders Koed

2002-01-01

126

Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been analysed. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea level (CSL). The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot lead to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated here to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for deficient precipitation and for winter cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until the end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly). So the remaining drop of 20 cm can be expected in the months to follow if no other anomalies happen. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS. Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are also investigated, which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive quantities like surface evaporation and precipitation. The comparison with independent data and the consistency between such data for calculating the water budget over the CS gives a high confidence in the quality of the data used. This investigation provides some scope for making forecasts of the CSL few months ahead to allow for mitigating societal impacts.

Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Lahijani, H.; Khan, V.

2012-01-01

127

Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been established. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea Level (CSL). The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot have led to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for other cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly), 7 cm from October to the end of 2010 and another 5 cm to the end of May 2011. From October 2010 to February 2011 excessive precipitation occurred over the Volga basin, equivalent to an increase of the CSL of 7 cm which might just compensate the 7 cm of the remaining deficit from the summer drought. A deficit of water took however already place in the months before July 2010. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS. Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are investigated as well which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive quantities like surface evaporation and precipitation. The comparison with independent data and the consistency between such data for calculating the water budget over the CS gives a high confidence in the quality of the data used. This investigation provides some scope for making forecasts of the CSL few months ahead to allow for mitigating societal impacts.

Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Lahijani, H.; Khan, V.

2011-08-01

128

Salmon's Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,

Shannon, Thomas A.

1994-01-01

129

Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for a network of ocean observing systems cross many applied and research areas of earth and marine science. Many of the science areas that can be examined using such systems have direct impacts on societal health and well being and our understanding of ocean function in a shifting climate. The European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET) Network of Excellence has been evaluating ocean observatory design requirements, data management needs, standardization and interoperability concerns, social implications, outreach and education, as well as financial and legal aspects of developing such a system. ESONET has great potential to address a growing set of Earth science questions that require a broad and integrated network of ocean and seafloor observations. ESONET activities are also importantly integrating researchers in the European Community, as well as internationally. There is now wide recognition that research addressing science questions of international priority, such as understanding the potential impacts of climate change or geohazards like earthquakes and tsunamis should be conducted in a framework that can address questions across adequate temporal and spatial scales. We will present the relevant science priorities in the four interconnected fields of geoscience, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and marine ecology, and some of the practical ways in which these questions can be addressed using ESONET. Several key questions persist that will require comprehensive interdisciplinary approaches including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, fluid pore chemistry and pressure, improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? To what extent do seabed processes influence ocean physics, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems? How are physical and biogeochemical processes that occur at differing scales related? What aspects of physical oceanography and biogeochemical cycling will be most sensitive to climate change? What will the important feedbacks of potential ecological change be on biogeochemical cycles? What are the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine life and what will the influence of anthropogenic change be? We will outline a set of science objectives and observation parameters to be collected at all ESONET sites, as well as a set of rather specific objectives and thus parameters that might only be measured at some sites. We will also present the preliminary module specifications now being considered by ESONET. In a practical sense the observatory design has been divided into those that will be included in a so called generic' module and those that will be part of science-specific modules. Outlining preliminary module specifications is required to move forward with studies of observatory design and operation. These specifications are importantly provisional and can be updated as science needs and feasibility change. A functional cleavage not only comes between aspects that are considered generic or specific, but also the settings in which those systems will be used. For example, some modules will be on the seabed and some will be moored in the water column. In order to address many of the questions posed above ESONET users will require other supporting data from other programs from local to international levels. Examples of these other data sources include satellite oceanographic data, climatic data, air-sea interface data, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna. Thus the connection of ESONET to other programs is integral to its success. The development of ESONET provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Furthermore, ESONET and several other developing ocean observatory programs are integrating into larger science frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programs. It is only in a greater integrated framework that the full potential of the component systems will be realized.

Ruhl, H.; Gli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colao, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

2009-04-01

130

Intercomparison of carbonate chemistry measurements on a cruise in northwestern European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four carbonate system variables were measured in surface waters during a cruise aimed at investigating ocean acidification impacts traversing northwestern European shelf seas in the summer of 2011. High-resolution surface water data were collected for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; using two independent instruments) and pH using the total pH scale (pHT), in addition to discrete measurements of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. We thus overdetermined the carbonate system (four measured variables, two degrees of freedom), which allowed us to evaluate the level of agreement between the variables on a cruise whose main aim was not intercomparison, and thus where conditions were more representative of normal working conditions. Calculations of carbonate system variables from other measurements generally compared well with direct observations of the same variables (Pearson's correlation coefficient always greater than or equal to 0.94; mean residuals were similar to the respective accuracies of the measurements). We therefore conclude that four of the independent data sets of carbonate chemistry variables were of high quality. A diurnal cycle with a maximum amplitude of 41 ?atm was observed in the difference between the pCO2 values obtained by the two independent analytical pCO2 systems, and this was partly attributed to irregular seawater flows to the equilibrator and partly to biological activity inside the seawater supply and one of the equilibrators. We discuss how these issues can be addressed to improve carbonate chemistry data quality on future research cruises.

Ribas-Ribas, M.; Rrolle, V. M. C.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Kitidis, V.; Lee, G. A.; Brown, I.; Achterberg, E. P.; Hardman-Mountford, N. J.; Tyrrell, T.

2014-08-01

131

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN  

E-print Network

1 A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN BRITISH COLUMBIA?" Report 1: Parasitic Sea Lice and Other Diseases of Pacific Salmon December 2012 review funded by the BC Salmon Farmers Association #12;2 Table of Contents PREAMBLE

Farrell, Anthony P.

132

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness Dylan J. Fraser,1 Adam M. Cook,1 James escapes of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recur from sea cages (Fiske et al. 2006). Escaped farmed

Fraser, Dylan J.

133

75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures for Groundfish...be a novel approach to managing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery...combines a limit on the amount of Chinook salmon that may be caught incidentally with...

2010-02-18

134

Chinook Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can painted wooden fish on a schoolyard fence change human behavior and help clean up the ocean for the real salmon? Stream of Dreams in British Columbia thinks so, and a lot of wooden fish and some 100,000 school kids later, they have some intriguing results to show for their effort. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

135

Salmon Patties Ingredients  

E-print Network

Salmon Patties Ingredients: 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 15 ounces salmon, canned 1 cup whole wheat to medium. 2. While skillet is heating, open can of salmon and add to bowl. Use a fork to remove skin to bowl with salmon. 5. Use hands to mix ingredients together and shape mixture into eight patties. 6. Add

Liskiewicz, Maciej

136

Assessment of Salmon Stocks  

E-print Network

Annual Assessment of Salmon Stocks and Fisheries in England and Wales 2009 #12;#12;SALMON STOCKS;Acknowledgement: This report has been compiled jointly by staff from the Cefas Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries and assessment of salmon stocks is funded by Defra. Both Cefas and the Environment Agency would like to extend

137

Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Mller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen; Saksida, Sonja M.

2015-01-01

138

A mathematical model of the growth of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, populations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Scotland and its use in the assessment of treatment strategies.  

PubMed

Sea lice are a persistent problem for farmed and wild salmonid populations. Control can be achieved through the use of veterinary medicines. A model was developed to describe the patterns of sea lice infection on salmon farms in Scotland and to predict the likely effect of various treatment strategies. This model takes into account development rates and mortality using compartments representing life history stages and external infection pressure. The national sea lice infection pattern was described using parameters representing stage survival, background infection levels and egg viability rates. The patterns observed across farms varied greatly and the model gave broad agreement to observed trends with different parameters being required in the model for sites using hydrogen peroxide and cypermethrin treatments. The parameter estimates suggest that the background infection pressure on sites where cypermethrin was administered was higher than for those using hydrogen peroxide. Both models had comparable magnitudes of sensitivity with survival from one stage to another being the most sensitive parameter, followed by feedback rates at which gravid females produce eggs, with background infection levels the least sensitive. The effect of different cypermethrin treatment strategies was assessed using the model. Increasing treatments in a production cycle gave more effective control. However, the model showed that timing of treatments is most important if sea lice are to be effectively controlled. PMID:16302954

Revie, C W; Robbins, C; Gettinby, G; Kelly, L; Treasurer, J W

2005-10-01

139

Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are

Devaney, Laurel

140

Mechanisms of oocyte development in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): investigations via application of unilateral ovariectomy.  

PubMed

Unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) was performed in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) during late pre-vitellogenesis/early vitellogenesis. Plasma steroid levels and the expression of a suite of potential oogenesis-relevant genes in the ovary, brain, and pituitary were evaluated with the aim of understanding their involvement in the compensatory oocyte development occurring within the remaining ovarian lobe. After 69 days of surgery the remaining ovarian lobe in ULO fish was gravimetrically equivalent to an intact-paired ovary of sham operated, control fish. This compensatory ovarian growth was based on an increased number of early perinucleolar oocytes and mid-late stage vitellogenic follicles without an apparent recruitment of primary oocytes into the secondary growth phase. Plasma steroid levels were similar in ULO and control females at all time points analyzed, suggesting an increased steroid production of the remaining ovarian lobe in hemi-castrated females. Results of the gene expression survey conducted indicate that the signaling pathways mediated by Fsh and Gnrh1 constitute the central axes orchestrating the observed ovarian compensatory growth. In addition, steroid receptors, Star protein, Igfs, and members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily including anti-Mullerian hormone and bone morphogenetic protein 4 were identified as potentially relevant players within this process, although their specific actions and interactions remain to be established. Our results demonstrate that ULO provides an excellent in vivo model for elucidating the interconnected endocrine and molecular mechanisms controlling oocyte development in European sea bass. PMID:21610167

Garca-Lpez, ngel; Snchez-Amaya, Mara I; Tyler, Charles R; Prat, Francisco

2011-08-01

141

Final Report for EFP 08-02 to explore the potential for flapper-style salmon excluders for the Bering Sea pollock fishery  

E-print Network

1 Final Report for EFP 08-02 to explore the potential for flapper-style salmon excluders Escape Port Packing Tube orCodend #12;2 Final Report for EFP 08-02 to explore the potential for flapper Association, Craig Rose, Alaska Fisheries Science Center The objective of EFP 08-02 was to evaluate a new

142

Salmon Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.

143

Development of an oligo DNA microarray for the European sea bass and its application to expression profiling of jaw deformity  

PubMed Central

Background The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a marine fish of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture. Functional genomics offers the possibility to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying productive traits in farmed fish, and a step towards the application of marker assisted selection methods in this species. To this end, we report here on the development of an oligo DNA microarray for D. labrax. Results A database consisting of 19,048 unique transcripts was constructed, of which 12,008 (63%) could be annotated by similarity and 4,692 received a GO functional annotation. Two non-overlapping 60mer probes were designed for each unique transcript and in-situ synthesized on glass slides using Agilent SurePrint technology. Probe design was positively completed for 19,035 target clusters; the oligo microarray was then applied to profile gene expression in mandibles and whole-heads of fish affected by prognathism, a skeletal malformation that strongly affects sea bass production. Statistical analysis identified 242 transcripts that are significantly down-regulated in deformed individuals compared to normal fish, with a significant enrichment in genes related to nervous system development and functioning. A set of genes spanning a wide dynamic range in gene expression level were selected for quantitative RT-PCR validation. Fold change correlation between microarray and qPCR data was always significant. Conclusions The microarray platform developed for the European sea bass has a high level of flexibility, reliability, and reproducibility. Despite the well known limitations in achieving a proper functional annotation in non-model species, sufficient information was obtained to identify biological processes that are significantly enriched among differentially expressed genes. New insights were obtained on putative mechanisms involved on mandibular prognathism, suggesting that bone/nervous system development might play a role in this phenomenon. PMID:20525278

2010-01-01

144

Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding  

PubMed Central

European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed that even the smallest larvae feed on a striking variety of plankton organisms, and that gelatinous zooplankton is of fundamental dietary importance. Hence, the specific plankton composition seems essential for eel larval feeding and growth, suggesting a linkage between eel survival and regional plankton productivity. These novel insights into the prey of Atlantic eels may furthermore facilitate eel larval rearing in aquaculture, which ultimately may replace the unsustainable use of wild-caught glass eels. PMID:20573615

Riemann, Lasse; Alfredsson, Hanna; Hansen, Michael M.; Als, Thomas D.; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Munk, Peter; Aarestrup, Kim; Maes, Gregory E.; Sparholt, Henrik; Petersen, Michael I.; Bachler, Mirjam; Castonguay, Martin

2010-01-01

145

Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

None

2010-01-04

146

GILL NET MESH SELECTION CURVES FOR PACIFIC SALMON ON THE By ALVIN E. PETERSON, Fisher-y Biologist (Research)  

E-print Network

GILL NET MESH SELECTION CURVES FOR PACIFIC SALMON ON THE HIGH SEAS By ALVIN E. PETERSON, Fisher-y Biologist (Research) BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES, SEA'ITLE, WASH. ABSTRACT Gill net mesh selection curves.reial Fisheries fishes experiment,ally for salmon with slI1'face gill nets on the high seas of the North Pacific

147

Is the European shipping industry aware of corporate social responsibility? The case of the Greek-owned short sea shipping companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to clarify the meaning of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the context of the European maritime sector and examines its application in the case of the Greek-owned short sea shipping companies. CSR is assessed in terms of a number of variables such as employees satisfaction, corporate productivity and efficiency, social welfare, awareness and social accountability of managers

Irene Fafaliou; Maria Lekakou; Ioannis Theotokas

2006-01-01

148

The role of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the incorporation of neutral lipids into the oocytes of the European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) during gonadal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned the cDNA encoding LPL and studied its mRNA expression and enzyme activity in the ovary of European sea bass in order to investigate a possible role of this enzyme in the incorporation of neutral lipids into the oocytes. The results suggest that LPL is likely to play an important role in this process.

A. J. Ibez; J. Peinado-Onsurbe; E. Snchez; F. Prat

2003-01-01

149

GROWTH OF JUVENILES OF EUROPEAN HAKE, MERLUCCIUS MERLUCCIUS (L., 1758), IN THE NORTHERN TYRRHENIAN SEA ACCRESCIMENTO DI JUVENILES DI MERLUCCIUS MERLUCCIUS (L., 1758) NEL MAR TIRRENO SETTENTRIONALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Running head: Growth of juveniles of European hake in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea Abstract Growth of juveniles of Merluccius merluccius (L., 1758) (Pisces; Osteichthyes) was studied by ageing method based on otolith daily increments interpretation. Left sagittae, from specimens between 3.5 and 20.0 cm TL, were ground and then observed under light microscope. Age and length data were used to

A. LIGAS; P. BELCARI; D. BERTOLINI; C. VIVA

150

Sea Port system and the inland terminals network in the enlarged European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last three decades have seen huge developments in international trading flows between Western Europe, North America and especially Asia. According to figures from the World Trade Organisation, global trade in goods will have grown by an average of 6.9% a year between 1997 and 2006. According to this, the combined transport volume in the European Union will probably triplicate

Olivier Podevins

2007-01-01

151

Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L., Clupeidae) reveals isolated climatically vulnerable populations in the Mediterranean Sea and range expansion in the northeast Atlantic.  

PubMed

We examined the genetic structure of the European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) by means of a 530-bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region from 210 fish originating from seven sampling localities of its distributional range. Phylogeographical analysis of 128 haplotypes showed a phylogenetic separation into two major clades with the Strait of Sicily acting as a barrier to gene flow between them. While no population differentiation was observed based on analysis of molecular variance and net nucleotide differences between samples of the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Bay of Biscay nor between the Black Sea and the Bosporus, a strong population differentiation between these samples and two samples from the Mediterranean Sea was found. Further, the biggest genetic distance was observed within the Mediterranean Sea between the populations of the Gulf of Lyon and the Adriatic Sea, indicating genetic isolation of these regions. Low genetic diversities and star-like haplotype networks of both Mediterranean Sea populations point towards recent demographic expansion scenarios after low population size, which is further supported by negative F(S) values and unimodal mismatch distributions with a low mean. Along the northeast Atlantic coast, a northwards range expansion of a large and stable population can be assumed. The history of a diverse but differentiated Black Sea population remains unknown due to uncertainties in the palaeo-oceanography of this sea. Our genetic data did not confirm the presently used classification into subspecies but are only preliminary in the absence of nuclear genetic analyses. PMID:18643878

Debes, P V; Zachos, F E; Hanel, R

2008-09-01

152

THE EVOLUTION OF THE FRESHWATER RACES OF THE ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO S.ALAR L) IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE life cycle of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is typically divided between freshwater and marine environments. Spawning occurs in rivers and the juvenile salmon, known as parr, remain in this habitat for from 1 to 7 years before changing into smolts and migrating to the sea. Little is known of the marine life of the salmon except that

G. Power

153

GROWTH OF PREMIGRATORY CHINOOK SALMON IN SEAWATER BERNARD M. KEPSHlRE, JR., AND WILLIAM J. McNEIL'  

E-print Network

GROWTH OF PREMIGRATORY CHINOOK SALMON IN SEAWATER BERNARD M. KEPSHlRE, JR., AND WILLIAM J. McNEIL' ABSTRACT A potential demand exists in sea farming for premigratory juvenile Pacific salmon that have been acclimated to seawater. This paper reports experiments on growth of premigratory chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus

154

Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

155

Calcitonin Salmon Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

156

Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canadas Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canadas Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

2013-01-01

157

Salmon Homing Instincts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon Homing Instincts is an activity that enables learners to experience what it is like to be a returning salmon attempting to find its home by smell. Scientific research suggests that salmon use the smell of water to find their home stream; even after being out in the open ocean as many as six years. The activity allows the entire class to participate in the life cycle of the Pacific salmon and the hazards (i.e. pollution) of their journey.

Werner, Deborah

1998-01-01

158

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

159

Salmon Spread Ingredients  

E-print Network

Salmon Spread Ingredients: 15 ounces salmon, canned 1 small onion 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 salmon and place in a bowl. Use a fork to mash bones and remove skin. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting

Liskiewicz, Maciej

160

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

PubMed Central

Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries. PMID:18271629

Ford, Jennifer S; Myers, Ransom A

2008-01-01

161

A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.  

PubMed

Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries. PMID:18271629

Ford, Jennifer S; Myers, Ransom A

2008-02-01

162

Distribution and persistence of the anti sea-lice drug teflubenzuron in wild fauna and sediments around a salmon farm, following a standard treatment.  

PubMed

The salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) is a challenge in the farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To treat an infestation, different insecticides are used like the orally administered chitin synthetase inhibitor teflubenzuron. The concentrations and distribution of teflubenzuron were measured in water, organic particles, marine sediment and biota caught in the vicinity of a fish farm following a standard medication. Low concentrations were found in water samples whereas the organic waste from the farm, collected by sediment traps had concentrations higher than the medicated feed. Most of the organic waste was distributed to the bottom close to the farm but organic particles containing teflubenzuron were collected 1100m from the farm. The sediment under the farm consisted of 5 to 10% organic material and therefore the concentration of teflubenzuron was much lower than in the organic waste. Teflubenzuron was persistent in the sediment with a stipulated halflife of 170days. Sediment consuming polychaetes had high but decreasing concentrations of teflubenzuron throughout the experimental period, reflecting the decrease of teflubenzuron in the sediment. During medication most wild fauna contained teflubenzuron residues and where polychaetes and saith had highest concentrations. Eight months later only polychaetes and some crustaceans contained drug residues. What dosages that induce mortality in various crustaceans following short or long-term exposure is not known but the results indicate that the concentrations in defined individuals of king crab, shrimp, squat lobster and Norway lobster were high enough shortly after medication to induce mortality if moulting was imminent. Considering food safety, saith and the brown meat of crustaceans contained at first sampling concentrations of teflubenzuron higher than the MRL-value set for Atlantic salmon. The concentrations were, however, moderate and the amount of saith fillet or brown meat of crustaceans to be consumed in order to exceed ADI is relatively large. PMID:25474168

Samuelsen, Ole B; Lunestad, Bjrn T; Hannisdal, Rita; Bannister, Raymond; Olsen, Siri; Tjensvoll, Tore; Farestveit, Eva; Ervik, Arne

2015-03-01

163

Cooking with Canned Salmon  

E-print Network

. New E-85 9/01 Salmon Loaf (makes 4 servings) What you need 14.75-ounce can salmon 1 /4 cup liquid from canned salmon 10 3 /4 ounce can cream of celery soup 1 cup dry bread crumbs 2 eggs, beaten... that might be in the canned salmon. 4. Mix the salmon, liquid, soup, bread crumbs, eggs, onion and lemon juice. 5. Press the mixture into a greased 9- by 5-inch loaf pan. 6. Bake at 375 degrees F for about 1 hour. Cool it for 10 minutes before removing...

