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Sample records for salmon european sea

  1. Lessons from sea louse and salmon epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Groner, Maya L; Rogers, Luke A; Bateman, Andrew W; Connors, Brendan M; Frazer, L Neil; Godwin, Sean C; Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Peacock, Stephanie J; Rees, Erin E; Revie, Crawford W; Schlägel, Ulrike E

    2016-03-01

    Effective disease management can benefit from mathematical models that identify drivers of epidemiological change and guide decision-making. This is well illustrated in the host-parasite system of sea lice and salmon, which has been modelled extensively due to the economic costs associated with sea louse infections on salmon farms and the conservation concerns associated with sea louse infections on wild salmon. Consequently, a rich modelling literature devoted to sea louse and salmon epidemiology has been developed. We provide a synthesis of the mathematical and statistical models that have been used to study the epidemiology of sea lice and salmon. These studies span both conceptual and tactical models to quantify the effects of infections on host populations and communities, describe and predict patterns of transmission and dispersal, and guide evidence-based management of wild and farmed salmon. As aquaculture production continues to increase, advances made in modelling sea louse and salmon epidemiology should inform the sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:26880836

  2. Energy economy of salmon aquaculture in the Baltic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folke, Carl

    1988-07-01

    Resource utilization in Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Baltic Sea was investigated by means of an energy analysis. A comparison was made between cage farming and sea ranching enterprises each with yearly yields of 40 t of Atlantic salmon. A variety of sea ranching options were evaluated, including (a) conventional ranching, (b) ranching employing a delayed release to the sea of young smolts, (c) harvesting salmon both by offshore fishing fleets and as they return to coastal areas, and (d) when offshore fishing is banned, harvesting salmon only as they return to coastal areas where released. Inputs both from natural ecosystems (i.e., fish consumed by ranched salmon while in the sea and raw materials used for producing dry food pellets) and from the economy (i.e., fossil fuels and energy embodied in economic goods and services) were quantified in tonnes for food energy and as direct plus indirect energy cost (embodied energy). The fixed solar energy (estimated as primary production) and the direct and indirect auxiliary energy requirements per unit of fish output were expressed in similar units. Similar quantities of living resources in tonnes per unit of salmon biomass output are required whether the salmon are feeding in the sea or are caged farmed. Cage farming is about 10 times more dependent on auxiliary energies than sea ranching. Sea ranching applying delayed release of smolts is 35 45% more efficient in the use of auxiliary energies than conventional sea ranching and cage farming. Restriction of offshore fishing would make sea ranching 3 to 6.5 times more efficient than cage farming. The fixed solar energy input to Atlantic salmon aquaculture is 4 to 63 times larger than the inputs of auxiliary energy. Thus, cage farming and sea ranching are both heavily dependent on the productivity of natural ecosystems. It is concluded that sustainable development of the aquaculture industry must be founded on ecologically integrated technologies which utilize the free production in marine ecosystems without exhausting or damaging the marine environment.

  3. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  4. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  5. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  6. Mortality of seabirds in high-seas salmon gillnets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; DeGange, A.R.; Jones, L.L.; Beach, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, the Japanese have operated a large salmon driftnet.fishery in the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. This fishery is divided into two components: the high-seas mothership fleet, which consists of several processing ships and their numerous, smaller catcher boats that remain at sea during the entire fishing season, and the land-based fleet, which consists of independent fishing boats that catch and store their own fish and return to Japan at more frequent intervals (Sanger 1976; Fredin et al. 2 ). A similar fishery in the North Atlantic between 1965 and 1976 was responsible for the deaths of large numbers of the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and significant reductions in its breeding populations (Tull et al. 1972). Recent work in the North Pacific and Bering Sea by Sana (1978) and King et al. (1979) indicated that large numbers of seabirds are killed annually in the Japanese salmon fishery also.

  7. Interannual variability in stock abundance and body size of Pacific salmon in the central Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Y.; Azumaya, T.; Fukuwaka, M.; Davis, N.

    2002-10-01

    Variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and mean body size was examined for pink, chum and sockeye salmon collected with research gillnets in the central Bering Sea in July from 1972 to 2000. The CPUEs for all three species showed significant increasing trends, but with large interannual variability. The CPUE of pink salmon was higher in odd years than in even years, and abruptly increased in the odd years post-1989. Chum salmon also showed odd/even year fluctuations, which were out-of-phase with those of pink salmon. Sockeye salmon showed no biennial such fluctuations. The CPUEs of chum and sockeye salmon were higher during 1979-1984 and 1992-1998, but lower during 1985-1991, especially for younger age group such as ocean age 2 and 3. Data for sea surface temperature (SST) and abundances of chum and sockeye salmon during four periods (1972-1976, 1977-1984, 1985-1990, and 1991-2000) indicated a portion of chum and sockeye salmon were distributed in the northern Gulf of Alaska in 1985-1990, when SST in the Gulf of Alaska was low. However, the fish were more abundant in the Bering Sea in 1977-1984 and 1991-2000 when SST was relatively high in the Gulf of Alaska. Body size of pink salmon showed a significant decreasing trend. Chum and sockeye salmon also showed significant decreasing trends in body size at ocean age 3 and older ages, but not at ocean age 2. Significant negative relationships between CPUE and body size were found within species. No significant correlations were found between an Aleutian low pressure index (ALPI) with CPUE and body size, but the increases in CPUE around the late 1970s and early 1990s may be partly be the result of shifts in the distributions of chum and sockeye salmon caused by SST changes related to the regime shift in 1977 and 1989 identified by the ALPI.

  8. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  9. Preliminary genetic analysis of juvenile chum salmon from the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The arctic region has experienced warming in recent years, resulting in decreased summer sea ice cover and increased sea surface temperatures. In September 2007, the U.S. BASIS survey extended surface trawling into the Chukchi Sea. Juvenile (young-of-the-year) chum salmon were collected at most stat...

  10. Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggerone, G. T.; Nielsen, J. L.; Bumgarner, J.

    2007-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean.

  11. Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Bumgarner, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances in European sea bass genomics and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Louro, Bruno; Power, Deborah M; Canario, Adelino V M

    2014-12-01

    Only recently available sequenced and annotated teleost fish genomes were restricted to a few model species, none of which were for aquaculture. The application of marker assisted selection for improved production traits had been largely restricted to the salmon industry and genetic and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) maps were available for only a few species. With the advent of next generation sequencing the landscape is rapidly changing and today the genomes of several aquaculture species have been sequenced. The European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, is a good example of a commercially important aquaculture species in Europe for which in the last decade a wealth of genomic resources, including a chromosomal scale genome assembly, physical and linkage maps as well as relevant QTL have been generated. The current challenge is to stimulate the uptake of the resources by the industry so that the full potential of this scientific endeavor can be exploited and produce benefits for producers and the public alike. PMID:25011579

  13. Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Gottesfeld, Allen; Proctor, Bart; Rolston, Dave; Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Lewis, Mark A

    2007-12-22

    Animal migrations can affect disease dynamics. One consequence of migration common to marine fish and invertebrates is migratory allopatry-a period of spatial separation between adult and juvenile hosts, which is caused by host migration and which prevents parasite transmission from adult to juvenile hosts. We studied this characteristic for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from one of the Canada's largest salmon stocks. Migratory allopatry protects juvenile salmon from L. salmonis for two to three months of early marine life (2-3% prevalence). In contrast, host diversity facilitates access for C. clemensi to juvenile salmon (8-20% prevalence) but infections appear ephemeral. Aquaculture can augment host abundance and diversity and increase parasite exposure of wild juvenile fish. An empirically parametrized model shows high sensitivity of salmon populations to increased L. salmonis exposure, predicting population collapse at one to five motile L. salmonis per juvenile pink salmon. These results characterize parasite threats of salmon aquaculture to wild salmon populations and show how host migration and diversity are important factors affecting parasite transmission in the oceans. PMID:17939989

  14. Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Catherine M F

    2008-12-01

    Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure. PMID:19060188

  15. The Interaction between Water Currents and Salmon Swimming Behaviour in Sea Cages

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, David; Laursen, Frida; Fern, Anders; Fosseidengen, Jan Erik; Klebert, Pascal; Stien, Lars Helge; Vgseth, Tone; Oppedal, Frode

    2014-01-01

    Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched from the traditional circular polarized group structure, seen at low and moderate current velocities, to a group structure where all fish kept stations at fixed positions swimming against the current. This type of group behaviour has not been described in sea cages previously. The structural changes could be explained by a preferred swimming speed of salmon spatially restricted in a cage in combination with a behavioural plasticity of the fish. PMID:24830443

  16. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narščius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  17. Historical record of Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida among sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Coll, J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite restoration efforts, only about 2,000 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) salmon have annually returned to New England Rivers and more than 71% of these fish migrate to the Penobscot River alone. This report provides a historical compilation on the prevalence's of both Yersinia ruckeri, cause of enteric redmouth disease, and Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis, among mature sea-run Atlantic salmon that returned to the Penobscot River from 1976 to 2003. Aeromonas salmonicida was detected in 28.6% and Yersinia ruckeri was detected among 50% of the yearly returns. Consequently, Atlantic salmon that return to the river are potential reservoirs of infection.

  18. Chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon discovered by linkage mapping and supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Geographical isolation has generated a distinct difference between Atlantic salmon of European and North American Atlantic origin. The European Atlantic salmon generally has 29 pairs of chromosomes and 74 chromosome arms whereas it has been reported that the North American Atlantic salmon has 27 chromosome pairs and an NF of 72. In order to predict the major chromosomal rearrangements causing these differences, we constructed a dense linkage map for Atlantic salmon of North American origin and compared it with the well-developed map for European Atlantic salmon. Results The presented male and female genetic maps for the North American subspecies of Atlantic salmon, contains 3,662 SNPs located on 27 linkage groups. The total lengths of the female and male linkage maps were 2,153?cM and 968?cM respectively, with males characteristically showing recombination only at the telomeres. We compared these maps with recently published SNP maps from European Atlantic salmon, and predicted three chromosomal reorganization events that we then tested using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The proposed rearrangements, which define the differences in the karyotypes of the North American Atlantic salmon relative to the European Atlantic salmon, include the translocation of the p arm of ssa01 to ssa23 and polymorphic fusions: ssa26 with ssa28, and ssa08 with ssa29. Conclusions This study identified major chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon. However, while gross structural differences were significant, the order of genetic markers at the fine-resolution scale was remarkably conserved. This is a good indication that information from the International Cooperation to Sequence the Atlantic salmon Genome, which is sequencing a European Atlantic salmon, can be transferred to Atlantic salmon from North America. PMID:22928605

  19. Transmission of Loma salmonae (Microsporea) to chinook salmon in sea water.

    PubMed Central

    Kent, M L; Dawe, S C; Speare, D J

    1995-01-01

    Transmission studies were conducted to determine if Loma salmonae was transmissible in sea water. Transmission of L. salmonae to chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) held in sea water was achieved by exposing fish to macerated, infected gill tissue. Fish were exposed in seawater in a flow-through aquarium, and the infection was detected as soon as 5 wk after exposure. Heavily infected fish exhibited numerous xenomas in the branchial arteries, central venous sinusoids, and within the blood channels of the lamellae. The pathological changes were similar to those seen in pen-reared salmon with L. salmonae infections. The infection was not observed in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi, family Clupeidae), or shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata, family Embiotocidae), experimentally exposed using identical methods. This study suggests that L. salmonae is transmissible to chinook salmon in seawater netpens. Fish farmers and fish health specialists should consider this possibility when developing and implementing strategies to control the infection. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7728735

  20. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species. PMID:25754010

  1. The control of sea lice in Atlantic salmon by selective breeding.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Karim; Matthews, Louise; Bron, James; Roberts, Ron; Tinch, Alan; Stear, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Sea lice threaten the welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon and the sustainability of fish farming across the world. Chemical treatments are the major method of control but drug resistance means that alternatives are urgently needed. Selective breeding can be a cheap and effective alternative. Here, we combine experimental trials and diagnostics to provide a practical protocol for quantifying resistance to sea lice. We then combined quantitative genetics with epidemiological modelling to make the first prediction of the response to selection, quantified in terms of reduced need for chemical treatments. We infected over 1400 young fish with Lepeophtheirus salmonis, the most important species in the Northern Hemisphere. Mechanisms of resistance were expressed early in infection. Consequently, the number of lice per fish and the ranking of families were very similar at 7 and 17 days post infection, providing a stable window for assessing susceptibility to infection. The heritability of lice numbers within this time window was moderately high at 0.3, confirming that selective breeding is viable. We combined an epidemiological model of sea lice infection and control on a salmon farm with genetic variation in susceptibility among individuals. We simulated 10 generations of selective breeding and examined the frequency of treatments needed to control infection. Our model predicted that substantially fewer chemical treatments are needed to control lice outbreaks in selected populations and chemical treatment could be unnecessary after 10 generations of selection. Selective breeding for sea lice resistance should reduce the impact of sea lice on fish health and thus substantially improve the sustainability of Atlantic salmon production. PMID:26289656

  2. The control of sea lice in Atlantic salmon by selective breeding

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Karim; Matthews, Louise; Bron, James; Roberts, Ron; Tinch, Alan; Stear, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sea lice threaten the welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon and the sustainability of fish farming across the world. Chemical treatments are the major method of control but drug resistance means that alternatives are urgently needed. Selective breeding can be a cheap and effective alternative. Here, we combine experimental trials and diagnostics to provide a practical protocol for quantifying resistance to sea lice. We then combined quantitative genetics with epidemiological modelling to make the first prediction of the response to selection, quantified in terms of reduced need for chemical treatments. We infected over 1400 young fish with Lepeophtheirus salmonis, the most important species in the Northern Hemisphere. Mechanisms of resistance were expressed early in infection. Consequently, the number of lice per fish and the ranking of families were very similar at 7 and 17 days post infection, providing a stable window for assessing susceptibility to infection. The heritability of lice numbers within this time window was moderately high at 0.3, confirming that selective breeding is viable. We combined an epidemiological model of sea lice infection and control on a salmon farm with genetic variation in susceptibility among individuals. We simulated 10 generations of selective breeding and examined the frequency of treatments needed to control infection. Our model predicted that substantially fewer chemical treatments are needed to control lice outbreaks in selected populations and chemical treatment could be unnecessary after 10 generations of selection. Selective breeding for sea lice resistance should reduce the impact of sea lice on fish health and thus substantially improve the sustainability of Atlantic salmon production. PMID:26289656

  3. Seasonal increase in sea temperature triggers pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms.

    PubMed

    Stene, A; Bang Jensen, B; Knutsen, ; Olsen, A; Viljugrein, H

    2014-08-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease causing negative impacts on economy of salmon farms and fish welfare. Its transmission route is horizontal, and water transport by ocean currents is an important factor for transmission. In this study, the effect of temperature changes on PD dynamics in the field has been analysed for the first time. To identify the potential time of exposure to the virus causing PD, a hydrodynamic current model was used. A cohort of salmon was assumed to be infected the month it was exposed to virus from other infective cohorts by estimated water contact. The number of months from exposure to outbreak defined the incubation period, which was used in this investigation to explore the relationship between temperature changes and PD dynamics. The time of outbreak was identified by peak in mortality based on monthly records from active sites. Survival analysis demonstrated that cohorts exposed to virus at decreasing sea temperature had a significantly longer incubation period than cohorts infected when the sea temperature was increasing. Hydrodynamic models can provide information on the risk of being exposed to pathogens from neighbouring farms. With the knowledge of temperature-dependent outbreak probability, the farmers can emphasize prophylactic management, avoid stressful operations until the sea temperature is decreasing and consider removal of cohorts at risk, if possible. PMID:23980568

  4. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-01

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB. PMID:25850396

  5. Transcriptome immunomodulation of in-feed additives in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infested with sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Pino-Marambio, Jorge; Wadsworth, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-11-01

    One of the most significant threats to the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry is the ectoparasitic sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. To cope with sea lice infestations, functional diets have become an important component in strengthening the host immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate molecular mechanisms activated through immunostimulation by in-feed plant-derived additives in Atlantic salmon infected with sea lice. Herein, a transcriptome-wide sequencing analysis was performed from skin and head kidney tissues, evidencing that the immune response genes were the most variable after the challenge, especially in the head kidney, while other genes involved in metabolism were highly expressed individuals fed with the immunostimulants. Interestingly, defensive enzymes such as Cytochrome p450 and serpins were down-regulated in infested individuals, especially in skin tissue. Additionally, MHC-I and MHC-II genes were differentially expressed after the incorporation of the in-feed additives, giving some cues about the protection mechanisms of plant-derived compound as immunostimulants for infested salmons. This is the first published study that evaluates the transcriptomic response of sea lice-infested Atlantic salmon fed with in-feed additives. PMID:26363235

  6. Genetic stock identification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations in the southern part of the European range

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anadromous migratory fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have significant economic, cultural and ecological importance, but present a complex case for management and conservation due to the range of their migration. Atlantic salmon exist in rivers across the North Atlantic, returning to their river of birth with a high degree of accuracy; however, despite continuing efforts and improvements in in-river conservation, they are in steep decline across their range. Salmon from rivers across Europe migrate along similar routes, where they have, historically, been subject to commercial netting. This mixed stock exploitation has the potential to devastate weak and declining populations where they are exploited indiscriminately. Despite various tagging and marking studies, the effect of marine exploitation and the marine element of the salmon lifecycle in general, remain the "black-box" of salmon management. In a number of Pacific salmonid species and in several regions within the range of the Atlantic salmon, genetic stock identification and mixed stock analysis have been used successfully to quantify exploitation rates and identify the natal origins of fish outside their home waters - to date this has not been attempted for Atlantic salmon in the south of their European range. Results To facilitate mixed stock analysis (MSA) of Atlantic salmon, we have produced a baseline of genetic data for salmon populations originating from the largest rivers from Spain to northern Scotland, a region in which declines have been particularly marked. Using 12 microsatellites, 3,730 individual fish from 57 river catchments have been genotyped. Detailed patterns of population genetic diversity of Atlantic salmon at a sub-continent-wide level have been evaluated, demonstrating the existence of regional genetic signatures. Critically, these appear to be independent of more commonly recognised terrestrial biogeographical and political boundaries, allowing reporting regions to be defined. The implications of these results on the accuracy of MSA are evaluated and indicate that the success of MSA is not uniform across the range studied; our findings indicate large differences in the relative accuracy of stock composition estimates and MSA apportioning across the geographical range of the study, with a much higher degree of accuracy achieved when assigning and apportioning to populations in the south of the area studied. This result probably reflects the more genetically distinct nature of populations in the database from Spain, northwest France and southern England. Genetic stock identification has been undertaken and validation of the baseline microsatellite dataset with rod-and-line and estuary net fisheries of known origin has produced realistic estimates of stock composition at a regional scale. Conclusions This southern European database and supporting phylogeographic and mixed-stock analyses of net samples provide a unique tool for Atlantic salmon research and management, in both their natal rivers and the marine environment. However, the success of MSA is not uniform across the area studied, with large differences in the relative accuracy of stock composition estimates and MSA apportioning, with a much higher degree of accuracy achieved when assigning and apportioning to populations in the south of the region. More broadly, this study provides a basis for long-term salmon management across the region and confirms the value of this genetic approach for fisheries management of anadromous species. PMID:20429926

  7. Seabird sockeye salmon co-variation in the eastern Bering Sea: Phenology as an ecosystem indicator and salmonid predictor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydeman, William J.; Abraham, Christine L.; Vernon Byrd, G.

    2008-08-01

    Seabirds ( Rissa spp. and Uria spp.) and sockeye salmon ( Onchorhynchus nerka) of the eastern Bering Sea share similarities in their trophic ecology. We tested the role of seabirds as indicators of food web conditions that affect sockeye salmon at sea survival by investigating co-variation between seabirds breeding on the Pribilof Islands and returns of Bristol Bay sockeyes. We examined seabird phenology (hatching dates of eggs) against sockeye returns based on the year of ocean entry. Annual seabird hatching date was inversely related to sockeye returns, with the strongest co-variation found for sockeye which entered the ocean at 2 years of age (age 2 x smolts). The mechanism supporting this co-variation is unknown, but both birds and salmon may be responding to changes in prey availability (a "bottom-up" effect). The co-variation between seabird hatching date and sockeye returns supports the idea that variation in seabird breeding parameters indicates food web conditions that also affect other upper trophic level predators in marine systems. Coupling seabird phenology with existing annual predictions for Bristol Bay salmon may improve forecasts and fishery management.

  8. Temporally stable population-specific differences in run timing of one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon returning to a large river system

    PubMed Central

    Vh, Juha-Pekka; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Niemel, Eero; Primmer, Craig R; Saloniemi, Irma; Johansen, Morten; Svenning, Martin; Brrs, Sturla

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of migration patterns can significantly contribute to conservation and management. The spawning migrations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cover thousands of kilometers from the feeding areas at sea to their natal rivers to reproduce. Migrating salmon are exposed to intensive harvest, but little is known of the population-specific differences in migration behavior. In this study, timing of return migration was investigated among one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon within a river system. By utilizing knowledge of the genetic population structure, population of origin was reliably identified for c. 1500 fish caught in mixed stock fisheries after adopting an approach to minimize the complications arising from potential nonsampled populations. Results demonstrated significant and temporally stable differences among populations as well as between sexes. Generally, female salmon from tributary populations entered fresh water first. Run timing was not however related to in-river migration distance. Rather, one-sea-winter salmon from larger populations and with a higher proportion of multi-sea-winter females arrived later in the season. These findings are a significant step toward a more thorough understanding of the salmon migration behavior and behavioral ecology, providing concrete tools for the management and conservation of the remaining indigenous Atlantic salmon stocks. PMID:25567952

  9. Diseases of north European wrasse (Labridae) and possible interactions with cohabited farmed salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Treasurer, J W

    2012-08-01

    There have been several reported studies of wrasse health but none of these has shown transmission of wrasse diseases when stocked with farmed Atlantic salmon. Most of the studies have focussed on bacterial and parasite issues, including treatment of bacterial diseases with antibiotics and vaccination of wrasse. Classical and atypical furunculosis have been reported in wrasse following stress, and wrasse have been susceptible to vibrio infection. Further study is required on the vaccination of wrasse for furunculosis with latent carrier status to maximize survival. There are studies on viral diseases such as infectious pancreatic necrosis, infectious salmon anaemia and pancreas disease and although these did not give any undue concern for salmon health, there is also scope for further study in this area. Resident parasite communities of wrasse are largely host-specific and do not appear to be a threat to salmon. Given that wrasse have not, to date, been a vector of disease in salmon, attention should be placed on maintaining best practice in cohabiting wrasse with salmon. Other issues that should be addressed are good welfare of wrasse in pens and identifying measures of this, the identification of losses of wrasse in pens, being alert to potential emerging diseases through health screening of mortalities and assessing the risks associated with carrying forward wrasse from one salmon production cycle to the next. Issues of exploitation by fishing on wild wrasse stocks and improved biosecurity may be addressed by the increased movement by the industry to the stocking of farmed wrasse. PMID:22625226

  10. Sea to sky: impacts of residual salmon-derived nutrients on estuarine breeding bird communities

    PubMed Central

    Field, Rachel D.; Reynolds, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) returning to streams around the North Pacific Rim provide a nutrient subsidy to these ecosystems. While many species of animals feed directly on salmon carcasses each autumn, salmon-derived nutrients can also be stored in coastal habitats throughout the year. The effects of this storage legacy on vertebrates in other seasons are not well understood, especially in estuaries, which can receive a large portion of post-spawning salmon nutrients. We examine the effects of residual salmon-derived nutrients, forest habitats and landscape features on summer breeding birds in estuary forests. We compared models containing environmental variables and combined chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon biomass to test predictions concerning bird density and diversity. We discovered that total bird, insectivore, golden-crowned kinglet and Pacific wren densities and Shannon's diversity in the summer were strongly predicted by salmon biomass in the autumn. For most metrics, this relationship approaches an asymptote beyond 40 000 kg of salmon biomass. Foliage height diversity, watershed catchment area and estuary area were also important predictors of avian communities. Our study suggests that the legacy of salmon nutrients influences breeding bird density and diversity in estuaries that vary across a wide gradient of spawning salmon biomass. PMID:21325324

  11. Sea to sky: impacts of residual salmon-derived nutrients on estuarine breeding bird communities.

    PubMed

    Field, Rachel D; Reynolds, John D

    2011-10-22

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) returning to streams around the North Pacific Rim provide a nutrient subsidy to these ecosystems. While many species of animals feed directly on salmon carcasses each autumn, salmon-derived nutrients can also be stored in coastal habitats throughout the year. The effects of this storage legacy on vertebrates in other seasons are not well understood, especially in estuaries, which can receive a large portion of post-spawning salmon nutrients. We examine the effects of residual salmon-derived nutrients, forest habitats and landscape features on summer breeding birds in estuary forests. We compared models containing environmental variables and combined chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon biomass to test predictions concerning bird density and diversity. We discovered that total bird, insectivore, golden-crowned kinglet and Pacific wren densities and Shannon's diversity in the summer were strongly predicted by salmon biomass in the autumn. For most metrics, this relationship approaches an asymptote beyond 40 000 kg of salmon biomass. Foliage height diversity, watershed catchment area and estuary area were also important predictors of avian communities. Our study suggests that the legacy of salmon nutrients influences breeding bird density and diversity in estuaries that vary across a wide gradient of spawning salmon biomass. PMID:21325324

  12. Characterization of extreme sea level at the European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Alberto; Jorda, Gabriel; Mathis, Moritz; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high sea levels arise as a combination of storm surges and particular high tides events. Future climate simulations not only project changes in the atmospheric circulation, which induces changes in the wind conditions, but also an increase in the global mean sea level by thermal expansion and ice melting. Such changes increase the risk of coastal flooding, which represents a possible hazard for human activities. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pattern of sea level variability and long-term trends at coastal areas. In order to analyze further extreme sea level events at the European coast in the future climate projections, a new setup for the global ocean model MPIOM coupled with the regional atmosphere model REMO is prepared. The MPIOM irregular grid has enhanced resolution in the European region to resolve the North and the Mediterranean Seas (up to 11 x 11 km at the North Sea). The ocean model includes as well the full luni-solar ephemeridic tidal potential for tides simulation. To simulate the air-sea interaction, the regional atmospheric model REMO is interactively coupled to the ocean model over Europe. Such region corresponds to the EuroCORDEX domain with a 50 x 50 km resolution. Besides the standard fluxes of heat, mass (freshwater), momentum and turbulent energy input, the ocean model is also forced with sea level pressure, in order to be able to capture the full variation of sea level. The hydrological budget within the study domain is closed using a hydrological discharge model. With this model, simulations for present climate and future climate scenarios are carried out to study transient changes on the sea level and extreme events. As a first step, two simulations (coupled and uncoupled ocean) driven by reanalysis data (ERA40) have been conducted. They are used as reference runs to evaluate the climate projection simulations. For selected locations at the coast side, time series of sea level are separated on its different components: tides, short time atmospheric process influence (1-30 days), seasonal cycle and interannual variability. Every sea level component is statistically compared with data from local tide gauges.

  13. Assessment of MERIS ocean color data products for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibordi, G.; Mlin, F.; Berthon, J.-F.; Canuti, E.

    2013-05-01

    The accuracy of marine data products from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) operated on board the Envisat platform is investigated with the aid of in situ geographically distributed measurements from different European seas. The assessment focuses on standard products from the 2012 data update commonly identified as 3rd Reprocessing. Results indicate atmospherically corrected data affected by a negative bias of several tens percent at the 413 nm center wavelength, significantly decreasing to a few percent at 560 nm and increasing again at 665 nm. Such an underestimate at the blue center wavelengths leads to an average overestimate of the algal-1 MERIS pigment index largely exceeding 100% for the considered European seas. A comparable overestimate is also observed for the algal-2 pigment index independently determined from top-of-atmosphere radiance through the application of neural networks.

  14. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Alan M.; van Vliet, Gus B.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

  15. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

    2014-05-01

    Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

  16. Noise Impact on European Sea Bass Behavior: Temporal Structure Matters.

    PubMed

    Neo, Yik Yaw; Seitz, Johanna; Kastelein, Ronald A; Winter, Hendrik V; Cate, Carel Ten; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sounds come in different forms, varying not only in amplitude and frequency spectrum but also in temporal structure. Although fish are sensitive to the temporal characteristics of sound, little is known about how their behavior is affected by anthropogenic sounds of different temporal patterns. We investigated this question using groups of Dicentrarchus labrax (European sea bass) in an outdoor basin. Our data revealed that the temporal pattern of sound exposure is important in noise impact assessments. PMID:26611030

  17. [Evolutionary-physiological aspects of adaptation of the Pacific salmon fry of the Oncorhynchus genus to migration to the sea water].

    PubMed

    Maksimovich, A A

    2008-01-01

    A complex of adaptive changes occurring in the Pacific salmon fry in the process of migration to the sea is described, including behavior, ion content in carcasses, and morphological changes in Stannius bodies, gill epithelium, and nephron tubular epithelium. Participating in experiments with transfer from fresh water into a two-layer aquarium (the lower layer - sea water, the upper layer - fresh water) were smolts of chum salmon and underyearlings of masu salmon as well as the trachurus and leiurus forms of the three-spined stickleback Casterosteus aculeatus. All fish, regardless of their salt preference, at once after placement into the two-layer aquarium, occupied the sea water zone, at the very bottom of the aquarium. After 1 h, there started brief excursions of masu salmon and chum salmon to the upper, fresh water layer; however, both forms of the three-spined stickleback did not participate in these excursions. After 12 h, the chum salmon settled down in the lower, sea water layer, while the masu salmon - in the upper, fresh water layer. Both forms of the three-spined stickleback never left the sea water layer and felt quite comfortably on the aquarium bottom. It seems that the high tolerance of the both stickleback forms to wide salinity limits allows them to choose the convenient position regardless of the water salt composition. By analyzing the material obtained for three years (2001-2003) on structure and functions of the gill epithelium chloride cells (CC), we have come to the conclusion that the fresh water fry of two salmon species, chum and masu salmons, caught at the same time and practically in the same water reservoirs can be divided into three groups. The underyearlings of the masu salmon as a rule are characterized by the thickened epithelium of secondary gill lamellae, but by a very small number of CC. In smolts of chum salmon, on the contrary, the epithelium is sufficiently thin, but enriched in the CC that demonstrate an active structure in the very beginning of migration to sea. However, with approaching the sea (and with an increase of terms of migration) the CC activity drops, but their amount does not change. And only after migration to the sea the CC activity rises again, although their amount seems to remain unchanged. The described peculiarities of behavior and of the ion composition regulation in the migrating salmon fry confirm the hypothesis that the salmons evolutionized in fresh water, that the Oncorhynchus genus appeared in large spaces of saltish waters, such as the Japan Sea at the period of the early Pleistocene, and that learning of fry of the Oncorhynchus genus (for instance, of O. gorbuscha and O. keta) is the most specialized in the salmons migrating to the sea, whereas the fresh water species of chars (Salvelinus) and of trouts (Salmo) are more primitive. PMID:18411513

  18. Multivariate evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment efficacy of cypermethrin against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is the most important ectoparasite of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norwegian aquaculture. Control of sea lice is primarily dependent on the use of delousing chemotherapeutants, which are both expensive and toxic to other wildlife. The method most commonly used for monitoring treatment effectiveness relies on measuring the percentage reduction in the mobile stages of Lepeophtheirus salmonis only. However, this does not account for changes in the other sea lice stages and may result in misleading or incomplete interpretation regarding the effectiveness of treatment. With the aim of improving the evaluation of delousing treatments, we explored multivariate analyses of bath treatments using the topical pyrethroid, cypermethrin, in salmon pens at five Norwegian production sites. Results Conventional univariate analysis indicated reductions of over 90% in mobile stages at all sites. In contrast, multivariate analyses indicated differing treatment effectiveness between sites (p-value < 0.01) based on changes in the proportion and abundance of the chalimus and PAAM (pre-adult and adult males) stages. Low water temperatures and shortened intervals between sampling after treatment may account for the differences in the composition of chalimus and PAAM stage groups following treatment. Using multivariate analysis, such factors could be separated from those which were attributable to inadequate treatment or chemotherapeutant failure. Conclusions Multivariate analyses for evaluation of treatment effectiveness against multiple life cycle stages of L. salmonis yield additional information beyond that derivable from univariate methods. This can aid in the identification of causes of apparent treatment failure in salmon aquaculture. PMID:24354936

  19. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Brauner, C. J.; Sackville, M.; Gallagher, Z.; Tang, S.; Nendick, L.; Farrell, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how no effect thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

  20. European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

    2014-05-01

    The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

  1. Influence of the White Sea on tides in adjacent marginal seas of the North European Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, B. A.; Sofina, E. V.; Rashidi, E. H. A.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation into the interaction of surface M 2 tides in the system of marginal seas of the North European Basin is carried out using the three-dimensional finite-element hydrostatic model QUODDY-4. Three numerical experiments are performed for this purpose. In the first (control), the model equations are solved in the system of the Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, and White seas; thereby the interaction of the tides in these seas is explicitly taken into account. In the second experiment, the White Sea is excluded from consideration and the no-flux condition is posed at the entrance to the sea. The third experiment uses an approach in which the observed tidal elevations that determine the existence of a finite horizontal transport of barotropic energy to the White Sea are specified at the open boundary of the White Sea. It is shown that changes in tidal dynamics represented by changes in the amplitudes and phases of tidal elevations and in the barotropic tidal velocity ellipse parameters are within the model noise in experiments 2 and 3 when compared with the control experiment. On the contrary, changes in energy characteristics (the horizontal wave transport, density, and dissipation rate of barotropic tidal energy) are equal to or greater (in order of magnitude) than the energy characteristics themselves.