Anding, Jenna

2001-09-10

164

Differences in risks and consequences of salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer), infestation on sympatric populations of Atlantic salmon, brown trout, and Arctic charr within northern fjords  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation on sympatric populations of fjord-migrating, Atlantic salmon post- smolts (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta) (sea trout), and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) were studied in three fjords with fish- farming activity in northern Norway during the period June-August 2000. Atlantic salmon post-smolts were only captured in the fjords during late June and early

P. A. Bjorn; B. Finstad; R. Kristoffersen; R. S. McKinley; A. H. Rikardsen

2006-01-01

165

Arm regeneration frequency in eight species of ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from European sea areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight ophiuroid species, six from the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak and three from the northern Adriatic Sea, were examined for regeneration of arms. The species were separated into groups based upon mode of feeding and habitat. Comparison between groups collected in the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak showed that infaunal suspension- and deposit-feeding species ( Amphiura filiformis and A. chiajei) had significantly more scars per arm (mean number 0.78) than epibenthic suspension feeders ( Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiocomina nigra, 0.29) or epibenthic carnivores and deposit feeders ( Ophiura ophiura and O. albida, 0.13). Spatial variation in arm regeneration incidence was found between sampling sites in the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak for Amphiura filiformis and in the northern Adriatic Sea for Ophiothrix quinquemaculata. The ash-free dry weight (AFDW) and nitrogen (N) contents were measured in arms of six species of brittle-stars from the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak. Differences between species were found, with highest concentrations of AFDW and N in Amphiura filiformis, intermediate in A. chiajei, Ophiocomina nigra and Ophiothrix fragilis, and lowest in Ophiura ophiura and O. albida. As the infaunal suspension- and deposit-feeding brittle-stars ( Amphiura spp.) had the highest proportions of damaged arms and highest AFDW and N contents in their arms in this comparison, it is suggested that selective cropping of arms by demersal fish is the main cause of arm damage on Amphiura spp. in this area.

Skld, Mattias; Rosenberg, Rutger

1996-06-01

166

Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By exploiting the available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences - spanning over a sampling period of more than 10 yr - retrieved from sediments of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV), Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) and eastern Mediterranean (Amsterdam and Kazan mud volcanoes; AMSMV, KZNMV) mud volcanoes/pockmarks, we investigated whether these systems are characterized by high (interconnectivity) or low (isolation) connection degree based on shared bacterial and archaeal phylotypes. We found only two archaeal and two bacterial phylotypes to occur in all three sites and a few more that were found in two of the three sites. Although the number of shared species depends a lot on the analysis depth of each sample, the majority of the common phylotypes were related mostly to cold seep deep-sea habitats, while for some of them their relative abundance was high enough to be considered as key-species for the habitat they were found. As new tools, like next generation sequencing platforms, are more appropriate for revealing greater depth of diversity but also allow sample replication and uniform sampling protocols, and gain wider recognition and usage, future attempts are more realistic now for fully elucidating the degree of specificity in deep-sea mud volcanoes and pockmarks microbial communities.

Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

2012-12-01

167

MFR PAPER 1222 Effects of Dams on Pacific Salmon  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 2725 Montlake Blvd. East, SealIIe, WA 98112. grounds. These fish "ladders The need for salmon, sea-run trout, and other anadromous fish to spawn in fresh water has made them in the environment of anadromous fish. Great dams barred passage to the sea; huge lakes replaced swift-flowing rivers

168

The influence of ocean acidification on nitrogen regeneration and nitrous oxide production in the northwest European shelf sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assimilation and regeneration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the concentration of N2O, was investigated at stations located in the NW European shelf sea during June/July 2011. These observational measurements within the photic zone demonstrated the simultaneous regeneration and assimilation of NH4+, NO2- and NO3-. NH4+ was assimilated at 1.82-49.12 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 3.46-14.60 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO2- was assimilated at 0-2.08 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.01-1.85 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO3- was assimilated at 0.67-18.75 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.05-28.97 nmol N L-1 h-1. Observations implied that these processes were closely coupled at the regional scale and that nitrogen recycling played an important role in sustaining phytoplankton growth during the summer. The [N2O], measured in water column profiles, was 10.13 1.11 nmol L-1 and did not strongly diverge from atmospheric equilibrium indicating that sampled marine regions were neither a strong source nor sink of N2O to the atmosphere. Multivariate analysis of data describing water column biogeochemistry and its links to N-cycling activity failed to explain the observed variance in rates of N-regeneration and N-assimilation, possibly due to the limited number of process rate observations. In the surface waters of five further stations, ocean acidification (OA) bioassay experiments were conducted to investigate the response of NH4+ oxidising and regenerating organisms to simulated OA conditions, including the implications for [N2O]. Multivariate analysis was undertaken which considered the complete bioassay data set of measured variables describing changes in N-regeneration rate, [N2O] and the biogeochemical composition of seawater. While anticipating biogeochemical differences between locations, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism through which pelagic N-regeneration responded to simulated OA conditions was independent of location. Our objective was to develop a mechanistic understanding of how NH4+ regeneration, NH4+ oxidation and N2O production responded to OA. Results indicated that N-regeneration process responses to OA treatments were location specific; no mechanistic understanding of how N-regeneration processes respond to OA in the surface ocean of the NW European shelf sea could be developed.

Clark, D. R.; Brown, I. J.; Rees, A. P.; Somerfield, P. J.; Miller, P. I.

2014-09-01

169

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms  

E-print Network

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms Brendan M of pathogen transmission from farmed fish on species interactions or other ecosystem components. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch smolts are susceptible hosts to the parasitic salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis as well

Dill, Lawrence M.

170

Sensitivity of the European LGM climate to North Atlantic sea-surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent reconstructions of Sea-Surface Temperatures (SSTs) for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21kyr BP) based on foraminifera and dinoflagellate proxies suggest that the north Atlantic may have been warmer than estimated by CLIMAP [1981]. To better understand the impact of such a warm north Atlantic on the global LGM climate, we used two different AGCMs to perform sensitivity studies. With the new, warmer SSTs, both models simulate a hydrological cycle and temperatures very different from those obtained with the CLIMAP boundary conditions. The most noticeable differences occur in winter over North America and Siberia whereas southern Europe is only weakly affected at all seasons. Whichever the conditions prescribed over the north Atlantic, both models underestimate the large cooling recorded by continental proxy data over the Mediterranean Basin.

Pinot, Sophie; Ramstein, Gilles; Marsiat, Isabelle; de Vernal, Anne; Peyron, Odile; Duplessy, Jean-Claude; Weinelt, Maria

171

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

assessments for lower Columbia River chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmon, steelhead, bull trout, and cutthroat trout Vol. II Subbasins Fish populations and habitat conditions in each of 11 Washington lower

172

The effects of freshwater rearing on the whole body and muscle tissue fatty acid profile of the European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of freshwater rearing on the fatty acid profiles of the whole body\\u000a and muscle tissue of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Half of initial fish were gradually acclimated to freshwater (FW) kept at the same temperature to salt water and grown\\u000a in same conditions as their counterparts in saltwater

Arzu zler Hunt; Ferbal zkan; Kenan Engin; Nazmi Tekelio?lu

2011-01-01

173

Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments. PMID:24788771

Pham, Christopher K; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Alt, Claudia H S; Amaro, Teresa; Bergmann, Melanie; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Davies, Jaime; Duineveld, Gerard; Galgani, Franois; Howell, Kerry L; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Isidro, Eduardo; Jones, Daniel O B; Lastras, Galderic; Morato, Telmo; Gomes-Pereira, Jos Nuno; Purser, Autun; Stewart, Heather; Tojeira, Ins; Tubau, Xavier; Van Rooij, David; Tyler, Paul A

2014-01-01

174

Feeding habits of European pilchard late larvae in a nursery area in the Adriatic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European pilchard Sardina pilchardus late larvae were collected in the Gulf of Manfredonia, an important nursery area, during their seasonal inshore occurrence. Thanks to diel cycle sampling and to the wide range of larval lengths (from a minimum of 27 mm to a maximum of 45 mm), both feeding rhythm and ontogenetic changes were analysed. The feeding peak was observed in the afternoon, before sunset. Sardine larvae were exclusively zooplanktivorous, their diet being based on Calanoid Copepods from the genus Paracalanus (IRI% = 65.7), on the species Temora longicornis (IRI% = 15.5) and other small-sized Copepods. Other planktonic organisms appeared in the stomach contents occasionally and never reached IRI% values > 1. The number of prey per stomach increased suddenly at larval lengths around 40 mm, corresponding to the development of the stomach. Prey composition in the environment was established by contemporaneous sampling of plankton, performed by means of two plankton nets with different meshes. The main prey items were positively selected among those available in the field, but some other prey (Centropages spp., Harpacticoids, Corycaeids, Temora stylifera and Acartia spp.) were also preferred, although rare in the plankton samples. In contrast, copepod nauplii, despite their abundance in the environment (15,848 4441 individuals m- 3), were only occasionally recovered in the larval gut contents (N = 0.26%). This shows that sardine late larvae have switched to larger prey items.

Borme, Diego; Tirelli, Valentina; Palomera, Isabel

2013-04-01

175

European seafloor observatory offers new possibilities for deep-sea study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geophysical and Oceanographic Station for Abyssal Research (GEOSTAR), an autonomous seafloor observatory that collects measurements benefiting a number of disciplines during missions up to 1 year long, will begin the second phase of its first mission in 2000. The 6-8 month investigation will take place at a depth of 3400 m in the southern Tyrrhenian basin of the central Mediterranean. GEOSTAR was funded by the European Community (EC) for $2.4 million (U.S. dollars) in 1995 as part of the Marine Science and Technology programme (MAST). The innovative deployment and recovery procedure GEOSTAR uses was derived from the two-module concept successfully applied by NASA in the Apollo and space shuttle missions, where one module performs tasks for the other, including deployment, switching on and off, performing checks, and recovery. The observatory communication system, which takes advantage of satellite telemetry, and the simultaneous acquisition of a set of various measurements with a unique time reference make GEOSTAR the first fundamental element of a multiparameter ocean network.

Favali, Paolo; Smriglio, Giuseppe; Beranzoli, Laura; Braun, Thomas; Calcara, Massimo; Colore, Daniele; Campaci, Renato; Coudeville, Jean-Michel; De Santis, Angelo; Di Mauro, Domenico; Etiope, Giuseppe; Frugoni, Francesco; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Gamberi, Fabiano; Gasparoni, Francesco; Gerber, Hans; Marani, Michael; Marvaldi, Jean; Millot, Claude; Montuori, Caterina; Romeo, Giovanni; Palangio, Paolo

176

Relationships among Traits of Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Performance in Individual European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax  

PubMed Central

Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits. PMID:24019879

Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S.; Domenici, Paolo; Claireaux, Guy; McKenzie, David J.

2013-01-01

177

Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in European Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind resources, but since installing and operating a meteorological mast in situ is expensive, prospective sites must be carefully evaluated. Accordingly, one can conceptualize the wind resource assessment process as a two-phase activity: ( i) an evaluation of wind resources at the regional scale to locate promising wind farm sites and ( ii) a site specific evaluation of wind climatology and vertical profiles of wind and atmospheric turbulence, in addition to an assessment of historical and possibly future changes due to climate non-stationarity. Phase ( i) of the process can involve use of in situ observations of opportunity derived from ships, lighthouses and buoys in conjunction with model tools and remote sensing products. The reliability of such data sources has been extensively investigated in different national and European projects especially in Northern Europe, and the results are summarized herein. Phase ( ii) of the project often still requires in situ observations (which may or may not be supplemented with ground-based remote sensing technologies) and application of tools to provide a climatological context for the resulting measurements. Current methodologies for undertaking these aspects of the resource assessment are reviewed.

Sempreviva, A. M.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

2008-12-01

178

Diurnal warm-layer events in the western Mediterranean and European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterize near-surface ocean diurnal warm-layer events, using satellite observations and fields from numerical weather forecasting. The study covers April to September, 2006, over the area 11W to 17E and 35N to 57N, with 0.1 cells. We use hourly satellite SSTs from which peak amplitudes of diurnal cycles in SST (dSSTs) can be estimated with error ~0.3 K. The diurnal excursions of SST observed are spatially and temporally coherent. The largest dSSTs exceed 6 K, affect 0.01% of the surface, and are seen in the Mediterranean, North and Irish Seas. There is an anti-correlation between the magnitude and the horizontal length scale of dSST events. Events wherein dSST exceeds 4 K have length scales of <=40 km. From the frequency distribution of different measures of wind-speed minima, we infer that extreme dSST maxima arise where conditions of low wind speed are sustained from early morning to mid afternoon.

Merchant, C. J.; Filipiak, M. J.; Le Borgne, P.; Roquet, H.; Autret, E.; Pioll, J.-F.; Lavender, S.

2008-02-01

179

Chemical residues and biochemical responses in wild and cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)  

SciTech Connect

Cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Arade Estuary were sampled in summer and winter and the degree of exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) assessed, together with some biochemical responses against those and other pollutants. The highest levels of copper (up to 997 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and cadmium (up to 4.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) were detected in the liver and kidney of cultured specimens, whereas the highest exposure to PAHs was observed in wild fish. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were detected and associated to pollutant exposure. Thus, metallothionein concentrations were higher in the tissues of cultured fish and positively correlated with metal residues. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 28 pmol/min/mg protein in cultured fish to 83 pmol/min/mg protein in wild fish collected near a marina area. Cultured fish and wild fish from the marina area had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue and a parasitic infection in the gonads. The obtained results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in both wild and cultured fish.

Fernandes, Denise [C.I.M.A., University of Algarve, F.C.M.A., Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139-Faro (Portugal); Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es; Bebianno, Maria Joao [C.I.M.A., University of Algarve, F.C.M.A., Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139-Faro (Portugal)

2007-02-15

180

Salmon Population Depleted  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon populations face several serious threats, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. In this publication, the reason for the downward spiral of salmon populations is discussed. This video segment features Elders discussing the decline in the local population of salmon, which are at the heart of the cultural identity of the Native American Lummi Nation of Washington State. Fish were very abundant a few decades ago, but now even the fishermen have to buy fish. The background essay explains the many threats that the salmon population faces. There is also a brief description of the salmon lifecycle. The four discussion questions asks the reasons why the salmon population is depleting, and what people can do to help. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

181

Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Hkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cdiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan), we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641) belonging to the ANME-3 group and one ?-Proteobacteria (HQ588562) were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

2013-05-01

182

Abundance Dynamics of Pink Salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, as a Structured Process Determined by Many Factors  

E-print Network

Despite the fact that pink salmon is a fish species with a short-cycle life span, its stock abundance dynamics exhibit features typical of common pelagic fish species with an average life-cycle duration. Interchanging periods of high and low pink salmon abundance levels relate to positive and negative stock abundance trends inherent for major regional groups, Asian and American parts of aggregate stocks, and for pink salmon species as a whole (Radchenko et al. 2007). This feature of pink salmon abundance dynamics is determined by structural organization of the species and its populations. Major regional groups of pink salmon are divided into temporally isolated even- and odd-year populations. The life cycle of pink salmon can be conditionally divided into two periods: freshwater (including spawning, embryonic, and downstream migration phases) and marine (including inshore, marine waters in marginal seas, and oceanic phases). The phases repeat in reverse order until fish return from the sea and reach their spawning grounds. Most stocks, in turn, are separated by paired seasonal races with distinct morphological characteristics and spawning areas within river basins. Fig. 1. Pattern of pink salmon migrations during the life-cycle phases of aggregate stocks of the Sea of Okhotsk. Selected life-cycle phases are indicated by Roman numerals. For the purposes of assessing factors affecting mortality, abundance, and biomass losses on the basis of the pink salmon life cycle, I used typical data from an aggregated stock of Sea of Okhotsk pink salmon as an example (Fig. 1). The average abundance dynamics are based on data for 22 pink salmon generations spawning in 1989 to 2010 (Table 1). Average numbers and biomass estimates were calculated based on survey data, fishery statistics, and published literature. Table 1. Abundance dynamics of an average pink salmon generation throughout the different life-cycle phases using the aggregate stocks of the Sea of Okhotsk. Data are shown for generations of fish spawning in the years 1989-2008.

Vladimir I. Radchenko

183

Starvation and re-feeding affect Hsp expression, MAPK activation and antioxidant enzymes activity of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

In the context of food deprivation in fish (wild and farmed), understanding of cellular responses is necessary in order to develop strategies to minimize stress caused by starvation in the aquaculture section. The present study evaluates the effects of long term starvation (1F-3S: one-month feeding-three-month starvation) and starvation/re-feeding (2S-2F: two-month starvation-two-month re-feeding) compared to the control group (4F-0S: four-month feeding-zero month starvation) on cellular stress response and antioxidant defense in organs, like the intestine, the liver, the red and white muscle of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Molecular responses were addressed through the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90, the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases and particularly p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/2). For the determination of the effect of the oxidative stress caused by food deprivation and/or re-feeding, the (maximum) activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidise (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were studied. The experimental feeding trials caused a tissue distinct and differential response on the cellular and antioxidant capacity of sea bass not only during the stressful process of starvation but also in re-feeding. Specifically, the intestine phosphorylation of ERKs and antioxidant enzymatic activities increased in the 2S-2F fish group, while in the 1F-3S group an increase was detected in the levels of the same proteins except for GPx. In the liver and the red muscle of 2S-2F fish, decreased Hsp70 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK levels and increased Hsp90 levels were observed. Additionally, SOD activity decreased in the red muscle of 2S-2F and 1F-3S groups. In the liver and red muscle of 1F-3S group Hsp70 levels increased, while the activation of p38 MAPK in the liver decreased. In the white muscle, Hsp90 levels decreased and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK increased in both feeding regimes compared to control. In the same tissue, GPx and catalase levels were decreased in 2S-2F regime, while SOD levels were decreased in 1F-3S regime. PMID:23462223

Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Kentepozidou, Elissavet; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Roufidou, Chrysoula; Despoti, Smaragda; Chatzifotis, Stavros

2013-05-01

184

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt August 1, 2006  

E-print Network

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt Les Hatton August 1, 2006 $Date: 2003/01/15 00:05:52 $ 1 pleasure to so many. 2 Exposition It starts quite innocently with a bottle of wine, a plate of salmon penne in a Stockholm restaurant and a copy of "The Salmon of Doubt" by Douglas Adams. Whilst eating the meal with my

Hatton, Les

185

USGS Releases Atlantic Salmon at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists (L to R) Ross Abbett and Rich Chiavelli watch as hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, e...

186

Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visitthe Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this dim...

187

Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminish...

188

Life history variation and growth rate thresholds for maturity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon published and unpublished data compiled for 275 populations, we describe large-scale spatial and temporal patterns in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, life history and model these data to evaluate how changes to life history influence optimal growth rate thresholds for sea age at maturity. Population means (ranges in parentheses) describe the following for salmon throughout its range: smolt length

Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Megan E. B. Jones

1998-01-01

189

Evolution of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) populations in New Zealand: pattern, rate, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of

Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin

2001-01-01

190

Molecular characterization, gene structure and antibacterial activity of a g-type lysozyme from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).  

PubMed

In fish, the first line of defense is represented by the innate immune system and the lysozyme is one of the molecules involved in this mechanism of protection. Three types of lysozymes have been identified in metazoan, the c-type (chicken or conventional), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type). They are all involved in the hydrolysation of the bacterial cell wall. Our work has been focused on the molecular characterization, expression analysis by real-time PCR, both at basal condition and after in vivo challenges, and 3D structural studies on the g-type lysozyme from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Moreover, a recombinant sea bass lysozyme has been produced in Escherichia coli and used to investigate the activity of the enzyme at different pH and temperatures and to perform antibacterial assays against typical fish pathogens. The cloned sea bass cDNA for g-type lysozyme (accession number FN667957) consists of 742 bp and translates for a putative protein of 188 amino acids. The molecular weight is 20.251, 41Da with a theoretical pI of 8.53, two cysteine residues along the sequence and no putative signal peptide. These features of the enzyme are in agreement with the expected characteristics of a proper g-type lysozyme, except for the cysteine residues that in fish are quite variable in number. An alignment between known g-type lysozyme sequences evidences that the amino acid residues thought to be involved in the enzyme catalysis (Glu(71), Asp(84) and Asp(95) in sea bass) are quite well conserved between mammalian, avian and fish sequences. The sea bass g-type lysozyme gene is composed of four exons and three introns and this gene structure is more compact compared to other known fish lysozyme homologues. Modeling of 3D structure has been performed on the template structure of g-type lysozyme from Atlantic cod. The catalytic site appears well conserved when compared with known structures of fish g-type lysozymes (cod and salmon). The basal expression of lysozyme transcripts is highest in gills, followed by head kidney and peripheral blood leukocytes. The lysozyme expression is up regulated in head kidney leukocytes both after challenge with the fish bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. The lytic activity, determined using as substrate Micrococcus lysodeikticus, was optimal at pH 5.5 and at a temperature of 30C. In conclusion, these results suggest that the identified g-type lysozyme should be involved in the innate immune responses of sea bass. PMID:24929449

Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Trisolino, Pamela; Facchiano, Angelo; de Pascale, Donatella; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

2014-11-01

191

GEO-MOTION: A fresh approach to land, water and sea level changes in a European habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state and behaviour of the Shallow Earth System is a consequence of processes on a wide range of time scales. These include the long term tectonic effects on uplift, subsidence and river systems, residual effects of the ice ages on crustal movement and geochemistry, natural climate to environmental changes over recent millennia and up to the present, and the powerful anthropogenic impacts of the last century. If we are to understand the present state of the system, to predict its future and to engineer our use of it, this spectrum of processes, operating concurrently but on different time scales, needs to be better understood. The challenge to the Geosciences is to describe the state of the system, to monitor its changes, to forecast its evolution and, in collaboration with others, to evaluate modes of sustainable use by human society. Land, water and sea level changes can seriously affect the sustainability of ecological and human habitats in Europe. When sea water or surface water levels rise, or land subsides, the risk of flooding increases, directly inflicting on local ecosystems and human habitats. The effects on society are widely known as many of the affected areas in Europe are densely populated and the financial loss foreseen is tremendous. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of desertification. These changes are caused by both natural processes and human activities, but the absolute and relative contributions of each of these processes are still little understood. Only very recently, the impact of processes located in the underlying subsurface of intraplate areas has been recognized in the coastal realm, leading to the newly coined term Environmental Earth System Dynamics. The members of the Geo-Motion consortium have joined forces in order to create a fully integrated pan-European research infrastructure (a virtual scientific centre) on a hitherto not existing scale. It runs monitoring programs including satellite, surface and borehole monitoring instruments. It integrates large scale and excellent geo-mechanical, geo-chemical and geo-biological laboratory facilities. Based on existing structures and data sets it develops a new geo data infrastructure containing historical data on global and regional changes in combination with the vulnerability of natural and human habitats. Most significant milestones are a large scale and excellent know-how base on geo-motion modelling and simulation, as well as on risk and impact assessment. The development of a foresight and assessment competency represents a long-term strategic scientific objective for the consortium. It is vital that it is also promoted in education, which will be done through the development of a European School for Predictive Geoscience, in which parallel masters programmes will be offered by the university partners based on their pooled expertise. The national geoscience surveys play a key role in delivering the outputs of research into the public, policy and industrial domains.

Cloetingh, S.; Geo-Motion Consortium, T.; GEO-MOTION Consortium

2003-04-01

192

Comparative pathogenicity study of ten different betanodavirus strains in experimentally infected European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).  

PubMed

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a severe pathological condition caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Nodaviridae family, genus Betanodavirus. The disease, described in more than 50 fish species worldwide, is considered as the most serious viral threat affecting marine farmed species in the Mediterranean region, thus representing one of the bottlenecks for further development of the aquaculture industry. To date, four different genotypes have been identified, namely red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, with the RGNNV genotype appearing as the most widespread in the Mediterranean region, although SJNNV-type strains and reassortant viruses have also been reported. The existence of these genetically different strains could be the reason for the differences in mortality observed in the field. However, very little experimental data are available on the pathogenicity of these viruses in farmed fish. Therefore, in this study, the pathogenicity of 10 isolates has been assessed with an in vivo trial. The investigation was conducted using the European sea bass, the first target fish species for the disease in the Mediterranean basin. Naive fish were challenged by immersion and clinical signs and mortality were recorded for 68days; furthermore, samples collected at selected time points were analysed to evaluate the development of the infection. Finally, survivors were weighed to estimate the growth reduction. The statistically supported results obtained in this study demonstrated different pathogenicity patterns, underlined the potential risk represented by different strains in the transmission of the infection to highly susceptible species and highlighted the indirect damage caused by a clinical outbreak of VER/VNN. PMID:23662921

Vendramin, N; Toffan, A; Mancin, M; Cappellozza, E; Panzarin, V; Bovo, G; Cattoli, G; Capua, I; Terregino, C

2014-04-01

193

Phytoplankton responses and associated carbon cycling during shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which may reflect community/environment-specific responses or inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series (n = 8) of short-term (2-4 days) multi-level (?4 conditions) carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically separated experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterised by a suppression of net growth for small-sized cells (<10 ?m), were observed in the majority of the experiments, irrespective of natural or manipulated nutrient status. Remaining between-experiment variability was potentially linked to initial community structure and/or other site-specific environmental factors. Analysis of carbon cycling within the experiments revealed the expected increased sensitivity of carbonate chemistry to biological processes at higher pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasise how biogeochemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

Richier, S.; Achterberg, E. P.; Dumousseaud, C.; Poulton, A. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Tyrrell, T.; Zubkov, M. V.; Moore, C. M.

2014-09-01

194

Yearling Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and economy. To restore the population, young Atlantic salmon are reared at the USGS Tunison Laboratory of Aquaitic Science&nb...

195

Young Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. Anew, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local...

196

Salmon-Filled Tanks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Specialized tanks at the USGS Tunison Lab hold young Atlantic salmon until they are released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and ...

197

Young Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecos...

198

Saving the Salmon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require

Sprangers, Donald

2004-01-01

199

Saving the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Students participate in the Salmon in the Schools Program, sponsored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine. Through this collaborative effort, students raise 300 river-specific, wild Atlantic salmon and then release them into the East Machias River at the culminating annual Salmon Release Day Field Trip. In addition to releasing salmon fry into the headwaters of the river, students perform physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the river.

Sprangers, Donald

2004-05-01

200

Preliminary examination of contaminant loadings in farmed salmon, wild salmon and commercial salmon feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study examined five commercial salmon feeds, four farmed salmon (one Atlantic, three chinooks) and four wild salmon (one chinook, one chum, two sockeyes) from the Pacific Coast for PCBs (112 congeners), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs 41 congeners), 25 organochlorine pesticides (OPs), 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and methyl and inorganic mercury. The farmed salmon showed consistently higher levels

M. D. L. Easton; D. Luszniak; E. Von der Geest

2002-01-01

201

Historical growth of Bristol Bay and Yukon River, Alaska chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in relation to climate and inter- and intraspecific competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined Bristol Bay and Yukon River adult chum salmon scales to determine whether climate variability, such as changes in sea surface temperature and climate indices, and high pink and Asian chum salmon abundance reduced chum salmon growth. Annual marine growth increments for 1965-2006 were estimated from scale growth measurements and were modeled as a function of potential explanatory variables using a generalized least squares regression approach. First-year growth of salmon originating from Bristol Bay and the Yukon River showed increased growth in association with higher regional ocean temperatures and was negatively affected by wind mixing and ice cover. Third-year growth was lower when Asian chum salmon were more abundant. Contrary to our hypothesis, warmer large-scale sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska were also associated with reduced third-year growth. Negative effects of high abundances of Russian pink salmon on third-year growth provided some evidence for interspecific interactions, but the effects were smaller than the effects of Asian chum salmon abundance and Gulf of Alaska sea surface temperature. Although the relative effects of Asian chum salmon and sea surface temperature on the growth of Yukon and Bristol Bay chum salmon were difficult to untangle, we found consistent evidence that high abundances of Asian chum salmon contributed to a reduction in the growth of western Alaska chum salmon.

Agler, Beverly A.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Wilson, Lorna I.; Mueter, Franz J.

2013-10-01

202

Changing ocean circulation and hydrothermal inputs during Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (Cenomanian-Turonian): Evidence from Nd-isotopes in the European shelf sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd isotopes of fish debris collected from the English Chalk at Eastbourne (Sussex, UK) are used to reconstruct the history of ocean circulation in the NW European shelf sea during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2, Cenomanian-Turonian). The Eastbourne ?Nd record exhibits a 1-unit negative excursion (decreasing from ?-9 to ?-10), immediately followed by a 3-unit positive excursion reaching ?-7. The onset of the negative ?Nd excursion lags the global ?13C rise characteristic of OAE 2, suggesting stable patterns of ocean circulation in the NW European shelf sea at this time. Both negative and positive Nd-isotope excursions took place during a transient cooling episode within OAE 2. The negative ?Nd excursion is interpreted as due to a change in ocean circulation with northerly sourced water masses becoming the dominant bottom waters at Eastbourne. The positive excursion is best explained by the transport of radiogenic Nd derived from a volcanic source, possibly the High Arctic or Caribbean large igneous province (LIP). An input of volcanic Nd may reconcile the Eastbourne record with coeval ?Nd records on Demerara Rise in the western tropical Atlantic. The broad synchroneity of high ?Nd values (?-7) registered at both sites suggests a possible period with efficient oceanic mixing between the tropical Atlantic and the NW European shelf sea during the cooling episode. The Eastbourne ?Nd record of OAE 2, together with coeval temperature reconstructions, provides evidence for the coincidence of changes in ocean circulation and transient climatic cooling, implying a tight coupling between the two phenomena during this interval.

Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Gale, Andrew S.; Ward, David J.; Henderson, Gideon M.

2013-08-01

203

Sea Surface Temperature for Climate Applications: A New Dataset from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many datasets describing the evolution of global sea surface temperature (SST) over recent decades -- so why make another one? Answer: to provide observations of SST that have particular qualities relevant to climate applications: independence, accuracy and stability. This has been done within the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initative (CCI) project on SST. Independence refers to the fact that the new SST CCI dataset is not derived from or tuned to in situ observations. This matters for climate because the in situ observing network used to assess marine climate change (1) was not designed to monitor small changes over decadal timescales, and (2) has evolved significantly in its technology and mix of types of observation, even during the past 40 years. The potential for significant artefacts in our picture of global ocean surface warming is clear. Only by having an independent record can we confirm (or refute) that the work done to remove biases/trend artefacts in in-situ datasets has been successful. Accuracy is the degree to which SSTs are unbiased. For climate applications, a common accuracy target is 0.1 K for all regions of the ocean. Stability is the degree to which the bias, if any, in a dataset is constant over time. Long-term instability introduces trend artefacts. To observe trends of the magnitude of 'global warming', SST datasets need to be stable to <5 mK/year. The SST CCI project has produced a satellite-based dataset that addresses these characteristics relevant to climate applications. Satellite radiances (brightness temperatures) have been harmonised exploiting periods of overlapping observations between sensors. Less well-characterised sensors have had their calibration tuned to that of better characterised sensors (at radiance level). Non-conventional retrieval methods (optimal estimation) have been employed to reduce regional biases to the 0.1 K level, a target violated in most satellite SST datasets. Models for quantifying uncertainty have been developed to attach uncertainty to SST across a range of space-time scales. The stability of the data has been validated.

Merchant, C. J.; Hulley, G. C.

2013-12-01

204

Pacific Salmon Information Via the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Marine Fisheries Service maintains this Pacific Salmon metasite, which covers the life history, habitat, and economic status of salmon, the role of US state fisheries and Canadian agencies in managing salmon stocks, and additional salmon information. From the University of Washington's concise and informative "Salmon Life History" page, to the Pacific Salmon Alliance's proud "Stand up for Canada: Save our Salmon" page, interested users will find much information on the ecology and politics of Salmon.

205

Pacific Salmon in the North American Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

All five North American Pacific salmon species occur in small numbers in arctic waters, but only pink and chum salmon appear to have viable populations north of Point Hope, Alaska. Pink salmon are the most common species and constitute 85% of salmon caught in biological surveys. Pink salmon apparently have small runs in eight arctic drainages, while chum salmon may

PETER CRAIG; LEWIS HALDORSON

1986-01-01

206

Salmon Conservation in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroelectric power developments in Sweden are a menace to the populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Conservation measures, started as early as in the 1860's, now aim at the substituting of hatchery-reared 2-year-old smolt for the freshwater part of the life cycle of the salmon. The smolt plantings will soon reach 2 million annually, and the return now amounts

Arne Lindroth

1963-01-01

207

State of the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon, like many other species of fish, know no political boundaries. In effect, this makes it hard for humans to craft detailed and meaningful policies for the survival and health of these important creatures. The State of the Salmon is an international consortium that is "dedicated to improving understanding of salmon status and trends across the North Pacific--and building a knowledge network that can inform salmon conservation and management decisions in the future." Given this broad range of cooperation, visitors will not be surprised to find that much of the material featured on the site is available in Russian, English, and Chinese. The materials on the site are divided into several sections, including "Monitoring", "Data & Maps", "Status & Trends", and "Collaborate". The "Data & Maps" area is quite useful, and it features a variety of interactive maps that document existing salmon populations and their movements. Moving on, the "Status & Trends" area provides updates on salmon population trends in Canada, Japan, Russia, and the United States. The site is rounded out by a glossary and information about the organization's basic operating principles.

208

Differential Gene Expression During Smoltification of Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar L.): a First Large-Scale Microarray Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life cycle of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) involves a period of 1 to 3years in freshwater followed by migration to the sea where the salmon undergoes rapid growth.\\u000a In preparation for the marine environment, while still in freshwater, the salmon undergo a transformation from a freshwater\\u000a dwelling parr to a saltwater adapted smolt, a process known as smoltification.

Paul J. Seear; Stephen N. Carmichael; Richard Talbot; John B. Taggart; James E. Bron; Glen E. Sweeney

2010-01-01

209

Physiological mechanism of homing migration in Pacific salmon from behavioral to molecular biological approaches.  

PubMed

The amazing abilities of Pacific salmon to migrate long distances from the ocean to their natal streams for spawning have been investigated intensively since 1950's, but there are still many mysteries because of difficulties to follow their whole life cycle and to wait their sole reproductive timing for several years. In my laboratory, we have tried to clarify physiological mechanisms of homing migration in Pacific salmon, using four anadromous Pacific salmon (pink, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha; chum, Oncorhynchus keta; sockeye, Oncorhynchus nerka; masu, Oncorhynchus masou) in the north Pacific Ocean as well as two lacustrine salmon (sockeye and masu) in Lake Toya and Lake Shikotsu, Hokkaido, Japan, where the lakes serve as a model "ocean". Three different approaches from behavioral to molecular biological researches have been conducted using these model fish. First, the homing behaviors of adult chum salmon from the Bering Sea to Hokkaido as well as lacustrine sockeye and masu salmon in Lake Toya were examined by means of physiological biotelemetry techniques, and revealed that salmon can navigate in open water using different sensory systems. Second, the hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis were investigated in chum salmon and lacustrine sockeye salmon during their homing migration by means of hormone specific time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) systems, and clarified that salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) plays leading roles on homing migration. Third, the olfactory functions of salmon were studied by means of electrophysiological, behavioral, and molecular biological techniques, and made clear that olfactory discriminating ability of natal stream odors. These results have discussed with the evolutional aspects of four Pacific salmon, sexual differences in homing profiles, and the possibility of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) as natal stream odors for salmon. PMID:20144612

Ueda, Hiroshi

2011-01-15

210

Recent biotelemetry research on lacustrine salmon homing migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most interesting aspects of the salmon's life history and the most challenging to study is the homing migration during which the fish return from their oceanic feeding grounds to the natal river to spawn. However, because of the difficulties encountered in studying the movements of fish, particularly in the sea, there is still very little information regarding

Hiroshi Ueda

211

EFFECTS OF COPPER AND ZINC ON SMOLTIFICATION OF COHO SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many species of trout and salmon spend their early life in freshwater and then migrate to the sea. Transition from freshwater to marine existence requires physiological changes which are involved in the development of the migratory smolt stage. Sublethal exposure to pollutants in...

212

PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

213

Monitoring the impact of litter in large vertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD): constraints, specificities and recommendations.  

PubMed

In its decision (2010/477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement, ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socio-economic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of "ingestion" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. PMID:24612883

Galgani, F; Claro, F; Depledge, M; Fossi, C

2014-09-01

214

Effects of dietary concentrated mannan oligosaccharides supplementation on growth, gut mucosal immune system and liver lipid metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.  

PubMed

The study assesses the effects of dietary concentrated mannan oligosaccharides (cMOS) on fish performance, biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid profiles, liver and posterior gut morphology and gen expression of selected parameters involved on the intestinal immune response and liver lipid metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). For that purpose, specimens of 20g were fed during 8weeks at 0 and 1.6gkg(-1) dietary cMOS of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet. Dietary cMOS enhanced fish length, specific and relative growth without affecting tissue proximate composition. However, cMOS supplementation altered especially liver and muscle fatty acid profiles by reducing levels of those fatty acids that are preferential substrates for ?-oxidation in spite of a preferential retention of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), such as 20:4n-6 or 22:5n-6, in relation to the down-regulation of delta 6/5 desaturase gene expression found in liver. Besides, dietary cMOS supplementation reduced posterior gut intestinal folds width and induced changes on the gene expression level of certain immune-related genes mainly by down regulating transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) and up-regulating immunoglobulin (Ig), major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), T cell receptor ? (TCR?) and Caspase 3 (Casp-3). Thus, dietary cMOS inclusion at 0.16% promoted European sea bass specific growth rate and length, stimulated selected cellular GALT-associated parameters and affected lipid metabolism in muscle and liver pointing to a higher LC-PUFA accumulation and promoted ?-oxidation. PMID:25447638

Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria Jos; Robaina, Lidia; Zamorano, Maria Jess; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

2015-02-01

215

Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON  

E-print Network

Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON Indiana University EVER SINCE IUS CLASSIC PAPER with Paul Science Foundation for support of the sesearch contained in this paper. 29 30 : Wesley C. Salmon probabi

Fitelson, Branden

216

Use of near-infrared spectroscopy for fast fraud detection in seafood: application to the authentication of wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

The possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the authentication of wild European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) was investigated in this study. Three different chemometric techniques to process the NIR spectra were developed, and their ability to discriminate between wild and farmed sea bass samples was evaluated. One approach used spectral information to directly build the discrimination model in a latent variable space; the second approach first used wavelets to transform the spectral information and subsequently derived the discrimination model using the transformed spectra; in the third approach a cascaded arrangement was proposed whereby very limited chemical information was first estimated from spectra using a regression model, and this estimated information was then used to build the discrimination model in a latent variable space. All techniques showed that NIRS can be used to reliably discriminate between wild and farmed sea bass, achieving the same classification performance as classification methods that use chemical properties and morphometric traits. However, compared to methods based on chemical analysis, NIRS-based classification methods do not require reagents and are simpler, faster, more economical, and environmentally safer. All proposed techniques indicated that the most predictive spectral regions were those related to the absorbance of groups CH, CH(2), CH(3), and H(2)O, which are related to fat, fatty acids, and water content. PMID:22224758

Ottavian, Matteo; Facco, Pierantonio; Fasolato, Luca; Novelli, Enrico; Mirisola, Massimo; Perini, Matteo; Barolo, Massimiliano

2012-01-18

217

First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chilo in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chilo Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line, characteristics which make it distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates from Europe and North America. Conclusion In conclusion, the present work constitutes the first report of a case of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. The clinical signs and lesions are consistent with the classical descriptions of the disease in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. The outbreak was caused by ISAV of European genotype (or Genotype I) of HPR 7b but distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates. PMID:18680586

Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendao, Fernando; Imiln, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB

2008-01-01

218

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD RECOVERY AND SUBBASIN PLAN Technical Foundation Executive Council MAY 28, 2004 DRAFT #12;Lower Columbia River Salmon Recovery Plan Technical Foundation Executive. This information provides a basis for an integrated Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan prepared by the Fish Recovery

219

a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^-'^ "^  

E-print Network

Take a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^·-'^ "^ #12;\\ V 4- #12;balmon has been nourishing the human race of the easy-to-store, easy-to- use can are two good reasons for cooking and serving salmon frequently. But there are even better reasons. The protein in salmon is a complete protein, in the same food group as meat

220

VOLUNTEER-BASED SALMON RIVER  

E-print Network

VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS Institute Environment Canada VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS STREAM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH #12;Volunteer-Based Monitoring Program for the Salmon River

221

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL  

E-print Network

and Trout 11 Seagoing Salmon and Steelhead 12 Trout Life Cycle 13 Salmon and Steelhead Life Cycle 14 MakingSALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL An lnstruction Manual for Hatching Salmon and Trout Eggs in Classroom and Game Native Salmonids of California Map \\|/try Hatcheries? Activities Fish Journals Habitats of Salmon

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

222

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming Expected to Climb The world production of pen- farmed salmon doubled during 1981-83. Of the 24,500 metric tons (t) of farmed salmon produced in 1983, almost 85 percent was Atlantic salmon, Sa/mo safar (Table 1). While the farming of Pacific salmon, On

223

Consequences of changing sea-ice cover for primary and secondary producers in the European Arctic shelf seas: Timing, quantity, and quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic ice cover poses severe limitations on the productive period of marine autotrophs that form the base of the marine food web. Sea-ice algae begin to grow in early spring within and underneath the ice, producing a substantial biomass despite very low light intensities. Pelagic algal blooms, in contrast, normally occur after ice breakup, at high latitudes as late as July-September. The timing of these blooms is crucial for the quantity and quality of primary and secondary production, and therefore for the transfer of energy and matter to higher trophic levels. Recent findings from Rijpfjorden, north-eastern Svalbard indicate that ice algae, rather than pelagic algae, trigger the reproduction of Arctic zooplankton around Svalbard. The key herbivore in Arctic shelf seas, the copepod Calanus glacialis, timed its seasonal migration, foraging, and reproduction to the ice algal bloom, which preceded the pelagic algal bloom by two months. The growth of this secondary producers offspring, however, was dependent on the later bloom of phytoplankton and higher sea-water temperatures. In 2007, reproduction and growth of C. glacialis and the primary production regime matched perfectly. The persistent ice cover in summer 2008, however, led to a mismatch between the pelagic algal bloom and the growth of the new copepod generation, resulting in a fivefold lower biomass of C. glacialis in August 2008 compared to 2007. The initiation of the ice algal bloom is mainly determined by the solar angle, whereas the pelagic algal bloom requires more light and is therefore governed to a larger degree by ice thinning and the unpredictable ice breakup. We conclude that both a too early as well as a too late ice breakup can cause a mismatch between primary and secondary producers, with negative consequences for the entire lipid-based Arctic marine food web.