  2. Gonadotropins in European sea bass: Endocrine roles and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Mazn, Mara Jos; Mols, Gregorio; Rocha, Ana; Crespo, Berta; Lan-Chow-Wing, Olivier; Espigares, Felipe; Muoz, Iciar; Felip, Alicia; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Gmez, Ana

    2015-09-15

    Follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are central endocrine regulators of the gonadal function in vertebrates. They act through specific receptors located in certain cell types found in the gonads. In fish, the differential roles of these hormones are being progressively elucidated due to the development of suitable tools for their study. In European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), isolation of the genes coding for the gonadotropin subunits and receptors allowed in first instance to conduct expression studies. Later, to overcome the limitation of using native hormones, recombinant dimeric gonadotropins, which show different functional characteristics depending on the cell system and DNA construct, were generated. In addition, single gonadotropin beta-subunits have been produced and used as antigens for antibody production. This approach has allowed the development of detection methods for native gonadotropins, with European sea bass being one of the few species where both gonadotropins can be detected in their native form. By administering recombinant gonadotropins to gonad tissues in vitro, we were able to study their effects on steroidogenesis and intracellular pathways. Their administration in vivo has also been tested for use in basic studies and as a biotechnological approach for hormone therapy and assisted reproduction strategies. In addition to the production of recombinant hormones, gene-based therapies using somatic gene transfer have been offered as an alternative. This approach has been tested in sea bass for gonadotropin delivery in vivo. The hormones produced by the genes injected were functional and have allowed studies on the action of gonadotropins in spermatogenesis. PMID:26002037

  3. Salmon lice--impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-03-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  4. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  5. SURVIVAL OF SALMON SMOLTS IN SEA WATER AFTER EXPOSURE TO AIR-SUPERSATURATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smolts of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were held at 117, 115, 113, 110, 108, and 100% saturation in air-supersaturated fresh water at 12.5C for 3 weeks. At 117% saturation 70% of the fish died, and at 115%, 5% died. Survivors were severely stressed and exhibited many signs...

  6. Skin mucus proteome map of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Brinchmann, Monica F; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A

    2015-12-01

    Skin mucus is the first barrier of fish defence. Proteins from skin mucus of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were identified by 2DE followed by LC-MS/MS. From all the identified proteins in the proteome map, we focus on the proteins associated with several immune pathways in fish. Furthermore, the real-time PCR transcript levels in skin are shown. Proteins found include apolipoprotein A1, calmodulin, complement C3, fucose-binding lectin, lysozyme and several caspases. To our knowledge, this is the first skin mucus proteome study and further transcriptional profiling of the identified proteins done on this bony fish species. This not only contributes knowledge on the routes involved in mucosal innate immunity, but also establishes a non-invasive technique based on locating immune markers with a potential use for prevention and/or diagnosis of fish diseases. PMID:26376207

  7. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry €300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

  8. Aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and salmon farmed close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez Pineiro, M.E.; Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C.; Lozano, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal region. Subsequently, an impropitious combination of a high tide and a change in wind direction caused the resulting slick to rapidly spread into the port. Measures aimed at cleaning up affected areas and evacuating the ca. 11,215 tonnes of oil remaining in the supertanker were immediately implemented. However, within just a few days the resulting contamination had killed some 15000 turbot juveniles and larvae, which are cultivated in fish farms close to the accident site. The environmental impact of major oil spillages has been widely studied. Several scientists have suggested that, in terms of the negative effects on the seawater quality and productive capacity of the affected maritime regions, the magnitudes of the Aegean Sea and Amoco Cadiz accidents are comparable. This paper reports variations over time of aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and Atlantic salmon sampled from fish farms close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the Southern European Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for wider use. A multi-stakeholder involvement at multidisciplinary level as well as an integrated cross-sectoral approach has to take place to achieve the best results and opportunities. The emerging new knowledge and new tools from all actions will help the scientific community to create more accurate and dynamic forecasting of possible risk scenarios. Using this input coupled with socio-economic analysis, a substantial science-based advice to policy and decision-makers can be provided, whenever is needed. It is more than certain that this process will help to meet the challenges ahead and increase the potential of the blue growth in the SES, which could, eventually, represent a significant share of the actual countries' growth in the two basins.

  10. A Modelling Framework for Assessing the Risk of Emerging Diseases Associated with the Use of Cleaner Fish to Control Parasitic Sea Lice on Salmon Farms.

    PubMed

    Murray, A G

    2016-04-01

    Sea lice are the most damaging parasite of marine salmonids, both economically and in terms of potential impacts on wild fish. An increasingly widely applied control is the use of cleaner fish (CF) such as wrasse that eat lice. However, such CF can carry pathogens that may cause disease in salmon, including the potential emergence of new diseases. This is not just a theoretical risk, as demonstrated by a recent outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse held on salmon farms in Shetland. A modelling framework is developed to identify conditions in which emergence might occur, and, from this, means of reducing risk. Diseases that might emerge easily in farmed salmon would be likely to have already done so by other routes of exposure, and if risks are very low, they would need to be greatly enhanced to become significant relative to costs of lice control. CF may most enhance risks from disease with moderate probability of emerging. Risks of emergence can be reduced by replacing wild-caught with hatchery-reared CF, minimizing mixing of CF from different sources, surveillance for clinical disease in the CF and ensuring strategic biosecurity (area management with synchronized fallowing). Reuse of CF for a second salmon production cycle may reduce costs and even probability of infection (especially from wild-caught CF), but should only be considered as part of a rigorous area management programme because the practice presents opportunities for pathogens to adapt to salmon by weakening fallowing. PMID:25208602

  11. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  12. Warming shelf seas drive the subtropicalization of European pelagic fish communities.

    PubMed

    Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57,870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. PMID:25230844

  13. From the European slope to the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Andy; Porter, Marie

    2015-04-01

    The European slope current is a density driven poleward current tracing the shelf edge from the Bay of Biscay into the Nordic Seas. This current is not entirely coherent along its length and is known to be disrupted by the wind, bathymetric irregularities and local circulation, potentially providing a source of relatively warm and nutrient rich water to the local shelf. On the Malin Shelf, to the north of Ireland and the west of Scotland, persistent intrusions of oceanic water occur onto the shelf near a bend in the slope. Additional pathways onto the shelf result from strong wind events, which cause ingress of slope water at multiple locations, while eddies in the Rockall Trough are known to pull water off the slope into deeper, abyssal regions. In July 2013, 30 surface drifters, 15 drogued at 15 m and 15 at 70 m, were deployed on the Malin Shelf slope. Of these drifters, all of those drogued at 15 m and 10 of those drogued at 70 m moved north-eastward from their release onto the shelf. The majority crossed onto the shelf within a relatively small area, within a 30km radius of 55.5°N, 10°W, and continued as a coherent group along the edge of the Irish coastal front for approximately 38 days. This current, estimated to transport approximately 0.5 Sv of water towards the Scottish coast, follows the Irish Coastal front and then the Islay front until it bifurcates around the Outer Hebrides, with half of the drifters passing inside, to the east through the Minch, and half passing outside, to the west. The control over the path taken is likely to have been the position and strength of the Islay Front. The tendency for the shallow drifters to cross onto the shelf more readily than the deeper ones suggests that the ingress onto the shelf varies with depth and is strongest at the surface. The deeper drifters generally spent longer in the slope region and were frequently pulled into the Rockall Trough. The drifter trajectories highlight a pathway for surface water (15 m) from the European slope, around the Scottish coast and islands and into the North Sea. Highly variable subsurface (70 m) water movement is also seen, with flow both onto and away from the shelf as well as stagnation at points along the slope.

  14. Microfauna associated with amoebic gill disease in sea-farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, M L; Mulcahy, M F

    2006-08-01

    A study of microfauna, associated with pathological changes in the gills of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was conducted over 2001-2002. Monthly samples of 1(+) salmon smolts were taken, protozoan populations were quantified and gill health was assessed histologically. Protozoan densities were correlated with pathological changes, in order to determine their possible role in lesions in the gills. The most severe gill tissue changes were observed in summer/autumn and the least in spring. A diverse polyphyletic protozoan community was observed colonizing the gills, including Neoparamoeba sp., other amoebae, scuticociliates, Ichthyobodo-like flagellates, trichodinid ciliates and prostomatean ciliates. The earlier gill tissue changes in the gill were not always associated with the presence of these microorganisms, whereas amoebae (other than Neoparamoeba sp.), Ichthyobodo-like flagellates and trichodinid ciliates correlated with augmenting gill lesions. Neoparamoeba sp. was present, but its abundance did not correlate with the disease. This study suggests that a diversity of protozoans including Ichthyobodo-like flagellates, trichodinid ciliates and amoebae other than Neoparamoeba sp. are involved in the aetiology of amoebic gill disease in the Irish situation. PMID:16911533

  15. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis infected Atlantic salmon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  16. European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a changing ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.

    2014-05-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 C) and two seawater pCO2 levels (ambient and 1,000 ?atm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 C. Similarly, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 were significantly heavier. However, juvenile D. labrax raised under this combination of 19 C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 also exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 C and ambient pCO2. Most studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested that these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. Whilst the increased survival and growth observed in this study supports this view, we conclude that more work is required to investigate whether the differences in juvenile physiology observed in this study manifest as negative impacts in adult fish.

  17. Quantifying the Ocean, Freshwater and Human Effects on Year-to-Year Variability of One-Sea-Winter Atlantic Salmon Angled in Multiple Norwegian Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J.; L'Abe-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Storvik, Geir O.; Vllestad, Leif Asbjrn

    2011-01-01

    Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse) from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (19792007). Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching for solutions to conserve this species. PMID:21897867

  18. Effects of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on sea trout Salmo trutta at different times after seawater transfer.

    PubMed

    Dawson, L H; Pike, A W; Houlihan, D F; McVicar, A H

    1998-07-30

    The physiological and behavioural effects and skin damage caused by salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) infections on sea trout Salmo trutta L. smolts were greater in fish infected with lice 2 wk after seawater transfer than in fish infected 6 wk after seawater transfer. The initial prevalence of infection was 100% for both groups and the intensity of infection decreased significantly with time over 5 wk. Significantly fewer of the fish infected 2 wk after seawater transfer had resumed feeding by the end of the experiment, leading to a loss of body condition. Furthermore, these fish suffered more severe damage to the skin and detrimental changes in physiological integrity than fish infected 6 wk after seawater transfer as a direct consequence of feeding preadult lice, leading to osmoregulatory failure and death. Although this study was carried out in laboratory conditions, results indicate that lice infections may potentially have a detrimental impact on the survival of wild smolts after seawater transfer. PMID:9841122

  19. [Peculiarities of the biology and parasite fauna of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Pista River (White Sea Basin), according to the Gyrodactylus salaris infestation].

    PubMed

    Ieshko, E P; Shchurov, I L; Shul'man, B S; Barskaia, Iu Iu; Lebedeva, D I; Shirokov, V A

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile salmon Salmo salar m. sebago Girard from the Pista River system (the White Sea Basin) was investigated. The data on species composition and occurrence peculiarities of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 are given. This monogenean is the alien species for the river system and it is recorded for the first time. It is shown that the distribution of the parasite abundance is can be described as the negative binomial distribution; variations of its parameters (k and p) were also characterized. Parasitological data obtained, as well as the data describing the characteristics of growth and age structure of juvenile salmon population, suggest the potential influence of G. salaris infection on the degree of survival of fishes in the lake-river system examined. PMID:23285741

  20. SeaDataNet II - EMODNet Bathymetry - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management and a digital high resolution bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.6 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for an active role in the data management component of the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. Starting 2009 EMODnet pilot portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are being expanded to all European sea regions as part of EMODnet Phase 2, which started mid 2013. EMODnet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODnet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy between SeaDataNet and EMODnet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place as part of phase 2. The presentation will highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II and give further details and views on the new EMODNet Digital Bathymetry for European seas as to be released early 2015.

  1. All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Als, Thomas D; Hansen, Michael M; Maes, Gregory E; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Aarestrup, Kim; Munk, Peter; Sparholt, Henrik; Hanel, Reinhold; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-04-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5000 km back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between samples. Moreover, European and American eels can hybridize, but hybrids have been observed almost exclusively in Iceland, suggesting hybridization in a specific region of the Sargasso Sea and subsequent nonrandom dispersal of larvae. Here, we report the first molecular population genetics study based on analysis of 21 microsatellite loci in larvae of both Atlantic eel species sampled directly in the spawning area, supplemented by analysis of European glass eel samples. Despite a clear East-West gradient in the overlapping distribution of the two species in the Sargasso Sea, we only observed a single putative hybrid, providing evidence against the hypothesis of a wide marine hybrid zone. Analyses of genetic differentiation, isolation by distance, isolation by time and assignment tests provided strong evidence for panmixia in both the Sargasso Sea and across all continental samples of European eel after accounting for the presence of sibs among newly hatched larvae. European eel has declined catastrophically, and our findings call for management of the species as a single unit, necessitating coordinated international conservation efforts. PMID:21299662

  2. Temporal, environmental and management factors influencing the epidemiological patterns of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Revie, Crawford W; Gettinby, George; Treasurer, James W; Rae, Gordon H; Clark, Norman

    2002-06-01

    In association with industry, an extensive database has been established on measurements of sea louse counts on farmed Atlantic salmon for the years 1996 to 2000 from 33 Scottish fish farms. These data include extensive counts on the sea louse species, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, at various stages of the life cycle and in particular the chalimus and mobile stages. There has been considerable speculation as to what factors might affect the abundance of sea lice, much of which is based on limited evidence. Our analyses show that there is tremendous variation in sea louse infestation patterns from year to year, whereas stock type, geographical region and coastal exposure do not appear to affect mean levels of abundance. In contrast, treatments lead to pronounced cycles of sea louse infestation with peaks and troughs at 3-week intervals, and these interventions are important if the sea louse levels on fish are to be controlled. There was no evidence of water temperature affecting the mean annual abundance of sea louse infestation. PMID:12138624

  3. The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?

    PubMed Central

    Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

  4. The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?

    PubMed

    Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2011-09-01

    Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

  5. Seabed substrates and sedimentation rates of the European Seas - EMODnet-Geology2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Alanen, Ulla; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet Geology 2

    2015-04-01

    Seas and oceans are important for us. However, increased human activities in marine and coastal areas have altered marine ecosystems worldwide. To ensure sustainable use of marine resources and health of the seas, improved management is needed. The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive targets to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of the EU's marine waters by 2020. However, it has been acknowledged that the poor access to data on the marine environment was a handicap to government decision-making, a barrier to scientific understanding and a break on the economy. The effective management of the broad marine areas requires spatial datasets covering all European marine areas. As a consequence the European Commission adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) in 2009 to combine dispersed marine data into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 and it will run for 3 years. The partnership includes 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. The partners, mainly from the marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - EuroGeoSurveys), aim to assemble marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). In comparison to the urEMODnet project (2009-2012) the data will be more detailed and aim to cover much larger area. The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first seabed substrate map for the European Seas, as well as data/map showing sedimentation rates at the seabed. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on seabed substrates will be delivered in the portal, in addition to the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase that will be updated with data from the new sea areas. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations. Further information about the EMODnet-Geology 2 project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/).

  6. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiricka, Alexandra Proebstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-15

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  7. Use of agent-based modelling to predict benefits of cleaner fish in controlling sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Groner, M L; Cox, R; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are ectoparasites of farmed and wild salmonids. Infestations can result in significant morbidity and mortality of hosts in addition to being costly to control. Integrated pest management programmes have been developed to manage infestations, and in some salmon farming areas, these programmes include the use of wrasse. Wrasse prey upon the parasitic life stages of L.salmonis and can be stocked on farms at varying densities. Despite considerable variation in the usage of wrasse, there are few quantitative estimates of how well they can control sea lice and how best to optimize their use. To explore at what densities wrasse should be stocked in order to meet specific control targets, we built an individual-based model that simulates sea lice infestation patterns on a representative salmonid host. Sea lice can be controlled through the use of chemical treatments as well as by wrasse predators. We found that the wrasse can effectively control sea lice, and the densities of wrasse needed for effective control depend upon the source of the infestation and the targeted level of control. Effective usage of wrasse can result in decreased use of chemical treatments and improved control of sea lice. PMID:23121261

  8. Intestinal barrier function of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post smolts is reduced by common sea cage environments and suggested as a possible physiological welfare indicator

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fish farmed under high intensity aquaculture conditions are subjected to unnatural environments that may cause stress. Therefore awareness of how to maintain good health and welfare of farmed fish is important. For Atlantic salmon held in sea cages, water flow, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature will fluctuate over time and the fish can at times be exposed to detrimentally low DO levels and high temperatures. This experimental study investigates primary and secondary stress responses of Atlantic salmon post smolts to long-term exposure to reduced and fluctuating DO levels and high water temperatures, mimicking situations in the sea cages. Plasma cortisol levels and cortisol release to the water were assessed as indicators of the primary stress response and intestinal barrier integrity and physiological functions as indicators of secondary responses to changes in environmental conditions. Results Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish exposed to low (50% and 60% saturation) DO levels and low temperature (9°C), at days 9, 29 and 48. The intestinal barrier function, measured as electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of mannitol at the end of the experiment, were reduced at 50% DO, in both proximal and distal intestine. When low DO levels were combined with high temperature (16°C), plasma cortisol levels were elevated in the cyclic 1:5 h at 85%:50% DO group and fixed 50% DO group compared to the control (85% DO) group at day 10 but not at later time points. The intestinal barrier function was clearly disturbed in the 50% DO group; TER was reduced in both intestinal regions concomitant with increased paracellular permeability in the distal region. Conclusions This study reveals that adverse environmental conditions (low water flow, low DO levels at low and high temperature), that can occur in sea cages, elicits primary and secondary stress responses in Atlantic salmon post smolts. The intestinal barrier function was significantly affected by prolonged hypoxic stress even when no primary stress response was observed. This suggests that intestinal barrier function is a good experimental marker for evaluation of chronic stress and that it can be a valuable tool to study the impact of various husbandry conditions on health and welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:21062437

  9. Amplification of European Little Ice Age by sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Flavio; Born, Andreas; Raible, Christoph C.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2013-04-01

    The transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~950-1250 AD) to the Little Ice Age (~1400-1700 AD) is believed to have been driven by an interplay of external forcing and climate system-internal variability. While the hemispheric signal seems to have been dominated by solar irradiance and volcanic eruptions, the understanding of mechanisms shaping the climate on continental scale is less robust. Examining an ensemble of transient model simulations as well as a new type of sensitivity experiments with artificial sea ice growth, we identify a sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism that amplifies the Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic-European region and produces the temperature pattern expected from reconstructions. Initiated by increasing negative forcing, the Arctic sea ice substantially expands at the beginning of the Little Ice Age. The excess of sea ice is exported to the subpolar North Atlantic, where it melts, thereby weakening convection of the ocean. As a consequence, northward ocean heat transport is reduced, reinforcing the expansion of the sea ice and the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere. In the Nordic Seas, sea surface height anomalies cause the oceanic recirculation to strengthen at the expense of the warm Barents Sea inflow, thereby further reinforcing sea ice growth in the Barents Sea. The absent ocean-atmosphere heat flux in the Barents Sea results in an amplified cooling over Northern Europe. The positive nature of this feedback mechanism enables sea ice to remain in an expanded state for decades to centuries and explain sustained cold periods over Europe such as the Little Ice Age. Support for the feedback mechanism comes from recent proxy reconstructions around the Nordic Seas.

  10. Summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals in polar ecosystems: a comparison between the European Arctic seas and the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joiris, Claude R.

    2000-12-01

    The summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals was quantitatively established both in Antarctica (Weddell Sea) and in the European Arctic: Greenland, Norwegian and Barents seas. Data can directly be compared, since the same transect counts were applied by the same team from the same icebreaking ship in both regions. The main conclusion is that densities of seabirds and marine mammals are similar in open water and at the ice edge from both polar regions, while the presence of Adlie penguins, minke whales and crabeater seals in densities more than one order of magnitude higher in Antarctic pack-ice must reflect a major ecological difference between both polar systems. The ecological implications of these observations are discussed, especially concerning important primary and secondary (krill) productions under the Weddell Sea pack-ice.

  11. Phylogeography of the planktonic chaetognath Sagitta setosa reveals isolation in European seas.

    PubMed

    Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Breeuwer, Johannes A J; Pierrot-Bults, Annelies C; Menken, Steph B J

    2004-07-01

    Numerous planktonic species have disjunct distribution patterns in the world's oceans. However, it is unclear whether these are truly unconnected by gene flow, or whether they are composed of morphologically cryptic species. The marine planktonic chaetognath Sagitta setosa Mller has a discontinuous geographic distribution over the continental shelf in the northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and Black Sea. Morphological variation between these populations has been described, but overlaps and is therefore unsuitable to determine the degree of isolation between populations. To test whether disjunct populations are also genetically disjunct, we sequenced a 504-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA comprising the cytochrome oxidase II region of 86 individuals. Sequences were highly variable; each represented a different haplotype. Within S. setosa, sequence divergence ranged from 0.2 to 8.1% and strong phylogeographic structure was found, with four main groups corresponding to the northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea (including Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Gulf of Gabes), Adriatic Sea, and Black Sea. Two of these (Atlantic and Black Sea) were resolved as monophyletic clades, thus gene flow between disjunct populations of S. setosa has been extremely limited and lineage sorting has taken place. The deepest divergence was between Atlantic and Mediterranean/Black Sea populations followed by a split between Mediterranean and Black Sea populations. The Mediterranean/Black Sea clade comprised three groups, with the Adriatic Sea as the most likely sister clade of the Black Sea. These data are consistent with a colonization of the Black Sea from the Mediterranean. Furthermore, a possible cryptic species was found in the Black Sea with 23.1% sequence divergence from S. setosa. Two possibilities for the evolutionary origin of this species are proposed, namely, that it represents a relict species from the ancient Paratethys, or that it represents another chaetognath species that colonized the Black Sea more recently. Even though the exact timing of disjunction of S. setosa populations remains unclear, on the basis of the geological and paleoclimatic history of the European basins and our estimates of net nucleotide divergence, we suggest that disjunct populations arose through vicariance resulting from the cyclical changes in temperature and sea levels during the Pleistocene. We conclude that these populations have remained disjunct, not because of limited dispersal ability, but because of the inability to maintain viable populations in suboptimal, geographically intermediate areas. PMID:15341150

  12. An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (waves and storm surge) for coastal impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of waves and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated waves (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal waves can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface waves of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear wave-wave interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time series of surge sea level component and waves (significant wave height, period and direction) at coastal locations. Altimeter observations are also considered for a spatial validation of surge and wave heights. Results obtained from this validation process show a general good agreement with observations for the European region. Finally, the hourly time series of surge and wave climate along the European coast grid-points are analyzed. Historical changes in the waves and storm surge provide a useful information for coastal impact studies since coastal flooding, beach erosion, coastal structures and physical damages in ecosystems can be affected by long-term changes in wave climate and sea levels. Reguero, B. G., Menéndez, M., Méndez, F. J. Mínguez, R. Losada, I. J. (2012). A Global Ocean Wave (GOW) calibrated reanalysis from 1948 onwards. Coastal Engineering, 65, 38-55. Cid, A., Castanedo, S., Abascal, A. J., Menéndez, M., & Medina, R. (2014). A high resolution hindcast of the meteorological sea level component for Southern Europe: the GOS dataset. Climate Dynamics, 1-18.

  13. Space-time cluster analysis of sea lice infestation (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on wild juvenile Pacific salmon in the Broughton Archipelago of Canada.

    PubMed

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Revie, Crawford W

    2015-06-15

    Sea lice infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago region are known to vary spatially and temporally; however, the locations of areas associated with a high infestation level had not been investigated yet. In the present study, the multivariate spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model was used to assess spatial clustering of elevated sea lice (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon sampled between March and July of 2004 to 2012 in the Broughton Archipelago and Knight Inlet regions of British Columbia, Canada. Three covariates, seine type (beach and purse seining), fish size, and year effect, were used to provide adjustment within the analyses. The analyses were carried out across the five months/datasets and between two fish species to assess the consistency of the identified clusters. Sea lice stages were explored separately for the early life stages (non-motile) and the late life stages of sea lice (motile). Spatial patterns in fish migration were also explored using monthly plots showing the average number of each fish species captured per sampling site. The results revealed three clusters for non-motile C. clemensi, two clusters for non-motile L. salmonis, and one cluster for the motile stage in each of the sea lice species. In general, the location and timing of clusters detected for both fish species were similar. Early in the season, the clusters of elevated sea lice infestation levels on wild fish are detected in areas closer to the rivers, with decreasing relative risks as the season progresses. Clusters were detected further from the estuaries later in the season, accompanied by increasing relative risks. In addition, the plots for fish migration exhibit similar patterns for both fish species in that, as expected, the juveniles move from the rivers toward the open ocean as the season progresses The identification of space-time clustering of infestation on wild fish from this study can help in targeting investigations of factors associated with these infestations and thereby support the development of more effective sea lice control measures. PMID:25869117

  14. Geological maps of the European seas - the EMODNET-Geology project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Alan

    2014-05-01

    To support its objectives to achieve Good Environmental Status in Europe's seas by 2020, the European Commission established the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNET) to assemble existing but fragmented and inaccessible marine data and to create interoperable, contiguous and publicly available information layers which encompass whole marine basins. EMODNET is a network of existing and developing European observation systems linked by a data management structure covering all European coastal waters, shelf seas and surrounding ocean basins. The marine departments of the European Geological Surveys form the basis of a partnership that implements the EMODNET-Geology project, part of a suite of EMODNET studies that also cover bathymetry, marine chemistry, marine biology, seabed habitats, physics and human activities in the marine environment. The EMODnet-Geology project will deliver integrated geological map products through the One Geology-Europe portal. EMODNET-Geology will have a distributed map service with each of the work packages delivering a specified layer that include seafloor geology, seabed sediments, mineral resources and geological events such as submarine slides and earthquakes. Further information about the EMODNET project can be found at: http://www.emodnet.eu/

  15. Heritability of cortisol response to confinement stress in European sea bass dicentrarchus labrax

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In fish, the most studied production traits in terms of heritability are body weight or growth, stress or disease resistance, while heritability of cortisol levels, widely used as a measure of response to stress, is less studied. In this study, we have estimated heritabilities of two growth traits (body weight and length) and of cortisol response to confinement stress in the European sea bass. Findings The F1 progeny analysed (n?=?922) belonged to a small effective breeding population with contributions from an unbalanced family structure of just 10 males and 2 females. Heritability values ranged from 0.54 (0.21) for body weight to 0.65 (0.22) for standard body length and were low for cortisol response i.e. 0.08 (0.06). Genetic correlations were positive (0.94) between standard body length and body weight and negative between cortisol and body weight and between cortisol and standard body length (?0.60 and ?0.55, respectively). Conclusion This study confirms that in European sea bass, heritability of growth-related traits is high and that selection on such traits has potential. However, heritability of cortisol response to stress is low in European sea bass and since it is known to vary greatly among species, further studies are necessary to understand the reasons for these differences. PMID:22520515

  16. The drop in European time-mean sea level caused by the Mediterranean inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Christopher W.; Bingham, Rory; Roussenov, Vassil; Williams, Joanne; Woodworth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    To understand how coastal sea level will respond on centennial time scales, we need to understand what determines spatial patterns of coastal time-mean dynamic topography - an issue which is still poorly understood. A suite of model experiments shows that one of the biggest causes of inter-model variability along the eastern boundary of the Atlantic relates to a sea level step at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. Combining these models with a set of dedicated twin experiments, we show that the exchange flow between the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic leads to a drop in time-mean European coastal sea level along the Atlantic coast north of Gibraltar. The drop is about 7 cm along the Portuguese coast, and remains apparent (though reduced) as far north as the Norwegian coast. We also show that Mediterranean time- and spatial-mean sea level is about 9 cm lower than it would be without the exchange flow (but assuming a small supply from the Atlantic to balance evaporation). Each of these relationships makes possible an estimate of the magnitude of the exchange flow based on sea level measurements, and estimates of 0.8 and 0.91 sverdrups are made, consistent with previous determinations based mainly on current measurements in the Strait of Gibraltar.

  17. The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to underline the future challenges for European marine research in terms of the integrated coastal zone management of these highly significant coastal zones. PMID:18061212

  18. Validation of an ensemble modelling system for climate projections for the northwest European shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, Jonathan; Lowe, Jason; Holt, Jason; Pardaens, Anne; Wiltshire, Andy

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a modelling system used to represent the northwest European shelf seas. Variants of the coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model, HadCM3, were run under conditions of historically varying concentrations of greenhouse gases and other radiatively active constituents. The atmospheric simulation for the shelf sea region and its surrounds was downscaled to finer spatial scales using a regional climate model (HadRM3); these simulations were then used to drive a river routing scheme (TRIP). Together, these provide the atmospheric, oceanic and riverine boundary conditions to drive the shelf seas model POLCOMS. Additionally, a shelf seas simulation was driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis in place of HadCM3. We compared the modelling systems output against a sea surface temperature satellite analysis product, a quality controlled ocean profile dataset and values of volume transport through particular ocean sections from the literature. In addition to assessing model drift with a pre-industrial control simulation the modelling system was evaluated against observations and the reanalysis driven simulation. We concluded that the modelling system provided an excellent (good) representation of the spatial patterns of temperature (salinity). It provided a good representation of the mean temperature climate, and a sufficient representation of the mean salinity and water column structure climate. The representation of the interannual variability was sufficient, while the overall shelf-wide circulation was qualitatively good. From this wide range of metrics we judged the modelling system fit for the purpose of providing centennial climate projections for the northwest European shelf seas.

  19. THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

  20. SALMON: A WORLD AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

  1. Synthesis of knowledge on marine biodiversity in European Seas: from census to sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Coll, Marta; Danovaro, Roberto; Davidson, Keith; Ojaveer, Henn; Renaud, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000-2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

  2. Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

    2013-01-01

    The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000–2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

  3. WILDERNESS SOCIETY'S SALMON STATUS DATA FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish status layers show the historic distribution of freshwater habitat and current status of ten different species of anadromous fish: spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, winter chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, sea-run cutthroat, summer steel...