Leu, E.; Sreide, J. E.; Hessen, D. O.; Falk-Petersen, S.; Berge, J.

2011-07-01

224

test groups of fall chinook salmon were transported directly from the Klickitat Hatchery.  

E-print Network

/ake Blvd. East SeaUle, WA 98112 STEVE L. LEEK Little White Salmon Laboratory U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service coast east to Kamchatka and south to northeastern Japan. The maximum life span of sablefish appears- fic species distributed along the North American coast from Mexico to the Bering Sea and on the Asian

225

Enteroendocrine profile of ?-transducin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates, chemosensitivity of nutrients occurs through activation of taste receptors coupled with G protein subunits, including ?-transducin (G?tran) and ?-gustducin (G?gust). This study was aimed at characterizing the cells expressing G?tran-immunoreactivity throughout the mucosa of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. G?tran immunoreactive cells were mainly found in the stomach, and a lower number of immunopositive cells were detected in the intestine. Some G?tran immunoreactive cells in the stomach contained G?gust immunoreactivity. Gastric G?tran immunoreactive cells co-expressed ghrelin, obestatin and 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity. In contrast, G?tran immunopositive cells did not contain somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, substance P, or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in any investigated segments of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. Specificity of G?tran and G?gust antisera was determined by Western blot analysis, which identified two bands at the theoretical molecular weight of ~45 and ~40 kDa, respectively, in sea bass gut tissue as well as in positive tissue, and by immunoblocking with the respective peptide, which prevented immunostaining. The results of the present study provide a molecular and morphological basis for a role of taste related molecules in chemosensing in the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23748963

Latorre, Rocco; Mazzoni, Maurizio; De Giorgio, Roberto; Vallorani, Claudia; Bonaldo, Alessio; Gatta, Pier Paolo; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Ruggeri, Eugenio; Bernardini, Chiara; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Clavenzani, Paolo

2013-01-01

226

Enteroendocrine profile of ?-transducin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

In vertebrates, chemosensitivity of nutrients occurs through the activation of taste receptors coupled with G-protein subunits, including ?-transducin (G(?tran)) and ?-gustducin (G(?gust)). This study was aimed at characterising the cells expressing G(?tran) immunoreactivity throughout the mucosa of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. G(?tran) immunoreactive cells were mainly found in the stomach, and a lower number of immunopositive cells were detected in the intestine. Some G(?tran) immunoreactive cells in the stomach contained G(?gust) immunoreactivity. Gastric G(?tran) immunoreactive cells co-expressed ghrelin, obestatin and 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity. In contrast, G(?tran) immunopositive cells did not contain somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in any investigated segments of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. Specificity of G(?tran) and G(?gust) antisera was determined by Western blot analysis, which identified two bands at the theoretical molecular weight of ~45 and ~40 kDa, respectively, in sea bass gut tissue as well as in positive tissue, and by immunoblocking with the respective peptide, which prevented immunostaining. The results of the present study provide a molecular and morphological basis for a role of taste-related molecules in chemosensing in the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23748963

Latorre, Rocco; Mazzoni, Maurizio; De Giorgio, Roberto; Vallorani, Claudia; Bonaldo, Alessio; Gatta, Pier Paolo; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Ruggeri, Eugenio; Bernardini, Chiara; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Sternini, Catia; Clavenzani, Paolo

2013-12-01

227

Saving Coho Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.

Kqed

2012-08-08

228

14th European Marine Biology Symposium Protection of Life in the Sea: Summary of symposium papers and conclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This last paper of the 14th European Marine Biology Symposium refers to organizational aspects of the meeting; provides a\\u000a summary of the papers presented in this volume; and attempts to draw conclusions. The summary highlights essentials of the\\u000a facts presented and of the interpretations offered. It has been written in order to facilitate access to the vast amount of\\u000a information

O. Kinne

1980-01-01

229

Variations climate of East-European Plain and Caspian sea level during last 20000 years (on the basis of numercial simulations within the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper results of climate simulation in East-European Plain (EEP) by coupled climate models (which take part in project PMIP II (Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project)) are tested for different climatic periods (pre-industrial, mid-Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)). The main parameters for comparison were: temperature, precipitation, evaporation and the Volga runoff. As a result, the model CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Meteorologie, France) was chosen as the best for this territory for pre-industrial climate. Its results were used to calculate runoff of the Volga river during the LGM and modern climate. "Climatic" component of the Volga runoff was calculated as the difference between precipitation and evaporation in the watershed. The "climatic" part of the Volga runoff 21 kyr decreased by 60% compared with the modern (according to model CNRM). The main reason for the low values of "climatic" runoff was the reduction of precipitation on the territory of Volga watershed. The decrease of evaporation could not compensate the deficit of precipitation. However, according to paleoreconstructions and the results of PMIP II simulation, a significant change to the hydrological regime of the Volga River (21 kyr BP) could be due to the contribution of meltwater (about 384 km3/year). This means that within the territory of Volga watershed to "climatic" component of runoff (about 78 km3/year), one has to add volume of the meltwater of the Scandinavian ice sheet (PMIP provides information about the configuration of the ice sheet in the LGM). For the first time the contribution of melted glacier in the river runoff has been taken into account. The results were used to assess the level of the Caspian Sea during this period (changes in the Caspian sea level compared with modern was about 48 meters). Also, level of the Caspian Sea was calculated after the complete degradation of Scandinavian ice sheet.

Morozova, P.

2012-04-01

230

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies  

E-print Network

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies R. SALESSE, J. GARNIER, B en Josas, France Summary. Pituitary gonadotropins of female and male pacific salmon Oncorhynchus) and in salmon (Donaldson et al., 1972), although physicochemical, biological or immunological evidence for two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON,  

E-print Network

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, Oncorhynchus nerka Marine Biological #12;#12;SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPJLATION OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS

232

Societal need for improved understanding of climate change, anthropogenic impacts, and geo-hazard warning drive development of ocean observatories in European Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Societys needs for a network of in situ ocean observing systems cross many areas of earth and marine science. Here we review the science themes that benefit from data supplied from ocean observatories. Understanding from existing studies is fragmented to the extent that it lacks the coherent long-term monitoring needed to address questions at the scales essential to understand climate change and improve geo-hazard early warning. Data sets from the deep sea are particularly rare with long-term data available from only a few locations worldwide. These science areas have impacts on societal health and well-being and our awareness of ocean function in a shifting climate. Substantial efforts are underway to realise a network of open-ocean observatories around European Seas that will operate over multiple decades. Some systems are already collecting high-resolution data from surface, water column, seafloor, and sub-seafloor sensors linked to shore by satellite or cable connection in real or near-real time, along with samples and other data collected in a delayed mode. We expect that such observatories will contribute to answering major ocean science questions including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, pore fluid chemistry and pressure, and gas hydrate stability improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? What aspects of physical oceanography, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystems will be most sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic change? What are natural versus anthropogenic changes? Most fundamentally, how are marine processes that occur at differing scales related? The development of ocean observatories provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Here we also describe some basic attributes of network design. Observatory networks provide the means to coordinate and integrate the collection of standardised data capable of bridging measurement scales across a dispersed area in European Seas adding needed certainty to estimates of future oceanic conditions. Observatory data can be analysed along with other data such as those from satellites, drifting floats, autonomous underwater vehicles, model analysis, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna in order to address some of the questions posed above. Standardised methods for information management are also becoming established to ensure better accessibility and traceability of these data sets and ultimately to increase their use for societal benefit. The connection of ocean observatory effort into larger frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and the Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) is integral to its success. It is in a greater integrated framework that the full potential of the component systems will be realised.

Ruhl, Henry A.; Andr, Michel; Beranzoli, Laura; a?atay, M. Namik; Colao, Ana; Cannat, Mathilde; Daobeitia, Juanjo J.; Favali, Paolo; Gli, Louis; Gillooly, Michael; Greinert, Jens; Hall, Per O. J.; Huber, Robert; Karstensen, Johannes; Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; Lykousis, Vasilios; Mienert, Jrgen; Miguel Miranda, J.; Person, Roland; Priede, Imants G.; Puillat, Ingrid; Thomsen, Laurenz; Waldmann, Christoph

2011-10-01

233

Evolution of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) populations in New Zealand: Pattern, rate, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their\\u000a present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate\\u000a salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of

Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin

234

The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields back to 1750  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local to regional climate anomalies are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge\\u000a of large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) variations in former times is therefore crucial when addressing past climate changes\\u000a across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP reconstructions lack data from the ocean, particularly\\u000a in the pre-1850 period. Here we

M. Kttel; E. Xoplaki; D. Gallego; J. Luterbacher; R. Garca-Herrera; R. Allan; M. Barriendos; P. D. Jones; D. Wheeler; H. Wanner

2010-01-01

235

Daily and seasonal expression of clock genes in the pituitary of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

The expression of select clock genes (clock, bmal, per1, per2, cry1, cry2) was investigated throughout the day and across the four seasons for two consecutive years in the pituitary of adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A rhythmic pattern of daily expression was consistently observed in summer and autumn, while arrhythmicity was observed for some clock genes during spring and winter, concomitant with low water temperatures. The expression of clock and bmal showed highest values at the end of the day and during the night, while that of per and cry was mostly antiphasic, with high values during the day. Melatonin affects clock-gene expression in the pituitary of mammals. We therefore sought to test the effect of melatonin on clock-gene expression in the pituitary of sea bass both in vivo and in vitro. Melatonin modestly affected the expression of some clock genes (in particular cry genes) when added to the fish diet or the culture medium of pituitary glands. Our data show that clock genes display rhythmic daily expression in the pituitary of adult sea bass, which are profoundly modified according to the season. We suggest that the effect of photoperiod on clock gene expression may be mediated, at least in part, by melatonin, and that temperature may have a key role adjusting seasonal variations. PMID:25148807

Herrero, Mara Jess; Lepesant, Julie M J

2014-11-01

236

In Brief . ... Awards, Salmon, and Sea Turtles  

E-print Network

averaged several pounds heavier than the year before, a fact attributed to lamprey control. The run is also being termed a "small preview" of the developing Great Lakes salmonid fishery. Lamprey con- trol

237

Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon.  

PubMed

The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm salmon. Offspring of farm and "hybrids" (i.e. all F(1), F(2) and BC(1) groups) showed reduced survival compared with wild salmon but grew faster as juveniles and displaced wild parr, which as a group were significantly smaller. Where suitable habitat for these emigrant parr is absent, this competition would result in reduced wild smolt production. In the experimental conditions, where emigrants survived downstream, the relative estimated lifetime success ranged from 2% (farm) to 89% (BC(1) wild) of that of wild salmon, indicating additive genetic variation for survival. Wild salmon primarily returned to fresh water after one sea winter (1SW) but farm and 'hybrids' produced proportionately more 2SW salmon. However, lower overall survival means that this would result in reduced recruitment despite increased 2SW fecundity. We thus demonstrate that interaction of farm with wild salmon results in lowered fitness, with repeated escapes causing cumulative fitness depression and potentially an extinction vortex in vulnerable populations. PMID:14667333

McGinnity, Philip; Prodhl, Paulo; Ferguson, Andy; Hynes, Rosaleen; Maoilidigh, Niall O; Baker, Natalie; Cotter, Deirdre; O'Hea, Brendan; Cooke, Declan; Rogan, Ger; Taggart, John; Cross, Tom

2003-12-01

238

The Fight Over Pacific Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

239

Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and  

E-print Network

Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid of a single species: herring, pollock, and squid. Two of the animals were also fed pink salmon. Dry), pollock: 93.9 ± 1.4%, salmon: 93.4 ± 0.5%, squid: 90.4 ± 1.3%). Steller sea lions appear to digest prey

240

Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1. smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd-numbered years.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Farley, E.; Nielsen, J.; Hagen, P.

2005-01-01

241

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are the most abundant Pacific salmon  

E-print Network

among salmonids in having a determinate life cycle. Adults return to their natal streams to spawn at 2123 Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are the most abundant Pacific salmon species and spawn inten- sity (Takagi et al., 1981) or climate cycles (Mantua et al., 1997). Optimum management

242

SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

243

Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

2003-01-01

244

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic  

E-print Network

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon ..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. Salmon to catch the salmon; it's not so good. Salmon goes over, piles up rocks, here and here. He goes up the bank

O'Laughlin, Jay

245

The Impact of Escaped Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) on Catch Statistics in Scotland  

PubMed Central

In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

Green, Darren M.; Penman, David J.; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E.; Taggart, John B.; McAndrew, Brendan J.

2012-01-01

246

Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the previous biological concepts based on seasonal breeding stocks or geographical subspecies designations. The trans-Arctic herring phylogeography is notably similar to those of the amphi-boreal mollusk taxa Macoma and Mytilus, suggesting similar histories of inter-oceanic connections. We also considered the time dependency of molecular rates, critical for interpreting timing of relatively recent biogeographical events, by comparing the estimates from coding and non-coding mitochondrial regions of presumably different mutation dynamics. PMID:23510113

2013-01-01

247

Growth evaluation of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) raised in seawater or freshwater and fed either fishmeal based on marine-free diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A forty week feeding study was conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in two recirculating aquaculture systems. Twelve salmon (average initial weight 117 g; initial density 9.4 kg/m3) were stocked per tank. Two identical systems were used and contained either freshwater (0 ppt) or sea...

248

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming  

E-print Network

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming Ida Scheel1 salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major, worldwide. We study the data covering salmon farming in Norway from 2002 to 2005 and propose a stochastic

Aldrin, Magne

249

The Mediterranean Sea Regime Shift at the End of the 1980s, and Intriguing Parallelisms with Other European Basins  

PubMed Central

Background Regime shifts are abrupt changes encompassing a multitude of physical properties and ecosystem variables, which lead to new regime conditions. Recent investigations focus on the changes in ecosystem diversity and functioning associated to such shifts. Of particular interest, because of the implication on climate drivers, are shifts that occur synchronously in separated basins. Principal Findings In this work we analyze and review long-term records of Mediterranean ecological and hydro-climate variables and find that all point to a synchronous change in the late 1980s. A quantitative synthesis of the literature (including observed oceanic data, models and satellite analyses) shows that these years mark a major change in Mediterranean hydrographic properties, surface circulation, and deep water convection (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient). We provide novel analyses that link local, regional and basin scale hydrological properties with two major indicators of large scale climate, the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Northern Hemisphere Temperature index, suggesting that the Mediterranean shift is part of a large scale change in the Northern Hemisphere. We provide a simplified scheme of the different effects of climate vs. temperature on pelagic ecosystems. Conclusions Our results show that the Mediterranean Sea underwent a major change at the end of the 1980s that encompassed atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological systems, for which it can be considered a regime shift. We further provide evidence that the local hydrography is linked to the larger scale, northern hemisphere climate. These results suggest that the shifts that affected the North, Baltic, Black and Mediterranean (this work) Seas at the end of the 1980s, that have been so far only partly associated, are likely linked as part a northern hemisphere change. These findings bear wide implications for the development of climate change scenarios, as synchronous shifts may provide the key for distinguishing local (i.e., basin) anthropogenic drivers, such as eutrophication or fishing, from larger scale (hemispheric) climate drivers. PMID:20502704

Conversi, Alessandra; Fonda Umani, Serena; Peluso, Tiziana; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Santojanni, Alberto; Edwards, Martin

2010-01-01

250

Telemetry link for an automatic salmon migration monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The antenna and transmitter described in this report were designed for integration into the remote acoustic assessment system for detection of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay region of the Bering Sea. The assessment system configuration consists of an upward directed sonar buoy anchored 150 ft below the surface and attached by cable to a spar buoy tethered some 300 ft laterally. The spar buoy contains a telemetry transmitter, power supply, data processing electronics, an antenna and a beacon light.

Baldwin, H. A.; Freyman, R. W.

1973-01-01

251

Biodiesel from Waste Salmon Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, o...

252

New York State Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

253

Intestinal morphology of the wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

The worldwide-industrialized production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has increased dramatically during the last decades, followed by diseases related to the on-going domestication process as a growing concern. Even though the gastrointestinal tract seems to be a target for different disorders in farmed fish, a description of the normal intestinal status in healthy, wild salmon is warranted. Here, we provide such information in addition to suggesting a referable anatomical standardization for the intestine. In this study, two groups of wild Atlantic salmon were investigated, consisting of post smolts on feed caught in the sea and of sexually mature, starved individuals sampled from a river. The two groups represent different stages in the anadromous salmon life cycle, which also are part of the production cycle of farmed salmon. Selected regions of gastrointestinal tract were subjected to morphological investigations including immunohistochemical, scanning electron microscopic, and morphometric analyses. A morphology-based nomenclature was established, defining the cardiac part of the stomach and five different regions of the Atlantic salmon intestine, including pyloric caeca, first segment of the mid-intestine with pyloric caeca, first segment of the mid-intestine posterior to pyloric caeca, second segment of the mid-intestine and posterior intestinal segment. In each of the above described regions, for both groups of fish, morphometrical measurements and regional histological investigations were performed with regards to magnitude and direction of mucosal folding as well as the composition of the intestinal wall. Additionally, immunohistochemistry showing cells positive for cytokeratins, ?-actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in addition to alkaline phosphatase reactivity in the segments is presented. PMID:23520065

Lkka, Guro; Austb, Lars; Falk, Knut; Bjerks, Inge; Koppang, Erling Olaf

2013-08-01

254

The Changing Arctic and Subarctic Environment (CASE): a european network on marine biotic indicators of recent climate changes in the Nordic seas and adjacent domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Marie Curie Initial Training Network CASE (FP7 - ITN) is formalizing long-standing research collaborations in the field of empirical and simulated climate and oceanographic changes in the Nordic and Barents Seas. CASE offers an ideal setting for running integrated and innovative projects on recent (Holocene) Arctic and Subarctic climate changes and implementing a multidisciplinary and intersectorial training on biotic proxies of past marine environments through a Marie Curie Network. The EU-funded 12 CASE PhDs projects are concerned with the sensitivity of marine primary and secondary producers to changes in marine physical aspects, and the invaluable information on past oceanic and climatic conditions given by their fossil remains contained in sedimentary archives. Climate modelling provides complementary physical information. The investigations cover an extended field of disciplines, from micropaleontology, to organic and inorganic geochemistry, and an array of expertise such as taxonomy, molecular and stable isotope geochemistry, and climate modelling. This presentation will provide information on the structure of the consortium, the content and philosophy of the training actions, as well as the main scientific objectives of the various research projects carried out by the CASE partner institutions.

Deme, I.; Giraudeau, J.; Belt, S. T.; Hald, M.; Husum, K.; Knies, J.; Renssen, H.; Spielhagen, R. F.

2011-12-01

255

A multidisciplinary study of the extracutaneous pigment system of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). A possible relationship between kidney disease and dopa oxidase activity level.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases and breeding conditions can influence fish health status. Furthermore it is well known that human and animal health are strongly correlated. In lower vertebrates melano-macrophage centres, clusters of pigment-containing cells forming the extracutaneous pigment system, are widespread in the stroma of the haemopoietic tissue, mainly in kidney and spleen. In fishes, melano-macrophage centres play an important role in the immune response against antigenic stimulants and pathogens. Hence, they are employed as biomarker of fish health status. We have investigated this cell system in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) following the enzyme activities involved in melanin biosynthesis. We have found a possible relationship between kidney disease of farmed fishes and dopa oxidase activity level, suggesting it as an indicator of kidney disease. Moreover variations of dopa oxidase activity in extracutaneous pigment system have been observed with respect to environmental temperature. At last, for the first time, using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (Femto-TA), we pointed out that pigment-containing cells of fish kidney tissue present melanin pigments. PMID:25449383

Arciuli, Marcella; Brunetti, Adalberto; Fiocco, Daniela; Zacchino, Valentina; Centoducati, Gerardo; Aloi, Antonio; Tommasi, Raffaele; Santeramo, Arcangela; De Nitto, Emanuele; Gallone, Anna

2015-01-01

256

Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high consumption rates and rapid growth, degree of diet overlap or consumption of lower trophic level prey, and early migration timing into the ocean. The consistent pattern of findings from multiple regions of the ocean provides evidence that interspecific competition can significantly influence salmon population dynamics and that pink salmon may be the dominant competitor among salmon in marine waters. ?? Springer 2005.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

2004-01-01

257

The effect of migratory behaviour on genetic diversity and population divergence: a comparison of anadromous and freshwater Atlantic salmon Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic salmon populations, even after correcting for differences in stock size. The phylogeo- graphic origin of the populations also had a significant effect on the genetic diversity characteristics of populations: anadromous populations from the basins of the Atlantic Ocean, White Sea and Barents Sea possessed higher levels of genetic diversity than anadromous populations from the Baltic Sea basin. Among the

A. Tonteri; A. Je. Veselov; S. Titov; J. Lumme; C. R. Primmer

2007-01-01

258

Upstream passage problems for wild Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in a regulated river and its effect on the population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to hydropower development, the upstream migration of wild anadromous salmon and brown trout is impaired in many European\\u000a rivers, causing negative effects on the long-term survival of natural salmonid populations. This study identified problems\\u000a for Atlantic salmon during upstream migration in a regulated river in northern Sweden. Umelven (mean flow: 430 m3s?1). Tagging from 1995 to 2005 involved radio

H. Lundqvist; P. Rivinoja; K. Leonardsson; S. McKinnell

259

Upstream passage problems for wild Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in a regulated river and its effect on the population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to hydropower development, the upstream migration of wild anadromous salmon and brown trout is impaired in many European\\u000a rivers, causing negative effects on the long-term survival of natural salmonid populations. This study identified problems\\u000a for Atlantic salmon during upstream migration in a regulated river in northern Sweden, Umelven (mean flow: 430m3s?1). Tagging from 1995 to 2005 involved radio tags

H. Lundqvist; P. Rivinoja; K. Leonardsson; S. McKinnell

2008-01-01

260

SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

261

Preliminary study on expression of antimicrobial peptides in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) following invivo infection with Vibrio anguillarum. A time course experiment.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial polypeptides (AMPPs) are humoral components of the vertebrates and invertebrates innate immune system. Their potent broad spectrum antimicrobial activities have drawn the attention of the scientific community to their potential use not only as an alternative to antibiotics but also as functional targets for immunostimulants in order to enhance the host immunity. Fish synthesize a great number of these peptides but in European sea bass, an important fish species in the Mediterranean aquaculture, only a few AMPPs have been studied and these surveys have highlighted their functional role as predictive markers of stressful conditions. Many aspects concerning AMPP mode of action in the host during bacterial infections are still unknown. In this work a 72h time course experiment, performed on juvenile sea bass intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with a sub-lethal dose of Vibrio anguillarum, was aimed to investigate the mRNA expression of four specific AMPP genes and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in skin, gills, spleen, and head kidney. AMPP genes were: dicentracin (DIC), histone-like protein 1 (HLP-1), histone-like protein 2 (HLP-2) and hemoglobin-like protein (Hb-LP). The delta-delta CT method in real-time RT-PCR allowed to gain more knowledge about temporal dynamics, preferential sites of expression as well as immunological and physiological role of these molecular markers. DIC was significantly up-regulated mainly in head kidney at 1.5-3h post-infection (p.i.). HLP-1 showed an extended-time overexpression in gills and a significant up-regulation in spleen. HLP-2 was interestingly overexpressed in gills at 24h p.i., while Hb-LP showed a significant up-regulation in skin for all the 72h trial as well as lower but always significant values either in gills or in spleen. Different was the response of IL-1? that showed a dramatic up-regulation in spleen and head kidney at 8h p.i. whilst in gills it displayed a severe inhibition. During this survey the i.p. stimulus surely conditioned the AMPP expression in skin and gills, especially as regards the DIC that as piscidin-related gene has an important defensive role in the mucosal tissues. However, two unconventional AMPP genes such as HLP-2 and Hb-LP, strictly related to the physiological mechanisms of fish, were less affected in terms of expression by the route of infection, being more evident in peripheral loci. These findings might suggest them as potential markers to be analyzed within plans of health survey in fish farms. PMID:25542381

Meloni, Mauro; Candusso, Sabrina; Galeotti, Marco; Volpatti, Donatella

2015-03-01

262

Hypo-osmotic stress-induced physiological and ion-osmoregulatory responses in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) are modulated differentially by nutritional status.  

PubMed

We investigated the impact of nutritional status on the physiological, metabolic and ion-osmoregulatory performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) when acclimated to seawater (32ppt), brackish water (20 and 10ppt) and hyposaline water (2.5ppt) for 2weeks. Following acclimation to different salinities, fish were either fed or fasted (unfed for 14days). Plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle water content were severely altered in fasted fish acclimated to 10 and 2.5ppt in comparison to normal seawater-acclimated fish, suggesting ion regulation and acid-base balance disturbances. In contrast to feed-deprived fish, fed fish were able to avoid osmotic perturbation more effectively. This was accompanied by an increase in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression and activity, transitory activation of H(+)-ATPase (only at 2.5ppt) and down-regulation of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) gene expression. Ammonia excretion rate was inhibited to a larger extent in fasted fish acclimated to low salinities while fed fish were able to excrete efficiently. Consequently, the build-up of ammonia in theplasma of fed fish was relatively lower. Energy stores, especially glycogen and lipid, dropped in the fasted fish at low salinities and progression towards the anaerobic metabolic pathway became evident by an increase in plasma lactate level. Overall, the results indicate no osmotic stress in both feeding treatments within the salinity range of 32 to 20ppt. However, at lower salinities (10-2.5ppt) feed deprivation tends to reduce physiological, metabolic, ion-osmo-regulatory and molecular compensatory mechanisms and thus limits the fish's abilities to adapt to a hypo-osmotic environment. PMID:25483239

Sinha, Amit Kumar; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

2015-03-01

263

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

Wgbh; Domain, Teachers'

264

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For generations, Native Americans have depended on their observations of nature for their survival. In this video segment adapted from Northwest Indian College, an Elder recalls how fishermen suspected the water was warming after observing salmon retreating to deeper waters.

2010-03-24

265

Signatures of resistance to Lepeophtheirus salmonis include a TH2-type response at the louse-salmon interface.  

PubMed

Disease outbreaks with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis cause significant economic losses in mariculture operations worldwide. Variable innate immune responses at the louse-attachment site contribute to differences in susceptibility among species such that members of Salmo spp. are more susceptible to infection than those of some Oncorhynchus spp. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to disease resistance or susceptibility to L.?salmonis in salmon. Here, we utilize histochemistry and transcriptomics in a comparative infection model with susceptible (Atlantic, sockeye) and resistant (coho) salmon. At least three cell populations (MHII?+, IL1?+, TNF?+) were activated in coho salmon skin during L.?salmonis infection. Locally elevated expression of several pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. IL1?, IL8, TNF?, COX2, C/EBP?), and tissue repair enzymes (MMP9, MMP13) were detected in susceptible and resistant species. However, responses specific to coho salmon (e.g. IL4, IL6, TGF?) or responses shared among susceptible salmon (e.g. SAP, TRF, Cath in Atlantic and sockeye salmon) provide evidence for species-specific pathways contributing to resistance or susceptibility, respectively. Our results confirm the importance of an early pro-inflammatory TH1-type pathway as an initial host response during infection with Pacific sea lice, and demonstrate subsequent regulatory TH2-type processes as candidate defense mechanisms in the skin of resistant coho salmon. PMID:25453579

Braden, Laura M; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

2015-01-01

266

Toward a salmon conjecture  

E-print Network

By using a result from the numerical algebraic geometry package Bertini we show that (with extremely high probability) a set of degree 6 and degree 9 polynomials cut out the secant variety $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{2}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{2} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$. This, combined with an argument provided by Landsberg and Manivel, implies set-theoretic defining equations in degrees 5, 6 and 9 for a much larger set of secant varieties, including $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{3}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$ which is of particular interest in light of the salmon prize offered by E. Allman for the ideal-theoretic defining equations.

Oeding, Luke

2010-01-01

267

Adding Nutrients to Enhance the Growth of Endangered Sockeye Salmon: Trophic Transfer in an Oligotrophic Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka listed under U.S. law as endangered in 1991 in response to a decline in anadromous adult numbers, spend their first 12 years in Redfish Lake, Idaho, before migrating to the sea. To determine how nutrient enhancement might influence phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish production, we performed fertilization experiments in large enclosures in this oligotrophic lake

Phaedra Budy; Chris Luecke; Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

1998-01-01

268

Alternative Reproductive Tactics in Atlantic Salmon: Factors Affecting Mature Parr Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Atlantic salmon, as in most salmonids, males can mature early in the life cycle, as small freshwater fish, termed parr, and\\/or undergo a sea migration before maturing as full-size adults. The alternative life histories are contingent on environmental and social circumstances, such as growth rate, territory quality or any other factor that affects the individual's state. In order to

D. Thomaz; E. Beall; T. Burke

1997-01-01

269

Pacific Salmon at the Crossroads: Stocks at Risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Fisheries Society herein provides a list of depleted Pacific salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat stocks from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, to accompany the list of rare inland fishes reported by Williams et al. (1989). The list includes 214 native naturally-spawning stocks: 101 at high risk of extinction, 58 at moderate risk of extinction, 54 of special concern,

Jack E. Williams; Willa Nehlsen; James A. Lichatowich

1991-01-01

270

Fine structure of the adenohypophysis in immature sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the adenohypophysis of juvenile sockeye salmon was investigated. Pituitary glands were collected from immature fish transferred experimentally to sea water and subsequently returned to fresh water. The rostral pars distalis contained three cell types: ACTH cells, prolactin cells, and non-secretory cells. The prolactin and non-secretory cells were joined together in the form of

B. A. McKeown; John F. Leatherland

1973-01-01

271

Abstract--Age and growth estimates for salmon sharks (Lamna ditropis)  

E-print Network

; Blagoderov, 1994; Nagasawa, 1998). It is found individually and in large aggregations at sea-surface tempera mammals and seabirds (Brodeur, 1988; Nagasawa, 1998). Adult salmon sharks typically range in size from 180 the Pacific, but such movements are suspected to occur (Nakano and Nagasawa 1996; Goldman and Musick, in press

272

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon  

E-print Network

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon Martin Krkoseka,b,1 , Brendan a Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 9016; b Salmon Coast Field Station, Simoom) The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect

Dill, Lawrence M.

273

Restoring Productivity of Salmon-Based Food Webs: Contrasting Effects of Salmon Carcass and Salmon Carcass Analog Additions on Stream-Resident Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypotheses that salmon carcasses and salmon carcass analogs (dried, processed hatchery salmon) increase the condition factor, production, and whole-body lipid content of stream-resident salmonids and that stream shading affects responses to enrichment. Two en- richment treatments (salmon carcass, salmon analog) and a control, each with and without simulated riparian shading (95% shade), were replicated six times in

MARK S. WIPFLI; JOHN P. H UDSON; JOHN P. C AOUETTE

2004-01-01

274

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.  

PubMed

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Kryer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dalvin, Sussie T; Bron, James E; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

275

Epidemiology of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea) in the River Tornionjoki, a Baltic wild salmon river.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Gyrodactylus salaris in the River Tornionjoki was investigated in 2000-2004. Infection of salmon parr, Salmo salar, was common in the uppermost reach of the river system but decreased downstream and was rare in the lowermost reach. This pattern was consistent across the study period regardless of varying water temperatures. The oldest age groups of parr were more often infected than younger ones throughout the river system, irrespective of their origin (wild or stocked). Parasite-free hatchery-reared 1-year-old parr became infected during their first summer in the wild. Downmigrating salmon smolts had a high prevalence of infection, but their role in the distribution of infection seemed unimportant. On grayling, Thymallus thymallus, we observed only the grayling-specific clade of Gyrodactylus. We found no indication of grayling participating in the epidemiology of infection on salmon. The salmon parr and smolt population in the Tornionjoki has been at its height during the late 1990s and 2000s. Our results indicate that G. salaris infection in this Baltic river has no devastating effects on the salmon population as it has had in salmon rivers flowing into the North Atlantic and White Sea. PMID:18355178

Anttila, P; Romakkaniemi, A; Kuusela, J; Koski, P

2008-05-01

276

Physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.  

PubMed

After several years of feeding at sea, salmonids have an amazing ability to migrate long distances from the open ocean to their natal stream to spawn. Three different research approaches from behavioural to molecular biological studies have been used to elucidate the physiological mechanisms underpinning salmonid imprinting and homing migration. The study was based on four anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, migrating from the North Pacific Ocean to the coast of Hokkaido, Japan, as well as lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya, Hokkaido, where the lake serves as the model oceanic system. Behavioural studies using biotelemetry techniques showed swimming profiles from the Bering Sea to the coast of Hokkaido in O. keta as well as homing behaviours of lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya. Endocrinological studies on hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of O. keta, and lacustrine O. nerka identified the hormonal changes during homing migration. Neurophysiological studies revealed crucial roles of olfactory functions on imprinting and homing during downstream and upstream migration, respectively. These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in anadromous and lacustrine salmonids. PMID:22803723

Ueda, H

2012-07-01

277

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON  

E-print Network

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman

278

PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND  

E-print Network

of their birth to spawn and complete their life cycle. All Pacific salmon die after they have spawned. NLMON NATURAL LIFE The diagram shows the life cycle of salmon. Adults may spawn near the ocean or hundreds. Ocean life is 2 to 4 years. When mature, salmon return--some migrate hundreds of miles--to the streams

279

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

280

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian  

E-print Network

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian Networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen, Petri Karlsson and Ingemar Per¨a December 22, 2002 HIIT TECHNICAL REPORT 2002­7 #12;PREDICTING THE WILD SALMON elsewhere. #12;Predicting the wild salmon production using Bayesian networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen

Myllymäki, Petri

281

USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON  

E-print Network

353 USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRARY Of. zi 1960 WOODS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON by Richard W Page The effect of dynamite on salmon 2 Description and results of variables tested 3 Effect of water

282

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead  

E-print Network

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead To Healthy, Harvestable Levels Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board December 15, 2004 Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife Subbasin Plan Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Skamania And Wahkiakum Counties #12;Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife

283

L'originalit de Juglar Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

L'originalité de Juglar Pierre Salmon Thèse complémentaire soutenue le 28 mars 1966 Université de -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Version verbatim avec quelques corrections de forme mars 2011 Pierre Salmon Université de Bourgogne Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion (UMRS CNRS 5118) pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract This is a version

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role  

E-print Network

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role In Fishery Management CIRCULAR 24 FISH- crease have intensified the problems of salmon-fishery maintenance. Natural propagation has been interfered with by pollution and by dams that cut off the salmon from their natural spawning grounds

285

-----WESLEy C. SALMON-----Confirmation and Relevance ,  

E-print Network

-----WESLEy C. SALMON----- Confirmation and Relevance , Item: One of the earliest surprises of Probability (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), sec. 1l0A. ~ Wesley C. Salmon, "Partial Entailment Foundations, secs. 86-88. #12;Wesley C. Salmon that the first edition had been unclear with regard

Fitelson, Branden

286

BLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka  

E-print Network

and Wildlife Service, John L . Farley, Director BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARDBLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARD MIGRATION PAST BONNEVILLE DAM Marine Summary and conclusions 35 Literature cited 36 Appendix 37 #12;#12;BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCOHYNCHUS NERKA AGE

287

Atlantic Salmon Released into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS employee Marisa Lubeck releases the day's last young Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season b...

288

Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Tunison Lab scientist Emily Waldt (right)assists Dan Bishop of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservationin releasing Atlantic salmoninto Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingrelease...

289

Unraveling the estrogen receptor (er) genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals expression differences between the two adult life stages but little impact from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptors (ers) not only are activated by hormones but also interact with many human-derived environmental contaminants. Here, we present evidence for four expressed er genes in Atlantic salmon cDNA - two more ers (er?2 and er?2) than previously published. To determine if er gene expression differs between two adult life-stages we sampled 20 adult salmon from the feeding phase in the Baltic Sea and during migration in the River Mrrum, Sweden. Results show that all four er genes are present in the investigated tissues, except for er?2 not appearing in the spleen. Overall, a profile analysis reveals the er?1 gene to be the most highly expressed er gene in both female and male Baltic Sea salmon tissues, and also in female River Mrrum salmon. In contrast, this gene has the lowest gene expression level of the four er genes in male salmon from the River Mrrum. The er?2 gene is expressed at the lowest levels in both female/male Baltic Sea salmon and in female River Mrrum salmon. Statistical analyses indicate a significant and complex interaction where both sex and adult life stage can impact er gene expression. Regression analyses did not demonstrate any significant relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and er gene expression level, suggesting that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea may be deactivated inside the salmon's lipid tissues and have limited impact on er activity. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of four er gene expression levels in two wild salmon populations from two different adult life stages where information about PCB load is also available. PMID:25451980

Nikoleris, Lina; Hansson, Maria C

2015-01-15

290

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, learn about subsistence fishing and harvesting. Hear from an Elder who speaks about how he used to go trolling (fishing) for salmon with his father, uncles, and cousins when he was young. He recalls that they noticed that the salmon were moving farther offshore, into deeper water. They suspected it was because the water was warming. The video segment was adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham, Washington. The background essay explains the huge significance of climate change for people who rely on the earth so much, and the correlation between the temperature of water and the abundance of salmon is further explained. The Discussion questions will help kids think about the issues,and therefore understand them in a better way. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

291

Ocean Carrying Capacity : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 6 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival of coho salmon appears to be determined in the first month at sea while the fish are still in local marine areas in the upwelling zone. There is stronger evidence that upwelling might influence vulnerability to predation. A broader ecosystem view which considers salmon as a member of a complex marine community offers additional insight and raises new questions regarding the marine mortality of salmon. The pelagic fish community in the upwelling zone has undergone dramatic change in the last 50 years. That change is consistent with the historical record, however, the system has not completed a full cycle of change (as it has in the past) since the stocks have been subjected to intense commercial and sport exploitation. Salmon seem to be responding to shifts in productivity in the coastal upwelling zone.

Lichatowich, Jim

1993-06-01

292

Differential gene expression during smoltification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): a first large-scale microarray study.  

PubMed

The life cycle of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) involves a period of 1 to 3 years in freshwater followed by migration to the sea where the salmon undergoes rapid growth. In preparation for the marine environment, while still in freshwater, the salmon undergo a transformation from a freshwater dwelling parr to a saltwater adapted smolt, a process known as smoltification. The Atlantic salmon Transcriptome Analysis of Important Traits of Salmon/Salmon Genome Project (TRAITS/SGP) cDNA microarray was used to investigate how gene expression alters during smoltification. Genes differentially expressed during smoltification were identified by comparing gene expression profiles in smolt brain, gill, and kidney tissue samples with those of parr. Of the three tissues investigated, the number of differentially expressed genes was the greatest in gill. Many of the differentially expressed genes could be assigned to one of four main categories: growth, metabolism, oxygen transport, and osmoregulation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction successfully confirmed the differential expression of seven of the upregulated genes. The TRAITS/SGP cDNA microarray was used to successfully demonstrate for the first time how gene expression mediates smoltification in the Atlantic salmon. Changes in gene expression observed in this study reflected the physiological and biochemical changes recorded by previous studies describing the parr-smolt transformation. This study significantly increases our knowledge of smoltification and will benefit future studies in this area of research. PMID:19585168

Seear, Paul J; Carmichael, Stephen N; Talbot, Richard; Taggart, John B; Bron, James E; Sweeney, Glen E

2010-04-01

293

Effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide on gene expressions of the cytokines interleukin-1? and interleukin-10 and of heme oxygenase-1 in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L.  