  4. A comprehensive inventory of ship traffic exhaust emissions in the European sea areas in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Emissions originating from ship traffic in European sea areas were modelled using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM), which uses Automatic Identification System data to describe ship traffic activity. We have estimated the emissions from ship traffic in the whole of Europe in 2011. We report the emission totals, the seasonal variation, the geographical distribution of emissions, and their disaggregation between various ship types and flag states. The total ship emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, CO, and PM2.5 in Europe for year 2011 were estimated to be 121, 3.0, 1.2, 0.2, and 0.2 million tons, respectively. The emissions of CO2 from the Baltic Sea were evaluated to be more than a half (55 %) of the emissions of the North Sea shipping; the combined contribution of these two sea regions was almost as high (88 %) as the total emissions from ships in the Mediterranean. As expected, the shipping emissions of SOx were significantly lower in the SOx Emission Control Areas, compared with the corresponding values in the Mediterranean. Shipping in the Mediterranean Sea is responsible for 40 and 49 % of the European ship emitted CO2 and SOx emissions, respectively. In particular, this study reported significantly smaller emissions of NOx, SOx, and CO for shipping in the Mediterranean than the EMEP inventory; however, the reported PM2.5 emissions were in a fairly good agreement with the corresponding values reported by EMEP. The vessels registered to all EU member states are responsible for 55 % of the total CO2 emitted by ships in the study area. The vessels under the flags of convenience were responsible for 25 % of the total CO2 emissions.

  5. A comprehensive inventory of ship traffic exhaust emissions in the European sea areas in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions originated from ship traffic in European sea areas were modelled using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM), which uses Automatic Identification System data to describe ship traffic activity. We have estimated the emissions from ship traffic in the whole of Europe in 2011. We report the emission totals, the seasonal variation, the geographical distribution of emissions, and their disaggregation between various ship types and flag states. The total ship emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, CO and PM2.5 in Europe for year 2011 were estimated to be 131, 2.9, 1.2, 0.2 and 0.3 million tons, respectively. The emissions of CO2 from Baltic Sea were evaluated to be more than a half (58%) of the emissions of the North Sea shipping; the combined contribution of these two sea regions was almost as high (96%) as the total emissions from ships in the Mediterranean. As expected, the shipping emissions of SOx were significantly lower in the SOx Emission Control Areas, compared with the corresponding values in the Mediterranean. Shipping in the Mediterranean Sea is responsible for 39 and 49% of the European ship emitted CO2 and SOx emissions, respectively. In particular, this study reported significantly smaller emissions of NOx, SOx and CO for shipping in the Mediterranean than the EMEP inventory; however, the reported PM2.5 emissions were in a fairly good agreement with the corresponding values reported by EMEP. The vessels registered to all EU member states are responsible for 55% of the total CO2 emitted by ships in the study area. The vessels under the flags of convenience were responsible for 25% of the total CO2 emissions.

  6. The Impact of a Warmer Mediterranean Sea on Central European Summer Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Semenov, Vladimir; Maraun, Douglas; Latif, Mojib; Tilinina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Central European climate is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea, which experienced a strong increase in sea surface temperature (SST) during the last four decades. One example of extreme weather events are cyclones following the "Vb" pathway. These cyclones are generated over the Mediterranean Sea and travel northeastwards around the Alps and then hit countries like Poland and Germany. The cyclones carry large amounts of moisture and cause extreme precipitation, and subsequently flooding, particularly in summer. These floods, such as the Elbe flood in 2002, have devastating societal impacts and also influence ecosystems. To analyse the potential impact of increased Mediterranean SST on extreme precipitation in Europe, a series of simulations with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ECHAM5 has been carried out. ECHAM5 was run at high horizontal resolution (T159) and integrated for 40 years in each experiment. The control run is forced by SST and sea ice concentration (SIC) climatology derived from 1970-1999. A warmer climate is simulated by using global climatological SST and SIC from 2000-2012. To disentangle the impact of the Mediterranean Sea, an additional simulation was performed with the same global SST and SIC as in the control run, but with the warmer 2000-2012 SST climatology restricted to the Mediterranean and Black Seas. 20-season return levels were derived as a measure of extreme precipitation for daily as well as five day precipitation in JJA (June, July, August). These return levels are estimated as quantiles of a stationary generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution. Although the increase in the number of Vb cyclones is only modest, precipitation return levels in JJA show an increase along the Vb cyclone track, for daily (up to approximately 63 %) as well as for five day (up to approximately 76 %) precipitation extremes. This increase can be attributed to the warmer Mediterranean Sea, as it is observed in both the globally warmer and warmer Mediterranean Sea experiments. The strongest increase in both daily and five day precipitation extremes is located in western Hungary, in the catchment area of the Danube River. This finding suggests further increases in European summer flooding, should Mediterranean SST continue to increase.

  7. SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common SeaDataNet formats and procedures and software tools for preparing and updating metadata, processing and quality control of data, and presentation of data in viewing services, and for production of data products. SeaDataNet maintains and operates several discovery services with overviews of marine organisations in Europe and their engagement in marine research projects, managing large datasets, and data acquisition by research vessels and monitoring programmes for the European seas and global oceans: o European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) (at present > 4300 entries from more than 600 data holding centres in Europe) is a comprehensive reference to the marine data and sample collections held within Europe providing marine scientists, engineers and policy makers with a simple discovery mechanism. It covers all marine environmental disciplines. This needs regular maintenance. o European Directory of Marine Environmental Research Projects (EDMERP) (at present > 2200 entries from more than 300 organisations in Europe) gives an overview of research projects relating to the marine environment, that are relevant in the context of data sets and data acquisition activities ( cruises, in situ monitoring networks, ..) that are covered in SeaDataNet. This needs regular updating, following activities by dataholding institutes for preparing metadata references for EDMED, EDIOS, CSR and CDI. o Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) directory (at present > 43000 entries) provides a coarse-grained inventory for tracking oceanographic data collected by research vessels. o European Directory of Oceanographic Observing Systems (EDIOS) (at present > 10000 entries) is an initiative of EuroGOOS and gives an overview of the ocean measuring and monitoring systems operated by European countries. European Directory of Marine Organisations (EDMO) (at present > 2000 entries) contains the contact information and activity profiles for the organisations whose data and activities are described by the discovery services. Common Vocabularies (at present > 120000 terms in > 100 lists), covering a broad spectrum of ocean and marine disciplines. The common terms are used to mark up metadata, data and data products in a consistent and coherent way. Governance is regulated by an international board. Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service: SeaDataNet provides online unified access to distributed datasets via its portal website to the vast resources of marine and ocean datasets, managed by all the connected distributed data centres. The Common Data Index (CDI) service is the key Discovery and Delivery service. It enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres, and it provides the means for downloading datasets in common formats via a transaction mechanism.

  8. Geo-Seas: delivering harmonised marine geoscience data on a European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick

    2013-04-01

    A large amount of both raw and interpreted marine geoscience data is held by an array of European organisations but its discovery and re-use can be very difficult. The data is stored in a variety of different formats and a range of different nomenclatures, scales and co-ordinate systems are used at the organisational, national and international level. This lack of standardisation hinders the user's ability to locate and access these datasets or to use them in an integrated way. The Geo-Seas project, an EU funded Framework 7 initiative, has addressed these barriers to the re-use of marine geological and geophysical data through the development of an on-line data discovery and access service (http://www.geo-seas.eu). It allows the end user to identify, evaluate and download a range of standardised marine geoscience data sets from 26 federated data centres across 17 European maritime countries. The dedicated portal, which currently provides access to more than 100,000 datasets, has been developed by adopting and adapting the existing technologies, standards and methodologies developed by the SeaDataNet project for the management and delivery of oceanographic data. Through the re-use of this pre-existing architecture including the associated common standards and vocabularies a joint infrastructure for both marine geoscientific and oceanographic data has been created which supports the development of multidisciplinary ocean science. The Geo-Seas project has also brought together and incorporated the metadata services developed by previous EU-funded projects such as EUSeaSed and SEISCAN. The formats of this legacy metadata have not only been used as the basis for developing the Geo-Seas metadatabase but it has also lead to these pre-existing metadata catalogues being upgraded to current international standards. The Geo-Seas initiative has lead to a major improvement in the availability of standardised marine geoscientific data throughout Europe allowing end users better access to marine geoscience data and interpretations for a range of applications. The delivery of these harmonised raw and interpreted data is also contributing to the development of a more multidisciplinary approach to marine research through increased interoperability with data types from other domains within the marine environment. This approach is also leading to the development of collaborative links with other European projects and initiatives as well as with the wider marine geoscientific and oceanographic communities including projects and organisations in both the USA and Australia.

  9. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) is a long term marine data initiative from the European Commission Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE) underpinning the Marine Knowledge 2020 strategy. EMODnet is a consortium of organisations assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The main purpose of EMODnet is to unlock fragmented and hidden marine data resources and to make these available to individuals and organisations (public and private), and to facilitate investment in sustainable coastal and offshore activities through improved access to quality-assured, standardised and harmonised marine data which are interoperable and free of restrictions on use. The EMODnet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODnet is in the 2nd phase of development with seven sub-portals in operation that provide access to marine data from the following themes: bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities. EMODnet development is a dynamic process so new data, products and functionality are added regularly while portals are continuesly improved to make the service more fit for purpose and user friendly with the help of users and stakeholders. The EMODnet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets, that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the SeaDataNet Sextant data products catalogue service. The new EMODnet DTM will have a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and will cover all European sea regions. Use is made of available and gathered surveys and already more than 10.000 surveys have been indexed by 24 European data providers and originating from more than 120 organisations. Also use is made of composite DTMs as generated and maintained by several data providers for their areas of interest. Already 44 composite DTMs are included in the Sextant data products catalogue. For areas without coverage use is made of the latest global DTM of GEBCO who is partner in the EMODnet Bathymetry project. In return GEBCO integrates the EMODnet DTM to achieve an enriched and better result. The catalogue services and the generated EMODnet can be queried and browsed at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal which also provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. Activities are underway for further refinement following user feedback. The EMODnet DTM is publicly available for downloading in various formats. The presentation will highlight key details of EMODnet Bathymetry project, its portal and views on the new EMODNet Digital Bathymetry for European seas as to be released early 2015.

  10. Application of the CARLIT index along a biogeographical gradient in the Alboran Sea (European Coast).

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Ricardo; de la Fuente, Gina; Vergara, Juan J; Hernández, Ignacio

    2013-07-15

    An index, based on littoral communities assemblages (CARLIT), was applied to assess the ecological status of Northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters, following the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive. The biogeographical particularities of the Alboran Sea suggested a reassessment of this index, and that was the main objective of this work. Due to these biogeographical particularities, two regions were proposed in the studied region, with new reference conditions for each region. Subsequently, by means of a multivariate analysis, littoral community abundances and the CARLIT index were compared with factors related to geomorphology, biogeography and anthropogenic pressures. Overall, the biogeographical component determined the distribution of littoral communities. In contrast, the ecological status yielded by the index only was significantly related to anthropogenic pressures. The results pointed out that the reassessment of the CARLIT index was suitable to evaluate the ecological status of the Alboran Sea. PMID:23673205

  11. Tidal evolution of the northwest European shelf seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Katsuto; Scourse, James D.; Horsburgh, Kevin J.; Lambeck, Kurt; Purcell, Anthony P.

    2006-09-01

    Two-dimensional paleotidal simulations have been undertaken to investigate tidal and tide-dependent changes (tidal amplitudes, tidal current velocities, seasonal stratification, peak bed stress vectors) that have occurred in the NW European shelf seas during the last 20 ka. The simulations test the effect of shelf-wide isostatic changes of sea level by incorporating results from two different crustal rebound models, and the effect of the ocean-tide variability by setting open boundary values either fixed to the present state or variable according to the results of a global paleotidal model. The use of the different crustal rebound models does not affect the overall changes in tidal patterns, but the timing of the changes is sensitive to the local isostatic effects that differ between the models. The incorporation of ocean-tide changes greatly augments the amplitude of tides and tidal currents in the Celtic and Malin seas before 10 ka BP, and has a large impact on the distribution of seasonally stratified conditions, magnitude of peak bed stress vectors and tidal dissipation in the shelf seas. The predictions on seasonal stratification are supported by well-dated evidence on tidal mixing front migration in the Celtic Sea. Additional experiments using the global model suggest that the variability of offshore tides has been caused mainly by changes of eustatic sea level and ice-sheet extent. In particular, a large decrease observed at 10-8 ka BP is attributed to the opening of Hudson Strait accompanied by the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  12. Pile-Driving Noise Impairs Antipredator Behavior of the European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Everley, Kirsty A; Radford, Andrew N; Simpson, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly industrialized world, man-made noise is changing the underwater acoustic environment. The effects of anthropogenic noise on marine ecosystems are not yet fully understood despite important implications for science and policy, in particular with respect to investment in offshore renewable energy. In this study, a traditional looming-stimulus experimental setup was used to investigate the acute effects of pile-driving noise on the antipredator response of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Playback of pile-driving noise was found to impair significantly the startle response of individuals, which potentially translates to an increased likelihood of being captured by predators in natural conditions. PMID:26610969

  13. Modelling of European hake nurseries in the Mediterranean Sea: An ecological niche approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druon, Jean-Nol; Fiorentino, Fabio; Murenu, Matteo; Knittweis, Leyla; Colloca, Francesco; Osio, Chato; Mrigot, Bastien; Garofalo, Germana; Mannini, Alessandro; Jadaud, Anglique; Sbrana, Mario; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Carlucci, Roberto; Heikkonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    An ecological niche modelling (ENM) approach was developed to model the suitable habitat for the 0-group European hake, Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, in the Mediterranean Sea. The ENM was built combining knowledge on biological traits of hake recruits (e.g. growth, settlement, mobility and feeding strategy) with patterns of selected ecological variables (chlorophyll-a fronts and concentration, bottom depth, sea bottom current and temperature) to highlight favourable nursery habitats. The results show that hake nurseries require stable bottom temperature (11.8-15.0 C), low bottom currents (<0.034 m s-1) and a frequent occurrence of productive fronts in low chlorophyll-a areas (0.1-0.9 mg m-3) to support a successful recruitment. These conditions mostly occur recurrently in outer shelf and shelf break areas. The prediction explains the relative balance between biotic and abiotic drivers of hake recruitment in the Mediterranean Sea and the primary role of unfavourable environmental conditions on low recruitment in specific years (i.e. 2011). The ENM outputs particularly agree spatially with biomass data of recruits, although processes such as fishing and natural mortality are not accounted for. The seasonal mapping of suitable habitats provides information on potential nurseries and recruitment carrying capacity which are relevant for spatial fisheries management of hake in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping - Developing a higher resolution digital bathymetry for the European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Moussat, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). The EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping projects made good progress in developing the EMODNet Hydrography portal to provide overview and access to available bathymetric survey datasets and to generate an harmonised digital bathymetry for Europe's sea basins. Up till end 2012 more than 8400 bathymetric survey datasets, managed by 14 data centres from 9 countries and originated from 118 institutes, have been gathered and populated in the EMODNet Hydrography Data Discovery and Access service, adopting SeaDataNet standards. These datasets have been used as input for analysing and generating the EMODNet digital terrain model (DTM), so far for the following sea basins: the Greater North Sea, including the Kattegat the English Channel and Celtic Seas Western and Central Mediterranean Sea and Ionian Sea Bay of Biscay, Iberian coast and North-East Atlantic Adriatic Sea Aegean - Levantine Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Azores - Madeira EEZ The Hydrography Viewing service gives users wide functionality for viewing and downloading the EMODNet digital bathymetry: water depth in gridded form on a DTM grid of a quarter a minute of longitude and latitude option to view QC parameters of individual DTM cells and references to source data option to download DTM tiles in different formats: ESRI ASCII, XYZ, CSV, NetCDF (CF), GeoTiff and SD for Fledermaus 3 D viewer software option for users to create their Personal Layer and to upload multibeam survey ASCII datasets for automatic processing into personal DTMs following the EMODNet standards The NetCDF (CF) DTM files are fit for use in a special 3D Viewer software package which is based on the existing open source NASA World Wind JSK application. It has been developed in the frame of the EU Geo-Seas project (another sibling of SeaDataNet for marine geological and geophysical data) and is freely available. The 3D viewer also supports the ingestion of WMS overlay maps. The EMODNet consortium is actively seeking cooperation with Hydrographic Offices, research institutes, authorities and private organisations for additional data sets (single and multibeam surveys, sounding tracks, composite products) to contribute to an even better geographical coverage. These datasets will be used for upgrading and extending the EMODNet regional Digital Terrain Models (DTM). The datasets themselves are not distributed but described in the metadata service, giving clear information about the background survey data used for the DTM, their access restrictions, originators and distributors and facilitating requests by users to originators. This way the portal provides originators of bathymetric data sets an attractive shop window for promoting their data sets to potential users, without losing control. The EMODNet Hydrography Consortium consists of MARIS (NL), ATLIS (NL), IFREMER (FR), SHOM (FR), IEO (ES), GSI (IE), NERC-NOCS (UK), OGS (IT), HCMR (GR), and UNEP/GRID-Arendal (NO) with associate partners CNR-ISMAR (IT), OGS-RIMA (IT), IHPT (PT), and LNEG (PT). Website: http://www.emodnet-hydrography.eu

  15. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkoek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the MarchJune juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  16. Piling underwater noise impact on migrating salmon fish during Lithuanian LNG terminal construction (Curonian Lagoon, Eastern Baltic Sea Coast).

    PubMed

    Bagočius, Donatas

    2015-03-15

    Development of human activities in the Klaipėda strait generates a wide spectrum of underwater noise. In the fall of 2013, at the liquid natural gas terminal construction site in the shallow Curonian Lagoon area, an assessment of possible negative impacts on migrating salmon fish caused by pile driving noise was made. It is well known that impact hammer pile driving generates pulses with extremely high underwater noise levels. The obtained results proved that the pile hammering into the lagoon bottom generated pulses with a sound exposure level of 218 dB re 1 μPa(2) s @1m thus posing a risk to the migrating fish. PMID:25599630

  17. The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recolonizing the River Mersey in northwest England

    PubMed Central

    Ikediashi, Charles; Billington, Sam; Stevens, Jamie R

    2012-01-01

    By the 1950s, pollution had extirpated Atlantic salmon in the river Mersey in northwest England. During the 1970s, an extensive restoration program began and in 2001, an adult salmon was caught ascending the river. Subsequently, a fish trap was installed and additional adults are now routinely sampled. In this study, we have genotyped 138 adults and one juvenile salmon at 14 microsatellite loci from across this time period (20012011). We have used assignment analysis with a recently compiled pan-European microsatellite baseline to identify their most probable region of origin. Fish entering the Mersey appear to originate from multiple sources, with the greatest proportion (4560%, dependent on methodology) assigning to rivers in the geographical region just north of the Mersey, which includes Northwest England and the Solway Firth. Substantial numbers also appear to originate from rivers in western Scotland, and from rivers in Wales and Southwest England; nonetheless, the number of fish originating from proximal rivers to the west of the Mersey was lower than expected. Our results suggest that the majority of salmon sampled in the Mersey are straying in a southerly direction, in accordance with the predominantly clockwise gyre present in the eastern Irish Sea. Our findings highlight the complementary roles of improving water quality and in-river navigability in restoring salmon to a river and underlines further the potential benefits of restoration over stocking as a long-term solution to declining fish stocks. PMID:23145338

  18. Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon

    PubMed Central

    Krkošek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M.; Morton, Alexandra; Lewis, Mark A.; Dill, Lawrence M.; Hilborn, Ray

    2011-01-01

    The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect wild salmon populations and habitats in several countries. In Canada, much attention has focused on outbreaks of parasitic copepods, sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), on farmed and wild salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Several recent studies have reached contradictory conclusions on whether the spread of lice from salmon farms affects the productivity of sympatric wild salmon populations. We analyzed recently available sea lice data on farms and spawner–recruit data for pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago and nearby regions where farms are not present. Our results show that sea lice abundance on farms is negatively associated with productivity of both pink and coho salmon in the Broughton Archipelago. These results reconcile the contradictory findings of previous studies and suggest that management and policy measures designed to protect wild salmon from sea lice should yield conservation and fishery benefits. PMID:21873246

  19. Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon.

    PubMed

    Hites, Ronald A; Foran, Jeffery A; Carpenter, David O; Hamilton, M Coreen; Knuth, Barbara A; Schwager, Steven J

    2004-01-01

    The annual global production of farmed salmon has increased by a factor of 40 during the past two decades. Salmon from farms in northern Europe, North America, and Chile are now available widely year-round at relatively low prices. Salmon farms have been criticized for their ecological effects, but the potential human health risks of farmed salmon consumption have not been examined rigorously. Having analyzed over 2 metric tons of farmed and wild salmon from around the world for organochlorine contaminants, we show that concentrations of these contaminants are significantly higher in farmed salmon than in wild. European-raised salmon have significantly greater contaminant loads than those raised in North and South America, indicating the need for further investigation into the sources of contamination. Risk analysis indicates that consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon may pose health risks that detract from the beneficial effects of fish consumption. PMID:14716013

  20. Long term change of nutrient concentrations of rivers discharging in European seas.

    PubMed

    Bouraoui, Fayal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2011-11-01

    Cases of severe eutrophication are still observed in European surface waters even though tough regulation has been in place since the beginning of the 1990s to control nutrient losses and inputs in the environment. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evolution since 1991 of the quality of the water entering European seas in terms of the concentration of major nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and to analyze the effectiveness of implemented national/international measures and EU legislation in reducing water nutrient pollution. Despite the reduction in large portions of the European territory of agricultural nutrient applications and nutrient point source emissions, the impact on water quality is limited. It is shown using two large river basins that this lack of response for nitrogen, and nitrate in particular, between the reduction of the nitrogen surplus and the recovery of water quality is partly explained by the lag time due to transfer of nitrates in the unsaturated and saturated zones and storage in the soils and aquifers. In order to monitor efficiently the impact of policy implementation on water quality, the Nitrates Directive and the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive in particular, it is recommended to use long term permanent monitoring stations to be able to separate the impact of climate variability from that of policy implementation. It is also recommended to investigate and develop harmonized methodologies for estimating the lag time in order to come up with realistic estimates of response time of water bodies due to the implementation of measures. PMID:21911245

  1. European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation.

    PubMed

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S T; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A M; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M; Bonhomme, François; Canario, Adelino V M; Reinhardt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

  2. Impact of flood defences and sea-level rise on the European Shelf tidal regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelling, Holly E.; Mattias Green, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    The tidal response of the European Shelf to moderate (<1 m) levels of sea level rise is investigated using a high resolution, well established tidal model. The model is validated for present day conditions and the tidal response to sea level rise by comparing the modelled response to long term tide gauge data. The effects of coastal defence schemes are tested, with three levels of present day coastal defences simulated. Full walls are added at the present day coastline, no coast defence schemes are used and a set of present day coastal defence schemes is simulated. The simulations show that there is a significant tidal response to moderate levels of SLR and that the response is strongly dependant on level of coastal defence simulated. The simulation using coastal defence data resulted in the strongest response as the tide was able to build up behind the coastal defence walls and create a patchwork of sea and land at the coastline. This had a strong impact on the spatial tidal energy dissipation field and in turn this has large effects on the tidal regime throughout the domain.

  3. European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S.T.; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M.; Bonhomme, François; Canario, Adelino V. M.; Reinhardt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

  4. Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

    2014-05-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

  5. Considerations in developing an integrated pest management programme for control of sea lice on farmed salmon in Pacific Canada.

    PubMed

    Brooks, K M

    2009-01-01

    In the development of integrated pest management (IPM) plans for the control of sea lice there are some components that are common to many areas. However, effective plans must be tailored to regionally varying environmental and biological factors affecting the severity of sea lice infections. This paper describes factors that would be involved in the development of an IPM plan for sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity and currents affect the production, dispersion and competence of larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kryer), as they develop to the infective copepodid stage. This information can be coupled with oceanographic conditions in the Broughton Archipelago and emerging computer models to define zones of infection where infections of new hosts are most likely. Salinity and temperature depend, in part, on river discharge in estuarine systems. River discharge depends on precipitation, snow pack and ambient temperatures, which can be monitored to help forecast the intensity of sea lice infections associated with both farmed and wild hosts. One of the goals of IPM planning is to reduce reliance on pesticides to avoid development of resistance in targeted parasites and to minimize environmental residues. Recommendations for developing an IPM plan specific to the Broughton Archipelago are provided along with a discussion of the additional information needed to refine IPM plans in this and other areas. PMID:19245631

  6. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  7. Controls on pH in surface waters of northwestern European shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrolle, V. M. C.; Ribas-Ribas, M.; Kitidis, V.; Brown, I.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Lee, G. A.; Shi, T.; Mowlem, M. C.; Achterberg, E. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a high resolution surface water pH dataset obtained in the Northwest European shelf seas in summer 2011. This is the first time that pH has been measured at such a high spatial resolution (10 measurements h-1) in this region. The aim of our paper is to investigate the carbonate chemistry dynamics of the surface water using pH and ancillary data. The main processes controlling the pH distribution along the ship's transect, and their relative importance, were determined using a statistical approach. The study highlights the impact of biological activity, temperature and riverine inputs on the carbonate chemistry dynamics of the shelf seas surface water. For this summer cruise, the biological activity formed the main control of the pH distribution along the cruise transect. Variations in chlorophyll and nutrients explained 29% of the pH variance along the full transect and as much as 68% in the northern part of the transect. In contrast, the temperature distribution explained ca. 50% of the pH variation in the Skagerrak region. Riverine inputs were evidenced by high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels in the Strait of Moyle (northern Irish Sea) and the southern North Sea with consequent remineralisation processes and a reduction in pH. The DOC distribution described 15% of the pH variance along the full transect. This study highlights the high spatial variability of the surface water pH in shelf seawaters where a range of processes simultaneously impacts the carbonate chemistry.

  8. The impact of future sea-level rise on the European Shelf tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, M. D.; Wells, N. C.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Green, J. A. M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of future sea-level rise (SLR) on the tides of the northwest European Continental Shelf. The European shelf tide is dominated by semidiurnal constituents. This study therefore focuses primarily on the changes in the M2 tidal constituent and the spring and neap tidal conditions. The validated operational Dutch Continental Shelf Model is run for the present day sea-level as well as 2 and 10 m SLR scenarios. The M2 tidal amplitude responds to SLR in a spatially non-uniform manner, with substantial amplitude increases and decreases in both scenarios. The M2 tidal response is non-linear between 2 and 10 m with respect to SLR, particularly in the North Sea. Under the 2 m SLR scenario the M2 constituent is particularly responsive in the resonant areas of the Bristol Channel and Gulf of St. Malo (with large amplitude decreases) and in the southeastern German Bight and Dutch Wadden Sea (with large amplitude increases). Changes in the spring tide are generally greater still than those in the M2 or neap tides. With 2 m SLR the spring tidal range increases up to 35 cm at Cuxhaven and decreases up to -49 cm at St. Malo. Additionally the changes in the shallow water tides are larger than expected. With SLR the depth, wave speed and wave length (tidal resonance characteristics) are increased causing changes in near resonant areas. In expansive shallow areas SLR causes reduced energy dissipation by bottom friction. Combined these mechanisms result in the migration of the amphidromes and complex patterns of non-linear change in the tide with SLR. Despite the significant uncertainty associated with the rate of SLR over the next century, substantial alterations to tidal characteristics can be expected under a high end SLR scenario. Contrary to existing studies this paper highlights the importance of considering the modification of the tides by future SLR. These substantial future changes in the tides could have wide reaching implications; including for example, correctly calculating design level requirements for flood defences, the availability of tidal renewable energy and dredging requirements.

  9. Characterization of the annual regulation of reproductive and immune parameters on the testis of European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; Snchez-Hernndez, Miriam; Garca-Alczar, Alicia; Garca-Ayala, Alfonsa; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-10-01

    The European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., is a seasonal gonochoristic species, the males of which are generally mature during their second year of life. It has been demonstrated that cytokines and immune cells play a key role in the testicular development. This reproductive-immune interaction might be very important in the sea bass since several pathogens are able to colonise the gonad and persist in this tissue, altering further reproductive functions and spreading disease. This study aims to investigate the reproductive cycle of 1-year European sea bass males by analysing cell proliferation and apoptosis and the expression profile of some reproductive and immune-related genes in the testis, as well as the serum sex steroid levels. Our data demonstrate that, in 1-year-old European sea bass males, the testis undergoes the spermatogenesis process and that the reproductive and immune parameters analysed varied during the reproductive cycle. In the testis, the highest proliferative rates were recorded at the spermatogenesis stage, while the highest apoptotic rates were recorded at the spawning stage. We have also analysed, for the first time in European sea bass males, the serum levels of 17?-estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone and the gene expression profile of the enzymes implied in their production, determining that at least E2 might be involved in the regulation of the reproductive cycle. Some immune relevant genes, including cytokines, lymphocyte receptors, and anti-viral and anti-bacterial molecules were detected in the testis of nave European sea bass specimens, and their expression profile was related to the stages of the reproductive cycle, suggesting an important role for the defence of the reproductive tissues. PMID:25896883

  10. Chl a trends in European seas estimated using ocean-colour products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppini, G.; Lyubarstev, V.; Pinardi, N.; Colella, S.; Santoleri, R.; Christiansen, T.

    2012-03-01

    Ocean-colour remote-sensing products have been used to estimate Chl a trends in European seas. This work aims to develop a new indicator based on ocean-colour data for the European Environment Agency (EEA). The new indicator, called CSI023(+), produced from satellite ocean-colour products from the MyOcean Marine Core Service (www.myocean.eu) has been defined and calculated. CSI023 (+) is intended to complement the EEA CSI023 (Core Set of Indicators n.23) indicator for eutrophication, which is based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) in-situ observations. Validation of ocean-colour products has been carried out through comparison with observations of the Eionet EEA database, and we believe that such validation should continue in the future, perhaps with a dedicated data-collection exercise. Ocean colour has a much higher spatial and temporal resolution than the in-situ observations. The ocean-colour observations, however, are based on indirect measurements of the optical properties of the ocean, which are transformed to Chl a using an appropriate algorithm. This algorithm can either be a global algorithm that reproduces the average global Chl a concentrations well or one that is adjusted to specific regional conditions. In our analysis we have used both global and regional (adjusted to specific regional Mediterranean conditions) ocean-colour products, but the results highlight the fact that regional products produced with regional algorithms are recommended for the future. This work proposes a methodology for analysing trends comparable to the method EEA uses for its CSI23 indicator. Analysis has revealed the potential of ocean colour as a CSI023(+) indicator: large-scale, and in some cases even local-scale, changes appear to be captured by the satellite images even though in general the ocean-colour products underestimate the Chl a values. CSI023(+) shows, in the period 1998-2009, decreasing Chl a concentrations throughout the Black Sea, in the Eastern Mediterranean, in the southern part of the Western Mediterranean, in the English Channel and in the north part of the North Sea, whereas large areas with increasing trends are observed in the Bay of Biscay, in the North-East Atlantic regions of Ireland and the UK, in the northern part of the North Sea, in the Kattegat and in the Baltic. Specific analysis has been performed in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea: we first defined Chl a areas and then calculated the CSI023(+) for each of the Chl a areas. This last analysis reveals that about 80 % of Chl a areas do not show significant trends; increasing significant Chl a trends were detected in 3 Chl a areas in the Black Sea and 32 Chl a areas in the Mediterranean. Decreasing significant trends were detected in 6 Chl a areas in the Mediterranean and 2 Chl a areas in the Black Sea.