PubMed

Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most frequently used herbicides in the world. We evaluated the effect of Roundup 360 SL on the expression of interleukin-1? (il-1?), interleukin-10 (il-10) and heme-oxygenase-1 (ho-1) in the gills, intestines and spleen of young European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax L.), aged 8 mo. A group of fish was exposed to 647 mg/L of Roundup for 96 h. This treatment did not alter gene expression levels of il-1? and il-10 cytokine in the intestines, but significantly lowered both levels in the gills (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04 respectively). Expression levels of ho-1 were increased significantly in the three organs of fish from the treated group (the gills p = 0.04, the intestines p = 0.004 and the spleen p < 0.001). These changes may in turn negatively impact the immune system of European sea bass exposed to Roundup. PMID:24408037

Richard, Simone; Prvot-D'Alvise, Nathalie; Bunet, Robert; Simide, Rmy; Couvray, Sylvain; Coup, Stphane; Grillasca, Jol Paul

2014-03-01

294

Marine growth of Columbia River hatchery Chinook salmon  

E-print Network

, salmon species, fish species, birds.... ** Almost all growth measures and most adult returning salmon stocks within a salmon species between salmon species between salmon and other fish species #12;Hatchery = abundance x size Food demand = biomass Measuring competitive interactions for food = difficult Estimating

295

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 -2008  

E-print Network

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 - 2008 Peter Hassemer Idaho Department of Fish;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Spring Chinook Salmon (Includes Snake River Summers) #12;Spring

296

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004 14 Lower Columbia Mainstem Subbasin ­ Salmon Creek Figure 14-1. Location of the Salmon Creek Basin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 14.1 Basin Overview The Salmon Creek Basin comprises approximately

297

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004 18 Little White Salmon Subbasin Figure 18-1. Location of the Little White Salmon River Subbasin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 18.1 Basin Overview The Little White Salmon Subbasin

298

Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

Farley, E.V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

2007-01-01

299

Chemokine receptors in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Teleost sequence data have revealed that many immune genes have evolved differently when compared to other vertebrates. Thus, each gene family needs functional studies to define the biological role of individual members within major species groups. Chemokine receptors, being excellent markers for various leukocyte subpopulations, are one such example where studies are needed to decipher individual gene function. The unique salmonid whole genome duplication that occurred approximately 95 million years ago has provided salmonids with many additional duplicates further adding to the complexity and diversity. Here we have performed a systematic study of these receptors in Atlantic salmon with particular focus on potential inflammatory receptors. Using the preliminary salmon genome data we identified 48 chemokine or chemokine-like receptors including orthologues to the ten receptors previously published in trout. We found expressed support for 40 of the bona fide salmon receptors. Eighteen of the chemokine receptors are duplicated, and when tested against a diploid sister group the majority were shown to be remnants of the 4R whole genome duplication with subsequent high sequence identity. The salmon chemokine receptor repertoire of 40 expressed bona fide genes is comparably larger than that found in humans with 23 receptors. Diversification has been a major driving force for these duplicate genes with the main variability residing in ligand binding and signalling domains. PMID:25445904

Grimholt, Unni; Hauge, Helena; Hauge, Anna Germundsson; Leong, Jong; Koop, Ben F

2015-03-01

300

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

Dygert Clark County Citizen 1998-current Tom Fox Lewis County Citizen 1998-2002 Dennis Hadaller Lewis and Associates Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership Zenn and Associates Parametrix JD White Company Lower Columbia ­ BONNEVILLE TRIBUTARIES SUBBASIN 17 WIND RIVER SUBBASIN 18 LITTLE WHITE SALMON SUBBASIN 19 COLUMBIA GORGE

301

Salmon Aquaculture and Transmission of the Fish Tapeworm  

E-print Network

Aquaculture of salmon constitutes a rapidly growing worldwide industry with an expanding globalized market (1,2). Although this industry has several economic benefits, according to recent reports it is also accompanied by effects that are detrimental to human and animal health and the environment (1,2). Aquaculture has been implicated in the transmission of infectious diseases. For example, in caged fish aquaculture, bacterial and parasitic diseases can be transmitted to wild fish (1,2). Furthermore, aquaculture-raised fish may be susceptible to the microorganisms and parasites of wild fish (1,3). However, in spite of the accepted fact that parasitic worms can be transmitted to humans by free-ranging fish (4), until recently, few examples have been reported of pathogens that could be transmitted to humans directly by the products and subproducts of salmon aquaculture. I discuss here information indicating that salmon aquaculture may be involved in expanding the range of fish tapeworm infections in nature and to humans. Several recent publications report outbreaks of human cases of infection by the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum in Brazil (59). These infections have been epidemiologically linked to consumption of raw salmon produced by the aquaculture industry in southern Chile, thousands of miles away (59). Infections by D. latum have been detected in several cities in Brazil (59), and in a tourist who traveled there from Europe (10). These cases of diphyllobothriasis are noteworthy because this parasite was totally unknown to clinicians and parasitologists in Brazil, where it does not appear to have an endemic life cycle (59). D. latum is transmitted to humans by plerocercoid larvae present in fish meat and visceral organs (www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx). D. latum and the closely related sea gull tapeworm, D. dendriticum, have well-established endemic life cycles in a series of glacial lakes that dot Region XIX and Region X in northern Chilean Patagonia.

Felipe C. Cabello

302

Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differ

Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

2009-03-09

303

SEA TURTLES Sea Turtles  

E-print Network

317 SEA TURTLES UNIT 24 Sea Turtles Unit 24 PROTECTED RESOURCES STAFF NMFS Office of Protected are listed as endangered. The authority to protect and conserve sea turtles in the marine environment for protection of sea turtles, their eggs, and hatchlings on land (nesting beaches). SPECIES AND STATUS Sea

304

Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms.  

PubMed

Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned. PMID:25480132

Kristoffersen, Anja B; Jimenez, Daniel; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Grntvedt, Randi; Stien, Audun; Jansen, Peder A

2014-12-01

305

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

306

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. By CHARLES H. GILBERT,  

E-print Network

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. ~ By CHARLES H. GILBERT, Professor of Zoology, Stanford University. " .. " .. " .. " .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 The king salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) " , .. .. . 318 Rate of travel. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 The chum or dog salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) , '" '" . .. .. .. . . . . . 325 Rate of travel

307

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

308

76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead...

2011-01-03

309

75 FR 78929 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 300 RIN 0648-XZ20 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The orders...

2010-12-17

310

77 FR 60631 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 0648-XC222 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2012-10-04

311

78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...action establishes Class E airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance...Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of...

2013-11-01

312

PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

313

WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

314

Infections by Renibacterium salmoninarum and Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin are associated with reduced growth of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

We examined 1454 juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), captured in nearshore waters off the coasts of Washington and Oregon (USA) from 1999 to 2004 for infection by Renibacterium salmoninarum, Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin and skin metacercariae. The prevalence and intensities for each of these infections were established for both yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. Two metrics of salmon growth, weight residuals and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, were determined for salmon infected with these pathogens/parasites, both individually and in combination, with uninfected fish used for comparison. Yearling Chinook salmon infected with R.salmoninarum had significantly reduced weight residuals. Chinook salmon infected with skin metacercariae alone did not have significantly reduced growth metrics. Dual infections were not associated with significantly more severe effects on the growth metrics than single infections; the number of triple infections was very low and precluded statistical comparison. Overall, these data suggest that infections by these organisms can be associated with reduced juvenile Chinook salmon growth. Because growth in the first year at sea has been linked to survival for some stocks of Chinook salmon, the infections may therefore play a role in regulating these populations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. PMID:24720546

Sandell, T A; Teel, D J; Fisher, J; Beckman, B; Jacobson, K C

2014-04-10

315

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2013-02-14

316

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2012-12-19

317

Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.  

PubMed

Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival. PMID:22233513

Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

2012-02-01

318

Infectious salmon anaemia virus replication and induction of alpha interferon in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV), which causes ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is an orthomyxovirus belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and it is generally accepted that the ISAV receptor destroying enzyme dissolves this haemagglutination except for Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Recent work indicates that ISAV isolates that are able to

Samuel T Workenhe; Molly JT Kibenge; Glenda M Wright; Dorota W Wadowska; David B Groman; Frederick SB Kibenge

2008-01-01

319

THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

320

Pacific salmon During their annual spawning migrations from the ocean to their natal streams, Pacific salmon  

E-print Network

Pacific salmon During their annual spawning migrations from the ocean to their natal streams, Pacific salmon influence stream ecosystems by (1) carrying and releasing large quantities of marine. In the foreground is a school of pink salmon (dark objects) migrating up Maybeso Creek, Prince of Wales Island

Tiegs, Scott

321

Identification of proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been no structural information about the core protein of salmon nasal cartilage proteoglycan although its physiological activities have been investigated. Internal amino acid sequencing using nano-LC\\/MS\\/MS revealed that the salmon proteoglycan was aggrecan. Primer walk sequencing based on the amino acid information determined that the salmon aggrecan cDNA is comprised of 4207bp nucleotides predicted to encode 1324 amino

Ikuko Kakizaki; Yota Tatara; Mitsuo Majima; Yoji Kato; Masahiko Endo

2011-01-01

322

Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interim report from the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine is a prepublication of the March 2002 report provided by National Academy Press. The once abundant populations of Atlantic Salmon in Maine have declined in recent years, now listed as endangered. The NRC Committee believes that "understanding the genetic makeup of Maine's salmon is important for recovery efforts." This 48-page report includes information on the salmon's biology, evolution, genetics, its current state, and the committee's conclusions. It can be viewed online or downloaded for printing.

National Research Council. Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine.

323

Modelling the migration opportunities of diadromous fish species along a gradient of dissolved oxygen concentration in a European tidal watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between poor water quality and migration opportunities for fish remains poorly documented, although it is an essential research step in implementing EU water legislation. In this paper, we model the environmental constraints that control the movements of anadromous and catadromous fish populations that migrate through the tidal watershed of River Scheldt, a heavily impacted river basin in Western Europe. Local populations of sturgeon, sea lamprey, sea trout, Atlantic salmon, houting and allis shad were essentially extirpated around 1900. For remaining populations (flounder, three-spined stickleback, twaite shad, thinlip mullet, European eel and European smelt), a data driven logistic model was parameterized. The presence or absence of fish species in samples taken between 1995 and 2004 was modelled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, river flow and season. Probabilities to catch individuals from all diadromous species but three-spined stickleback increased as a function of the interaction between temperature and dissolved oxygen. The hypoxic zone situated in the freshwater tidal part of the estuary was an effective barrier for upstream migrating anadromous spawners since it blocked the entrance to historical spawning sites upstream. Similarly, habitat availability for catadromous fish was greatly reduced and restricted to lower brackish water parts of the estuary. The model was applied to infer preliminary dissolved oxygen criteria for diadromous fish, to make qualitative predictions about future changes in fish distribution given anticipated changes in water quality and to suggest necessary measures with respect to watershed management.

Maes, J.; Stevens, M.; Breine, J.

2007-10-01

324

Acoustic tracking of migrating salmon.  

PubMed

Annual salmon migrations vary significantly in annual return numbers from year to year. In order to determine when a species' sustainable return size has been met, a method for counting and sizing the spawning animals is required. This project implements a probability hypothesis density tracker on data from a dual frequency identification sonar to automate the process of counting and sizing the fish crossing an insonified area. Data processing on the sonar data creates intensity images from which possible fish locations can be extracted using image processing. These locations become the input to the tracker. The probability hypothesis density tracker then solves the multiple target tracking problem and creates fish tracks from which length information is calculated using image segmentation. The algorithm is tested on data from the 2010 salmon run on the Kenai river in Alaska and compares favorably with statistical models from sub-sampling and manual measurements. PMID:25324076

Kupilik, Matthew J; Petersen, Todd

2014-10-01

325

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment features Native American Elders discussing the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world. A Native educator describes having taken students to a river's headwaters to watch salmon spawn, only to observe the deadly effects of water temperature rise on the fish eggs. She explains that even a small change in temperature can result in a population decline that could threaten Native peoples and their way of life. Included is a background essay explaining how important the fishing is to certain parts of the world, and how the warming waters are negatively affecting the fish and people. There is a helpful section that shows you the standards for your state ranging from grades K-12, as well as links to related resources.

2010-01-01

326

Restoring Productivity of Salmon-Based Food Webs: Contrasting Effects of Salmon Carcass and Salmon Carcass Analog Additions on Stream-Resident Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypotheses that salmon carcasses and salmon carcass analogs (dried, processed hatchery salmon) increase the condition factor, production, and whole-body lipid content of stream-resident salmonids and that stream shading affects responses to enrichment. Two enrichment treatments (salmon carcass, salmon analog) and a control, each with and without simulated riparian shading (95% shade), were replicated six times in once-through

Mark S. Wipfli; John P. Hudson; John P. Caouette

2004-01-01

327

Pulses in the eastern margin current and warmer water off the north west European shelf linked to North Sea ecosystem changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Sea ecosystem has recently under- gone dramatic changes, observed as altered biomass of indi- vidual species spanning a range of life forms from algae to birds, with evidence for an approximate doubling in the abun- dance of both phytoplankton and benthos as part of a regime shift after 1987. Remarkably, these changes, in part recorded in the Phytoplankton

Philip C. Reid; N. Penny Holliday; Tim J. Smyth

2001-01-01

328

Building and Sustaining International Business Networks in the Baltic Sea Region. A Comparison of Small and Medium-sized Exporters from Emerging and Mature European Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the internationalization of s mall- and medium sized enterprises from a business marketing point of view. The building and sustainment of international business networks is studied in the Baltic Sea Region involv ing exporters from both mature and emerging markets. The paper reports on research conducted be tween 2004 and 2007 with researchers participating from eight

Hans Jansson; Mikael Hilmersson

329

Inter-individual variance of sprint swimming performance, swimming metabolism and endurance in a1 cohort of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).2  

E-print Network

performance of ninety-seven juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax raised under uniform7 conditions. It was necessary to run multiple sprint trials with an individual to obtain an accurate estimate of13 its maximal by many fishes to successfully reach reproductive2 age and then reproduce (Nelson et al., 2002; Reidy et

Nelson, Jay A.

330

Growth and mortality rates of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Adriatic Sea during the transition from larval to juvenile stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and mortality rates of juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were estimated from monthly samples collected in the coastal waters off Ortona (central Adriatic Sea). Otolith microstructure analysis was conducted on specimens ranging from 10 to 60mm TL, including the transition from larval to juvenile stages (i.e. at metamorphosis). Fish were aged by growth increment counts on sagittal otoliths, presuming they

M. La Mesa; F. Donato; G. Giannetti; E. Arneri

2009-01-01

331

Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

2000-01-01

332

Acute toxicity of a commercial glyphosate formulation on European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aromatases (cyp19a and cyp19b).  

PubMed

Acute toxicity of Roundup, a commercial glyphosate--based herbicide, was evaluated in a teleost marine fish, the European sea bass, after 96 h of exposure. The LC50 96-h value of Roundup was 529 mg/L. Juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were exposed to a sublethal concentration (35% of the LC50, i.e. 193 mg/L) of Roundup for 96-h. The study of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) gene expression was performed in four tissues (liver, gills, brain and gonads) and highlighted the disruption of antioxidant defence system. Results showed that ho-1 mRNA levels in liver and gills significantly decreased (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively) in fish exposed to 193 mg/L of Roundup, whereas in brain and gonads, ho-1 mRNA level was not altered. The analysis of acetylcholinesterase expression was used to evaluate the overall neurotoxicity of the herbicide and aromatase genes to assess the alteration of the endocrine system. Results showed that AChE and cyp19b gene transcriptions significantly increased (p<0.01) in brain of sea bass, whereas aromatase gene expression (cyp19a) in gonads was not significantly altered. Our results showed complex tissue-specific transcriptional responses after 96 h of exposure to a sublethal concentration. All these disruptions confirmed the deleterious effects of this glyphosate-based herbicide in a marine species. PMID:24461331

Prevot-D'Alvise, N; Richard, S; Coup, S; Bunet, R; Grillasca, J P

2013-01-01

333

Identification and characterisation of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR) gene cluster in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, reveals recurrent gene expansion and diversification by positive selection  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, a new gene family encoding non-rearranging receptors, called novel immune-type receptors (NITRs), has been discovered in teleost fish. NITRs belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and represent an extraordinarily divergent and rapidly evolving gene complex. Genomic analysis of a region spanning 270kb led to the discovery of a NITR gene cluster in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In total, 27 NITR genes and three putative pseudogenes, organised in a tandemly arrayed cluster, were identified. Sea bass NITR genes maintain the three major genomic organisations that appear to be essentially conserved among fish species along with new features presumably involving processes of intron loss, exon deletion and acquisition of new exons. Comparative and evolutionary analyses suggest that these receptors have evolved following a birth-and-death model of gene evolution in which duplication events together with lineage-specific gain and loss of individual members contributed to the rapid diversification of individual gene families. In this study, we demonstrate that species-specific gene expansions provide the raw material for diversifying, positive Darwinian selection favouring the evolution of a highly diverse array of molecules. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-009-0398-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19851764

Kuhl, Heiner; Milan, Massimo; Ritchie, David W.; Secombes, Christopher J.; Reinhardt, Richard; Bargelloni, Luca

2009-01-01

334

Patterns of muscle growth in early and late maturing populations of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle growth was investigated in two populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) derived from an early maturing stock of West Coast Scottish origin (strain X) and a late maturing stock (strain Y) of Norwegian origin. Fish from six families per population were PIT-tagged and reared together in a 555 m sea cage between April 1997 and September 1998. The

Ian A. Johnston; Richard Alderson; Claire Sandham; David Mitchell; Craig Selkirk; Alistair Dingwall; David Nickell; Remi Baker; Billy Robertson; David Whyte; John Springate

2000-01-01

335

Feeding response of female American lobsters, Homarus americanus, to SLICE -medicated salmon feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

SLICE (0.2% emamectin benzoate) is a widely-prescribed in-feed treatment for the control of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus spp.) on farmed salmon (primarily Salmo salar). Large doses of emamectin benzoate disrupt the molt cycle of ovigerous American lobsters (Homarus americanus), causing them to molt prematurely and lose their attached eggs. The feeding responses of adult female lobsters offered a

S. L. Waddy; S. M. Mercer; M. N. Hamilton-Gibson; D. E. Aiken; L. E. Burridge

2007-01-01

336

Phylogenetic evidence of long distance dispersal and transmission of piscine reovirus (PRV) between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

The extent and effect of disease interaction and pathogen exchange between wild and farmed fish populations is an ongoing debate and an area of research that is difficult to explore. The objective of this study was to investigate pathogen transmission between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations in Norway by means of molecular epidemiology. Piscine reovirus (PRV) was selected as the model organism as it is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Norway, and because infection not necessarily will lead to mortality through development of disease. A matrix comprised of PRV protein coding sequences S1, S2 and S4 from wild, hatchery-reared and farmed Atlantic salmon in addition to one sea-trout (Salmo trutta L.) was examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference indicate long distance transport of PRV and exchange of virus between populations. The results are discussed in the context of Atlantic salmon ecology and the structure of the Norwegian salmon industry. We conclude that the lack of a geographical pattern in the phylogenetic trees is caused by extensive exchange of PRV. In addition, the detailed topography of the trees indicates long distance transportation of PRV. Through its size, structure and infection status, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has the capacity to play a central role in both long distance transportation and transmission of pathogens. Despite extensive migration, wild salmon probably play a minor role as they are fewer in numbers, appear at lower densities and are less likely to be infected. An open question is the relationship between the PRV sequences found in marine fish and those originating from salmon. PMID:24349221

Garseth, se Helen; Ekrem, Torbjrn; Biering, Eirik

2013-01-01

337

Footprints of Directional Selection in Wild Atlantic Salmon Populations: Evidence for Parasite-Driven Evolution?  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms of host-parasite co-adaptation have long been of interest in evolutionary biology; however, determining the genetic basis of parasite resistance has been challenging. Current advances in genome technologies provide new opportunities for obtaining a genome-scale view of the action of parasite-driven natural selection in wild populations and thus facilitate the search for specific genomic regions underlying inter-population differences in pathogen response. European populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exhibit natural variance in susceptibility levels to the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957, ranging from resistance to extreme susceptibility, and are therefore a good model for studying the evolution of virulence and resistance. However, distinguishing the molecular signatures of genetic drift and environment-associated selection in small populations such as land-locked Atlantic salmon populations presents a challenge, specifically in the search for pathogen-driven selection. We used a novel genome-scan analysis approach that enabled us to i) identify signals of selection in salmon populations affected by varying levels of genetic drift and ii) separate potentially selected loci into the categories of pathogen (G. salaris)-driven selection and selection acting upon other environmental characteristics. A total of 4631 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in Atlantic salmon from 12 different northern European populations. We identified three genomic regions potentially affected by parasite-driven selection, as well as three regions presumably affected by salinity-driven directional selection. Functional annotation of candidate SNPs is consistent with the role of the detected genomic regions in immune defence and, implicitly, in osmoregulation. These results provide new insights into the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in Atlantic salmon and will enable future searches for the specific genes involved. PMID:24670947

Zueva, Ksenia J.; Lumme, Jaakko; Veselov, Alexey E.; Kent, Matthew P.; Lien, Sigbjrn; Primmer, Craig R.