  11. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Genevive; Prez-Jimnez, Amalia; Larroquet, Laurence; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Panserat, Stphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-28

    Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme - lipogenesis-related enzymes - increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated. PMID:26306559

  12. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock. PMID:26906289

  13. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration

    PubMed Central

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock. PMID:26906289

  14. A polygenic hypothesis for sex determination in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, Marc; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Chavanne, Hervé; Chatain, Béatrice

    2007-06-01

    Polygenic sex determination, although suspected in several species, is thought to be evolutionarily unstable and has been proven in very few cases. In the European sea bass, temperature is known to influence the sex ratio. We set up a factorial mating, producing 5.893 individuals from 253 full-sib families, all reared in a single batch to avoid any between-families environmental effects. The proportion of females in the offspring was 18.3%, with a large variation between families. Interpreting sex as a threshold trait, the heritability estimate was 0.62 +/- 0.12. The observed distribution of family sex ratios was in accordance with a polygenic model or with a four-sex-factors system with environmental variance and could not be explained by any genetic model without environmental variance. We showed that there was a positive genetic correlation between weight and sex (r(A) = 0.50 +/- 0.09), apart from the phenotypic sex dimorphism in favor of females. This supports the hypothesis that a minimum size is required for sea bass juveniles to differentiate as females. An evolution of sex ratio by frequency-dependent selection is expected during the domestication process of Dicentrarchus labrax populations, raising concern about the release of such fish in the wild. PMID:17435246

  15. A Polygenic Hypothesis for Sex Determination in the European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    PubMed Central

    Vandeputte, Marc; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Chavanne, Herv; Chatain, Batrice

    2007-01-01

    Polygenic sex determination, although suspected in several species, is thought to be evolutionarily unstable and has been proven in very few cases. In the European sea bass, temperature is known to influence the sex ratio. We set up a factorial mating, producing 5.893 individuals from 253 full-sib families, all reared in a single batch to avoid any between-families environmental effects. The proportion of females in the offspring was 18.3%, with a large variation between families. Interpreting sex as a threshold trait, the heritability estimate was 0.62 0.12. The observed distribution of family sex ratios was in accordance with a polygenic model or with a four-sex-factors system with environmental variance and could not be explained by any genetic model without environmental variance. We showed that there was a positive genetic correlation between weight and sex (rA = 0.50 0.09), apart from the phenotypic sex dimorphism in favor of females. This supports the hypothesis that a minimum size is required for sea bass juveniles to differentiate as females. An evolution of sex ratio by frequency-dependent selection is expected during the domestication process of Dicentrarchus labrax populations, raising concern about the release of such fish in the wild. PMID:17435246

  16. Evaluation of the impact of polyethylene microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mazurais, D; Ernande, B; Quazuguel, P; Severe, A; Huelvan, C; Madec, L; Mouchel, O; Soudant, P; Robbens, J; Huvet, A; Zambonino-Infante, J

    2015-12-01

    Microplastics are present in marine habitats worldwide and may be ingested by low trophic organisms such as fish larvae, with uncertain physiological consequences. The present study aims at assessing the impact of polyethylene (PE 10-45 ?M) microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Fish were fed an inert diet including 0, 10(4) and 10(5) fluorescent microbeads per gram from 7 until 43 days post-hatching (dph). Microbeads were detected in the gastrointestinal tract in all fish fed diet incorporating PE. Our data revealed an efficient elimination of PE beads from the gut since no fluorescent was observed in the larvae after 48 h depuration. While the mortality rate increased significantly with the amount of microbeads scored per larvae at 14 and 20 dph, only ingestion of the highest concentration slightly impacted mortality rates. Larval growth and inflammatory response through Interleukine-1-beta (IL-1?) gene expression were not found to be affected while cytochrome-P450-1A1 (cyp1a1) expression level was significantly positively correlated with the number of microbeads scored per larva at 20 dph. Overall, these results suggest that ingestion of PE microbeads had limited impact on sea bass larvae possibly due to their high potential of egestion. PMID:26412109

  17. Salmon's Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,

  18. SeaDataNet II - EMODNet - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2014-05-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011 and is making good progress. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. Recently the 1st Innovation Cycle has been completed, including upgrading of the CDI Data Discovery and Access service to ISO 19139 and making it fully INSPIRE compliant. The extensive SeaDataNet Vocabularies have been upgraded too and implemented for all SeaDataNet European metadata directories. SeaDataNet is setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has also increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.4 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 90 connected data centres from 30 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for leading the data management component of the EMODNet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. In the past 4 years EMODNet portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are now being expanded to all European seas in successor projects, which started mid 2013 from EU DG MARE. EMODNet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODNet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy with SeaDataNet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place in the new phase. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far, and give further insights in the EMODNet Bathymetry progress.

  19. Potential use of the invasive European green crab (Carcinus maenas) as an ingredient in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) diets; a preliminary analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an important cultured carnivorous species with wide comsumer acceptance. With the finite supply of available fishmeal and fish oil available for aquafeeds, research on and utilization of alternative protein and lipid sources is expandingWe examined the nutritional p...

  20. Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

    2010-05-01

    Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data. Helen Glaves1 and Colin Graham2 on behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium The Geo-Seas project will create a network of twenty six European marine geoscience data centres from seventeen coastal countries including six from the Baltic Sea area. This will be achieved through the development of a pan-European infrastructure for the exchange of marine geoscientific data. Researchers will be able to locate and access harmonised and federated marine geological and geophysical datasets and data products held by the data centres through the Geo-Seas data portal, using a common data catalogue. The new infrastructure, an expansion of the exisiting SeaDataNet, will create an infrastructure covering oceanographic and marine geoscientific data. New data products and services will be developed following consultations with users on their current and future research requirements. Common data standards will be implemented across all of the data centres and other geological and geophysical organisations will be encouraged to adopt the protocols, standards and tools which are developed as part of the Geo-Seas project. Oceanographic and marine data include a wide range of variables, an important category of which are the geological and geophysical data sets. This data includes raw observational and analytical data as well as derived data products from seabed sediment samples, boreholes, geophysical surveys (seismic, gravity etc) and sidescan sonar surveys. All of which are essential in order to produce a complete interpretation of seabed geology. Despite there being a large volume of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way between organisations due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations and also within different countries. This makes the direct use of primary data in an integrated way very difficult and also hampers use of the data sets in a harmonised way to produce multidisciplinary data products and services. To ensure interoperability with other marine environmental data types Geo-Seas ISO19115 metadata, OGC and GeoSciML standards will be used as the basis for the metadata profiles for the geological and geophysical data. This will be largely achieved by modifying the SeaDataNet metadata standard profile (Common Data Index or CDI), which is itself based upon the ISO19115 standard, to accommodate the requirements of the Geo-Seas project. The overall objective of Geo-Seas project is to build and deploy a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure within Europe which will in effect provide a data grid for the sharing of marine geological and geophysical data. This will result in a major improvement in the locating, accessing and delivery of federated marine geological and geophysical data and data products from national geological surveys and research institutes across Europe. There is an emphasis on interoperability both with other disciplines as well as with other key framework projects including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and One Geology - Europe. In addition, a key objective of the Geo-Seas project is to underpin European directives such as INSPIRE as well as recent framework programmes on both the global and European scale, for example Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), all of which are intended to encourage the exchange of data and information. Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), INETI (Portugal), IGME (Greece), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI (Poland), EGK (Estonia), LIGG (Lithuania), IO-BAS (Bulgaria), NOA (Greece), CIRIA (United Kingd

  1. Influence of temperature, oxygen and salinity on the metabolism of the European sea bass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claireaux, G.; Lagardère, J.-P.

    1999-09-01

    Standard (SMR) and routine (RMR) metabolic rates of groups (4 to 5 individuals) of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) were measured at combinations of the following factors: temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C), oxygenation level (air saturation to 1.5 mg dm -3) and salinity (30, 20, 10 and 5‰). The influence of these environmental conditions on fish metabolic demand was then analysed through ANOVA. At 10, 15, 20 and 25°C, standard metabolic rates were 36, 65, 89, and 91 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1, respectively, while routine oxygen consumptions covered most of the metabolic range accessible. Osmoregulatory costs are linked to metabolic activity through ventilation. This relationship was highlighted by the observed interaction between environmental salinity and temperature. We were, however, unable to detect interactions between salinity and routine metabolic rate, or between salinity and oxygenation level. In order to delineate more precisely the restrictions imposed by water oxygenation on fish metabolic performance we determined the limiting oxygen concentration curves at each experimental temperature. We followed up by modelling the bass active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) as functions of both ambient temperature and oxygenation. These mathematical models allowed the characterisation of the controlling and limiting effects of water temperature and oxygen content on the metabolic capacity of the species. Thus, AMR at 10, 15 and 20°C were estimated at 65, 160 and 360 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1, respectively. However, at higher temperature (25°C) AMR dropped slightly (to 340 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1). Bass MS increased by a factor of 9 between 10 and 20°C, but diminished at higher temperatures. The present study contributes to our current understanding of the influences of environmental factors on the metabolism of sea bass and provides a bioenergetic basis for a study of how environmental constraints govern the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of this species.

  2. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Distribution and Water Column Characteristics in North West European Shelf Sea Waters

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J. S.; Brand, Tim D.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the Ellett Line cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN?DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN?DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of growth at most stations and depths. PMID:22479533

  3. Behavioural Stress Responses Predict Environmental Perception in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Øverli, Øyvind; Oliveira, Rui F.; Martins, Catarina I. M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour. PMID:25264870

  4. LPXRFa peptide system in the European sea bass: A molecular and immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Paullada-Salmern, Jos A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, Mara; Gmez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Maanos, Evaristo; Muoz-Cueto, Jos A

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide that suppresses reproduction in birds and mammals by inhibiting GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. GnIH orthologs with a C-terminal LPXRFamide (LPXRFa) motif have been identified in teleost fish. Although recent work also suggests its role in fish reproduction, studies are scarce and controversial, and have mainly focused on cyprinids. In this work we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding an LPXRFa precursor in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. In contrast to other teleosts, the sea bass LPXRFa precursor contains only two putative RFamide peptides, termed sbLPXRFa1 and sbLPXRFa2. sblpxrfa transcripts were expressed predominantly in the olfactory bulbs/telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain tegmentum, retina, and gonads. We also developed a specific antiserum against sbLPXRFa2, which revealed sbLPXRFa-immunoreactive (ir) perikarya in the olfactory bulbs-terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, caudal preoptic area, dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum, and rostral rhombencephalon. These sbLPXRFa-ir cells profusely innervated the preoptic area, hypothalamus, optic tectum, semicircular torus, and caudal midbrain tegmentum, but conspicuous projections also reached the olfactory bulbs, ventral/dorsal telencephalon, habenula, ventral thalamus, pretectum, rostral midbrain tegmentum, posterior tuberculum, reticular formation, and viscerosensory lobe. The retina, pineal, vascular sac, and pituitary were also targets of sbLPXRFa-ir cells. In the pituitary, this innervation was observed close to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) cells. Tract-tracing retrograde labeling suggests that telencephalic and preoptic sbLPXRFa cells might represent the source of pituitary innervation. The immunohistochemical distribution of sbLPXRFa cells and fibers suggest that LPXRFa peptides might be involved in some functions as well as reproduction, such as feeding, growth, and behavior. PMID:26105807

  5. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    PubMed

    Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of growth at most stations and depths. PMID:22479533

  6. Potential impacts of climate change on the primary production of regional seas: A comparative analysis of five European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason; Schrum, Corinna; Cannaby, Heather; Daewel, Ute; Allen, Icarus; Artioli, Yuri; Bopp, Laurent; Butenschon, Momme; Fach, Bettina A.; Harle, James; Pushpadas, Dhanya; Salihoglu, Baris; Wakelin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Regional seas are potentially highly vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important regions of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change impacts on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore the response of five regional sea areas to potential future climate change, acting via atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial vectors. These include the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and are contrasted with a region of the Northeast Atlantic. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within these seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic impacts on: long term changes in elemental budgets, seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five regional model systems each using a common global Earth System Model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and additional sensitivity experiments. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas we consider (Black and Baltic Seas) the increase in stratification is not seen as a first order control on primary production. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change arising from complex combinations of multiple physical drivers, including changes in mixing, circulation and temperature, which act both locally and non-locally through advection.

  7. The benthic biological submodel in the European regional seas ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenhh, W.; Kohlmeier, C.; Radford, P. J.

    The submodel describing benthic biology including a bioturbation module as incorporated in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is discussed. It is linked to a nutrient dynamic model. The structure of the benthic model food web is presented. There are four macrobenthic functional groups, meiobenthos and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The modelling uses 'standard organisms' as basic building blocks. The choice of parameter values is discussed. The results demonstrate the dependence of the benthic system on the pelagic system. The importance of features such as predation within functional groups for stability of the system is investigated. Detritus input from the pelagic system and detritus recycling is most important in the benthic food web. The web of carbon and nutrient fluxes through the system is analysed. On the basis of the food web analysis, the trophic positions of the functional groups are calculated. Besides the benthic biology, the mathematical formulation of the bioturbation and diffusion enhancement is discussed. Macrobenthic presence and activity enhance diffusion in the sediment and contribute essentially to vertical transport of particulate matter. This is of great importance for the vertical distribution of detritus, and as a consequence, for microbial activity in the sediment layers.

  8. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are

  9. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  10. Effects of production intensity and production strategies in commercial Atlantic salmon smolt (Salmo salar L.) production on subsequent performance in the early sea stage.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Haugen, T O; Rosten, T; Fjellheim, A; Atland, A; Rosseland, B O

    2012-02-01

    A data set from commercial Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) producers on production intensity and production strategies in smolt tanks (N = 63-94) was obtained during 1999-2006. The effects of production intensity on subsequent fish mortality and growth during the early sea phase (90 days) were examined by principal component analysis and subsequent generalized linear model analysis. Levels of accumulated metabolites (CO(2), total ammonia nitrogen and NH(3)), and information provided by producers (production density (kg fish m(3-1)), specific water use (l kg fish(-1) min(-1)) and oxygen drop (mg l(-1)) from tank inlet to tank outlet), were used as predictor variables. In addition, several other welfare relevant variables such as disease history, temperature during freshwater and sea stage; season (S1) or off-season (S0) smolt production; and the use of seawater addition during the freshwater stage were analyzed. No strong intensity effects on mortality or growth were found. CO(2) levels alone (P < 0.001, R(2) = 0.16), and in combination with specific water use (R(2) = 0.20), had the strongest effect on mortality. In both cases, mortality decreased with increasing density. For growth, the intensity model with the most support (R(2) = 0.17) was O(2) drop, density and their interaction effects, resulting in the best growth at low and high intensity, and poorer growth at intermediate levels. Documented viral disease outbreaks (infectious pancreatic necrosis and two cases of pancreas disease) in the sea phase resulted in significantly higher mortalities at 90 days compared with undiagnosed smolt groups, although mortalities were highly variable in both categories. The temperature difference between the freshwater stage and seawater had a small, but significant, effect on growth with the best growth in groups stocked to warmer seawater (P = 0.04, R(2) = 0.06). S0 and S1 smolt groups did not differ significantly in growth, but the mortality was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in S1 groups. Seawater addition as a categorical variable had no significant effects, but when analyzed within the seawater addition group, intermediate salinities (15-25 ppt) gave the best results on growth (p = 0.04, R(2) = 0.15). Production intensity had small explanatory power on subsequent seawater performance in the analyzed smolt groups. If anything, the analysis shows a beneficial effect of intensive production strategies on subsequent performance. Analysis of the various production strategies indicates better survival of S0 compared with S1 smolt groups, improved growth when stocked in seawater warmer than freshwater, and a negative effect of viral disease outbreaks on survival. The results clearly demonstrate the difficulty of extrapolating results from experimental work on fish welfare and production intensity variables to commercial production. On the other hand, the presented results may simply demonstrate that the traditional fish welfare criteria growth and mortality may not suffice to evaluate welfare consequences of suboptimal water quality or production strategies in the aquaculture industry. PMID:22037926

  11. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Mller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2016-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  12. Estrogen-induced yolk precursors in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: Status and perspectives on multiplicity and functioning of vitellogenins.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Prat, Francisco; Ibaez, Antonio Jos; Amano, Haruna; Koksoy, Sadi; Sullivan, Craig V

    2015-09-15

    The estrogen-inducible egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) has received considerable scientific attention by virtue of its central importance in determination of oocyte growth and egg quality in this important aquaculture species. However, the multiplicity of vitellogenins in the sea bass has only recently been examined. Recent cloning and homology analyses have revealed that the sea bass possesses the three forms of vitellogenin, VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC, reported to occur in some other highly evolved teleosts. Progress has been made in assessing the relative abundance and special structural features of the three Vtgs and their likely roles in oocyte maturation and embryonic nutrition. This report discusses these findings in the context of our prior knowledge of vitellogenesis in this species and of the latest advances in our understanding of the evolution and function of multiple Vtgs in acanthomorph fishes. PMID:25637672

  13. Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, H.; Gli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colao, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The needs for a network of ocean observing systems cross many applied and research areas of earth and marine science. Many of the science areas that can be examined using such systems have direct impacts on societal health and well being and our understanding of ocean function in a shifting climate. The European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET) Network of Excellence has been evaluating ocean observatory design requirements, data management needs, standardization and interoperability concerns, social implications, outreach and education, as well as financial and legal aspects of developing such a system. ESONET has great potential to address a growing set of Earth science questions that require a broad and integrated network of ocean and seafloor observations. ESONET activities are also importantly integrating researchers in the European Community, as well as internationally. There is now wide recognition that research addressing science questions of international priority, such as understanding the potential impacts of climate change or geohazards like earthquakes and tsunamis should be conducted in a framework that can address questions across adequate temporal and spatial scales. We will present the relevant science priorities in the four interconnected fields of geoscience, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and marine ecology, and some of the practical ways in which these questions can be addressed using ESONET. Several key questions persist that will require comprehensive interdisciplinary approaches including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, fluid pore chemistry and pressure, improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? To what extent do seabed processes influence ocean physics, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems? How are physical and biogeochemical processes that occur at differing scales related? What aspects of physical oceanography and biogeochemical cycling will be most sensitive to climate change? What will the important feedbacks of potential ecological change be on biogeochemical cycles? What are the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine life and what will the influence of anthropogenic change be? We will outline a set of science objectives and observation parameters to be collected at all ESONET sites, as well as a set of rather specific objectives and thus parameters that might only be measured at some sites. We will also present the preliminary module specifications now being considered by ESONET. In a practical sense the observatory design has been divided into those that will be included in a so called generic' module and those that will be part of science-specific modules. Outlining preliminary module specifications is required to move forward with studies of observatory design and operation. These specifications are importantly provisional and can be updated as science needs and feasibility change. A functional cleavage not only comes between aspects that are considered generic or specific, but also the settings in which those systems will be used. For example, some modules will be on the seabed and some will be moored in the water column. In order to address many of the questions posed above ESONET users will require other supporting data from other programs from local to international levels. Examples of these other data sources include satellite oceanographic data, climatic data, air-sea interface data, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna. Thus the connection of ESONET to other programs is integral to its success. The development of ESONET provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Furthermore, ESONET and several other developing ocean observatory programs are integrating into larger science frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programs. It is only in a greater integrated framework that the full potential of the component systems will be realized.

  14. European sea bass gill pathology after exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine: expert versus fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Manera, M; Giari, L; Depasquale, J A; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expert versus fractal analysis as new methods to evaluate branchial lamellar pathology in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) experimentally exposed to cadmium and to terbuthylazine. In particular, guided expert quantitative and fractal analysis were performed on selected images from semithin sections to test possible differences according to exposure class (unexposed, cadmium exposed, or terbuthylazine exposed) and the discrimination power of the two methods. With respect to guided expert quantitative analysis, the following elementary pathological features were assessed according to pre-determined cover classes: 'epithelial lifting', 'epithelial shrinkage', 'epithelial swelling', 'pillar cells coarctation', 'pillar cells detachment', 'channels fusion', 'chloride cells swelling' and 'chloride cells invasion'. Considering fractal analysis, DB (box dimension), DM (mass dimension), Dx¯ (mean fractal dimension) as fractal dimensions and lacunarity from DM and Dx¯ scan types were calculated both from the outlined and skeletonized (one pixel wide lines) images. Despite significant differences among experimental classes, only expert analysis provided good discrimination with correct classification of 91.7 % of the original cases, and of 87.5 % of the cross-validated cases, with a sensitivity of 95.45 % and 91.3 %, respectively, and a specificity of 75 % in both cases. Guided expert quantitative analysis appears to be a reliable method to objectively characterize fish gill pathology and may represent a powerful tool in environmental biomonitoring to ensure proper standardization and reproducibility. Though fractal analysis did not equal the discrimination power of the expert method, it certainly warrants further study to evaluate local variations in complexity or possible multiple scaling rules. PMID:26469527

  15. Osmoregulatory response to low salinities in the European sea bass embryos: a multi-site approach.

    PubMed

    Sucré, Elliott; Bossus, Maryline; Bodinier, Charlotte; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier, Guy; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Cucchi, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic osmoregulation effected by embryonic ionocytes in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax has been studied at several sites, including the yolk sac membrane, the first gill slits and the gut ionocytes. D. labrax embryos, spawned in seawater (SW) (39 ‰), were exposed to dilute seawater (DSW) (5 ‰) during 48 h, from stage 10 pairs of somites (10S) to hatching time (HT). Control embryos originating from the same spawn were maintained in SW. Both SW and DSW embryos were examined after 24- and 48-h exposure. Nanoosmometric measurements of the embryonic fluids osmolality suggest that late embryos are confronted with the variations in external salinity and that they were able to slightly regulate their osmolality. Immunolocalization of Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase, NKCC and CFTR has shown that DSW-exposed embryos can limit ion losses due to compensatory physiological mechanisms. CFTR and NKCC were not observed in DSW embryos in the yolk sac ionocytes and in the tegumentary ionocytes of the gill slits. The quantification of mRNA indicated that NKA, NKCC1 and CFTR transcript levels increased from stage 10S to stage HT. At stage HT, following 48 h of DSW- or SW-exposure, different responses were observed according to salinity. These results, when compared to those obtained in D. labrax juveniles and adults long-term exposed to fresh water (FW), show that in embryos the physiological response following a short-term DSW exposure is different. The mechanisms of hyper-osmoregulation observed in D. labrax embryos, although not fully efficient, allow their survival for several days in DSW. PMID:22752053

  16. Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-04

    The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

  17. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease of bone and to quickly reduce calcium levels in the ... pharmacist.Calcitonin salmon helps treat osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone but does not cure them. Continue to use ...

  18. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

  19. Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, M.; Kaiser, S. I.; Fischer, J.; Heunisch, C.; Kustatscher, E.; Luppold, F. W.; Berner, U.; Röhling, H.-G.

    2015-12-01

    The Upper Muschelkalk in the Central European Basin (CEB) is a key example of eustatic and climatic controls on inland seas. The late Anisian rapid transgression from Tethyan waters culminated in a large semi-enclosed inland sea stretching across the CEB. Subsequently, the slow but successive retreat in the early Ladinian resulted in a small remnant sea. The pronounced stratal pattern architectures are translated into a framework of 3rd- and 4th-order T-R sequences. The latest Illyrian 3rd-order maximum flooding surface corresponds to maximum abundances of carbonates and marine phytoplankton. An euryhaline marine ecology is indicated by prasinophycean algae dominating over acritarchs and δ18OP values of 18.9-22.4‰ VSMOW corresponding to Tethyan references. During the 3rd-order regressive phase successive freshening up to hyposaline conditions is indicated by up to 3‰ depleted δ18OP values, shifts to more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios and maximum abundances of terrestrial palynomorphs. Likewise, 4th-order T-R sequences are constrained by commutated stratal pattern architectures, palynofacies and geochemistry. The favourable correlation of middle Triassic 3rd-order sequences of Tethyan and peri-Tethyan basins demonstrate the principle control of circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles. 4th-order sequences are evident and, although not yet correlatable in detail, indicate 106-year scale eustatic cycles which may be attributed to glacioeustatic sea-level changes. The subordinated control of arid to semiarid low latitude and semihumid to humid temperate mid latitude climates affected the Upper Muschelkalk Sea in particular during 4th-order sea-level lowstands. Substantial fresh water input from Scandinavian sources caused temporal stratification leading to stagnant bottom waters and/or sediments as indicated by palynofacies and U/Th and Ni/Co redox indices. The herein reconstructed middle Triassic zonal climates are in agreement to previously published Late Triassic zonal climates.

  20. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with

  1. The Future of European Teacher Education in the Heavy Seas of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgaga, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconsider recent pan-European developments in teacher education and to discuss some aspects of its future. Teacher education across Europe has been largely "universitised"; therefore, both its present and future should be discussed within the context of the general changes in European higher education deeply

  2. The pineal complex of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): I. histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR study.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Pérez, P; Servili, A; Rendón, M C; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Falcón, J; Muñoz-Cueto, J A

    2011-04-01

    The pineal organ of fish is a photosensory and neuroendocrine epithalamic structure that plays a key role in the temporal organisation of physiological and behavioural processes. In this study performed in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, we provided an in-depth description of the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the pineal organ and identified the presence of photoreceptor and presumed melatonin-producing cells using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, we analysed in the pineal the day-night expression (using quantitative real-time PCR) of two key enzymes in the melatonin-synthesising pathway; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). The pineal complex of sea bass consisted of a narrow and short pineal stalk that adopts a vertical disposition, a small-sized pineal end vesicle firmly attached to the skull by connective tissue, a parapineal organ and a convoluted dorsal sac. Immunohistochemical study showed the presence of abundant serotonin-positive cells. Cone opsin-like and rod opsin-like photoreceptor cells were also evidenced in the pineal stalk and vesicle. Both Aanat2 and Hiomt were expressed in sea bass pineal organ. Aanat2 exhibited higher nocturnal transcript levels, while no significant day-night differences were found for Hiomt. These results, together with ongoing studies analysing neural and neurohormonal outputs from the pineal organ of sea bass, provide the basic framework to understand the transduction integration of light stimulus in this relevant species for marine aquaculture. PMID:21310229

  3. Regulation of natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) genes in teleost fish, gilthead seabream and European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Mara A; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Arizcun, Marta; Meseguer, Jos; Cuesta, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant proteins also involved in inflammation and innate immunity. Prx1 and Prx2 are also known as natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF)-A and NKEF-B, respectively, by their ability to prime the mammalian NK-cells activity. In teleost fish, NKEF genes have been isolated but their regulation has been scarcely evaluated. We have identified orthologues of the NKEF-A and NKEF-B genes in the teleost European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) which showed constitutive expression and wide distribution in their tissues. In vitro, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass NKEFs were slightly up-regulated in head-kidney leucocytes after stimulation with unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, poly I:C or pathogenic bacteria. In vivo, seabream and sea bass infection with nodavirus up-regulated the expression of NKEF genes in the brain (target tissue for nodavirus) and head-kidney at different infection times. Although further studies are necessary to ascertain their role as antioxidant proteins and in the immune response in teleost fish, our results suggest a primary role of seabream and sea bass NKEFs in the innate immune response against bacterial and viral agents. PMID:23511025

  4. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  5. Antifreeze protein gene transfer in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Hew, C L; Davies, P L; Fletcher, G

    1992-01-01

    Salmonids freeze to death if they come into contact with ice. Many marine fish species that inhabit icy sea waters synthesize antifreeze proteins (AFP) to protect them from freezing. Production of stable lines of freeze-resistant salmon and other species would greatly facilitate development of sea-pen aquaculture in many regions. We successfully introduced winter flounder AFP genes into Atlantic salmon. Research to date indicates stable genomic integration and low levels of expression of winter flounder AFP genes in a small number (approximately 3%) of salmon developed from microinjected eggs. Inheritance of the AFP gene by offspring (F1) from crosses between transgenic and wild-type salmon revealed that the transgenic flounders (F0) were germ-line mosaics. Low levels of AFP precursors could be detected in the blood of all these transgenic offspring (F1). Approximately 50% of the progeny produced by crosses between transgenic F1 and wild-types contained the AFP genes. These results demonstrate that stable germ-line transformed Atlantic salmon can be produced. PMID:1308821

  6. Disease Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Coinfection of the Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A.; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J.; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. Methodology In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. Main Findings C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23±0.07; h2LC = 0.17±0.08; h2HC = 0.24±0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99±0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = −0.14±0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32±0.34). Conclusions/Significance C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon farming, selective breeding and conservation. PMID:24736323

  7. A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer S; Myers, Ransom A

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries. PMID:18271629

  8. Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European seas.

    PubMed

    Gmez, Fernando

    2008-04-01

    The validity of categorizing the diatoms and dinoflagellates reported in the literature as non-indigenous phytoplankton in the European Seas was investigated. Species that are synonymous are often included as separate species (Gessnerium mochimaensis=Alexandrium monilatum, Gymnodinium nagasakiense=Karenia mikimotoi, Pleurosigma simonsenii=P. planctonicum), while other species names are synonyms of cosmopolitan taxa (Prorocentrum redfieldii=P. triestinum, Pseliodinium vaubanii=Gyrodinium falcatum, Gonyaulax grindleyi=Protoceratium reticulatum, Asterionella japonica=Asterionellopsis glacialis). Epithets of an exotic etymology (i.e. japonica, sinensis, indica) imply that a cosmopolitan species may be non-indigenous, and several taxa are even considered as non-indigenous in their type locality (Alexandrium tamarense and A. pseudogoniaulax). The records of Alexandrium monilatum, A. leei and Corethron criophilum are doubtful. Cold or warm-water species expand their geographical ranges or increase their abundances to detectable levels during cooling (Coscinodiscus wailesii) or warming periods (Chaetoceros coarctatus, Proboscia indica, Pyrodinium bahamense). These are a few examples of marginal dispersal associated with climatic events instead of species introductions from remote areas. The number of non-indigenous phytoplankton species in European Seas has thus been excessively inflated. PMID:18295804

  9. Prevalence and mean intensity of Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto) in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from Northeast Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Cristian; Gustinelli, Andrea; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Caffara, Monica; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Cattaneo, Patrizia

    2011-07-15

    Viscera and muscle of a total of 40 wild 1-2kg European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from Northeast Atlantic (FAO area 27) were examined for Anisakidae larvae detection by digestion method. Extracted parasites were counted and mean intensity was calculated. Parasites were identified by genetic/molecular markers (allozymes and sequences analysis of the mtDNA cox2 gene) as belonging to the species Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto). In viscera, the main localisations of the larvae were under the gastric serosa, where several parasites alive and dead were found, and intestinal serosa. The visceral prevalence was 0.950 and the mean intensity was 96.39. The main localisation of A. simplex (s.s.) in edible parts was in belly muscles, with a prevalence of 0.425 and a mean intensity of 1.9. This is the first record on the prevalence and mean intensity of A. simplex (s.s.) in European sea bass muscle. This finding has an important consequence on epidemiology of anisakiasis and public health risk assessment. PMID:21620507

  10. SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

    2009-04-01

    SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania), TSU (Georgia), INRH (Morocco), IOF (Croatia), PUT (Albania), NIB (Slovenia), UoM (Malta), OC/UCY (Cyprus), IOLR (Israel), NCSR/NCMS (Lebanon), CNR-ISAC (Italy), ISMAL (Algeria), INSTM (Tunisia)

  11. Productivity, facies and stable-isotope records of OAE2 (Cenomanian - Turonian) in the NW European epicontinental sea: from the English Chalk to North Sea black shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Ian; Olde, Kate; Trabucho-Alexandre, Joo; Grcke, Darren

    2013-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous (100.5 - 66.0 Ma) provides perhaps the best example of how the Earth System may function under long-term extreme greenhouse conditions. Rapidly rising global temperatures indicate that we are heading 'back to the Cretaceous' within a few hundred years, so a better understanding of this time interval is essential. The beginning of the Late Cretaceous was characterized by a period of rapidly rising eustatic sea level, the Cenomanian transgression, which flooded continental margins and established large areas of new epicontinental sea that accumulated thick sequences of pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate (chalk). Highest global temperatures were reached during the early part of the Turonian Stage (93.9 - 89.8 Ma). This period of dramatic palaeoenvironmental change was accompanied by one the largest perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the Mesozoic: Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which was characterized by a 500 kyr episode of oceanic anoxia, widespread black shale deposition, biotic turnover, and a large global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion (2 - 6 ?13C) recorded in marine carbonates and both marine and terrestrial organic matter. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval exposed at Eastbourne, southern England, has become established as a European reference section for OAE2. Here, and elsewhere in Europe, the base of the ?13C excursion is coincident with a marked facies change from rhythmically bedded grey chalks and marls, to a >8 m thick package of dark greenish-grey marl - the Plenus Marl. The termination of OAE2 occurs 6 m above, in a package of pale-yellow-weathering nodular chalks with prominent marl seams. Sediments are organic lean (<0.2 wt% TOC) and bioturbated throughout, and although a case can be made for periodic oxygen depletion in bottom waters, there is no evidence here of marine surface- or bottom-water anoxia. The Plenus Marl displays a distinctive succession of 8 beds that can be correlated throughout southern England and northern France, and the formation is widely developed in the North Sea Basin where it forms an important lithostratigraphic and geophysical marker. In contrast to southern England, the Plenus Marl of the North Sea (Blodks Formation of the Norwegian sector) consists of a succession with laminated black shales yielding TOC >10 wt%. The onshore equivalent in eastern England (the Black Band) is similarly organic-rich, as are comparable sections in northern Germany (e.g. Wunstorf), indicating likely fully anoxic episodes within some NW European basins. The exact stratigraphic equivalence between the onshore Plenus Marl, North Sea black shales and the Black Band remains controversial. Here, we compare the lithofacies, sedimentology, elemental and stable-isotope records, and palynology of Upper Cenomanian - Lower Turonian sections in southern England to those from a central North Sea cored reference well that includes a 6 m package with laminated black shales (Plenus Marl). Factors influencing carbonate and organic matter ?13C trends in the records will be considered in the context of the palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic events that accompanied eustatic sea-level change, culminating in OAE2 and the subsequent global climatic optimum. The effects of diagenesis on the stable-isotope records will be discussed.

  12. Development of an oligo DNA microarray for the European sea bass and its application to expression profiling of jaw deformity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a marine fish of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture. Functional genomics offers the possibility to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying productive traits in farmed fish, and a step towards the application of marker assisted selection methods in this species. To this end, we report here on the development of an oligo DNA microarray for D. labrax. Results A database consisting of 19,048 unique transcripts was constructed, of which 12,008 (63%) could be annotated by similarity and 4,692 received a GO functional annotation. Two non-overlapping 60mer probes were designed for each unique transcript and in-situ synthesized on glass slides using Agilent SurePrint™ technology. Probe design was positively completed for 19,035 target clusters; the oligo microarray was then applied to profile gene expression in mandibles and whole-heads of fish affected by prognathism, a skeletal malformation that strongly affects sea bass production. Statistical analysis identified 242 transcripts that are significantly down-regulated in deformed individuals compared to normal fish, with a significant enrichment in genes related to nervous system development and functioning. A set of genes spanning a wide dynamic range in gene expression level were selected for quantitative RT-PCR validation. Fold change correlation between microarray and qPCR data was always significant. Conclusions The microarray platform developed for the European sea bass has a high level of flexibility, reliability, and reproducibility. Despite the well known limitations in achieving a proper functional annotation in non-model species, sufficient information was obtained to identify biological processes that are significantly enriched among differentially expressed genes. New insights were obtained on putative mechanisms involved on mandibular prognathism, suggesting that bone/nervous system development might play a role in this phenomenon. PMID:20525278

  13. Distribution and persistence of the anti sea-lice drug teflubenzuron in wild fauna and sediments around a salmon farm, following a standard treatment.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Ole B; Lunestad, Bjrn T; Hannisdal, Rita; Bannister, Raymond; Olsen, Siri; Tjensvoll, Tore; Farestveit, Eva; Ervik, Arne

    2015-03-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) is a challenge in the farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To treat an infestation, different insecticides are used like the orally administered chitin synthetase inhibitor teflubenzuron. The concentrations and distribution of teflubenzuron were measured in water, organic particles, marine sediment and biota caught in the vicinity of a fish farm following a standard medication. Low concentrations were found in water samples whereas the organic waste from the farm, collected by sediment traps had concentrations higher than the medicated feed. Most of the organic waste was distributed to the bottom close to the farm but organic particles containing teflubenzuron were collected 1100 m from the farm. The sediment under the farm consisted of 5 to 10% organic material and therefore the concentration of teflubenzuron was much lower than in the organic waste. Teflubenzuron was persistent in the sediment with a stipulated halflife of 170 days. Sediment consuming polychaetes had high but decreasing concentrations of teflubenzuron throughout the experimental period, reflecting the decrease of teflubenzuron in the sediment. During medication most wild fauna contained teflubenzuron residues and where polychaetes and saith had highest concentrations. Eight months later only polychaetes and some crustaceans contained drug residues. What dosages that induce mortality in various crustaceans following short or long-term exposure is not known but the results indicate that the concentrations in defined individuals of king crab, shrimp, squat lobster and Norway lobster were high enough shortly after medication to induce mortality if moulting was imminent. Considering food safety, saith and the brown meat of crustaceans contained at first sampling concentrations of teflubenzuron higher than the MRL-value set for Atlantic salmon. The concentrations were, however, moderate and the amount of saith fillet or brown meat of crustaceans to be consumed in order to exceed ADI is relatively large. PMID:25474168

  14. Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Lasse; Alfredsson, Hanna; Hansen, Michael M.; Als, Thomas D.; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Munk, Peter; Aarestrup, Kim; Maes, Gregory E.; Sparholt, Henrik; Petersen, Michael I.; Bachler, Mirjam; Castonguay, Martin

    2010-01-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed that even the smallest larvae feed on a striking variety of plankton organisms, and that gelatinous zooplankton is of fundamental dietary importance. Hence, the specific plankton composition seems essential for eel larval feeding and growth, suggesting a linkage between eel survival and regional plankton productivity. These novel insights into the prey of Atlantic eels may furthermore facilitate eel larval rearing in aquaculture, which ultimately may replace the unsustainable use of wild-caught glass eels. PMID:20573615

  15. Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Lasse; Alfredsson, Hanna; Hansen, Michael M; Als, Thomas D; Nielsen, Torkel G; Munk, Peter; Aarestrup, Kim; Maes, Gregory E; Sparholt, Henrik; Petersen, Michael I; Bachler, Mirjam; Castonguay, Martin

    2010-12-23

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed that even the smallest larvae feed on a striking variety of plankton organisms, and that gelatinous zooplankton is of fundamental dietary importance. Hence, the specific plankton composition seems essential for eel larval feeding and growth, suggesting a linkage between eel survival and regional plankton productivity. These novel insights into the prey of Atlantic eels may furthermore facilitate eel larval rearing in aquaculture, which ultimately may replace the unsustainable use of wild-caught glass eels. PMID:20573615

  16. European weather sensitivity to Barents-Kara sea-ice variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, Paolo; Buizza, Roberto; Visconti, Guido

    2015-04-01

    The rapid decline of sea-ice cover in the Arctic has recently instilled great interest in the atmospheric dynamics community, who has been trying to understand the links between this region and the extra-tropical circulation. One of the aspects that has attracted attention has been the so-called Arctic Amplification mechanism linked to the sea ice variability over the Barents and Kara seas (B-K). In this work, we investigate this link and show that changes in the tropospheric circulation over the Euro-Atlantic sector can be associated with sea ice variability in B-K. The links between the local response in the surroundings of the B-K seas, expressed in terms of temperature and pressure anomalies, and atmospheric regimes in the North Atlantic, identified with a low-level jet index and a blocking index, are investigated looking at 16 years of winter weather reanalyses. It is found that cooling over Western Europe can be caused, or at least enhanced, by the atmosphere dynamics response to low B-K sea ice conditions. Reanalyses of the 100 hPa heat flux and of the intensity of the stratospheric polar vortex suggest that a two-way coupling troposphere-stratosphere is one of the key physical mechanisms linking the B-K seas and the Euro-Atlantic variability. Years with low ice cover are found to be associated with enhanced high-latitude blocking activity in the North Atlantic, with increased occurrence of low-latitude jet events that induce cold-air advection over Europe. In this framework, blocking events can be interpreted both as the cause and the consequence of the intense coupling between the lower and the upper atmosphere by means of vertical propagation of planetary waves. The impact of B-K sea ice variability over Europe thus appears to be associated with a positive feedback between high latitude blocking and changes in the stratospheric circulation. Although the variability of early winter B-K sea ice is probably only one of factors driving the coupling, we speculate that it has a potential role in the predictability of a class of severe events in Europe.

  17. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, D. M. A.; Maudire, G.

    2009-04-01

    SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This is known as the Common Data Index (CDI) V0 system Version 1: harmonisation and upgrading of the metadatabases through adoption of the ISO 19115 metadata standard and provision of transparent data access and download services from all partner data centres through upgrading the Common Data Index and deployment of a data object delivery service. Version 2: adding data product services and OGC compliant viewing services and further virtualisation of data access. SeaDataNet Version 0: The SeaDataNet portal has been set up at http://www.seadatanet.org and it provides a platform for all SeaDataNet services and standards as well as background information about the project and its partners. It includes discovery services via the following catalogues: CSR - Cruise Summary Reports of research vessels; EDIOS - Locations and details of monitoring stations and networks / programmes; EDMED - High level inventory of Marine Environmental Data sets collected and managed by research institutes and organisations; EDMERP - Marine Environmental Research Projects ; EDMO - Marine Organisations. These catalogues are interrelated, where possible, to facilitate cross searching and context searching. These catalogues connect to the Common Data Index (CDI). Common Data Index (CDI) The CDI gives detailed insight in available datasets at partners databases and paves the way to direct online data access or direct online requests for data access / data delivery. The CDI V0 metadatabase contains more than 340.000 individual data entries from 36 CDI partners from 29 countries across Europe, covering a broad scope and range of data, held by these organisations. For purposes of standardisation and international exchange the ISO19115 metadata standard has been adopted. The CDI format is defined as a dedicated subset of this standard. A CDI XML format supports the exchange between CDI-partners and the central CDI manager, and ensures interoperability with other systems and networks. CDI XML entries are generated by participating data centres, directly from their databases. CDI-partners can make use of dedicated SeaDataNet Tools to generate CDI XML files automatically. Approach for SeaDataNet V1 and V2: The approach for SeaDataNet V1 and V2, which is in line with the INSPIRE Directive, comprises the following services: Discovery services = Metadata directories Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting (AAA) Delivery services = Data access & downloading of datasets Viewing services = Visualisation of metadata, data and data products Product services = Generic and standard products Monitoring services = Statistics on usage and performance of the system Maintenance services = Updating of metadata by SeaDataNet partners The services will be operated over a distributed network of interconnected Data Centres accessed through a central Portal. In addition to service access the portal will provide information on data management standards, tools and protocols. The architecture has been designed to provide a coherent system based on V1 services, whilst leaving the pathway open for later extension with V2 services. For the implementation, a range of technical components have been defined. Some are already operational with the remainder in the final stages of development and testing. These make use of recent web technologies, and also comprise Java components, to provide multi-platform support and syntactic interoperability. To facilitate sharing of resources and interoperability, SeaDataNet has adopted SOAP Web Service technology. The SeaDataNet architecture and components have been designed to handle all kinds of oceanographic and marine environmental data including both in-situ measurements and remote sensing observations. The V1 technical development is ready and the V1 system is now being implemented and adopted by all participating data centres in SeaDataNet. Interoperability: Interoperability is the key to distributed data management system success and it is achieved in SeaDataNet V1 by: Using common quality control protocols and flag scale Using controlled vocabularies from a single source that have been developed using international content governance Adopting the ISO 19115 metadata standard for all metadata directories Providing XML Validation Services to quality control the metadata maintenance, including field content verification based on Schematron. Providing standard metadata entry tools Using harmonised Data Transport Formats (NetCDF, ODV ASCII and MedAtlas ASCII) for data sets delivery Adopting of OGC standards for mapping and viewing services Using SOAP Web Services in the SeaDataNet architecture SeaDataNet V1 Delivery Services: An important objective of the V1 system is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface at the SeaDataNet portal and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 provides the link between discovery and delivery. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres, and it provides the means for downloading data sets in common formats via a transaction mechanism. The SeaDataNet portal provides registered users access to these distributed data sets via the CDI V1 Directory and a shopping basket mechanism. This allows registered users to locate data of interest and submit their data requests. The requests are forwarded automatically from the portal to the relevant SeaDataNet data centres. This process is controlled via the Request Status Manager (RSM) Web Service at the portal and a Download Manager (DM) java software module, implemented at each of the data centres. The RSM also enables registered users to check regularly the status of their requests and download data sets, after access has been granted. Data centres can follow all transactions for their data sets online and can handle requests which require their consent. The actual delivery of data sets is done between the user and the selected data centre. The CDI V1 system is now being populated by all participating data centres in SeaDataNet, thereby phasing out CDI V0. 0.1 SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy), NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania), TSU (Georgia), INRH (Morocco), IOF (Croatia), PUT (Albania), NIB (Slovenia), UoM (Malta), OC/UCY (Cyprus), IOLR (Israel), NCSR/NCMS (Lebanon), CNR-ISAC (Italy), ISMAL (Algeria), INSTM (Tunisia)

  18. A MSFD complementary approach for the assessment of pressures, knowledge and data gaps in Southern European Seas: The PERSEUS experience.

    PubMed

    Crise, A; Kaberi, H; Ruiz, J; Zatsepin, A; Arashkevich, E; Giani, M; Karageorgis, A P; Prieto, L; Pantazi, M; Gonzalez-Fernandez, D; Ribera d'Alcalà, M; Tornero, V; Vassilopoulou, V; Durrieu de Madron, X; Guieu, C; Puig, P; Zenetos, A; Andral, B; Angel, D; Altukhov, D; Ayata, S D; Aktan, Y; Balcıoğlu, E; Benedetti, F; Bouchoucha, M; Buia, M-C; Cadiou, J-F; Canals, M; Chakroun, M; Christou, E; Christidis, M G; Civitarese, G; Coatu, V; Corsini-Foka, M; Cozzi, S; Deidun, A; Dell'Aquila, A; Dogrammatzi, A; Dumitrache, C; Edelist, D; Ettahiri, O; Fonda-Umani, S; Gana, S; Galgani, F; Gasparini, S; Giannakourou, A; Gomoiu, M-T; Gubanova, A; Gücü, A-C; Gürses, Ö; Hanke, G; Hatzianestis, I; Herut, B; Hone, R; Huertas, E; Irisson, J-O; İşinibilir, M; Jimenez, J A; Kalogirou, S; Kapiris, K; Karamfilov, V; Kavadas, S; Keskin, Ç; Kideyş, A E; Kocak, M; Kondylatos, G; Kontogiannis, C; Kosyan, R; Koubbi, P; Kušpilić, G; La Ferla, R; Langone, L; Laroche, S; Lazar, L; Lefkaditou, E; Lemeshko, I E; Machias, A; Malej, A; Mazzocchi, M-G; Medinets, V; Mihalopoulos, N; Miserocchi, S; Moncheva, S; Mukhanov, V; Oaie, G; Oros, A; Öztürk, A A; Öztürk, B; Panayotova, M; Prospathopoulos, A; Radu, G; Raykov, V; Reglero, P; Reygondeau, G; Rougeron, N; Salihoglu, B; Sanchez-Vidal, A; Sannino, G; Santinelli, C; Secrieru, D; Shapiro, G; Simboura, N; Shiganova, T; Sprovieri, M; Stefanova, K; Streftaris, N; Tirelli, V; Tom, M; Topaloğlu, B; Topçu, N E; Tsagarakis, K; Tsangaris, C; Tserpes, G; Tuğrul, S; Uysal, Z; Vasile, D; Violaki, K; Xu, J; Yüksek, A; Papathanassiou, E

    2015-06-15

    PERSEUS project aims to identify the most relevant pressures exerted on the ecosystems of the Southern European Seas (SES), highlighting knowledge and data gaps that endanger the achievement of SES Good Environmental Status (GES) as mandated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A complementary approach has been adopted, by a meta-analysis of existing literature on pressure/impact/knowledge gaps summarized in tables related to the MSFD descriptors, discriminating open waters from coastal areas. A comparative assessment of the Initial Assessments (IAs) for five SES countries has been also independently performed. The comparison between meta-analysis results and IAs shows similarities for coastal areas only. Major knowledge gaps have been detected for the biodiversity, marine food web, marine litter and underwater noise descriptors. The meta-analysis also allowed the identification of additional research themes targeting research topics that are requested to the achievement of GES. PMID:25892079

  19. Photoperiodic Modulation of Circadian Clock and Reproductive Axis Gene Expression in the Pre-Pubertal European Sea Bass Brain

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Rute S. T.; Gomez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Canário, Adelino V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of reproductive competence requires the activation of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis, which in most vertebrates, including fishes, is initiated by changes in photoperiod. In the European sea bass long-term exposure to continuous light (LL) alters the rhythm of reproductive hormones, delays spermatogenesis and reduces the incidence of precocious males. In contrast, an early shift from long to short photoperiod (AP) accelerates spermatogenesis. However, how photoperiod affects key genes in the brain to trigger the onset of puberty is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated if the integration of the light stimulus by clock proteins is sufficient to activate key genes that trigger the BPG axis in the European sea bass. We found that the clock genes clock, npas2, bmal1 and the BPG genes gnrh, kiss and kissr share conserved transcription factor frameworks in their promoters, suggesting co-regulation. Other gene promoters of the BGP axis were also predicted to be co-regulated by the same frameworks. Co-regulation was confirmed through gene expression analysis of brains from males exposed to LL or AP photoperiod compared to natural conditions: LL fish had suppressed gnrh1, kiss2, galr1b and esr1, while AP fish had stimulated npas2, gnrh1, gnrh2, kiss2, kiss1rb and galr1b compared to NP. It is concluded that fish exposed to different photoperiods present significant expression differences in some clock and reproductive axis related genes well before the first detectable endocrine and morphological responses of the BPG axis. PMID:26641263

  20. Effect of two sulfur-containing amino acids, taurine and hypotaurine in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sperm cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Páramo, S; Diogo, P; Dinis, M T; Soares, F; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, taurine and hypotaurine were evaluated as potential additives to improve European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sperm quality after cryopreservation. For cryopreservation, three different extenders were used: control extender (NAM), supplemented with 1mM taurine or supplemented with 1mM hypotaurine, all of them containing 10% Me₂SO as cryoprotectant. To evaluate sperm quality of fresh and thawed sperm, motility (CASA: computer assisted sperm analysis), viability (SYBR Green/propidium iodide), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level), protein oxidation (carbonyl content), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities and DNA fragmentation (comet assay) were quantified. The result demonstrated that 1 mM hypotaurine supplemented extender increased total motility (30.1 ± 3.2%), and that 1 mM taurine extender produced higher velocity (18.1 ± 2.6 μm/s) and linearity (46.0 ± 4.8%) than the control extender (21.8 ± 3.2%, 15.5 ± 1.3 μm/s, 41.8 ± 2.4%, respectively). Cell viability, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were not statistically different between treatments. Similar results were obtained for glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Only glutathione reductase showed differential activity before and after freezing, increasing its activity in thawed sperm. Regarding the comet assay results, taurine and hypotaurine significantly reduced DNA fragmentation (52.8 ± 0.9% and 51.8 ± 0.9%, respectively) in comparison to the control (55.7 ± 0.8%). In conclusion, for European sea bass sperm cryopreservation, extenders supplemented with 1 mM taurine and 1 mM hypotaurine improved some parameters of sperm quality after thawing, resulting in better motility and lower DNA damage than the control, two very important factors related to fertilization success. PMID:23583301

  1. Transcription of T cell-related genes in teleost fish, and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) as a model.

    PubMed

    Boschi, I; Randelli, E; Buonocore, F; Casani, D; Bernini, C; Fausto, A M; Scapigliati, G

    2011-11-01

    In recent years the cloning of genes coding for immuno-regulatory peptides, as well as the sequencing of genomes, provided fish immunologists with a growing amount of information on nucleotide sequences. Research is now also addressed in investigating the functional immunology counterpart of nucleotide sequence transcripts in various fish species. In this respect, studies on functional immunology of T cell activities are still at their beginning, and much work is needed to investigate T cell responses in teleost fish species. In this review we summarise the current knowledge on the group of genes coding for main T cell-related peptides in fish, and the expression levels of these genes in organs and tissues. Particular attention is paid to European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine species in which some information on functional immunology has been obtained, and we reassume here the expression of some T cell-related genes in basal conditions. In addition, we provide original data showing that T cells purified from the intestinal mucosa of sea bass with a specific mAb, express transcripts for TRβ, TRγ, CD8α, and RAG-1, thus showing similarities with intra-epithelial leucocytes of mammals. PMID:20950688

  2. USGS Releases Atlantic Salmon at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists (L to R) Ross Abbett and Rich Chiavelli watch as hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, e...

  3. Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this dim...

  4. Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminish...

  5. SJNNV down-regulates RGNNV replication in European sea bass by the induction of the type I interferon system.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Carlos; Garcia-Rosado, Esther; Borrego, Juan J; Alonso, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    European sea bass is highly susceptible to the betanodavirus RGNNV genotype, although the SJNNV genotype has also been detected in this fish species. The coexistence of both genotypes may affect the replication of both viruses by viral interaction or by stimulation of the host antiviral defense system in which the IFN I system plays a key role. IFN I triggers the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes, including Mx genes, whose expression has been used as a reporter of IFN I activity. The present study evaluated the effect of a primary exposure to an SJNNV isolate on a subsequent RGNNV infection and analyzed the role of the IFN I system in controlling VNNV infections in sea bass using different in vivo approaches. VNNV infection and Mx transcription were comparatively evaluated after single infections, superinfection (SJ+RG) and co-infection (poly I:C+RG). The single RGNNV infection resulted in a 24% survival rate, whereas the previous SJNNV or poly I:C inoculation increased the survival rate up to 96 and 100%, respectively. RGNNV replication in superinfection was reduced compared with RGNNV replication after a single inoculation. Mx transcription analysis shows differential induction of the IFN I system by both isolates. SJNNV was a potent Mx inducer, whereas RGNNV induced lower Mx transcription and did not interfere with the IFN I system triggered by SJNNV or poly I:C. This study demonstrates that an antiviral state exists after SJNNV and poly I:C injection, suggesting that the IFN I system plays an important role against VNNV infections in sea bass. PMID:26743933

  6. Young Atlantic Salmon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local...

  7. Yearling Atlantic Salmon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and economy. To restore the population, young Atlantic salmon are reared at the USGS Tunison Laboratory of Aquaitic Science&nb...

  8. Salmon-Filled Tanks

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Specialized tanks at the USGS Tunison Lab hold young Atlantic salmon until they are released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and ...

  9. Young Atlantic Salmon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecos...

  10. Saving the Salmon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprangers, Donald

    2004-01-01

    In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require

  11. Saving the Salmon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprangers, Donald

    2004-01-01

    In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

  12. A case study on bio-optical and radiometric quantities in northwest European shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaba, Shungu; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Colour of seawater has become an integral tool in understanding surface marine ecosystems and processes. Additionally, operational oceanographic observatories are becoming more prominent these days while at the same time hyperspectral radiometric sensors are becoming increasingly affordable. This has driven a wide spread use of these hyperspectral sensors to measure reflectance above the water surface from stationary and mobile platforms alike. As enormous amounts of data are produced and favourably processed in real-time, effective quality control procedures become more than just supporting tools, but a crucial prerequisite for trustworthy and manageable information. Here, we use bio-geophysical and hyperspectral radiometric measurements from German Bight (GB), North Sea (NS), Inner Seas (ISS), Irish Sea (IS) and Celtic Sea (CS) to identify and establish relationships between colour producing agents (CPAs) and perceived colour of seawater. In order to obtain valid optical measurements, meteorological and sunglint contamination were mitigated using state-of-the-art quality control protocols. The remote sensing reflectance measured is transformed into discrete Forel-Ule numerical indices (FUI), 1 (indigo-blue, oligotrophic) to 21 (cola brown, hyper-eutrophic). We present a novel approach of estimating which of the three main CPAs of seawater control perceived colour of seawater. Our bio-optical models for estimating FUI for measured CPAs; chlorophyll (Chl-a), coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM) and suspended particulate material (SPM) had correlation coefficients, R (GB = 0.98, NS = 0.23, ISS=0.99, IS=0.63, CS = 0.16). It was also observed that salinity can be estimated from coloured dissolved organic matter with good accuracy, R (GB = 0.94, NS = 0.44, ISS=0.90, IS=0.85, CS = 0.51). We show that ocean colour products i.e. reflectance and perceived colour of seawater can be used to infer, with good accuracy, environmental parameters e.g. Chl-a, CDOM, SPM, salinity and Secchi depth of the investigated waters providing an effective and affordable tool for operational marine observations. Improved and extensive field investigations are required to further enhance the sensitivity/accuracy of such region specific bio-optical models.

  13. Gene expression patterns during the larval development of European sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax) by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Darias, M J; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Hugot, K; Cahu, C L; Mazurais, D

    2008-01-01

    During the larval period, marine teleosts undergo very fast growth and dramatic changes in morphology, metabolism, and behavior to accomplish their metamorphosis into juvenile fish. Regulation of gene expression is widely thought to be a key mechanism underlying the management of the biological processes required for harmonious development over this phase of life. To provide an overall analysis of gene expression in the whole body during sea bass larval development, we monitored the expression of 6,626 distinct genes at 10 different points in time between 7 and 43 days post-hatching (dph) by using heterologous hybridization of a rainbow trout cDNA microarray. The differentially expressed genes (n = 485) could be grouped into two categories: genes that were generally up-expressed early, between 7 and 23 dph, and genes up-expressed between 25 and 43 dph. Interestingly, among the genes regulated during the larval period, those related to organogenesis, energy pathways, biosynthesis, and digestion were over-represented compared with total set of analyzed genes. We discuss the quantitative regulation of whole-body contents of these specific transcripts with regard to the ontogenesis and maturation of essential functions that take place over larval development. Our study is the first utilization of a transcriptomic approach in sea bass and reveals dynamic changes in gene expression patterns in relation to marine finfish larval development. PMID:18246396

  14. Arm regeneration frequency in eight species of ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from European sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skld, Mattias; Rosenberg, Rutger

    1996-06-01

    Eight ophiuroid species, six from the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak and three from the northern Adriatic Sea, were examined for regeneration of arms. The species were separated into groups based upon mode of feeding and habitat. Comparison between groups collected in the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak showed that infaunal suspension- and deposit-feeding species ( Amphiura filiformis and A. chiajei) had significantly more scars per arm (mean number 0.78) than epibenthic suspension feeders ( Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiocomina nigra, 0.29) or epibenthic carnivores and deposit feeders ( Ophiura ophiura and O. albida, 0.13). Spatial variation in arm regeneration incidence was found between sampling sites in the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak for Amphiura filiformis and in the northern Adriatic Sea for Ophiothrix quinquemaculata. The ash-free dry weight (AFDW) and nitrogen (N) contents were measured in arms of six species of brittle-stars from the northern Kattegat-eastern Skagerrak. Differences between species were found, with highest concentrations of AFDW and N in Amphiura filiformis, intermediate in A. chiajei, Ophiocomina nigra and Ophiothrix fragilis, and lowest in Ophiura ophiura and O. albida. As the infaunal suspension- and deposit-feeding brittle-stars ( Amphiura spp.) had the highest proportions of damaged arms and highest AFDW and N contents in their arms in this comparison, it is suggested that selective cropping of arms by demersal fish is the main cause of arm damage on Amphiura spp. in this area.

  15. Patterns of co-variability among California Current chinook salmon, coho salmon, Dungeness crab, and physical oceanographic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botsford, L. W.; Lawrence, C. A.

    One of the primary motivations for the GLOBEC NEP program was the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon populations in the Gulf of Alaska since the mid-1970s and concurrent declines in salmon populations in the California Current. The increase in abundance of some salmon species in the Gulf of Alaska can be plausibly explained based on mechanisms involving changes in physical structure, biological productivity, and salmon survival. To assess concurrent changes in salmon populations in the California Current and their possible physical and biological bases we examined temporal and spatial patterns of co-variability between biological variables and physical descriptors along the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, from 1950 to 1990. The biological variables were catch records of coho salmon, chinook salmon and an ecologically related species, Dungeness crab. The physical variables were sea surface temperature, sea surface height (SSH) and the upwelling index (UWI). We found that while California Current coho salmon declined uniformly in the mid-1970s, consistent with the proposed inverse relationship, chinook salmon did not. All three species appear to be driven by the dominant mode of co-variability in the three physical variables, an indicator of warm/cool water conditions, but in different ways. In general, warm conditions have a negative effect on salmon at the age of ocean entry and spawning return, and Dungeness crab during the larval stage, while cool conditions have a positive effect. Differences in spatio-temporal variability between the two salmon species suggest they may respond to ocean conditions differently: coho salmon vary synchronously along the coast on annual time scales, while chinook salmon vary on slightly longer time scales in a specific spatial pattern. Dungeness crab vary on 10-year time scales, synchronously along the coast, except for the most southern areas (central California) where populations collapsed in the late 1950s. The dominant, warm/cool mode of physical co-variability, which drives these populations regionally, is related to basin-scale indices; it appeared to follow these indices in the 1950s and 1975-1990, but differs from them1960-1975, in ways that may be biologically important.

  16. European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Immune Status and Disease Resistance Are Impaired by Arginine Dietary Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo, Rita; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Fouz, Belén; Tort, Lluis; Aragão, Cláudia; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases and fish feeds management are probably the major expenses in the aquaculture business. Hence, it is a priority to define sustainable strategies which simultaneously avoid therapeutic procedures and reinforce fish immunity. Currently, one preferred approach is the use of immunostimulants which can be supplemented to the fish diets. Arginine is a versatile amino acid with important mechanisms closely related to the immune response. Aiming at finding out how arginine affects the innate immune status or improve disease resistance of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) against vibriosis, fish were fed two arginine-supplemented diets (1% and 2% arginine supplementation). A third diet meeting arginine requirement level for seabass served as control diet. Following 15 or 29 days of feeding, fish were sampled for blood, spleen and gut to assess cell-mediated immune parameters and immune-related gene expression. At the same time, fish from each dietary group were challenged against Vibrio anguillarum and survival was monitored. Cell-mediated immune parameters such as the extracellular superoxide and nitric oxide decreased in fish fed arginine-supplemented diets. Interleukins and immune-cell marker transcripts were down-regulated by the highest supplementation level. Disease resistance data were in accordance with a generally depressed immune status, with increased susceptibility to vibriosis in fish fed arginine supplemented diets. Altogether, these results suggest a general inhibitory effect of arginine on the immune defences and disease resistance of European seabass. Still, further research will certainly clarify arginine immunomodulation pathways thereby allowing the validation of its potential as a prophylactic strategy. PMID:26447480

  17. Environmental factors affecting thyroid function of wild sea bass (Dicentrarchuslabrax) from European coasts.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Joseph G; Klaren, Peter H M; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Das, Krishna

    2012-05-01

    Thyroid functional status of wild fish in relation with the contamination of their environment deserves further investigation. We here applied a multi-level approach of thyroid function assessment in 87 wild sea bass collected near several estuaries: namely the Scheldt, the Seine, the Loire, the Charente and the Gironde. Thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations in muscle were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. The activity of hepatic enzymes involved in extrathyroidal pathways of thyroid hormone metabolism, viz. deiodination, glucuronidation and sulfatation were analyzed. Last, follicle diameter and epithelial cell heights were measured. We observed changes that are predicted to lead to an increased conversion of T(4)-T(3) and lowered thyroid hormone excretion. The changes in the metabolic pathways of thyroid hormones can be interpreted as a pathway to maintain thyroid hormone homeostasis. From all compounds tested, the higher chlorinated PCBs seemed to be the most implicated in this perturbation. PMID:22169207

  18. The influence of ocean acidification on nitrogen regeneration and nitrous oxide production in the North-West European shelf sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. R.; Brown, I. J.; Rees, A. P.; Somerfield, P. J.; Miller, P. I.