2014-01-01

338

A MODEL FOR OPTIMAL SALMON MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable attention has been given in the literature recently to continuous time dy namic maximizing models for fisheries in general, but the time discreteness and inter dependency problems encountered in the case of most salmon fisheries have been largely ignored. Hence, a discrete time profit maximizing model for a salmon fishery is devel oped in this paper, and it is

DOUGLAS E. BOOTH

339

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON  

E-print Network

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory FEB !) ~iy;)9, Commissioner WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON By John A. Coates* and John E. Halver Western, John A Wiiti'i-sohilile vitamin ivcjuireineiits of silver sahnon, by John A. CoiUes and John E. Ilalver

340

WHO BUYS CANNED SALMON, Circular 89  

E-print Network

WHO BUYS CANNED SALMON, AND WHY? Circular 89 ;;: UNITED STATES bEPARTMENT^Of THE InfEWl :0 BUYS CANNED SALMON, AND WHY? A Study of Consxmer Motivation in Tltree Cities Prepai-ed in the Branch examines the buying habits of household consumers of canned tuna and sardines. Separate reports have been

341

AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS IN PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA,  

E-print Network

AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS IN PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, REDDS OF SASHIN CREEK, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA Although the toxic effects of ammonia have been observed in developing salmonids in hatcheries during and after the run of pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Ammonia levels increased significantly

342

Salmon Are Carefully Released Using Buckets  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season by at least two months in Oswego County, N.Y. Duringfall 2011 and spring 2012, U.S. Geological Survey scie...

343

Chinook Salmon Recovery in the Stillaguamish Watershed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show explores the threats to the Chinook salmon population in the Stillaguamish River watershed of Snohomish County, Washington. Topics include the status of the present population, factors contributing to the decline of the population, habitat needs for healthy salmon, and steps that are necessary for the recovery of the population.

2003-07-10

344

PERSPECTIVE Simple dynamics underlie sockeye salmon  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE Simple dynamics underlie sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) cycles Ransom A. Myers proposed to explain the renowned British Columbia sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) cycles, most of which chez le saumon rouge (Oncorhynchus nerka) de la Colombie-Britannique : dans la plupart des cas

Myers, Ransom A.

345

Introduction to Ocean Waves Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

Introduction to Ocean Waves Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography University cross-ocean trip to San Diego. The energy in these long waves travels at a speed that increases are strongly affected by the Earth's rotation. Because the spatial 1 #12;Salmon: Introduction to Ocean Waves 2

Salmon, Rick

346

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

347

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

348

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

349

Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Tunison Lab scientists Rich Chiavelli (left) and Emily Waldt (middle) hand a bucketful of young Atlantic salmon to Dan Bishop (right)of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for release into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of you...

350

THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

351

Global Assessment of Organic Contaminants in Farmed Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual global production of farmed salmon has increased by a factor of 40 during the past two decades. Salmon from farms in northern Europe, North America, and Chile are now available widely year-round at relatively low prices. Salmon farms have been criticized for their ecological effects, but the potential human health risks of farmed salmon consumption have not been

Ronald A. Hites; Jeffery A. Foran; David O. Carpenter; M. Coreen Hamilton; Barbara A. Knuth; Steven J. Schwager

2004-01-01

352

SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION FEBRUARY 73, 7995  

E-print Network

#12;Al SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 73, 7995 LIONS CLUB HALL, SALMON ARM #12;I SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 13, 1995, I DOE FRAP 1995-01 \\ Compiled Salmon River Watershed Ecosystem Goals and Objectives Tyhson Banighen

353

Vertical and horizontal movements of adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus  

E-print Network

mechanisms salmon use to find their natal stream (McKeown 1984). Several investigators have ob- served Atlantic salmon. sockeye salmon. chum salmon O. keta. and steelhead trout O. mykiss in coastal waters have. the net was immediately re- trieved. and the fish removed and placed in a 100 L cooler filled with surface

354

Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

355

Field trials of a method of induction of autoimmune gonad rejection in Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar L.)  

E-print Network

Field trials of a method of induction of autoimmune gonad rejection in Atlantic salmon (Salmon.K. Summary. Autoimmune gonad destruction was induced in Atlantic salmon of both sexes in trials carried out induced in the salmon testis was compared with that caused by autoimmune destruction of mammalian testis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Effects of different dietary levels of fish protein hydrolysates on growth, digestive enzymes, gut microbiota, and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.  

PubMed

Two fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) were incorporated into four diets prepared for start-feeding sea bass larvae, at two different levels (10% and 19% of total ingredients): a commercial FPH, CPSP, in which the molecular mass of the main fraction of soluble peptides (51%) was between 500-2500 Da, and an experimental FPH obtained by acidic silage of sardine offal, SH, with a main portion of soluble peptides (54%) ranging from 200 to 500 Da. The diet with 10% of the commercial FPH gave the best results in terms of growth, survival and intestinal development, as evaluated by the early activity of digestive enzymes in the brush border membrane (alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase N). This was related to the low level of Vibrio spp. counted in the larvae of group C10. The high dose of FPH, especially in the experimental preparation rich in short peptides, seemed to favour the dominance of Vibrio sp. TYH3, which behaved opportunistically. The effect of the experimental FPH was ambiguous, since early larvae challenged with Vibrio anguillarum were more resistant to the pathogen, especially at high FPH dose (group S19). This might be due either to direct antagonism between V. anguillarum and Vibrio sp. TYH3, or to the stimulation of the immune response in the larvae. These results indicate that different molecular weight fractions and concentrations of feed-soluble peptides may affect the growth performance and immunological status of sea bass larvae. Consequently, a low dose of commercial FPH seems advisable, both for larval development and for the bacterial environment, although further research is required to determine and characterize peptide fractions that may have a beneficial effect on growth and immune response, and to determine their optimal inclusion levels in diets for sea bass larvae. PMID:17306580

Kotzamanis, Y P; Gisbert, E; Gatesoupe, F J; Zambonino Infante, J; Cahu, C

2007-05-01

357

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

358

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested for competition,between,pink salmon,(Oncorhynchus,gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 19841997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years experienced 59% lower survival

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

359

The Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate against Infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) in Scotland, 20022006  

PubMed Central

Background Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE, Schering Plough Animal Health). The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. Conclusions/Significance Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated. PMID:18253496

Lees, Fiona; Baillie, Mark; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W.

2008-01-01

360

Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns  

PubMed Central

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-01

361

Atlantic salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.

Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.

1989-01-01

362

Wild chinook salmon survive better than hatchery salmon in a period of poor production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Cowichan River on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada are used by the Pacific Salmon Commission as an index\\u000a of the general state of chinook salmon coast wide. In recent years the production declined to very low levels despite the\\u000a use of a hatchery that was intended to increase production by

R. J. Beamish; R. M. Sweeting; C. M. Neville; K. L. Lange; T. D. Beacham; D. Preikshot

363

THE SUMMER EUROPEAN ACADEMY May 23 -June 23, 2014  

E-print Network

THE SUMMER EUROPEAN ACADEMY May 23 - June 23, 2014 Professor John Roberston leads students on the Summer European Academy (SEA) study abroad program through the Department of Political Science. The SEA of credit may be earned during the Spring 2014 semester in a LBAR330 prep class prior to the summer study

Bermúdez, José Luis

364

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2013-10-01

365

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2012-10-01

366

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2014-10-01

367

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2010-10-01

368

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2011-10-01

369

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

E-print Network

of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O to the extinct tusk-tooth salmon group related to sockeye salmon-- Oncorhynchus (Smilodonichthys) rastrosus, from

Montgomery, David R.

370

Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.  

PubMed

Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

2014-10-01

371

Genomic characterization of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax reveals the presence of a novel uncoupling protein (UCP) gene family member in the teleost fish lineage  

PubMed Central

Background Uncoupling proteins (UCP) are evolutionary conserved mitochondrial carriers that control energy metabolism and therefore play important roles in several physiological processes such as thermogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), growth control, lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin secretion. Despite their importance in various physiological processes, their molecular function remains controversial. The evolution and phylogenetic distribution may assist to identify their general biological function and structure-function relationships. The exact number of uncoupling protein genes in the fish genome and their evolution is unresolved. Results Here we report the first characterisation of UCP gene family members in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and then retrace the evolution of the protein family in vertebrates. Four UCP genes that are shared by five other fish species were identified in sea bass genome. Phylogenetic reconstitution among vertebrate species and synteny analysis revealed that UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 evolved from duplication events that occurred in the common ancestor of vertebrates, whereas the novel fourth UCP originated specifically in the teleost lineage. Functional divergence analysis among teleost species revealed specific amino acid positions that have been subjected to altered functional constraints after duplications. Conclusions This work provides the first unambiguous evidence for the presence of a fourth UCP gene in teleost fish genome and brings new insights into the evolutionary history of the gene family. Our results suggest functional divergence among paralogues which might result from long-term and differential selective pressures, and therefore, provide the indication that UCP genes may have diverse physiological functions in teleost fishes. Further experimental analysis of the critical amino acids identified here may provide valuable information on the physiological functions of UCP genes. PMID:22577775

2012-01-01

372

1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon  

E-print Network

#12;Content: 1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon b. Sockeye Salmon c. Summer Steelhead d. Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon 2.2010 run-size forecasts for: a. Sockeye Salmon b. Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon #12;#12;Species: Run: Origin: Period: Chinook Salmon Fall

373

Classroom-Community Salmon Enhancement Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook salmon in the classroom and later release them into a nearby stream. (TW)

Hubbard-Gray, Sarah

1988-01-01

374

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean circulation, Monte Carlo method 1. Introduction Equilibrium statistical mechanics applies to systems

Salmon, Rick

375

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

376

State-dependent shifts between nocturnal and diurnal activity in salmon  

PubMed Central

Animal species have usually evolved to be active at a specific time of the daily cycle, and so are either diurnal, nocturnal or crepuscular. However, we show here that the daily timing of activity in juvenile Atlantic salmon is related to the life-history strategy that they have adopted (i.e. the age at which they will migrate to the sea) and their current state (body size/relative nutritional state). Salmon can detect food more easily by day than by night, but the risk of predation is greater. Nocturnal foraging should generally be preferred, but the greater the need for growth, the greater should be the shift towards diurnal activity. In line with this prediction, all fish were predominantly nocturnal, but salmon preparing to migrate to the sea, which would experience size-dependent mortality during the forthcoming migration, were more diurnal than fish of the same age and size that were delaying migration for a further year. Moreover, the proportion of activity by day was negatively correlated with body size within the intending migrants. It has previously been shown that overwinter survival in fish delaying migration is maximized not by growth but by minimizing exposure to predators. As predicted, daytime activity in these fish was correlated with the prior rate of weight loss, fish being more diurnal when their risk of starvation was greater. To our knowledge, these are the first quantitative demonstrations of state-dependent variation in the timing of daily activity.

Metcalfe, N. B.; Fraser, N. H. C.; Burns, M. D.

1998-01-01

377

Genetic differentiation of Alaska Chinook salmon: the missing link for migratory studies.  

PubMed

Most information about Chinook salmon genetic diversity and life history originates from studies from the West Coast USA, western Canada and southeast Alaska; less is known about Chinook salmon from western and southcentral Alaska drainages. Populations in this large area are genetically distinct from populations to the south and represent an evolutionary legacy of unique genetic, phenotypic and life history diversity. More genetic information is necessary to advance mixed stock analysis applications for studies involving these populations. We assembled a comprehensive, open-access baseline of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 172 populations ranging from Russia to California. We compare SNP data from representative populations throughout the range with particular emphasis on western and southcentral Alaska. We grouped populations into major lineages based upon genetic and geographic characteristics, evaluated the resolution for identifying the composition of admixtures and performed mixed stock analysis on Chinook salmon caught incidentally in the walleye pollock fishery in the Bering Sea. SNP data reveal complex genetic structure within Alaska and can be used in applications to address not only regional issues, but also migration pathways, bycatch studies on the high seas, and potential changes in the range of the species in response to climate change. PMID:21429177

Templin, William D; Seeb, James E; Jasper, James R; Barclay, Andrew W; Seeb, Lisa W

2011-03-01

378

Improved water-level forecasting for the Northwest European Shelf and North Sea through direct modelling of tide, surge and non-linear interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In real-time operational coastal forecasting systems for the northwest European shelf, the representation accuracy of tide-surge models commonly suffers from insufficiently accurate tidal representation, especially in shallow near-shore areas with complex bathymetry and geometry. Therefore, in conventional operational systems, the surge component from numerical model simulations is used, while the harmonically predicted tide, accurately known from harmonic analysis of tide gauge measurements, is added to forecast the full water-level signal at tide gauge locations. Although there are errors associated with this so-called astronomical correction (e.g. because of the assumption of linearity of tide and surge), for current operational models, astronomical correction has nevertheless been shown to increase the representation accuracy of the full water-level signal. The simulated modulation of the surge through non-linear tide-surge interaction is affected by the poor representation of the tide signal in the tide-surge model, which astronomical correction does not improve. Furthermore, astronomical correction can only be applied to locations where the astronomic tide is known through a harmonic analysis of in situ measurements at tide gauge stations. This provides a strong motivation to improve both tide and surge representation of numerical models used in forecasting. In the present paper, we propose a new generation tide-surge model for the northwest European Shelf (DCSMv6). This is the first application on this scale in which the tidal representation is such that astronomical correction no longer improves the accuracy of the total water-level representation and where, consequently, the straightforward direct model forecasting of total water levels is better. The methodology applied to improve both tide and surge representation of the model is discussed, with emphasis on the use of satellite altimeter data and data assimilation techniques for reducing parameter uncertainty. Historic DCSMv6 model simulations are compared against shelf wide observations for a full calendar year. For a selection of stations, these results are compared to those with astronomical correction, which confirms that the tide representation in coastal regions has sufficient accuracy, and that forecasting total water levels directly yields superior results.

Zijl, Firmijn; Verlaan, Martin; Gerritsen, Herman

2013-07-01

379

Feeding farmed salmon: Is organic better?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed provision accounts for the majority of material and energetic inputs and emissions associated with net-pen salmon farming. Understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of feed production is therefore central to improving the biophysical sustainability of salmon farming as a whole. We used life cycle assessment (with co-product allocation by gross energy content) to compare the cradle-to-mill gate life cycle

N. Pelletier; P. Tyedmers

2007-01-01

380

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01

381

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

Rowe, Mike

1991-12-01

382

Comparison of bio-physical marine products from SeaWiFS, MODIS and a bio-optical model with in situ measurements from Northern European watersThis paper was presented at the Institute of Physics Meeting on Underwater Optics held during Photonex 03 at Warwick, UK, in October 2003. Four companion papers from this conference were published in Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, volume 6, issue 7 (July 2004), on pages 684, 690, 698 and 703  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we compare bio-physical marine products from SeaWiFS, MODIS and a novel bio-optical absorption model with in situ measurements of chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentrations, total suspended material (TSM) concentrations, normalized water-leaving radiances (nLw) and absorption coefficients of coloured dissolved organic matter (aCDOM), total particulate (atotal) and phytoplankton (aphy) for 26 satellite match-ups in three Northern European seas. Cruises were

D Blondeau-Patissier; G H Tilstone; V Martinez-Vicente; G F Moore

2004-01-01

383

Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems. PMID:16620373

Rajasingh, Hannah; yehaug, Leiv; Vge, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

2006-01-01

384

Not All Salmon Are Created Equal: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Global Salmon Farming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a global-scale life cycle assessment of a major food commodity, farmed salmon. Specifically, we report the cumulative energy use, biotic resource use, and greenhouse gas, acidifying, and eutrophying emissions associated with producing farmed salmon in Norway, the UK, British Columbia (Canada), and Chile, as well as a production-weighted global average. We found marked differences in the nature and

NATHAN P ELLETIER; PETER T YEDMERS; ULF S ONESSON; ASTRID S CHOLZ; FRIEDERIKE Z IEGLER; ANNA F LYSJO; SARAH K RUSE; BEATRIZ C ANCINO; HOWARD S ILVERMAN

2009-01-01

385

Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hindar, K., Fleming, I. A., McGinnity, P., and Diserud, O. 2006. Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results. ? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63: 1234e1247. Cultured salmonids are released or escape into the wild in large numbers and may make up significant proportions of wild salmonid populations in fresh- and saltwater, causing

Kjetil Hindar; Ian A. Fleming; Philip McGinnity; Ola Diserud

2006-01-01

386

Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon

Schreiber, Dorothee

2003-01-01

387

Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

2004-12-01

388

On the decline of Pacific salmon and speculative links to salmon farming in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon abundance along the West Coast of Canada has been in sharp decline since the early 1990s. Declines have been most severe for coho and chinook salmon despite large additions of hatchery-reared fry and smolts. There is particular concern for populations of wild coho because, in addition to low abundance, up to 80% of the juvenile coho in the

Donald J. Noakes; Richard J. Beamish; Michael L. Kent

2000-01-01

389

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 4G3 salmon exported from British Columbia oyer 5,000 barrels of salted  

E-print Network

-troutand the salmon-trout. Whitefish and trout fisheries are carried on on a large scale chiefly in the lakes of Ontario. These lakes are properly called great inland seas, Superior covering an area of 31,000 square ; salinon-trout,whitefish, sturgeon, pickerel, pike, bass, perch, &e., abo~undin them. The fishermen

390

Sea Grant Extension Crucial Link to Coastal Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University of California Sea Grant Extension Program provides training and technical assistance to fishers, farmers, planners, and conservationists on projects such as coastal ecosystem health, marine environmental protection, fisheries management, aquaculture, salmon habitat restoration, and controlling nonpoint-source pollution; supports

Stumbos, John

1997-01-01

391

Biogeomorphic impacts of migration and disturbance: Implications of salmon spawning and decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphologic processes often involve a biotic element that acts to regulate landform development. This biotic element can be plant or animal-based with a feedback that ultimately benefits the ecology of the organism. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) are an example of an animal biogeomorphic agent exhibiting such feedbacks and, because of long migrations from the sea to freshwater spawning grounds, are a species of interest that act on both local and regional scales. Upon returning to their natal streams, salmon generate a dual disturbance, resuspending large amounts of sediment as they construct nests while at the same time generating a substantial nutrient pulse through post-spawn die-off and decay. The retention and export of these nutrients are of importance to any hypothesized productivity boost driven by the marine derived nutrients (MDNs). Using experimental enclosures in the Horsefly River spawning channel in north-central British Columbia, our objectives for this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of organic and inorganic sediment export and retention from an active-spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of fine sediment MDN storage. Using a suspended sediment mass balance model, marine isotope enrichment and a time series of gravel bed sediment infiltration, we found strongly linear relationships between sediment infiltration and marine-derived nutrient enrichment. Elevated suspended sediment produced by salmon redd (nest) construction acted as an effective vector for MDN infiltration into the gravel bed. This study demonstrated that localized patterns of sediment deposition are regulated by salmon activity which in turn act to control MDN storage within, and release from, the gravel bed. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the ability of a biogeomorphic agent like salmon to establish a feedback mechanism that creates favorable conditions which ultimately benefit the organism.

Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

2013-11-01

392

Trace metals in tissues of the six most common fish species in the Black Sea, Turkey.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Ag and Pb in scale, skin, muscle, gills, liver and the gonads of Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Black Sea salmon (Salmo trutta labrax), Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and Whiting (Merlangius merlangius euxinus) from the Black Sea, in Turkey, were investigated. Elemental analyses were performed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after sample preparation by microwave digestion. Mean metal concentrations in different tissues were in the following ranges: Mn 0.09-23.1, Fe 0.58-326, Co 0.01-0.22, Ni 0.03-1.34, As 0.13-3.40, Se 0.13-4.42, Ag 0.01-0.18, Cd 0.32-6.25, Pb 0.02-0.38mgkg(-1) wet weight. Metal concentrations in the muscles of the examined species were generally lower than those in scale, skin, gills, liver and the gonads. The described method was validated by analysis of Dogfish Liver-certified reference material, DOLT-4. PMID:25082436

Ayd?n, Didem; Tokal?o?lu, ?erife

2015-03-01

393

RECORD OF DECISION BERING SEA CHINOOK SALMON BYCATCH MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................................. 3 Comments from the Yukon River Panel................................................................................ 9 Comments from the Yukon River Drainage Fisheries Association

394

Chapter 11 References Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 629  

E-print Network

Regional Office, PO Box 21668, Juneau, Alaska. April. URL: http Alaska Regional Office, PO Box 21668, Juneau, Alaska. June. URL: http/61/13/8 (AFA EIS). NMFS Alaska Regional Office, PO Box 21668, Juneau, Alaska. June. URL: http

395

The invitro immunomodulatory effect of extracellular products (ECPs) of Vagococcus fluvialis L21 on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) leucocytes.  