    2014-02-01

    The assimilation and regeneration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the concentration of N2O, was investigated at stations located in the NW European shelf sea during June/July 2011. These observational measurements within the photic zone demonstrated the simultaneous regeneration and assimilation of NH4+, NO2- and NO3-. NH4+ was assimilated at 1.82-49.12 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 3.46-14.60 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO2- was assimilated at 0-2.08 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.01-1.85 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO3- was assimilated at 0.67-18.75 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.05-28.97 nmol N L-1 h-1. Observations implied that these processes were closely coupled at the regional scale and nitrogen recycling played an important role in sustaining phytoplankton growth during the summer. The [N2O], measured in water column profiles, was 10.13 ± 1.11 nmol L-1 and did not strongly diverge from atmospheric equilibrium indicating that sampled marine regions where neither a strong source nor sink of N2O to the atmosphere. Multivariate analysis of data describing water column biogeochemistry and its links to N-cycling activity failed to explain the observed variance in rates of N-regeneration and N-assimilation, possibly due to the limited number of process rate observations. In the surface waters of 5 further stations, Ocean Acidification (OA) bioassay experiments were conducted to investigate the response of NH4+ oxidising and regenerating organisms to simulated OA conditions, including the implications for [N2O]. Multivariate analysis was undertaken which considered the complete bioassay dataset of measured variables describing changes in N-regeneration rate, [N2O] and the biogeochemical composition of seawater. While anticipating biogeochemical differences between locations, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism through which pelagic N-regeneration responded to simulated OA conditions was independent of location and that a mechanistic understanding of how NH4+ oxidation, NH4+ regeneration and N2O production responded to OA could be developed. Results indicated that N-regeneration process responses to OA treatments were location specific; no mechanistic understanding of how N-regeneration processes respond to OA in the surface ocean of the NW European shelf sea could be developed.

  19. The influence of ocean acidification on nitrogen regeneration and nitrous oxide production in the northwest European shelf sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. R.; Brown, I. J.; Rees, A. P.; Somerfield, P. J.; Miller, P. I.

    2014-09-01

    The assimilation and regeneration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the concentration of N2O, was investigated at stations located in the NW European shelf sea during June/July 2011. These observational measurements within the photic zone demonstrated the simultaneous regeneration and assimilation of NH4+, NO2- and NO3-. NH4+ was assimilated at 1.82-49.12 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 3.46-14.60 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO2- was assimilated at 0-2.08 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.01-1.85 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO3- was assimilated at 0.67-18.75 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.05-28.97 nmol N L-1 h-1. Observations implied that these processes were closely coupled at the regional scale and that nitrogen recycling played an important role in sustaining phytoplankton growth during the summer. The [N2O], measured in water column profiles, was 10.13 ± 1.11 nmol L-1 and did not strongly diverge from atmospheric equilibrium indicating that sampled marine regions were neither a strong source nor sink of N2O to the atmosphere. Multivariate analysis of data describing water column biogeochemistry and its links to N-cycling activity failed to explain the observed variance in rates of N-regeneration and N-assimilation, possibly due to the limited number of process rate observations. In the surface waters of five further stations, ocean acidification (OA) bioassay experiments were conducted to investigate the response of NH4+ oxidising and regenerating organisms to simulated OA conditions, including the implications for [N2O]. Multivariate analysis was undertaken which considered the complete bioassay data set of measured variables describing changes in N-regeneration rate, [N2O] and the biogeochemical composition of seawater. While anticipating biogeochemical differences between locations, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism through which pelagic N-regeneration responded to simulated OA conditions was independent of location. Our objective was to develop a mechanistic understanding of how NH4+ regeneration, NH4+ oxidation and N2O production responded to OA. Results indicated that N-regeneration process responses to OA treatments were location specific; no mechanistic understanding of how N-regeneration processes respond to OA in the surface ocean of the NW European shelf sea could be developed.

  20. Nodavirus Colonizes and Replicates in the Testis of Gilthead Seabream and European Sea Bass Modulating Its Immune and Reproductive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Yulema; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Bandín, Isabel; Olveira, José G.; Patel, Sonal; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are threatening pathogens for fish aquaculture. Some of them are transmitted through gonad fluids or gametes as occurs with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). In order to be transmitted through the gonad, the virus should colonize and replicate inside some cell types of this tissue and avoid the subsequent immune response locally. However, whether NNV colonizes the gonad, the cell types that are infected, and how the immune response in the gonad is regulated has never been studied. We have demonstrated for the first time the presence and localization of NNV into the testis after an experimental infection in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and an asymptomatic host fish species, respectively. Thus, we localized in the testis viral RNA in both species using in situ PCR and viral proteins in gilthead seabream by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that males might also transmit the virus. In addition, we were able to isolate infective particles from the testis of both species demonstrating that NNV colonizes and replicates into the testis of both species. Blood contamination of the tissues sampled was discarded by completely fish bleeding, furthermore the in situ PCR and immunocytochemistry techniques never showed staining in blood vessels or cells. Moreover, we also determined how the immune and reproductive functions are affected comparing the effects in the testis with those found in the brain, the main target tissue of the virus. Interestingly, NNV triggered the immune response in the European sea bass but not in the gilthead seabream testis. Regarding reproductive functions, NNV infection alters 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone production and the potential sensitivity of brain and testis to these hormones, whereas there is no disruption of testicular functions according to several reproductive parameters. Moreover, we have also studied the NNV infection of the testis in vitro to assess local responses. Our in vitro results show that the changes observed on the expression of immune and reproductive genes in the testis of both species are different to those observed upon in vivo infections in most of the cases. PMID:26691348

  1. Marine Litter Distribution and Density in European Seas, from the Shelves to Deep Basins

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christopher K.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Alt, Claudia H. S.; Amaro, Teresa; Bergmann, Melanie; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B.; Davies, Jaime; Duineveld, Gerard; Galgani, François; Howell, Kerry L.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Isidro, Eduardo; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Lastras, Galderic; Morato, Telmo; Gomes-Pereira, José Nuno; Purser, Autun; Stewart, Heather; Tojeira, Inês; Tubau, Xavier; Van Rooij, David; Tyler, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments. PMID:24788771

  2. Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins.

    PubMed

    Pham, Christopher K; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Alt, Claudia H S; Amaro, Teresa; Bergmann, Melanie; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Davies, Jaime; Duineveld, Gerard; Galgani, Franois; Howell, Kerry L; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Isidro, Eduardo; Jones, Daniel O B; Lastras, Galderic; Morato, Telmo; Gomes-Pereira, Jos Nuno; Purser, Autun; Stewart, Heather; Tojeira, Ins; Tubau, Xavier; Van Rooij, David; Tyler, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments. PMID:24788771

  3. Relationships among Traits of Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Performance in Individual European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    PubMed Central

    Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S.; Domenici, Paolo; Claireaux, Guy; McKenzie, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits. PMID:24019879

  4. Transcription expression of immune-related genes from Caligus rogercresseyi evidences host-dependent patterns on Atlantic and coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Vera-Bizama, Fredy; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Marambio, Jorge Pino; Hawes, Christopher; Wadsworth, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptomic response of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi during the infestation on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was evaluated using 27 genes related to immune response, antioxidant system and secretome. Results showed early responses of TLR/IMD signaling pathway in sea lice infesting Atlantic salmon. Overall, genes associated with oxidative stress responses were upregulated in both host species. This pattern suggests that reactive oxygen species emitted by the host as a response to the infestation, could modulate the sea louse antioxidant system. Secretome-related transcripts evidenced upregulation of trypsins and serpins, mainly associated to Atlantic salmon than coho salmon. Interestingly, cathepsins and trypsin2 were downregulated at 7 days post-infection (dpi) in coho salmon. The principal component analysis revealed an inverse time-dependent pattern based on the different responses of C. rogercresseyi infecting both salmon species. Here, Atlantic salmon strongly modulates the transcriptome responses at earlier infection stages; meanwhile coho salmon reveals a less marked modulation, increasing the transcription activity during the infection process. This study evidences transcriptome differences between two salmon host species and provides pivotal knowledge towards elaborating future control strategies. PMID:26492996

  5. A radiation hybrid map of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) based on 1581 markers: Synteny analysis with model fish genomes.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Richard; Senger, Fabrice; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Sadequi, Naoual; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hitte, Christophe; Galibert, Francis

    2010-10-01

    The selective breeding of fish for aquaculture purposes requires the understanding of the genetic basis of traits such as growth, behaviour, resistance to pathogens and sex determinism. Access to well-developed genomic resources is a prerequisite to improve the knowledge of these traits. Having this aim in mind, a radiation hybrid (RH) panel of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was constructed from splenocytes irradiated at 3000 rad, allowing the construction of a 1581 marker RH map. A total of 1440 gene markers providing ~4400 anchors with the genomes of three-spined stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish, helped establish synteny relationships with these model species. The identification of Conserved Segments Ordered (CSO) between sea bass and model species allows the anticipation of the position of any sea bass gene from its location in model genomes. Synteny relationships between sea bass and gilthead seabream were addressed by mapping 37 orthologous markers. The sea bass genetic linkage map was integrated in the RH map through the mapping of 141 microsatellites. We are thus able to present the first complete gene map of sea bass. It will facilitate linkage studies and the identification of candidate genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The RH map further positions sea bass as a genetic and evolutionary model of Perciformes and supports their ongoing aquaculture expansion. PMID:20659549

  6. Chemical residues and biochemical responses in wild and cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Denise; Porte, Cinta . E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es; Bebianno, Maria Joao

    2007-02-15

    Cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Arade Estuary were sampled in summer and winter and the degree of exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) assessed, together with some biochemical responses against those and other pollutants. The highest levels of copper (up to 997 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and cadmium (up to 4.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) were detected in the liver and kidney of cultured specimens, whereas the highest exposure to PAHs was observed in wild fish. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were detected and associated to pollutant exposure. Thus, metallothionein concentrations were higher in the tissues of cultured fish and positively correlated with metal residues. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 28 pmol/min/mg protein in cultured fish to 83 pmol/min/mg protein in wild fish collected near a marina area. Cultured fish and wild fish from the marina area had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue and a parasitic infection in the gonads. The obtained results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in both wild and cultured fish.

  7. Historical growth of Bristol Bay and Yukon River, Alaska chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in relation to climate and inter- and intraspecific competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agler, Beverly A.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Wilson, Lorna I.; Mueter, Franz J.

    2013-10-01

    We examined Bristol Bay and Yukon River adult chum salmon scales to determine whether climate variability, such as changes in sea surface temperature and climate indices, and high pink and Asian chum salmon abundance reduced chum salmon growth. Annual marine growth increments for 1965-2006 were estimated from scale growth measurements and were modeled as a function of potential explanatory variables using a generalized least squares regression approach. First-year growth of salmon originating from Bristol Bay and the Yukon River showed increased growth in association with higher regional ocean temperatures and was negatively affected by wind mixing and ice cover. Third-year growth was lower when Asian chum salmon were more abundant. Contrary to our hypothesis, warmer large-scale sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska were also associated with reduced third-year growth. Negative effects of high abundances of Russian pink salmon on third-year growth provided some evidence for interspecific interactions, but the effects were smaller than the effects of Asian chum salmon abundance and Gulf of Alaska sea surface temperature. Although the relative effects of Asian chum salmon and sea surface temperature on the growth of Yukon and Bristol Bay chum salmon were difficult to untangle, we found consistent evidence that high abundances of Asian chum salmon contributed to a reduction in the growth of western Alaska chum salmon.

  8. Temporal profile of brain and pituitary GnRHs, GnRH-R and gonadotropin mRNA expression and content during early development in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Moles, G; Carrillo, M; Mañanós, E; Mylonas, C C; Zanuy, S

    2007-01-01

    A likely endocrine control mechanism for sexual differentiation in size-graded populations of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is proposed by evaluating the brain expression and pituitary content of two forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), namely sea bream (sbGnRH) and salmon (sGnRH), the pituitary expression of one subtype of GnRH receptor (dlGnRH-R-2A) and the three gonadotropin (GtH) subunits, namely glycoprotein alpha (GPalpha), follicle-stimulating hormone beta (FSHbeta) and luteinizing hormone beta (LHbeta), as well as the pituitary and plasma LH levels between 50 and 300 days post-hatching (dph). Four gradings were conducted between 2 and 8 months after hatching, resulting in a population of large and small individuals, having 96.5% females (female-dominant population) and 69.2% males (male-dominant population), respectively, after the last grading. The onset of gonadal differentiation was different in the two sexes, and coincided with a peak of expression of sbGnRH or sGnRH. Furthermore, the expression of these GnRHs was correlated with the expression of dlGnRH-R-2A. Sex-related differences in the brain and pituitary content of sbGnRH were also found at the time of sexual differentiation. Moreover, the observed sexual dimorphism at the transcriptional or synthesis level of these GnRH forms suggests that a different neuro-hormonal regulation is operating according to sex. At the onset of sex differentiation, FSHbeta transcriptional activity reached maximal values, which were maintained until the completion of the process. The present study suggests a role for sbGnRH, sGnRH and the dlGnRH-R-2A during gonadal differentiation, possibly through enhancement of FSHbeta gene expression. In males, a different endocrine regulation seems to exist also during spermiogenesis and spermiation, when gene transcription, peptide synthesis and release of LH are of greater importance. PMID:16962597

  9. Genetic Inactivation of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Eggs Using UV-Irradiation: Observations and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Collter, Julie; Penman, David J.; Lallement, Stphane; Fauvel, Christian; Hanebrekke, Tanja; Osvik, Renate D.; Eilertsen, Hans C.; DCotta, Helena; Chatain, Batrice; Peruzzi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Androgenesis is a form of uniparental reproduction leading to progenies inheriting only the paternal set of chromosomes. It has been achieved with variable success in a number of freshwater species and can be attained by artificial fertilization of genetically inactivated eggs following exposure to gamma (?), X-ray or UV irradiation (haploid androgenesis) and by restoration of diploidy by suppression of mitosis using a pressure or thermal shock. The conditions for the genetic inactivation of the maternal genome in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were explored using different combinations of UV irradiation levels and durations. UV treatments significantly affected embryo survival and generated a wide range of developmental abnormalities. Despite the wide range of UV doses tested (from 7.2 to 720 mJ.cm?2), only one dose (60 mJ.cm?2.min?1 with 1 min irradiation) resulted in a small percentage (14%) of haploid larvae at hatching in the initial trials as verified by flow cytometry. Microsatellite marker analyses of three further batches of larvae produced by using this UV treatment showed a majority of larvae with variable levels of paternal and maternal contributions and only one larva displaying pure paternal inheritance. The results are discussed also in the context of an assessment of the UV-absorbance characteristics of egg extracts in this species that revealed the presence of gadusol, a compound structurally related to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) with known UV-screening properties. PMID:25329931

  10. Effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Srensen, Sune Riis; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Munk, Peter; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Improper activation and swelling of in vitro produced eggs of European eel, Anguilla anguilla, has been shown to negatively affect embryonic development and hatching. We investigated this phenomenon by examining the effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg dimensions, cell cleavage patterns and egg buoyancy. Egg diameter after activation, using natural seawater adjusted to different salinities, varied among female eels, but no consistent pattern emerged. Activation salinities between 30-40 practical salinity unit (psu) produced higher quality eggs and generally larger egg diameters. Chorion diameters reached maximal values of 1642 8 ?m at 35 psu. A positive relationship was found between egg neutral buoyancy and activation salinity. Nine salt types were investigated as activation and incubation media. Five of these types induced a substantial perivitelline space (PVS), leading to large egg sizes, while the remaining four salt types resulted in smaller eggs. All salt types except NaCl treatments led to high fertilization rates and had no effect on fertilization success as well as egg neutral buoyancies at 7 h post-fertilization. The study points to the importance of considering ionic composition of the media when rearing fish eggs and further studies are encouraged. PMID:25707438

  11. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid sources affect differently the oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Peréz-Jiménez, Amalia; Coutinho, Filipe; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Serra, Cláudia Alexandra Dos Reis; Panserat, Stéphane; Corraze, Geneviève; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-11-28

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid source and carbohydrate content on the oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. For that purpose, four diets were formulated with fish oil (FO) and vegetable oils (VO) as the lipid source and with 20 or 0 % gelatinised starch as the carbohydrate source, in a 2×2 factorial design. Liver and intestine antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)), hepatic and intestinal lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as hepatic oxidative stress index (OSI), were measured in fish fed the experimental diets for 73 d (n 9 fish/diet). Carbohydrate-rich diets promoted a decrease in hepatic LPO and OSI, whereas the lipid source induced no changes. Inversely, dietary lipid source, but not dietary carbohydrate concentration, affected LPO in the intestine. Lower intestinal LPO was observed in VO groups. Enzymes responsive to dietary treatments were GR, G6PD and CAT in the liver and GR and GPX in the intestine. Dietary carbohydrate induced GR and G6PD activities and depressed CAT activity in the liver. GPX and GR activities were increased in the intestine of fish fed VO diets. Overall, effects of diet composition on oxidative status were tissue-related: the liver and intestine were strongly responsive to dietary carbohydrates and lipid sources, respectively. Furthermore, different metabolic routes were more active to deal with the oxidative stress in the two organs studied. PMID:26365262

  12. Cloning and retinal expression of melatonin receptors in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Sauzet, Sandrine; Besseau, Laurence; Herrera Perez, Patricia; Covs, Denis; Chatain, Batrice; Peyric, Elodie; Boeuf, Gilles; Muoz-Cueto, Jos Antonio; Falcn, Jack

    2008-06-01

    Melatonin contributes to synchronizing behaviors and physiological functions to daily and seasonal rhythm in fish. However, no coherent vision emerges because the effects vary with the species, sex, age, moment of the year or sexual cycle. And, scarce information is available concerning the melatonin receptors, which is crucial to our understanding of the role melatonin plays. We report here the full length cloning of three different melatonin receptor subtypes in the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, belonging, respectively, to the MT1, MT2 and Mel1c subtypes. MT1, the most abundantly expressed, was detected in the central nervous system, retina, and gills. MT2 was detected in the pituitary gland, blood cells and, to a lesser extend, in the optic tectum, diencephalon, liver and retina. Mel1c was mainly expressed in the skin; traces were found in the retina. The cellular sites of MT1 and MT2 expressions were investigated by in situ hybridization in the retina of pigmented and albino fish. The strongest signals were obtained with the MT1 riboprobes. Expression was seen in cells also known to express the enzymes of the melatonin biosynthesis, i.e., in the photoreceptor, inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers. MT1 receptor mRNAs were also abundant in the retinal pigment epithelium. The results are consistent with the idea that melatonin is an autocrine (neural retina) and paracrine (retinal pigment epithelium) regulator of retinal function. The molecular tools provided here will be of valuable interest to further investigate the targets and role of melatonin in nervous and peripheral tissues of fish. PMID:18555069

  13. Differential modulation of resistance biomarkers in skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Barker, Duane E; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile pink salmon larger than 0.7g reject the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and are considered resistant to the infection. Robust innate defense responses in the skin contribute to the observed resistance. In contrast adult pink salmon captured at sea or shortly before spawning carry large numbers of the parasite, suggesting inability to control the infection. The purpose of this research is to better understand these apparently contradictory conclusions by comparing a suite of genetic and cellular markers of resistance to L.salmonis in the skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon. The expression of major histocompatibility factor II, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1?, interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 was down-regulated in mature but not juvenile pink salmon. Similarly, skin at the site of parasite attachment in juvenile salmon was highly populated with MHII?(+) and IL-1?(+) cells that were either absent, or at reduced levels at similar sites in mature salmon. In addition, mucocyte density was relatively low in the skin of mature salmon, irrespective of louse infection. In juveniles, the higher mucocyte density decreased following louse attachment. We show that in mature pink salmon, genetic and histological responses in skin are depressed and speculate that salmonid defense against L.salmonis is modulated by maturation. PMID:26272636

  14. SeaDataNet II - Second phase of developments for the pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2013-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of the major players in informatics in oceanography and collaborative relationships have been created with other EU and non EU projects. In particular SeaDataNet has recognised roles in the continuous serving of common vocabularies, the provision of tools for data management, as well as giving access to metadata, data sets and data products of importance for society. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users not only background information about SeaDataNet and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools, but also a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, and highlight a number of key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far.

  15. Physiological mechanism of homing migration in Pacific salmon from behavioral to molecular biological approaches.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-15

    The amazing abilities of Pacific salmon to migrate long distances from the ocean to their natal streams for spawning have been investigated intensively since 1950's, but there are still many mysteries because of difficulties to follow their whole life cycle and to wait their sole reproductive timing for several years. In my laboratory, we have tried to clarify physiological mechanisms of homing migration in Pacific salmon, using four anadromous Pacific salmon (pink, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha; chum, Oncorhynchus keta; sockeye, Oncorhynchus nerka; masu, Oncorhynchus masou) in the north Pacific Ocean as well as two lacustrine salmon (sockeye and masu) in Lake Toya and Lake Shikotsu, Hokkaido, Japan, where the lakes serve as a model "ocean". Three different approaches from behavioral to molecular biological researches have been conducted using these model fish. First, the homing behaviors of adult chum salmon from the Bering Sea to Hokkaido as well as lacustrine sockeye and masu salmon in Lake Toya were examined by means of physiological biotelemetry techniques, and revealed that salmon can navigate in open water using different sensory systems. Second, the hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis were investigated in chum salmon and lacustrine sockeye salmon during their homing migration by means of hormone specific time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) systems, and clarified that salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) plays leading roles on homing migration. Third, the olfactory functions of salmon were studied by means of electrophysiological, behavioral, and molecular biological techniques, and made clear that olfactory discriminating ability of natal stream odors. These results have discussed with the evolutional aspects of four Pacific salmon, sexual differences in homing profiles, and the possibility of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) as natal stream odors for salmon. PMID:20144612

  16. PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

  17. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products. Version 1 of its infrastructure upgrade was launched in April 2008 and is now well underway to include all 40 data centres at V1 level. It comprises the network of 40 interconnected data centres (NODCs) and a central SeaDataNet portal. V1 provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, that are managed at these data centres. The SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure comprises the following middleware services: • Discovery services = Metadata directories and User interfaces • Vocabulary services = Common vocabularies and Governance • Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting • Delivery services = Requesting and Downloading of data sets • Viewing services = Mapping of metadata • Monitoring services = Statistics on system usage and performance and Registration of data requests and transactions • Maintenance services = Entry and updating of metadata by data centres Also good progress is being made with extending the SeaDataNet infrastructure with V2 services: • Viewing services = Quick views and Visualisation of data and data products • Product services = Generic and standard products • Exchange services = transformation of SeaDataNet portal CDI output to INSPIRE compliance As a basis for the V1 services, common standards have been defined for metadata and data formats, common vocabularies, quality flags, and quality control methods, based on international standards, such as ISO 19115, OGC, NetCDF (CF), ODV, best practices from IOC and ICES, and following INSPIRE developments. An important objective of the SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 metadata service provides the link between discovery and delivery of data sets. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres. It provides sufficient information to allow the user to assess the data relevance. Moreover the CDI user interface provides the means for downloading data sets in common formats via a transaction mechanism. The SeaDataNet portal provides registered users access to these distributed data sets via the CDI V1 Directory and a shopping basket mechanism. This allows registered users to locate data of interest and submit their data requests. The requests are forwarded automatically from the portal to the relevant SeaDataNet data centres. This process is controlled via the Request Status Manager (RSM) Web Service at the portal and a Download Manager (DM) java software module, implemented at each of the data centres. The RSM also enables registered users to check regularly the status of their requests and download data sets, after access has been granted. Data centres can follow all transactions for their data sets online and can handle requests which require their consent. The actual delivery of data sets is done between the user and the selected data centre. Very good progress is being made with connecting all SeaDataNet data centres and their data sets to the CDI V1 system. At present the CDI V1 system provides users functionality to discover and download more than 500.000 data sets, a number which is steadily increasing. The SeaDataNet architecture provides a coherent system of the various V1 services and inclusion of the V2 services. For the implementation, a range of technical components have been defined and developed. These make use of recent web technologies, and also comprise Java components, to provide multi-platform support and syntactic interoperability. To facilitate sharing of resources and interoperability, SeaDataNet has adopted the technology of SOAP Web services for various communication tasks. The SeaDataNet architecture has been designed as a multi-disciplinary system from the beginning. It is able to support a wide variety of data types and to serve several sector communities. SeaDataNet is willing to share its technologies and expertise, to spread and expand its approach, and to build bridges to other well established infrastructures in the marine domain. Therefore SeaDataNet has developed a strategy of seeking active cooperation on a national scale with other data holding organisations via its NODC networks and on an international scale with other European and international data management initiatives and networks. This is done with the objective to achieve a wider coverage of data sources and an overall interoperability between data infrastructures in the marine and ocean domains. Recent examples are e.g. the EU FP7 projects Geo-Seas for geology and geophysical data sets, UpgradeBlackSeaScene for a Black Sea data management infrastructure, CaspInfo for a Caspian Sea data management infrastructure, the EU EMODNET pilot projects, for hydrographic, chemical, and biological data sets. All projects are adopting the SeaDataNet standards and extending its services. Also active cooperation takes place with EuroGOOS and MyOcean in the domain of real-time and delayed mode metocean monitoring data. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy), NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania), TSU (Georgia), INRH (Morocco), IOF (Croatia), PUT (Albania), NIB (Slovenia), UoM (Malta), OC/UCY (Cyprus), IOLR (Israel), NCSR/NCMS (Lebanon), CNR-ISAC (Italy), ISMAL (Algeria), INSTM (Tunisia)

  18. GEO-MOTION: A fresh approach to land, water and sea level changes in a European habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, S.; Geo-Motion Consortium, T.; GEO-MOTION Consortium

    2003-04-01

    The present state and behaviour of the Shallow Earth System is a consequence of processes on a wide range of time scales. These include the long term tectonic effects on uplift, subsidence and river systems, residual effects of the ice ages on crustal movement and geochemistry, natural climate to environmental changes over recent millennia and up to the present, and the powerful anthropogenic impacts of the last century. If we are to understand the present state of the system, to predict its future and to engineer our use of it, this spectrum of processes, operating concurrently but on different time scales, needs to be better understood. The challenge to the Geosciences is to describe the state of the system, to monitor its changes, to forecast its evolution and, in collaboration with others, to evaluate modes of sustainable use by human society. Land, water and sea level changes can seriously affect the sustainability of ecological and human habitats in Europe. When sea water or surface water levels rise, or land subsides, the risk of flooding increases, directly inflicting on local ecosystems and human habitats. The effects on society are widely known as many of the affected areas in Europe are densely populated and the financial loss foreseen is tremendous. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of desertification. These changes are caused by both natural processes and human activities, but the absolute and relative contributions of each of these processes are still little understood. Only very recently, the impact of processes located in the underlying subsurface of intraplate areas has been recognized in the coastal realm, leading to the newly coined term ‘Environmental Earth System Dynamics’. The members of the Geo-Motion consortium have joined forces in order to create a fully integrated pan-European research infrastructure (a virtual scientific centre) on a hitherto not existing scale. It runs monitoring programs including satellite, surface and borehole monitoring instruments. It integrates large scale and excellent geo-mechanical, geo-chemical and geo-biological laboratory facilities. Based on existing structures and data sets it develops a new geo data infrastructure containing historical data on global and regional changes in combination with the vulnerability of natural and human habitats. Most significant milestones are a large scale and excellent know-how base on geo-motion modelling and simulation, as well as on risk and impact assessment. The development of a foresight and assessment competency represents a long-term strategic scientific objective for the consortium. It is vital that it is also promoted in education, which will be done through the development of a European School for Predictive Geoscience, in which parallel masters programmes will be offered by the university partners based on their pooled expertise. The national geoscience surveys play a key role in delivering the outputs of research into the public, policy and industrial domains.

  19. Expression profiles of sex differentiation-related genes during ontogenesis in the European sea bass acclimated to two different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Mercedes; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2009-11-15

    The European sea bass is a teleost fish that lacks sex chromosomes and for which temperature influences sex ratios. However, correlation between temperature, developmental stage at a given age and sex-specific gene expression is hampered by the lack of sex markers. To study this correlation, fish were exposed to feminizing (15 degrees C) or masculinizing temperature (21 degrees C) from 0-120 days post fertilization, throughout the thermosensitive period (TSP). Aromatase (cyp19a1a), 11beta-hydroxylase (cyp11b), androgen receptor (arb) and estrogen receptors (era, erb1 and erb2) were assessed by qPCR prior and during sex differentiation. Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), with length--as proxy for developmental stage--and cyp19a1a expression as predictors, was validated and used to reliably assign gonadal sex to fish sampled within and outside the TSP. Differences in cyp19a1a and cyp11b expression could be detected 1-month before the first signs of histological sex differentiation. Cyp19a1a and cyp11b were significantly higher in future females and males, respectively, and revealed as robust molecular markers to predict future ovarian and testicular differentiation. In contrast, no association between phenotypic sex and arb, era, erb1 and erb2 expression was found, suggesting that these genes do not contribute to the differentiation of a particular sex. The CDA-based approach implemented here could be used to sex undifferentiated animals in species where genetic sex cannot be known owing to the lack of simple sex determining systems, as it is the case of many fish and reptiles with or without temperature-dependent sex determination, and provide a useful tool to relate gene expression and phenotypic sex. PMID:19338052

  20. Do experimental units of different scale affect the biological performance of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larvae?

    PubMed

    Lika, K; Pavlidis, M; Mitrizakis, N; Samaras, A; Papandroulakis, N

    2015-04-01

    The effects of different tank volumes (2000, 500 and 40?l) on European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larval rearing, relating to growth, survival, quality and stress variables, were investigated. A dynamic energy budget (DEB) model was used to analyse the results. The hydrodynamics of the tanks exhibited differences, with the water currents in the 2000?l tanks to be almost one order of magnitude stronger than those in the 40?l ones. Important differences in fish growth were observed between small and large tank-rearing volumes, with the smallest tank resulting in the slowest growth. Based on the DEB model analysis, growth differences were related to feeding rates, with growth in the smaller tank limited by food availability. Differences in survival rates were not statistically significant among the tank-rearing volumes. The quality evaluation of the fry (in terms of swimbladder, jaw and skeletal abnormalities) showed differences, with the smallest tank having the highest percentage of deformed individuals. This could be attributed to both the feeding variances and the hydrodynamics in the tanks. No differences were observed in terms of whole-body cortisol at the two developmental stages; flexion, and when the larvae body was fully covered by melanophores; when analysis was performed. This indicates that the allostatic load exerted on fish of different groups was similar and inside the fish-coping abilities range, in terms of the cortisol response axis. The selection of the experimental scale is of importance, especially when the results are to be transferred and applied on an industrial scale. PMID:25846855

  1. Application of data assimilation for improved operational water level forecasting on the northwest European shelf and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zijl, Firmijn; Sumihar, Julius; Verlaan, Martin

    2015-11-01

    For the Netherlands, accurate water level forecasting in the coastal region is crucial, since large areas of the land lie below sea level. During storm surges, detailed and timely water level forecasts provided by an operational storm surge forecasting system are necessary to support, for example, the decision to close the movable storm surge barriers in the Eastern Scheldt and the Rotterdam Waterway. In the past years, a new generation operational tide-surge model (Dutch Continental Shelf Model version 6) has been developed covering the northwest European continental shelf. In a previous study, a large effort has been put in representing relevant physical phenomena in this process model as well as reducing parameter uncertainty over a wide area. While this has resulted in very accurate water level representation (root-mean-square error (RMSE) 7-8 cm), during severe storm surges, the errors in the meteorological model forcing are generally non-negligible and can cause forecast errors of several decimetres. By integrating operationally available observational data in the forecast model by means of real-time data assimilation, the errors in the meteorological forcing are prevented from propagating to the hydrodynamic tide-surge model forecasts. This paper discusses the development of a computationally efficient steady-state Kalman filter to enhance the predictive quality for the shorter lead times by improving the system state at the start of the forecast. Besides evaluating the model quality against shelf-wide tide gauge observations for a year-long hindcast simulation, the predictive value of the Kalman filter is determined by comparing the forecast quality for various lead time intervals against the model without a steady-state Kalman filter. This shows that, even though the process model has a water level representation that is substantially better than that of other comparable operational models of this scale, substantial improvements in predictive quality in the first few hours are possible in an actual operational setting.

  2. Application of data assimilation for improved operational water level forecasting on the northwest European shelf and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zijl, Firmijn; Sumihar, Julius; Verlaan, Martin

    2015-12-01

    For the Netherlands, accurate water level forecasting in the coastal region is crucial, since large areas of the land lie below sea level. During storm surges, detailed and timely water level forecasts provided by an operational storm surge forecasting system are necessary to support, for example, the decision to close the movable storm surge barriers in the Eastern Scheldt and the Rotterdam Waterway. In the past years, a new generation operational tide-surge model (Dutch Continental Shelf Model version 6) has been developed covering the northwest European continental shelf. In a previous study, a large effort has been put in representing relevant physical phenomena in this process model as well as reducing parameter uncertainty over a wide area. While this has resulted in very accurate water level representation (root-mean-square error (RMSE) ˜7-8 cm), during severe storm surges, the errors in the meteorological model forcing are generally non-negligible and can cause forecast errors of several decimetres. By integrating operationally available observational data in the forecast model by means of real-time data assimilation, the errors in the meteorological forcing are prevented from propagating to the hydrodynamic tide-surge model forecasts. This paper discusses the development of a computationally efficient steady-state Kalman filter to enhance the predictive quality for the shorter lead times by improving the system state at the start of the forecast. Besides evaluating the model quality against shelf-wide tide gauge observations for a year-long hindcast simulation, the predictive value of the Kalman filter is determined by comparing the forecast quality for various lead time intervals against the model without a steady-state Kalman filter. This shows that, even though the process model has a water level representation that is substantially better than that of other comparable operational models of this scale, substantial improvements in predictive quality in the first few hours are possible in an actual operational setting.

  3. Invitro immunotoxicological effects of heavy metals on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Patricia; Cordero, Hctor; Meseguer, Jos; Esteban, M ngeles; Cuesta, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the direct effects of heavy metals on fish leucocytes is still limited. We investigate the invitro effects of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb or As) on oxidative stress, viability and innate immune parameters of head-kidney leucocytes (HKLs) from European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Production of free oxygen radicals was induced by Cd, Hg and As, mainly after 30min of exposure. Cd and Hg promoted both apoptosis and necrosis cell death while Pb and As did only apoptosis, in all cases in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, expression of genes related to oxidative stress and apoptosis was significantly induced by Hg and Pb but down-regulated by As. In addition, the expression of the metallothionein A gene was up-regulated by Cd and Pb exposure though this transcript, as well as the heat shock protein 70, was down-regulated by Hg. Cd, methylmercury (MeHg) and As reduced the phagocytic ability, whereas Hg and Pb increased it. Interestingly, all the heavy metals decreased the phagocytic capacity (the number of ingested particles per cell). Leucocyte respiratory burst changed depending on the metal exposure, usually in a time- and dose-manner. Interestingly, the expression of immune-related genes was slightly affected by Cd, MeHg, As or Pb being Hg the form producing the greatest alterations, which included down-regulation of immunoglobulin M and hepcidin, as well as the up-regulation of interleukin-1 beta mRNA levels. This study provides an invitro approach for elucidating the heavy metals toxicity, and particularly the immunotoxicity, in fish leucocytes. PMID:26363228

  4. EFFECTS OF COPPER AND ZINC ON SMOLTIFICATION OF COHO SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many species of trout and salmon spend their early life in freshwater and then migrate to the sea. Transition from freshwater to marine existence requires physiological changes which are involved in the development of the migratory smolt stage. Sublethal exposure to pollutants in...

  5. First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendaño, Fernando; Imilán, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line, characteristics which make it distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates from Europe and North America. Conclusion In conclusion, the present work constitutes the first report of a case of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. The clinical signs and lesions are consistent with the classical descriptions of the disease in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. The outbreak was caused by ISAV of European genotype (or Genotype I) of HPR 7b but distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates. PMID:18680586

  6. Physiological mechanisms underlying individual variation in tolerance of food deprivation in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, David J; Vergnet, Alain; Chatain, Batrice; Vandeputte, Marc; Desmarais, Erick; Steffensen, John F; Guinand, Bruno

    2014-09-15

    Although food deprivation is a major ecological pressure in fishes, there is wide individual variation in tolerance of fasting, whose mechanistic bases are poorly understood. Two thousand individually tagged juvenile European sea bass were submitted to two 'fasting/feeding' cycles each comprising 3 weeks of food deprivation followed by 3 weeks of ad libitum feeding at 25C. Rates of mass loss during the two fasting periods were averaged for each individual to calculate a population mean. Extreme fasting tolerant (FT) and sensitive (FS) phenotypes were identified that were at least one and a half standard deviations, on opposing sides, from this mean. Respirometry was used to investigate two main hypotheses: (1) tolerance of food deprivation reflects lower mass-corrected routine metabolic rate (RMR) in FT phenotypes when fasting, and (2) tolerance reflects differences in substrate utilisation; FT phenotypes use relatively less proteins as metabolic fuels during fasting, measured as their ammonia quotient (AQ), the simultaneous ratio of ammonia excretion to RMR. There was no difference in mean RMR between FT and FS over 7 days fasting, being 6.700.24 mmol h(-1) fish(-1) (mean s.e.m., N=18) versus 6.760.22 mmol h(-1) fish(-1) (N=17), respectively, when corrected to a body mass of 130 g. For any given RMR, however, the FT lost mass at a significantly lower rate than FS, overall 7-day average being 0.720.05 versus 0.900.05 g day(-1) fish(-1), respectively (P<0.01, t-test). At 20 h after receiving a ration equivalent to 2% body mass as food pellets, ammonia excretion and simultaneous RMR were elevated and similar in FT and FS, with AQs of 0.1050.009 and 0.0890.007, respectively. At the end of the period of fasting, ammonia excretion and RMR had fallen in both phenotypes, but AQ was significantly lower in FT than FS, being 0.0380.004 versus 0.0610.005, respectively (P<0.001, t-test). There was a direct linear relationship between individual fasted AQ and rate of mass loss, with FT and FS individuals distributed at opposing lower and upper extremities, respectively. Thus the difference between the phenotypes in their tolerance of food deprivation did not depend upon their routine energy use when fasting. Rather, it depended upon their relative use of tissue proteins as metabolic fuels when fasting, which was significantly lower in FT phenotypes. PMID:25232198

  7. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the northwestern European shelf based on voluntary observing ship and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-09-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 data set based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in northwestern European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), wind speed (WND), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 data set (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT and LDEO databases and obtained good agreement between modeled and observed data. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.6 ± 0.3, -0.9 ± 0.3 and -0.5 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the northern Celtic Sea, southern Celtic sea and nWEC, respectively, whereas permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the sWEC and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over these provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -1.11 ± 0.32 Tg C yr-1 for this part of the northwestern European continental shelf. Our study showed that combining VOS data with satellite observations can be a powerful tool to estimate and extrapolate air-sea CO2 fluxes in sparsely sampled area.

  8. Metabolism of the polycyclic musk galaxolide and its interference with endogenous and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise; Dimastrogiovanni, Giorgio; Blzquez, Mercedes; Porte, Cinta

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide (HHCB) in the European sea bass -Dicentrarchus labrax- following a single intraperitoneal injection of 50mg HHCB/kg body weight. In addition, a group of fish was injected with 50mg/kg of ketoconazole (KCZ), a fungicide that is known to interfere with different Cyp isoenzymes. HHCB was actively metabolised by sea bass and acted as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish. Both, HHCB and a hydroxylated metabolite were detected in bile. The fungicide ketoconazole was a strong inhibitor of Cyp11? and Cyp3a-catalyzed activities. The work contributes to the better understanding of the impact of synthetic musks on fish and proposes the determination of HHCB and/or its hydroxylated metabolite in bile as a tool to assess environmental exposure in wild fish. PMID:23274450

  9. Cytokine expression in head-kidney leucocytes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) after incubation with the probiotic Vagococcus fluvialis L-21.

    PubMed

    Román, L; Real, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Déniz, S; Grasso, V; Acosta, F

    2013-10-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is one of the most extensively farmed marine fish in the Mediterranean sea. Under the high-density condition, common in aquaculture, the infectious diseases can cause significant economic losses. Probiotics are presented as an alternative to antibiotics for the control of aquaculture diseases. This study used real-time PCR to investigate in vitro the dynamic of expression of immune-related genes in sea bass after incubation with live and inactivated (heat and Uv-light) probiotic Vagoccus fluvialis L-21 at different times (T1, T12, T24, T48). The immune associated genes, interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), TumourTumour necrosis factor- (TNF-), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Mx were studied in head-kidney (HK) leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the probiotic strain. Transcript of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-, COX-2) was highly up-regulated after 1 h of incubation with the probiotic strain V. fluvialis L-21. We found statistically significant difference in pick of expression of TNF-, after 1 h of incubation with Uv-light inactivated probiotic strain. The COX-2 expression was highly up-regulated at all times studied, with the exception of 12 and 24 h post incubation for the Uv-light inactivated bacteria. Transcript of IL-10 and Casp-3 showed the higher statistically significant differences of expression after 48 h post incubation with live bacteria. In the contrast, sea bass HK leucocytes expressed Mx at 12 and 48 h without statistically differences among treatments. Our results suggest that V. fluvialis L-21 is able to stimulate in vitro some immune-related genes associated with the early inflammatory response. Future studies in vivo are necessary to clarify this process in sea bass. PMID:23927874

  10. The southern margin of the East European Craton: new results from seismic sounding and potential fields between the North Sea and Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, U.; Grad, M.; Pharaoh, T. C.; Thybo, H.; Guterch, A.; Banka, D.; Lamarche, J.; Lassen, A.; Lewerenz, B.; Scheck, M.; Marotta, A.-M.

    2002-12-01

    The extension of eastern Avalonia from Britain through the NE German Basin into Poland is, in some sense, a virtual structure. It is covered almost everywhere by late Paleozoic and younger sediments. Evidence for this terrane is only gathered from geophysical data and age information derived from magmatic rocks. During the last two decades, much geophysical and geological information has been gathered since the European Geotraverse (EGT), which was followed by the BABEL, LT-7, MONA LISA, DEKORP-Basin'96, and POLONAISE'97 deep seismic experiments. Based on seismic lines, a remarkable feature has been observed between the North Sea and Poland: north of the Elbe Line (EL), the lower crust is characterised by high velocities (6.8-7.0 km/s), a feature which seems to be characteristic for at least a major part of eastern Avalonia (far eastern Avalonia). In addition, the seismic lines indicate that a wedge of the East European Craton (EEC) (or Baltica) continues to the south below the southern Permian Basin (SPB)a structure which resembles a passive continental margin. The observed pattern may either indicate an extension of the Baltic crust much farther south than earlier expected or oceanic crust of the Tornquist Sea trapped during the Caledonian collision. In either case, the data require a reinterpretation of the docking mechanism of eastern Avalonia, and the Elbe-Odra Line (EOL), as well as the Elbe Fault system, together with the Intra-Sudedic Faults, appear to be related to major changes in the deeper crustal structures separating the East European crust from the Paleozoic agglomeration of Middle European terranes.

  11. Velocity model of the crust and upper mantle at the southern margin of the East European Craton (Azov Sea-Crimea-Black Sea area), DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Janik, Tomasz; Stephenson, Randell; Gryn, Dmytro; Tolkunov, Anatoliy; Czuba, Wojciech; ?roda, Piotr; Sydorenko, Grigoriy; Lysynchuk, Dmytro; Omelchenko, Victor; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Kolomiyets, Katerina; Thybo, Hans; Dannowski, Anke; Fl?h, Ernst R.; Legostaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    The southern part of the eastern European continental landmass consists mainly of a thick platform of Vendian and younger sediments overlying Precambrian basement, part of the East European Craton (EEC). The Scythian Platform (SP) lies between the EEC and the (mainly Alpine) deformed belt running from Dobrudja (Romania) to Crimea (Ukraine) and the Greater Caucasus (Russia), along the northern margin of the Black Sea. Hard constraints on the Palaeozoic history on the SP are very sparse and little is known of its crustal structure in this area. The poster presents the seismic results of a multidisciplinary project that fills some of this gap. The project is called DOBRE-2 (as it forms a prolongation of the successful DOBRE project executed in 1999-2001). The main objectives of DOBRE-2 were to elucidate the deep-seated structure of the lithosphere and geodynamic setting of the shelf zones of the Azov and Black seas and the Crimean peninsula and to study the deep controls on the structure of basement and sedimentary cover. DOBRE-2 traverses a number of major faults and suture zones separating the EEC from the SP, the Crimean Mountains, and the Black Sea depression. Significant hydrocarbon reserves occur in the basins traversed by DOBRE-2. Deep seismic reflection profiling (30 second, Vibroseis) has been completed on a 100-km segment of the profile on the Azov massif (part of the Ukrainian Shield) as well as a 47-km segment in Crimea. These are complemented by refraction profiling on the shelf zones of the Azov (~53 km) and Black (~160 km) seas and coincident near-vertical (CDP) in the Black Sea, using a combination of onshore seismograph stations, ocean-bottom seismometers, onshore explosive energy sources (6 shot points), as well as ship-borne seismic acquisition. We present a 2-D seismic velocity model (Vp in the crust, depth to the Moho and depth to the intracrustal reflectors) along (~780 km) the DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect. Our model extends the model published for the DOBRE'99 profile (The DOBREfraction'99 Working Group, 2003) to the southwest. The Moho dips in this direction, from a depth of 40 km below the Azov Sea to ~47 km, below Crimea. A short segment of a reflector interpreted to represent Moho was detected at a depth of ~37 km in the Black Sea part of the profile. We also present a comparison of the DOBRE-2 velocity model with an interpretation of a coincident CDP profile.

  12. Linking oceanic food webs to coastal production and growth rates of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), using models on three scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Kerim Y.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; King, Jacquelynne R.; Megrey, Bernard A.; Myers, Katherine W.

    2005-03-01

    Three independent modeling methodsa nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ) model (NEMURO), a food web model (Ecopath/Ecosim), and a bioenergetics model for pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)were linked to examine the relationship between seasonal zooplankton dynamics and annual food web productive potential for Pacific salmon feeding and growing in the Alaskan subarctic gyre ecosystem. The linked approach shows the importance of seasonal and ontogenetic prey switching for zooplanktivorous pink salmon, and illustrates the critical role played by lipid-rich forage species, especially the gonatid squid Berryteuthis anonychus, in connecting zooplankton to upper trophic level production in the subarctic North Pacific. The results highlight the need to uncover natural mechanisms responsible for accelerated late winter and early spring growth of salmon, especially with respect to climate change and zooplankton bloom timing. Our results indicate that the best match between modeled and observed high-seas pink salmon growth requires the inclusion of two factors into bioenergetics models: (1) decreasing energetic foraging costs for salmon as zooplankton are concentrated by the spring shallowing of pelagic mixed-layer depth and (2) the ontogenetic switch of salmon diets from zooplankton to squid. Finally, we varied the timing and input levels of coastal salmon production to examine effects of density-dependent coastal processes on ocean feeding; coastal processes that place relatively minor limitations on salmon growth may delay the seasonal timing of ontogenetic diet shifts and thus have a magnified effect on overall salmon growth rates.

  13. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Ellison, Stephen; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon migration timing. Although salmon phenological diversity will complicate future predictions of migration timing, this variation likely acts as a major contributor to population and ecosystem resiliency in southeast Alaska.

  14. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon migration timing. Although salmon phenological diversity will complicate future predictions of migration timing, this variation likely acts as a major contributor to population and ecosystem resiliency in southeast Alaska. PMID:25482609

  15. Modulation of the Expression of Components of the Stress Response by Dietary Arachidonic Acid in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Montero, Daniel; Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Betancor, Mnica B; Atalah, Eyad; Torrecillas, Silvia; Caballero, Mara J; Zamorano, Mara J; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-10-01

    This study reports for the first time on European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), larvae, the effect of different levels of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6) on the expression of genes related to the fish stress response. Copies of mRNA from genes related to steroidogenesis [StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), c-Fos, and CYP11? (11?-hydroxylase gene)], glucocorticoid receptor complex [GR (glucocorticoid receptor) and HSP (heat shock proteins) 70 and 90) and antioxidative stress (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase] were quantified. Eighteen day-old larvae were fed for 14 days with three experimental diets with increasing levels of ARA (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2% d.w.) and similar levels of docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) acids (5 and 3%, respectively). The quantification of stress-related genes transcripts was conducted by One-Step TaqMan real time RT-PCR with the standard curve method (absolute quantification). Increase dietary levels of ARA induced a significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulation of genes related to cortisol synthesis, such as StAR and CYP11? and up-regulated genes related to glucocorticoid receptor complex, such as HSP70 and GR. No effects were observed on antioxidant enzymes gene expression. These results revealed the regulatory role of dietary ARA on the expression of stress-related genes in European sea bass larvae. PMID:26233819

  16. Monitoring the impact of litter in large vertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD): constraints, specificities and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Galgani, F; Claro, F; Depledge, M; Fossi, C

    2014-09-01

    In its decision (2010/477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement, ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socio-economic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of "ingestion" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. PMID:24612883

  17. Effects of dietary concentrated mannan oligosaccharides supplementation on growth, gut mucosal immune system and liver lipid metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Robaina, Lidia; Zamorano, Maria Jesús; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-02-01

    The study assesses the effects of dietary concentrated mannan oligosaccharides (cMOS) on fish performance, biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid profiles, liver and posterior gut morphology and gen expression of selected parameters involved on the intestinal immune response and liver lipid metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). For that purpose, specimens of 20 g were fed during 8 weeks at 0 and 1.6 g kg(-1) dietary cMOS of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet. Dietary cMOS enhanced fish length, specific and relative growth without affecting tissue proximate composition. However, cMOS supplementation altered especially liver and muscle fatty acid profiles by reducing levels of those fatty acids that are preferential substrates for β-oxidation in spite of a preferential retention of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), such as 20:4n-6 or 22:5n-6, in relation to the down-regulation of delta 6/5 desaturase gene expression found in liver. Besides, dietary cMOS supplementation reduced posterior gut intestinal folds width and induced changes on the gene expression level of certain immune-related genes mainly by down regulating transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and up-regulating immunoglobulin (Ig), major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), T cell receptor β (TCRβ) and Caspase 3 (Casp-3). Thus, dietary cMOS inclusion at 0.16% promoted European sea bass specific growth rate and length, stimulated selected cellular GALT-associated parameters and affected lipid metabolism in muscle and liver pointing to a higher LC-PUFA accumulation and promoted β-oxidation. PMID:25447638

  18. The European Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3): Multidisciplinary observations from the air-sea interface to the deep seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampitt, Richard; Cristini, Luisa; Alexiou, Sofia

    2015-04-01

    The Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3, http://www.fixo3.eu/ ) integrates 23 European open ocean fixed point observatories and improves access to these infrastructures for the broader community. These provide multidisciplinary observations in all parts of the oceans from the air-sea interface to the deep seafloor. Started in September 2013 with a budget of 7 Million Euros over 4 years, the project has 29 partners drawn from academia, research institutions and SME's coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre, UK. Here we present the programme's achievements in the 18 months and the activities of the 12 Work Packages which have the objectives to: • integrate and harmonise the current procedures and processes • offer free access to observatory infrastructures to those who do not have such access, and free and open data services and products • innovate and enhance the current capability for multidisciplinary in situ ocean observation Open ocean observation is a high priority for European marine and maritime activities. FixO3 provides important data and services to address the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and in support of the European Integrated Maritime Policy. FixO3 provides a strong integrated framework of open ocean facilities in the Atlantic from the Arctic to the Antarctic and throughout the Mediterranean, enabling an integrated, regional and multidisciplinary approach to understand natural and anthropogenic change in the ocean.

  19. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North-West European Shelf based on Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Mac, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-04-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 dataset based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the Western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in north-west European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), the gas transfer velocity coefficient (K), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with relative uncertainties of 17 and 16 ?atm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 dataset (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish Seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT database and obtained relatively robust results with an average precision of 4 22 ?atm in the seasonally stratified nWEC and the southern and northern CS (sCS and nCS), but less promising results in the permanently well-mixed sWEC, IS and Cap Lizard (CL) waters. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.4, -0.9 and -0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the nCS, sCS and nWEC, respectively, whereas, permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the sWEC, CL and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over six provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -0.95 Tg C year-1 for this part of the north-western European continental shelf. Our study showed that combining VOS data with satellite observations can be a powerful tool to estimate and extrapolate air-sea CO2 fluxes in sparsely sampled area.

  20. Comparison of bio-physical marine products from SeaWiFS, MODIS and a bio-optical model with in situ measurements from Northern European waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondeau-Patissier, D.; Tilstone, G. H.; Martinez-Vicente, V.; Moore, G. F.

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we compare bio-physical marine products from SeaWiFS, MODIS and a novel bio-optical absorption model with in situ measurements of chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentrations, total suspended material (TSM) concentrations, normalized water-leaving radiances (nLw) and absorption coefficients of coloured dissolved organic matter (aCDOM), total particulate (atotal) and phytoplankton (aphy) for 26 satellite match-ups in three Northern European seas. Cruises were undertaken in 2002 and 2003 in phytoplankton dominated open ocean waters of the Celtic Sea and optically complex waters of the Western English Channel (WEC) and North Sea. For all environments, Chla concentrations varied from 0.4 to 7.8 mg m-3, TSM from 0.2 to 6.0 mg l-1 and aCDOM at 440 nm from 0.02 to 0.30 m-1. SeaWiFS OC4v4, with the Remote Sensing Data Analysis Service (RSDAS) atmospheric correction for turbid waters, showed the most accurate retrieval of in situ Chla (RMS = 0.24; n = 26), followed by MODIS chlor_a_3 (RMS = 0.40; n = 26). This suggested that improving the atmospheric correction over optically complex waters results in more accurate Chla concentrations compared to those obtained using more complicated Chla algorithms. We found that the SeaWiFS OC4v4 and the MODIS chlor_a_2 switching band ratio algorithms, which mainly use longer wavebands than 443 nm, were less affected by CDOM. They were both more accurate than chlor_MODIS in the higher CDOM waters of the North Sea. Compared to MODIS the absorption model was better at retrieving atotal (RMS = 0.39; n = 78) and aCDOM (RMS = 0.79; n = 12) in all study areas and TSM in the WEC (RMS = 0.04; n = 10) but it underestimated Chla concentrations (RMS = 0.45; n = 26). The results are discussed in terms of atmospheric correction, sensor characteristics and the functioning and performance of Chla algorithms. This paper was presented at the Institute of Physics Meeting on Underwater Optics held during Photonex 03 at Warwick, UK, in October 2003. Four companion papers from this conference were published in Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, volume 6, issue 7 (July 2004), on pages 684, 690, 698 and 703.

  1. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  2. SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  3. Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Farley, E.; Nielsen, J.; Hagen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1. smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd-numbered years.

  4. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Molecular characterization, quantification in plasma, liver and ovary, and maturational proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Prat, Francisco; Ibáñez, A Jose; Köksoy, Sadi; Amano, Haruna; Sullivan, Craig V

    2016-01-01

    Three complete vitellogenin (Vtg) polypeptides of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an acanthomorph teleost spawning pelagic eggs in seawater, were deduced from cDNA and identified as VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC based on current Vtg nomenclature and phylogeny. Label free quantitative mass spectrometry verified the presence of the three sea bass Vtgs or their product yolk proteins (YPs) in liver, plasma and ovary of postvitellogenic females. As evidenced by normalized spectral counts, VtgAb-derived protein was 2- to 5-fold more abundant, depending on sample type, than for VtgAa, while VtgC-derived protein was less abundant, albeit only 3-fold lower than for VtgAb in the ovary. Western blotting with Vtg type-specific antisera raised against corresponding gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) lipovitellins (Lvs) detected all three types of sea bass Vtg in the blood plasma of gravid females and/or estrogenized males and showed that all three forms of sea bass Lv undergo limited partial degradation during oocyte maturation. The comparatively high levels of VtgC-derived YPs in fully-grown oocytes and the maturational proteolysis of all three types of Lv differ from what has been reported for other teleosts spawning pelagic eggs in seawater but are similar to recent findings for two species of North American Moronidae, the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana), which spawn pelagic and demersal eggs, respectively in fresh water. Together with the high Vtg sequence homologies and virtually identical structural features of each type of Vtg between species, these findings indicate that the moronid multiple Vtg systems do not substantially vary with reproductive environment. PMID:26643259

  5. The Impact of Escaped Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) on Catch Statistics in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Green, Darren M.; Penman, David J.; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E.; Taggart, John B.; McAndrew, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

  6. Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Pittman, Karin A.; Custódio, Marco; Campo, Aurora; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg−1 dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced dietary n–3/n–6 ratio for an appropriate GALT-immune response against MOS in European sea bass juveniles. PMID:26300883

  7. Does salmon brain produce insulin?

    PubMed

    Plisetskaya, E M; Bondareva, V M; Duan, C; Duguay, S J

    1993-07-01

    To address the question whether fish brain can produce insulin, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbusha) brains were extracted and processed according to the procedure developed for purification of pancreatic insulin (Rusakov and Bondareva, 1979). Biological and immunological activity of the resulting material was evaluated respectively by a cartilage sulfation assay and by radioimmunoassay homologous for salmon insulin. Preparations from salmon brain stimulated the [35S]sulfate uptake into salmon branchial cartilage with a potency comparable to pure mammalian or salmon insulins but lower than that of mammalian insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I). In contrast, only trace amounts of radioimmunoreactive insulin could be detected by homologous radioimmunoassay. To determine whether insulin mRNA was present in salmon brain, primers specific for salmon proinsulin and salmon prepro-IGF-I were designed to amplify corresponding cDNA regions by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Insulin mRNA was found only in the endocrine pancreas (Brockmann body) while IGF-I mRNA was detected in the brain, liver, and the Brockmann body. Our results suggest that in fish pancreatic-type insulin is most likely produced only in the endocrine pancreas and then transported to the brain through blood/cerebrospinal fluid system. However, it does not exclude a possibility that some yet unknown insulin-like substances may be expressed in the neural system of ectotherm vertebrates. PMID:8405893

  8. Biodiesel from Waste Salmon Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, o...

  9. MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

  10. New York State Salmon River Fish Hatchery

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

  11. WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

  12. Effects of continuous light on the reproductive system of European sea bass gauged by alterations of circadian variations during their first reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Bayarri, Maria Jose; Zanuy, Silvia; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Carrillo, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    The European sea bass is a short-day breeder, a characteristic that is highly valued in aquaculture. A high percentage of males of this species mature precociously before reaching commercial size, resulting in economic losses for fish farmers. We investigated the effects of continuous light (LL) on the circadian variations of several reproductive hormones in males of this species in order to understand how the presumed absence of the melatonin rhythm caused by LL affects their daily profile. The study was conducted during four critical stages of the sea bass reproductive cycle: pre-spermatogenesis (PSpg), spermatogenesis (Spg), spermiation (Spm), and post-spermiation (PSpm). Every 3 h during a complete 24 h cycle, six fish kept under a natural photoperiod (NP), and another six fish kept under LL were anaesthetized, measured, weighed, and bled. The pituitary was removed and frozen at -80 degrees C. The pituitary content of sea bream gonadotrophin-releasing (sbGnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as plasma content of LH, testosterone, and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were analyzed by ELISA. The percentage of spermiating males (precocity) per group was determined by periodic abdominal massages of the animals. Our results confirm that LL treatment, maintained from the early stages of development onward, effectively reduces the percentage of precocious male sea bass. As has already been described for caged sea bass, plasma LH showed a clearly marked nocturnal rise near midnight during Spg and Spm during NP, but which was absent under LL. Pituitary sbGnRH and LH content and plasma LH concentration, under both NP and LL, increased during the second half of the reproductive cycle, while sexual steroids were higher at the beginning of the cycle. LL inhibited steroid secretion, especially testosterone secretion, during Spg. In summary, without photoperiod cue, as accomplished by continuous exposure to LL, circadian variations of reproductive hormones appeared altered, causing irregularities in the reproductive process of male sea bass. These findings may have a practical application in aquaculture, namely by applying LL treatment in an effort to reduce the presence of precocious males in a stock. PMID:19212836

  13. A comparative review on European-farmed finfish RNA viruses and their vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Casado, E; Estepa, A; Coll, J M

    2011-03-24

    The diseases causing the highest ecological and socio-economical impacts in European farmed finfish are produced by RNA viruses. Salmon, trout, sea bream, sea bass, carp and turbot, suffer viral nervous necrosis produced by betanodaviruses (VNNV), infectious pancreatic necrosis produced by aquabirnaviruses (IPNV), viral haemorrhagic septicemia (VHSV) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHNV) produced by novirhabdoviruses, spring viremia of carp produced by vesicular-like rhabdoviruses (SVCV), salmon pancreas disease and trout sleeping disease produced by alphaviruses (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia produced by isaviruses (ISAV). There are not yet any effective treatments other than destroying all fish in infected farms, avoiding fish movements to and from infected areas and, in some particular cases, vaccination. The comparative study of the molecular characteristics of those RNA viruses and the state of knowledge of their vaccines, point to the development of new DNA vaccines for some RNA viruses, design of new mass delivery methods, maternal transfer of immunity, more extensive crossprotection studies between genotypes, use of safer all-fish plasmid control elements and study of DNA plasmid distribution after vaccination, as some of the major gaps that need urgent filling. In addition, to obtain similar protection levels to those produced by viral infections in survivors, live attenuated and/or some oil-adjuvanted inactivated virus vaccines, molecular adjuvants and/or other viral components (dsRNA or viral proteins interfering with fish defences), might have to be included in new DNA vaccine formulations. Furthermore, to be approved by the corresponding European authorities, fish viral DNA vaccines would also require the study of the persistence in fish of the introduced DNA, their possible impact to the aquatic environment and the acceptance of potential consumers. PMID:21320546

  14. Enteroendocrine profile of ?-transducin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Rocco; Mazzoni, Maurizio; De Giorgio, Roberto; Vallorani, Claudia; Bonaldo, Alessio; Gatta, Pier Paolo; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Ruggeri, Eugenio; Bernardini, Chiara; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Clavenzani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, chemosensitivity of nutrients occurs through activation of taste receptors coupled with G protein subunits, including ?-transducin (G?tran) and ?-gustducin (G?gust). This study was aimed at characterizing the cells expressing G?tran-immunoreactivity throughout the mucosa of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. G?tran immunoreactive cells were mainly found in the stomach, and a lower number of immunopositive cells were detected in the intestine. Some G?tran immunoreactive cells in the stomach contained G?gust immunoreactivity. Gastric G?tran immunoreactive cells co-expressed ghrelin, obestatin and 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity. In contrast, G?tran immunopositive cells did not contain somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, substance P, or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in any investigated segments of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. Specificity of G?tran and G?gust antisera was determined by Western blot analysis, which identified two bands at the theoretical molecular weight of ~45 and ~40 kDa, respectively, in sea bass gut tissue as well as in positive tissue, and by immunoblocking with the respective peptide, which prevented immunostaining. The results of the present study provide a molecular and morphological basis for a role of taste related molecules in chemosensing in the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23748963

  15. Growth evaluation of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) raised in seawater or freshwater and fed either fishmeal based on marine-free diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A forty week feeding study was conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in two recirculating aquaculture systems. Twelve salmon (average initial weight 117 g; initial density 9.4 kg/m3) were stocked per tank. Two identical systems were used and contained either freshwater (0 ppt) or sea...

  16. Telemetry link for an automatic salmon migration monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, H. A.; Freyman, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The antenna and transmitter described in this report were designed for integration into the remote acoustic assessment system for detection of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay region of the Bering Sea. The assessment system configuration consists of an upward directed sonar buoy anchored 150 ft below the surface and attached by cable to a spar buoy tethered some 300 ft laterally. The spar buoy contains a telemetry transmitter, power supply, data processing electronics, an antenna and a beacon light.

  17. Effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oil blend on digestive enzymes and tissue histomorphology of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Serra, Cláudia R; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Fernandes, Rui; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-02-01

    The impact of replacing circa 70 % fish oil (FO) by a vegetable oil (VO) blend (rapeseed, linseed, palm oils; 20:50:30) in diets for European sea bass juveniles (IBW 96 ± 0.8 g) was evaluated in terms of activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and total alkaline proteases) in the anterior (AI) and posterior (PI) intestine and tissue morphology (pyloric caeca-PC, AI, PI, distal intestine-DI and liver). For that purpose, fish were fed the experimental diets for 36 days and then liver and intestine were sampled at 2, 6 and 24 h after the last meal. Alkaline protease characterization was also done in AI and PI at 6 h post-feeding. Dietary VO promoted higher alkaline phosphatase activity at 2 h post-feeding in the AI and at all sampling points in the PI. Total alkaline protease activity was higher at 6 h post-feeding in the PI of fish fed the FO diet. Identical number of bands was observed in zymograms of alkaline proteases of fish fed both diets. No alterations in the histomorphology of PC, AI, PI or DI were noticed in fish fed the VO diets, while in the liver a tendency towards increased hepatocyte vacuolization due to lipid accumulation was observed. Overall, and with the exception of a higher intestine alkaline phosphatase activity, 70 % FO replacement by a VO blend in diets for European sea bass resulted in no distinctive alterations on the postprandial pattern of digestive enzyme activities and intestine histomorphology. PMID:26364216

  18. Daily and seasonal expression of clock genes in the pituitary of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Herrero, Mara Jess; Lepesant, Julie M J

    2014-11-01

    The expression of select clock genes (clock, bmal, per1, per2, cry1, cry2) was investigated throughout the day and across the four seasons for two consecutive years in the pituitary of adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A rhythmic pattern of daily expression was consistently observed in summer and autumn, while arrhythmicity was observed for some clock genes during spring and winter, concomitant with low water temperatures. The expression of clock and bmal showed highest values at the end of the day and during the night, while that of per and cry was mostly antiphasic, with high values during the day. Melatonin affects clock-gene expression in the pituitary of mammals. We therefore sought to test the effect of melatonin on clock-gene expression in the pituitary of sea bass both in vivo and in vitro. Melatonin modestly affected the expression of some clock genes (in particular cry genes) when added to the fish diet or the culture medium of pituitary glands. Our data show that clock genes display rhythmic daily expression in the pituitary of adult sea bass, which are profoundly modified according to the season. We suggest that the effect of photoperiod on clock gene expression may be mediated, at least in part, by melatonin, and that temperature may have a key role adjusting seasonal variations. PMID:25148807

  19. Validation of stir bar sorptive extraction for the determination of 24 priority substances from the European Water Framework Directive in estuarine and sea water.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Cristina; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Gracia-Manarillo, Ignacio

    2007-05-15

    This paper describes the validation of a method for the determination of 24 priority substances from the European Framework Directive in estuarine and sea water using the new extraction technique known as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by thermal desorption using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We studied linearity, detection and quantitation limits and accuracy (which includes determination of trueness and precision). Using the lack-of-fit method we tested linearity in the 0-200ngL(-1) range for all the priority substances. The detection and quantification limits were less than 5 and 10ngL(-1), respectively, for most of the compounds studied. Precision was assessed by variance analysis (ANOVA) and relative standard values of less than 10% were obtained for repeatability and less than 15% for intermediate precision. The recovery percentages in spiked estuarine and sea water were close to 100%. Finally, for quality control of the method (stability of precision and accuracy through time), we developed a method for calculating Shewhart control charts based on the information obtained in the validation process. PMID:19071738

  20. Lernanthropus kroyeri (Van Beneden and Hesse 1851) parasitic Copepoda (Siphonostomatoidae, Lernanthropidae) of European cultured sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758) from Corsica: ecological and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Laetitia; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2012-05-01

    Lernanthropus kroyeri (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) is a gill parasite found on the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. During a survey of sea bass of Corsican fish farms, we studied the biology of this parasite under culture conditions. We first chose to conduct a scanning electron microscopic study to give additional information about the lifestyle of the parasite. Our examinations made it possible to reveal some unreported superficial structures including details not described previously. Specializations associated with the tegument, in particular, sensory structures and anchoring systems were studied to understand the mechanisms of survival and dispersal of the species. Patterns variation of parasites communities was examined by taking into account environmental factors, such as temperature or salinity, and physiological parameters related to host. The relation between parasites and location of fish was also studied to quantify the importance of site influence on parasite communities. Prevalence and abundances of the infections in different culture systems, fish stocks, and sampling seasons are given. L. kroyeri was significantly present during spring and summer, coinciding with a period of increasing temperature. Significant differences were found grouping data by host size, with higher infection levels in the larger-sized fish. PMID:22179262

  1. Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high consumption rates and rapid growth, degree of diet overlap or consumption of lower trophic level prey, and early migration timing into the ocean. The consistent pattern of findings from multiple regions of the ocean provides evidence that interspecific competition can significantly influence salmon population dynamics and that pink salmon may be the dominant competitor among salmon in marine waters. ?? Springer 2005.

  2. Effect of gas-transfer-velocity parameterization choice on CO2 air-sea fluxes in the North Atlantic and European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrbel, I.; Piskozub, J.

    2015-11-01

    The ocean sink is an important part of the anthropogenic CO2 budget. Because the terrestrial biosphere is usually treated as a residual, understanding the uncertainties the net flux into the ocean sink is crucial for understanding the global carbon cycle. One of the sources of uncertainty is the parameterization of CO2 gas transfer velocity. We used a recently developed software tool, FluxEngine, to calculate monthly net carbon air-sea flux for the extratropical North Atlantic, European Arctic as well as global values (or comparison) using several available parameterizations of gas transfer velocity of different dependence of wind speed, both quadratic and cubic. The aim of the study is to constrain the uncertainty caused by the choice of parameterization in the North Atlantic, a large sink of CO2 and a region with good measurement coverage, characterized by strong winds. We show that this uncertainty is smaller in the North Atlantic and in the Arctic than globally, within 5 % in the North Atlantic and 4 % in the European Arctic, comparing to 9 % for the World Ocean when restricted to functions with quadratic wind dependence and respectively 42, 40 and 67 % for all studied parameterizations. We propose an explanation of this smaller uncertainty due to the combination of higher than global average wind speeds in the North Atlantic and lack of seasonal changes in the flux direction in most of the region. We also compare the available pCO2 climatologies (Takahashi and SOCAT) pCO2 discrepancy in annual flux values of 8 % in the North Atlantic and 19 % in the European Arctic. The seasonal flux changes in the Arctic have inverse seasonal change in both climatologies, caused most probably by insufficient data coverage, especially in winter.

  3. Molecular identification and population dynamic of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae Dujardin, 1845) isolated from the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona; Simat, Vida; Mileti?, Jelena; Beck, Relja; Poljak, Vedran

    2012-07-01

    Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (L.) is a coastal pelagic and euryhaline species that represents the only European species of the family Engraulidae, with a widespread distribution. In Croatia, it is marketed fresh, frozen, salted or marinated and mainly exported to Italy and Spain, however Anisakis sp. larval infection is frequently the reason for border rejection. Since it is known that the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infection varies with fish species, fishing area and season, the aim of our study was to identify Anisakis sp. parasitizing European anchovy and infer its population dynamic through a 2.5-year period. Larvae were found coiled and encysted on the external wall of intestine (94%) and reproductive organs (6%), rarely in fillets. Prevalence was 76.1% (95% confidence limits 74.51-77.56%), mean abundance 6.59 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits 5.81-7.26) and mean intensity 8.67 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits 7.82-9.35). The partial CO2 mitochondrial DNA sequence of the isolated anisakids confirmed clustering of the anchovy parasite within A. pegreffii sister group. Parasite population structure showed plasticity inferred by fishing ground, sampling year and fish gender and size. Compared to anisakid prevalence/abundance in other fish, the European anchovy in the Adriatic Sea represents a moderately high-infected paratenic host, although in the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters, anchovies have shown strikingly lesser values of prevalence. Since this host represents one of the most attractive Mediterranean fisheries products traditionally consumed without thermal preparation that in any case would not disrupt larval antigenicity and prevent human allergies, and given the high prevalence of the anisakid within the host, it is necessary to include anchovy into more firm risk assessment frames in order to develop measures that will support the safe alimentary production and consumption of seafood. PMID:22647674

  4. Influence of season and site location on European cultured sea bass parasites in Corsican fish farms using indicator species analysis (IndVal).

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Laetitia; Foata, Joséphine; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    The parasites of 536 European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were studied between January 2012 and December 2013 in six Corsican fish farms. The indicator value (IndVal) method, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity, has been used in this study. Because of its resilience to changes in abundance, IndVal is a particularly effective tool for ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method showed how season can influence the occurrence of parasite species in cultured sea bass and also identified parasites as bioindicators relative to fish farm location. The combination of specificity and fidelity highlighted several parasite species as significant indicators. A randomization test identified five parasite species as having a significant indicator value for season (the monogenean Diplectanum aequans; the copepods Lernanthropus kroyeri and Caligus minimus; the isopod Ceratothoa oestroides, and the myxosporidian Ceratomyxa labracis). If gills parasites are compared, they can be seen to be indicator species for two different seasons. The only Monogenea species D. aequans had fidelity and specificity more pronounced in winter, whereas both copepod species and the Isopoda revealed highest rates of infestation corresponding with an increase of water temperature. Four species have a significant indicator value for site location (D. aequans, L. kroyeri, C. minimus, and C. oestroides). The fact that the farm 6 was isolated on the east coast of Corsica may not have allowed the parasite to infect other farms. The presence of copepods on a single farm can also be explained according to salinity variations. Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the monitoring and management of parasitism in cultured sea bass populations. PMID:26446088

  5. The exceptional surface turbidity of the North-West European shelf seas during the stormy 2013-2014 winter: Consequences for the initiation of the phytoplankton blooms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohin, F.; Bryre, P.; Griffiths, J. W.

    2015-08-01

    A succession of storms during the winter 2013-2014 enhanced the resuspension of sediments in the surface waters of the North-West European shelf seas. The effects of waves on satellite-derived non-algal SPM (Suspended Particulate Matters) are discussed for the January 2008-March 2014 period. A simple statistical model relating locally SPM to tidal intensity and waves helps us analyse the main characteristics of the winter 2013-2014. The exceptional run of storms observed in this stormy and rainy winter has resulted in the highest SPM concentration in the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay ever observed by remote-sensing during the 1998-2014 period. Despite the lower clarity of the surface waters over a large part of the continental shelf during the first days of March 2014, blooms occurred early off the coast of Southern Brittany (Bay of Biscay) and later in April, as usual, in the Celtic Sea. Off the coast of southern Brittany, a region of freshwater influence, the lower clarity of the waters was counterbalanced by stronger haline stratification, due to high river discharges, enabling the initiation of blooms in late winter when the solar irradiance is sufficient; which was the case in March 2014 with 7 sunny days in a row just after the last storm. As a consequence, we can postulate that a possible increase in the intensity of waves occurring from December to early March, along with a possible scenario of global change, would not restrict the productive period in the Bay of Biscay. However an extension of the period of storms later in March would delay the timing of the blooms as observed in March 2008 in most of the investigated area.

  6. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  7. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

  8. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differently to climate changes. In particular, our work shows that the growth and fat content of Chinook and coho salmon vary along different parts of the coast and among years. These growth differences appear to be associated with differences in prey quality rather than by a direct effect of temperature on salmon growth or prey quantity, indicating that changes in ocean conditions and circulation affect salmon production indirectly through changes in prey community composition and quality. Taken together, our analyses indicate that the relative survival of different stocks of salmon in the ocean will depend on where they migrate in the ocean, and that changes at the base of the food chain must be taken into consideration to understand the effects of ocean conditions on salmon growth, and hence, on salmon survival.

  9. Risk-Based Consumption Advice for Farmed Atlantic and Wild Pacific Salmon Contaminated with Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Foran, Jeffery A.; Carpenter, David O.; Hamilton, M. Coreen; Knuth, Barbara A.; Schwager, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    We reported recently that several organic contaminants occurred at elevated concentrations in farmed Atlantic salmon compared with concentrations of the same contaminants in wild Pacific salmon [Hites et al. Science 303:226229 (2004)]. We also found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, dieldrin, dioxins, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers occurred at higher concentrations in European farm-raised salmon than in farmed salmon from North and South America. Health risks (based on a quantitative cancer risk assessment) associated with consumption of farmed salmon contaminated with PCBs, toxaphene, and dieldrin were higher than risks associated with exposure to the same contaminants in wild salmon. Here we present information on cancer and noncancer health risks of exposure to dioxins in farmed and wild salmon. The analysis is based on a tolerable intake level for dioxin-like compounds established by the World Health Organization and on risk estimates for human exposure to dioxins developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Consumption of farmed salmon at relatively low frequencies results in elevated exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds with commensurate elevation in estimates of health risk. PMID:15866762

  10. Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

  11. Two species of the fish digenean genus Rhipidocotyle Diesing, 1858 (Bucephalidae) reported for the first time from European seas.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Pierre; Bray, Rodney A

    2005-09-01

    Two species of Rhipidocotyle are described from waters off the Scandola Nature Reserve, Corsica, France: these are the first records of these species from the Mediterranean Sea. R. capitata (Linton, 1940) from Auxis rochei and R. longicirrus (Nagaty, 1937) n. comb. (originally Bucephalopsis longicirrus Nagaty, 1937) from Seriola dumerili are also compared with similar species. R. capitata is similar to several other species of Rhipidocotyle from scombrids, but differs in the structure of the rhyncheal hood and other features. R. longicirrus has an angular, sucker-like rhynchus and, although not of a typical Rhipidocotyle-type, appears to be closer to this genus than to the other genera in which it has been previously placed. PMID:16132870

  12. The Mediterranean Sea Regime Shift at the End of the 1980s, and Intriguing Parallelisms with Other European Basins

    PubMed Central

    Conversi, Alessandra; Fonda Umani, Serena; Peluso, Tiziana; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Santojanni, Alberto; Edwards, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Regime shifts are abrupt changes encompassing a multitude of physical properties and ecosystem variables, which lead to new regime conditions. Recent investigations focus on the changes in ecosystem diversity and functioning associated to such shifts. Of particular interest, because of the implication on climate drivers, are shifts that occur synchronously in separated basins. Principal Findings In this work we analyze and review long-term records of Mediterranean ecological and hydro-climate variables and find that all point to a synchronous change in the late 1980s. A quantitative synthesis of the literature (including observed oceanic data, models and satellite analyses) shows that these years mark a major change in Mediterranean hydrographic properties, surface circulation, and deep water convection (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient). We provide novel analyses that link local, regional and basin scale hydrological properties with two major indicators of large scale climate, the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Northern Hemisphere Temperature index, suggesting that the Mediterranean shift is part of a large scale change in the Northern Hemisphere. We provide a simplified scheme of the different effects of climate vs. temperature on pelagic ecosystems. Conclusions Our results show that the Mediterranean Sea underwent a major change at the end of the 1980s that encompassed atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological systems, for which it can be considered a regime shift. We further provide evidence that the local hydrography is linked to the larger scale, northern hemisphere climate. These results suggest that the shifts that affected the North, Baltic, Black and Mediterranean (this work) Seas at the end of the 1980s, that have been so far only partly associated, are likely linked as part a northern hemisphere change. These findings bear wide implications for the development of climate change scenarios, as synchronous shifts may provide the key for distinguishing local (i.e., basin) anthropogenic drivers, such as eutrophication or fishing, from larger scale (hemispheric) climate drivers. PMID:20502704

  13. Maastrichtian-aged lithostratigraphic patterns in the European tethys: Implications for sea level change and end-Cretaceous extinction patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.; Macleod, K.G. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen Maastrichtian-aged stratigraphic sections from a variety of sites spanning the ancient Tethys ocean in Western and Eastern Europe and Northern Africa have been measured in this study. The similarity in lithologies between even geographically separated localities allows refined lithostratigraphic correlation; individual members first defined from Bay of Biscay sections can now be recognized through all sections. The sections are found in the Bay of Biscay and Basque region of France and Spain (Sopelana, Zumaya, Hendaye, Bidart, Tercis, Pamplona;) southern Spain (Caravaca, Agost); northern Africa (El Kef); and Eastern Europe (Georgia). All of the sections are dominated by limestones in the Lower Maastrichtian, and marls or limestone-marl rhythmites in the Upper Maastrichtian. A conspicuous, massive limestone, usually 10 to 15 m thick, is found in all sections at the top of the Lower Maastrichtian; it is invariably overlain by a thicker unit composed entirely of marl. The thick limestone contains the last body fossils of the genus Inoceramus, and occurs just beneath the first occurrence of foraminifera diagnostic of the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone of Late Maastrichtian age. The dramatic shift in lithology lies at or just beneath the boundary between the Lower and Upper Maastrichtian, and may have been caused by one of the most rapid and profound sea level changes of the Cretaceous Period. The sea-level change may be a causal factor in the mid-Maastrichtian extinction which affected the Inoceramidae and other mollusks, such as the rudistid bivalves and ammonites, and certainly is one of the dominant factors in forming the sequence of lithologies found in the Maastrichtian Stage of Tethys.

  14. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for...

  15. Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the previous biological concepts based on seasonal breeding stocks or geographical subspecies designations. The trans-Arctic herring phylogeography is notably similar to those of the amphi-boreal mollusk taxa Macoma and Mytilus, suggesting similar histories of inter-oceanic connections. We also considered the time dependency of molecular rates, critical for interpreting timing of relatively recent biogeographical events, by comparing the estimates from coding and non-coding mitochondrial regions of presumably different mutation dynamics. PMID:23510113

  16. Physiological mechanisms underlying a trade-off between growth rate and tolerance of feed deprivation in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Dupont-Prinet, A; Chatain, B; Grima, L; Vandeputte, M; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J

    2010-04-01

    The specific growth rate (SGR) of a cohort of 2000 tagged juvenile European sea bass was measured in a common tank, during two sequential cycles comprising three-weeks feed deprivation followed by three-weeks ad libitum re-feeding. After correction for initial size at age as fork length, there was a direct correlation between negative SGR (rate of mass loss) during feed deprivation and positive SGR (rate of compensatory growth) during re-feeding (Spearman rank correlation R=0.388, P=0.000002). Following a period of rearing under standard culture conditions, individuals representing 'high growth' phenotypes (GP) and 'high tolerance of feed deprivation' phenotypes (DP) were selected from either end of the SGR spectrum. Static and swimming respirometry could not demonstrate lower routine or standard metabolic rate in DP to account for greater tolerance of feed deprivation. Increased rates of compensatory growth in GP were not linked to greater maximum metabolic rate, aerobic metabolic scope or maximum cardiac performance than DP. When fed a standard ration, however, GP completed the specific dynamic action (SDA) response significantly faster than DP. Therefore, higher growth rate in GP was linked to greater capacity to process food. There was no difference in SDA coefficient, an indicator of energetic efficiency. The results indicate that individual variation in growth rate in sea bass reflects, in part, a trade-off against tolerance of food deprivation. The two phenotypes represented the opposing ends of a spectrum. The GP aims to exploit available resources and grow as rapidly as possible but at a cost of physiological and/or behavioural attributes, which lead to increased energy dissipation when food is not available. An opposing strategy, exemplified by DP, is less 'boom and bust', with a lower physiological capacity to exploit resources but which is less costly to sustain during periods of food deprivation. PMID:20228351

  17. Physiological disturbances in Atlantic salmon exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, M.M.; Holdway, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    In Southern Australia, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming is undertaken in marine areas where extensive oil exploration, exploitation and transport are taking place. Pen-reared juvenile fish are at high risk of oil exposure through frequent small spills or major accidents. When exposed, commercial fisheries have to face million-dollar loses due to potential tainting of their stocks. In this study, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed to Bass Strait light crude oil in a fashion simulating an accidental oil spill at sea i.e. exposure to crude oil followed by a deputation period. Temporal trends in enzymatic bioindicators of exposure were investigated through exposure and deputation periods, as well as several biochemical and chemical measurements. The main objective of the study was to relate tainting with easily measured biological indicators of exposure to crude oil. Good correlations between bioindicators of exposure and tainting could assist fish farming industry to decide on the fate of fish stocks affected by oil taint.

  18. Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Tunison Lab scientist Emily Waldt (right) assists Dan Bishop of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in releasing Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being release...

  19. Atlantic Salmon Released into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS employee Marisa Lubeck releases the day's last young Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season b...

  20. The Changing Arctic and Subarctic Environment (CASE): a european network on marine biotic indicators of recent climate changes in the Nordic seas and adjacent domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deme, I.; Giraudeau, J.; Belt, S. T.; Hald, M.; Husum, K.; Knies, J.; Renssen, H.; Spielhagen, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    The European Marie Curie Initial Training Network CASE (FP7 - ITN) is formalizing long-standing research collaborations in the field of empirical and simulated climate and oceanographic changes in the Nordic and Barents Seas. CASE offers an ideal setting for running integrated and innovative projects on recent (Holocene) Arctic and Subarctic climate changes and implementing a multidisciplinary and intersectorial training on biotic proxies of past marine environments through a Marie Curie Network. The EU-funded 12 CASE PhDs projects are concerned with the sensitivity of marine primary and secondary producers to changes in marine physical aspects, and the invaluable information on past oceanic and climatic conditions given by their fossil remains contained in sedimentary archives. Climate modelling provides complementary physical information. The investigations cover an extended field of disciplines, from micropaleontology, to organic and inorganic geochemistry, and an array of expertise such as taxonomy, molecular and stable isotope geochemistry, and climate modelling. This presentation will provide information on the structure of the consortium, the content and philosophy of the training actions, as well as the main scientific objectives of the various research projects carried out by the CASE partner institutions.

  1. Effects of two oils and 16 pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on plasmatic immune parameters in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linné).

    PubMed

    Bado-Nilles, A; Quentel, C; Thomas-Guyon, H; Le Floch, S

    2009-03-01

    The in vitro effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on two plasmatic immune parameters, lysozyme concentration and haemolytic alternative complement activity, of the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were tested using field (10(-7) and 10(-9) mg mL(-1)) and high concentrations (10(-3) and 10(-5) mg mL(-1)) observed during oil spills. Peripheral blood from 105 fish was collected, centrifuged at 1200 g, for 10 min, at 4 degrees C and three plasma pools, each of 35 fish, were constituted. Two oils (heavy fuel oil and light cycle oil) and 16 pure PAHs, selected on the basis of the American Environmental Protection Agency list (US EPA), were tested in vitro on the two humoral immune parameters. Only three pure PAHs (anthracene, chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) modulated lysozyme concentration. Acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, pyrene and light cycle oil modified the haemolytic alternative complement activity after 4h of incubation. This study investigates the direct effects of several PAHs on fish humoral immune functions and describes the haemolytic complement activity of fish as suitable biomarkers of oil pollution. PMID:19111921

  2. Terminal carbohydrate composition, IgM level and enzymatic and bacteriostatic activity of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) skin epidermis extracts.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francisco A; de Haro, Juan P; Daz-Baos, Francisco Guillermo; Meseguer, Jos; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, M ngeles

    2015-11-01

    Although the skin is one of the main defense barriers of fish to date, very little is known about the immune implications and the properties of the numerous substances present in skin cells. In the present study, terminal carbohydrate composition and some components of the skin immunity (total IgM level, and several enzymatic and bacteriostatic activities) present on aqueous and organic epidermal extracts of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were determined. Most of the parameters measured followed a protein concentration dose-response. Curiously, both skin extracts have similar levels of total IgM. However, aqueous extracts showed higher presence of some terminal carbohydrates, alkaline phosphatase and esterase activities and lower proteases and ceruloplasmin activities than epidermal organic extracts. Regarding the bacteriostatic activity, the growth of all the bacterial strains tested was reduced when cultivated in presence of organic extracts, being the observed reduction correlated to the protein concentration present in the extract sample. On the contrary, skin aqueous extracts have no significant effect on bacterial growth or even allow bacteria to overgrow, suggesting that the bacteria could use the extracts as a nutrient source. The results are discussed and compared with the same activities studied on fish skin mucus in order to understand their possible implications on mucosal immunity. PMID:26384845

  3. Evidence for geomagnetic imprinting as a homing mechanism in Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Emily M; Quinn, Thomas P; Klimley, A Peter; Noakes, David L G

    2013-02-18

    In the final phase of their spawning migration, Pacific salmon use chemical cues to identify their home river, but how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic. To test the hypothesis that salmon imprint on the magnetic field that exists where they first enter the sea and later seek the same field upon return, we analyzed a 56-year fisheries data set on Fraser River sockeye salmon, which must detour around Vancouver Island to approach the river through either a northern or southern passageway. We found that the proportion of salmon using each route was predicted by geomagnetic field drift: the more the field at a passage entrance diverged from the field at the river mouth, the fewer fish used the passage. We also found that more fish used the northern passage in years with warmer sea surface temperature (presumably because fish were constrained to more northern latitudes). Field drift accounted for 16% of the variation in migratory route used, temperature 22%, and the interaction between these variables 28%. These results provide the first empirical evidence of geomagnetic imprinting in any species and imply that forecasting salmon movements is possible using geomagnetic models. PMID:23394828

  4. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostaglandins on oocyte maturation in a marine teleost, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Sorbera, L A; Asturiano, J F; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and prostaglandins (PGs) on oocyte maturation were investigated in a marine teleost, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Follicle-enclosed postvitellogenic, preovulatory oocytes were cultured in vitro and maturation was verified by assessing volume increase, lipid droplet coalescence, yolk clarification, and germinal vesicle migration and breakdown. Human chorionic gonadotropin was administered as the maturation-inducing gonadotropin (GTH) and was capable of inducing maturation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Free AA induced maturation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and enhanced GTH-induced maturation, while EPA, DHA, and oleic acid were ineffective. Maturation induced by GTH was significantly suppressed by a phospholipase A(2) blocker, suggesting that mobilization of AA was involved in GTH-induced maturation. Moreover, EPA and DHA exhibited a significant, dose-dependent attenuation of GTH-induced maturation. Maturation induced by GTH was inhibited in the presence of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, and this inhibition was reversed by addition of AA, PGE(2), or PGF(2alpha). PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) alone were both effective stimulators of maturation, while PGE(1) and PGE(3) were ineffective. The effect of PUFAs on oocyte maturation in vitro were corroborated with studies in vivo. Oocytes were obtained from females fed a commercial, PUFA-enriched diet (RD) and maturational behavior was compared with oocytes from females fed a natural diet (ND) with a higher EPA content and n-3:n-6 ratio. Although no significant difference was observed in the rate of spontaneous oocyte maturation, a higher percentage of GTH-induced maturation and lower percentage of atresia were observed in RD oocytes. Moreover, while basal PGE production from oocytes from both groups was the same, RD oocytes produced significantly higher levels of PGE in the presence of hCG. The results from this study provide evidence for the participation of AA metabolism in GTH-induced oocyte maturation, and suggest that other PUFAs and PGs may play important roles in the induction of maturation in a marine teleost. PMID:11133697

  5. Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the interactive effect of ammonia toxicity, salinity challenge and nutritional status on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to normal seawater (32ppt), to brackish water (20ppt and 10ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20mg/L ∼1.18mM representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12h, 48h, 84h and 180h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Biochemical responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea excretion rate, plasma ammonia, urea and lactate, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) and osmolality, muscle water content (MWC) and liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and ion- osmoregulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. During HEA, Jamm was inhibited in fasted fish at 10ppt, while fed fish were still able to excrete efficiently. At 2.5ppt, both feeding groups subjected to HEA experienced severe reductions and eventually a reversion in Jamm. Overall, the build-up of plasma ammonia in HEA exposed fed fish was much lower than fasted ones. Unlike fasted fish, fed fish acclimated to lower salinities (10ppt-2.5ppt) could maintain plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and MWC during HEA exposure. Thus fed fish were able to sustain ion-osmotic homeostasis which was associated with a more pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity. At 2.5ppt both feeding groups activated H(+)-ATPase. The expression of NKCC1 was down-regulated at lower salinities in both fed and fasted fish, but was upregulated within each salinity after a few days of HEA exposure. Though an increment in plasma lactate content and a decline in energy stores were noted for both feeding regimes, the effect was more severe in feed deprived fish. Overall, several different physiological processes were disturbed in fasted sea bass during HEA exposure while feeding alleviated adverse effects of high ammonia and salinity challenge. This suggests that low food availability can render fish more vulnerable to external ammonia, especially at reduced seawater salinities. PMID:25625520

  6. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Aamelfot, Maria; McBeath, Alastair; Christiansen, Debes H; Matejusova, Iveta; Falk, Knut

    2015-01-01

    All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:26490835

  7. Ocean Carrying Capacity : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 6 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Lichatowich, Jim

    1993-06-01

    The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival of coho salmon appears to be determined in the first month at sea while the fish are still in local marine areas in the upwelling zone. There is stronger evidence that upwelling might influence vulnerability to predation. A broader ecosystem view which considers salmon as a member of a complex marine community offers additional insight and raises new questions regarding the marine mortality of salmon. The pelagic fish community in the upwelling zone has undergone dramatic change in the last 50 years. That change is consistent with the historical record, however, the system has not completed a full cycle of change (as it has in the past) since the stocks have been subjected to intense commercial and sport exploitation. Salmon seem to be responding to shifts in productivity in the coastal upwelling zone.

  8. Modulation of adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH)-induced expression of stress-related genes by PUFA in inter-renal cells from European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Montero, Daniel; Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Tort, Lluis; Negrin, Davinia; Zamorano, Mara Jess; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids have been shown to exert a clear effect on the stress response, modulating the release of cortisol. The role of fatty acids on the expression of steroidogenic genes has been described in mammals, but little is known in fish. The effect of different fatty acids on the release of cortisol and expression of stress-related genes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) head kidney, induced by a pulse of adenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), was studied. Tissue was maintained in superfusion with 60 min of incubation with EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid (ARA), linoleic acid or ?-linolenic acid (ALA) during 490 min. Cortisol was measured by RIA. The quantification of stress-related genes transcripts was conducted by One-Step TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. There was an effect of the type of fatty acid on the ACTH-induced release of cortisol, values from ALA treatment being elevated within all of the experimental period. The expression of some steroidogenic genes, such as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-fos, were affected by fatty acids, ALA increasing the expression of StAR after 1 h of ACTH stimulation whereas DHA, ARA and ALA increased the expression of c-fos after 20 min. ARA increased expression of the 11?-hydroxylase gene. Expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was increased in all the experimental treatments except for ARA. Results corroborate previous studies of the effect of different fatty acids on the release of cortisol in marine fish and demonstrate that those effects are mediated by alteration of the expression of steroidogenic genes. PMID:26090096

  9. Expression of Kisspeptins and Kiss Receptors Suggests a Large Range of Functions for Kisspeptin Systems in the Brain of the European Sea Bass

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Sebastián; Servili, Arianna; Espigares, Felipe; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Brocal, Isabel; Felip, Alicia; Gómez, Ana; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This study, conducted in the brain of a perciform fish, the European sea bass, aimed at raising antibodies against the precursor of the kisspeptins in order to map the kiss systems and to correlate the expression of kisspeptins, kiss1 and kiss2, with that of kisspeptin receptors (kiss-R1 and kiss-R2). Specific antibodies could be raised against the preprokiss2, but not the preoprokiss1. The data indicate that kiss2 neurons are mainly located in the hypothalamus and project widely to the subpallium and pallium, the preoptic region, the thalamus, the pretectal area, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mediobasal medial and caudal hypothalamus, and the neurohypophysis. These results were compared to the expression of kiss-R1 and kiss-R2 messengers, indicating a very good correlation between the wide distribution of Kiss2-positive fibers and that of kiss-R2 expressing cells. The expression of kiss-R1 messengers was more limited to the habenula, the ventral telencephalon and the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. Attempts to characterize the phenotype of the numerous cells expressing kiss-R2 showed that neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase are targets for kisspeptins, while GnRH1 neurons did not appear to express kiss-R1 or kiss-R2 messengers. In addition, a striking result was that all somatostatin-positive neurons expressed-kissR2. These data show that kisspeptins are likely to regulate a wide range of neuronal systems in the brain of teleosts. PMID:23894610

  10. Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance.

    PubMed

    Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration performance during their 6 mo in the mesocosm; this performance was found to be inversely proportional to growth rate. PMID:23099467

  11. Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Chris C; Bickham, John W; John Nelson, R; Foote, Chris J; Patton, John C

    2008-01-01

    We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The ‘recurrent evolution