PubMed

The immune associated genes, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), and Mx gene were studied by real-time PCR in head-kidney leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the extracellular products (ECPs) of the probiotic strain Vagococcus fluvialis L21 and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (POLY I:C), at different times (T1.5, T6, T12, T24, T48 and T72). In general, we can observe how pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6 and COX-2 studied displayed a strong peak after stimulation with 1.5h of ECPs of V.fluvialis L21, significant differences (P<0.05) exist with other periods and with the POLY I: C at the same time. Similarly to the case of IL-10 also produced a statistically significant (P<0.05) peak of expression on leukocytes that were stimulated with the ECPs of V.fluvialis L21. In the case of Mx gene expression, we note that in almost all sampling times there is an up-regulation of the Mx gene in leucocytes incubated with ECPs and POLY I:C compared to the control and Mx expression was higher in leucocytes that were stimulated with the ECPs of V.fluvialis for all times, except in T24. With these results we can consider that the ECPs of V.fluvialis L21 have a great power of stimulating the invitro expression of immune-related genes and may even be useful as adjuvants for vaccine in aquaculture. PMID:25485483

Romn, L; Acosta, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Bravo, J; Vega, B; Rodriguez, E; Vega, J; Dniz, S; Real, F

2015-02-01

396

RHEOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SALMON PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rheological and thermal properties of salmon oil and biodiesel derived from salmon oil are important for designing processing equipment. For example, the viscosity of biodiesel at different temperatures is required for designing a heat exchanger for winterization purposes. Understanding rheological ...

397

Salmon 2100: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

398

POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

EPA Science Inventory

Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

399

Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon  

E-print Network

Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon Steven W. Schlosser1, Gregory Foundation, via grant #CNS-0326453. Brandon Salmon is supported in part by an NSF Fellowship. #12;Keywords

400

University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections: Salmon Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Washington presents the Salmon Collection, an online digital collection of "documents, photographs, and other original material describing the roots of the salmon crisis in the Pacific Northwest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries." Users may search for items by keyword or browse the entire collection, organized into the following categories: Native Americans, Traps and Fishwheels, Salmon Industry in Washington, Salmon on the Columbia River, Fish Drying, Salmon Industry in Alaska, Salmon Canneries, and Salmon Hatcheries. For a brief overview of the salmon crisis in the Pacific Northwest, click on About this Site (also provides technical information about the collection and its content). The photographs are particularly compelling. The entire collection should appeal to ecologists and history buffs alike.

401

MARKING SOCKEYE SALMON SCALES BY SHORT PERIODS OF STARVATION  

E-print Network

that the scale pattern of Columbia River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka can be recognizably modified Seaward migrations of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka 1 from Lake Wenatchee, Wash,, are composed of both

402

Predictors of Chinook salmon extirpation in California's Central Valley  

E-print Network

salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum). Thus, conservation of these populations has been deemed, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Abstract Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), populations have declined rapidly along the western coast of North America since

Cardinale, Bradley J.

403

Anisakis simplex (s.s.) larvae in wild Alaska salmon: no indication of post-mortem migration from viscera into flesh.  

PubMed

The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of Anisakis nematode third-stage larvae (L3) in the muscle and viscera of wild-caught chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, pink salmon O. gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka were compared immediately after catch. Salmon were collected during the fishing season in July 2007 in Bristol Bay and Prince William Sound close to Cordova, Alaska (USA). All fish were infected, and more than 90% of the nematode larvae were found in the edible muscle meat. The isolated anisakid L3 were genetically identified as A. simplex (s.s.). The distribution of nematodes in the muscle meat of fresh-caught salmon was examined in 49 O. keta, 50 O. nerka and 12 O. gorbuscha from Cordova. Most of the larvae were detected in the muscle parts around the body cavity, but nematodes were also found in the tail meat and epaxial muscle (loins). The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in the edible part was 21 individuals for O. gorbuscha, 62 individuals for O. keta and 63 individuals for O. nerka. No difference in the intensity of Anisakis larvae in the hypaxial muscle was found between fresh-caught and immediately gutted salmon and individuals stored ungutted for 24 h either on ice or in refrigerated sea water. PMID:21790067

Karl, Horst; Baumann, Florian; Ostermeyer, Ute; Kuhn, Thomas; Klimpel, Sven

2011-05-01

404

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

2009-10-01

405

Japanese Studies on the Early Ocean Life of Juvenile Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all the salmon resources in Japan have been supported by artificial enhance- ment, and because of the success of this program the population size of chum salmon (Oncorhyn- chus keta) has increased dramatically since the early 1970s. About 90% of Japan's salmon catch is chum; 5-10% is pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) and 0.5% masu (O. masou). Therefore, biological research

Hiroshi Mayama; Yukimasa Ishida

406

Medicines for sea lice.  

PubMed

Sea louse (Family Caligidae: genera Caligus and Lepeophtheirus) infection of farmed salmonids represents a significant threat to animal welfare and undermines profitability. Lice may also act as vectors for the transmission of viral and bacterial pathogens. Pest-control programmes parallel those deployed in terrestrial livestock farming and include the use of parasiticides. The authorisation process for fish medicines varies widely between salmon farming countries and undue regulatory constraint may place farmers in one country at a competitive disadvantage. In many jurisdictions, fish are a 'minor' species and mounting demands for environmental assessment increase registration costs. A successful integrated louse-management strategy requires free access to a range of effective, chemically unrelated active ingredients deployed according to current best practice. Over-reliance on a limited number of products will lead, inevitably, to resistance, which is difficult to counter. PMID:12138618

Grant, Andrew N

2002-06-01

407

CANNING OF FISHERY PRODUCTS 117 PACIFIC SALMON7  

E-print Network

, coloration, duration of life cycle, the behavior of the young fish and the character of the food of the adultCANNING OF FISHERY PRODUCTS 117 PACIFIC SALMON7 The salmon canning industry is located on the Great salmon are caught commercially in the United States as far south as Monterey Bay in California. The total

408

GRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION  

E-print Network

completed. Initial work is with pink salmon because the two-year cycle of this species permits quick the rigors of ocean life. The concept of incubating salmon eggs in a carefully controlled gravel environmentGRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION Robert M. Burnett Fis hery b i 0 log

409

ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN  

E-print Network

runs based on the abundance of young salmon at some time in their life cycle after the greater;429: ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, 1957 Marine Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN PRINCE WILLIAM

410

A framework for understanding Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) life history  

Microsoft Academic Search

We took a hierarchical approach to understanding Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) life history patterns by first comparing salmonids to other teleosts, next comparing Atlantic salmon to other salmonids, and finally, mapping correlations among individual life history traits within Atlantic salmon. The combination of anadromy, large eggs, nest construction and egg burial by females, and large size at maturity differentiates salmonids

Elizabeth A. Marschall; Thomas P. Quinn; Derek A. Roff; Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Neil B. Metcalfe; Tor A. Bakke; Richard L. Saunders; N. LeRoy Poff

1999-01-01

411

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL  

E-print Network

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGA- TIONSKenian, Director ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS season 35 Parasites 39 SCUBA 41 Part IV. Limnology and its relation to sockeye salmon 43 Plankton and its

412

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

413

BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON INIarTne Biological Laboratory!  

E-print Network

324 BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON INIarTne Biological Laboratory! 1960 WOODS HOLE, MASS« SPECIAL, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON by George J. Ridgway Eind George W. Klontz Acknowledgments 7 Summary 7 Literature cited 7 111 #12;#12;BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON by George J. Ridgway

414

Norwegian Salmon and Trout Farming ROBERT J. FORD  

E-print Network

Norwegian Salmon and Trout Farming ROBERT J. FORD Introduction The development of Norway's Atlantic salmon, Sa/rno sa/ar, and rainbow trout, S. gairdneri, farming in coastal waters is, in the opinion of farmed salmon and trout has in- creased dramatically during the past decade, from only 500 metric tons (t

415

HOMING AND FISHERIES CONTRIBUTION OF MARKED COHO SALMON,  

E-print Network

NOTES HOMING AND FISHERIES CONTRIBUTION OF MARKED COHO SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH, RELEASED AT TWO COLUMBIA RIVER LOCATIONS In 1970 we conducted an experiment to deter- mine if coho salmon to the fisheries there (Vreeland et al. 1975). We found the coho salmon returned almost exclusively to the re

416

Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain  

E-print Network

Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel Peter Guttorp NRCSET juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel and Peter Guttorp National Research.S.A SUMMARY We describe movement patterns of hatchery-raised, juvenile, spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus

Washington at Seattle, University of

417

LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS  

E-print Network

LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS 1819-1904 Lecture by Roderick Gow 6 April 2005 1 #12;The of George Salmon, mathematician, theologian and Provost of Trinity College from 1888. We are not aware of any commemoration of Salmon's life and work that occurred in 2004, and it is our intention, somewhat

Gow, Rod

418

Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population , John Wakeley*  

E-print Network

Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population Size Can Cenik¤ , John Wakeley* Department Abstract Pacific salmon include several species that are both commercially important and endangered. Here we use a coalescent approach to analyze a model of the complex life history of salmon, and derive

419

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

420

North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation  

E-print Network

North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation Paper Prepared for the Norway between cooperating on joint management of Pacific salmon harvests and squabbling over their respective shares of the catch. In June 1999, the two nations signed the Pacific Salmon Agreement, which amends

Miller, Kathleen

421

Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

May 2013 Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings by Pierre Salmon Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion Université de Bourgogne and CNRS pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract Governments the influence of three guiding thoughts. 1 Some other aspects are briefly discussed in Salmon (2006). 2 Several

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TROLL-CAUGHT SALMON  

E-print Network

379 STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TROLL-CAUGHT SALMON IN SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC SALMON, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA, 1957-58 By Gerald M. Raid United States Fish and Wildlife Service Special and nnaterials ^ Occurrence of food items ^ By season ^ By geographical area ^ By species of salmon 5 By lengths

423

SALMON RUNS -UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57  

E-print Network

364; SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57 Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS HOLE, MAt L. McKernan, Director SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER. 1956-57 by R. R. French and R. J. Wahle. October I960 #12;#12;CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Salmon runs past Rocky Reach Dam site 2 Time and size

424

WalnutCrusted Salmon cup finely chopped Walnuts  

E-print Network

WalnutCrusted Salmon ¼ cup finely chopped Walnuts 1 tablespoon dry bread crumbs 1 teaspoon grated Tablespoon ground flax seed 1 salmon fillets, skin-on 1 teaspoon brown mustard 2 lemon slices (thinly sliced slightly stick together; set aside. 2. Place salmon fillet, skin side down, and brush top with mustard

Jawitz, James W.

425

The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential  

E-print Network

1 In Oregon The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential A summary overview Bruce Introduction Fisheries in Oregon and wild caught salmon in particular have been critical to many Native American tribes both culturally and economically. Salmon continue to play a central economic role today

426

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) experience relatively high mortality  

E-print Network

-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Edward V. Farley Jr1 James M. Murphy1 Milo D--We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska121 Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) experience relatively high mortality rates during the first

427

Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources  

E-print Network

(Rogers and Rug- gerone, 1993). Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second355 Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources in the North Pacific

428

Predation by Bears Drives Senescence in Natural Populations of Salmon  

E-print Network

Predation by Bears Drives Senescence in Natural Populations of Salmon Stephanie M. Carlson1¤ *, Ray of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) subject to varying degrees of predation by brown bears (Ursus arctos was estimated as the long-term average of the annual percentage of salmon killed by bears. The degree

Hendry, Andrew

429

USGS Scientists Prepare to Release Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Ross Abbett transfers young Atlantic salmon from their transportation tank on the back of a truck to small buckets for release into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminishe...

430

Scientists Strategize at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists (L to R) Emily Waldt, Ross Abbett, and Jim Johnson chat with Dan Bishop (far left)of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservationwhile watching hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon&nbs...

431

7,000 Atlantic Salmon Transported in Tank  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

About 7,000 young Atlantic salmon are transported in a large tank from the USGS Tunison Laboratory in Cortland, N.Y., to Beaverdam Brook in Altmar for release. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish...

432

Seawater tolerance in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brown trout, Salmo trutta L., and S. salar נ S. trutta hybrids smolt  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of hybridization between Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) have been reported in the Gyrodactylus salaris infected Rivers Vefsna and Driva in Norway. The survival and behaviour during the sea phase of such hybrids is unknown. The\\u000a reported work documents ionoregulatory status after 24h seawater challenge tests (24hSW) and gill Na+\\/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity of migrating

H. A. Urke; J. Koksvik; J. V. Arnekleiv; K. Hindar; F. Kroglund; T. Kristensen

2010-01-01

433

Salmon blood plasma: Effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.  

PubMed

The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (p<0.05). CSP performed slightly better than FSP at inhibiting salmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. PMID:25624255

Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

2015-06-01

434

Identification of proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartilage.  

PubMed

There has been no structural information about the core protein of salmon nasal cartilage proteoglycan although its physiological activities have been investigated. Internal amino acid sequencing using nano-LC/MS/MS revealed that the salmon proteoglycan was aggrecan. Primer walk sequencing based on the amino acid information determined that the salmon aggrecan cDNA is comprised of 4207bp nucleotides predicted to encode 1324 amino acids with a molecular mass of 143,276. It exhibited significant similarities to predicted pufferfish aggrecan, zebrafish similar to aggrecan, zebrafish aggrecan, bovine aggrecan and human aggrecan isoform 2 precursor; whose amino acid identities were 56%, 55%, 49%, 31% and 30%, respectively. Salmon cartilage aggrecan had globular domains G1, G2 and G3 as in mammalian aggrecans. Neither the putative keratan sulfate attachment domain enriched with serine, glutamic acid and proline, nor the putative chondroitin sulfate attachment domain with repeating amino acid sequence containing serine-glycine, found in mammalian aggrecans were observed in salmon, however, random serine-glycine (or glycine-serine) sequences predicted to the sugar chain attachment sites were observed. Based on cDNA analysis and amino acid analysis after ?-elimination, the ratio of serine attached to sugar chains was calculated to be approximately 37.7% of total serine, that is, 46 of 123 serine residues. PMID:21056541

Kakizaki, Ikuko; Tatara, Yota; Majima, Mitsuo; Kato, Yoji; Endo, Masahiko

2011-02-01

435

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2013-10-01

436

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2010-10-01

437

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2012-10-01

438

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2011-10-01

439

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2008-02-01

440

Monitoring salmon habitat in small streams using streambed profiling and the importance of large woody debris for juvenile chinook salmon  

E-print Network

Monitoring salmon habitat in small streams using streambed profiling and the importance of large woody debris for juvenile chinook salmon habitat in small Yukon streams by Brent Mossop B.Sc., Simon: Monitoring salmon habitat in small streams using streambed profiling and the importance of large woody debris

441

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2011-10-01

442

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2010-10-01

443

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2012-10-01

444

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2013-10-01

445

History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

Parsons, John W.

1973-01-01

446

Temporal and spatial patterns of sea lice levels on sea trout in western Scotland in relation to fish farm production cycles  

PubMed Central

The relationship between aquaculture and infestations of sea lice on wild sea trout (Salmo trutta) populations is controversial. Although some authors have concluded that there is a link between aquaculture and lice burdens on wild fish, others have questioned this interpretation. Lice levels have been shown to be generally higher on Atlantic salmon farms during the second years of two-year production cycles. Here we investigate whether this pattern relates to lice burdens on wild fish across broad temporal and spatial axes. Within Loch Shieldaig across five successive farm cycles from 2000 to 2009, the percentage of sea trout with lice, and those above a critical level, were significantly higher in the second year of a two-year production cycle. These patterns were mirrored in 20022003 across the Scottish west coast. The results suggest a link between Atlantic salmon farms and sea lice burdens on sea trout in the west of Scotland. PMID:20164079

Middlemas, S. J.; Raffell, J. A.; Hay, D. W.; Hatton-Ellis, M.; Armstrong, J. D.

2010-01-01

447

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

CATFISH 10.0 WESTERN POND TURTLE 11.0 DUSKY CANADA GOOSE 12.0 CASPIAN TERN 13.0 COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER 14.0 SANDHILL CRANE 15.0 RED-EYED VIREO 16.0 YELLOW WARBLER 17.0 STELLER SEA LIONS 18.0 HARBOR

448

Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

2011-01-01

449

Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to grilsing and late sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

In Atlantic salmon aquaculture, early sexual maturation represents a major problem for producers. This is especially true for grilse, which mature after one sea winter before reaching a desirable harvest weight, rather than after two sea winters. Salmon maturing as grilse have a much lower market value than later maturing individuals. For this reason, most companies desire fish that grow fast and mature late. Marker-assisted selection has the potential to improve the efficiency of selection against early maturation and for late sexual maturation; however, studies identifying age of sexual maturation-related genetic markers are lacking for Atlantic salmon. Therefore, we used a 6.5K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to genotype five families from the Mainstream Canada broodstock program and search for SNPs associated with early (grilsing) or late sexual maturation. There were 529 SNP loci that were variable across all five families, and this was the set that was used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. GridQTL identified two chromosomes, Ssa10 and Ssa21, containing QTL related to grilsing. In contrast, only one QTL, on Ssa18, was found linked to late maturation in Atlantic salmon. Our previous work on these five families did not identify genome-wide significant growth-related QTL on Ssa10, Ssa21, or Ssa18. Therefore, taken together, these results suggest that both grilsing and late sexual maturation are controlled independently of one another and also from growth-related traits. The identification of genomic regions associated with grilsing or late sexual maturation provide an opportunity to incorporate this information into selective breeding programs that will enhance Atlantic salmon farming. PMID:23912817

Gutierrez, Alejandro P; Lubieniecki, Krzysztof P; Fukui, Steve; Withler, Ruth E; Swift, Bruce; Davidson, William S

2014-02-01

450

An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon.  

PubMed

Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

Deng, Z D; Carlson, T J; Li, H; Xiao, J; Myjak, M J; Lu, J; Martinez, J J; Woodley, C M; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B

2015-01-01

451

An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon  

PubMed Central

Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

2015-01-01

452

Life history reconstruction of modern and fossil sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) by oxygen isotopic analysis of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth: Implication for paleoenvironmental reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the use of oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite for tracking freshwater to marine migration in modern and fossil Pacific sockeye salmon. Oxygen isotope analyses of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth of three anadromous modern sockeye salmon from Alaska establish a basis for the interpretation of fossil vertebrae and tooth apatite from Pleistocene sockeye salmon of the Skokomish River Valley, Washington. High resolution ?18O profiles in salmon otoliths provide, at a monthly resolution, a detailed record of individual history including continental rearing, migration to sea, seasonal variation in sea surface temperatures during marine life, and spawning migration before capture. Pacific salmon teeth are constantly renewed with the last set of teeth forming under the influence of freshwater. Therefore, they do not allow inference concerning sea-run versus landlocked life history in fossil salmon. Salmon vertebrae are also ambiguous indicators of life history regarding fresh versus marine water because centra are minimally ossified in the freshwater stages of life and the outermost layer of vertebral bone might be resorbed to provide nutrients during the non-feeding phase of the spawning migration. Therefore, ?18O values of accretionary growth rings in sea-run salmon vertebrae are dominated by the marine signal only if they are not diagenetically altered in freshwater deposits. In Pleistocene sockeye reported here, neither the teeth nor vertebral apatite present clear marine ?18O values due to the combined effects of tooth replacement and diagenetic alteration of bone and dentine. ?18O(PO 4) values of fossil vertebrae are intermediate between ?18O(PO 4) values of enamel and basal tooth dentin. Assuming a similar rate of isotope exchange of vertebrae and dentine with freshwater during diagenesis, these results are interpreted to reflect formation of the teeth under the influence of freshwater, and formation of the vertebrae under the influence of oceanic water. Our approach demonstrates that when appropriate knowledge of tissue formation is available, isotopic differences between altered and unaltered tissue holds promise of distinguishing between marine and freshwater origin of the tissues.

Zazzo, A.; Smith, G. R.; Patterson, W. P.; Dufour, E.

2006-09-01

453

European Mistletoe  

MedlinePLUS

... campaign . Top Sources American mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 7, 2009. European mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on ...

454

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

455

Black Sea in Bloom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

456

Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon  

PubMed Central

Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

2014-01-01

457

Mixed-Stock Analysis of Yukon River Chum Salmon: Application and Validation in a Complex Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yukon River chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta are managed under the Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST), which requires conservation and equitable sharing of this fishery resource by the USA and Canada. Fall chum salmon are of special concern because they spawn in both the United States and Canada, and the focus of the PST is on Canadian-origin salmon. Yukon River chum salmon

Blair G. Flannery; Terry D. Beacham; John R. Candy; Russell R. Holder; Gerald F. Maschmann; Eric J. Kretschmer; John K. Wenburg

2010-01-01

458

HEALTHY STOCKS OF NW SALMON FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Geographic distribution of eight species/races of Pacific salmon and steelhead (spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, summer steelhead and winter steelhead. The data are based upon the Oregon Trout report Healthy Native Stock...

459

GENETIC VARIATION IN CHINOOK, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, AND COHO, 0. K1SUTCH, SALMON FROM  

E-print Network

GENETIC VARIATION IN CHINOOK, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, AND COHO, 0. K1SUTCH, SALMON FROM THE NORTH to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests

460

CAN WE SUSTAIN WILD SALMON THROUGH 2100? THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

abstract for presentation Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appe...

461

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

462

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork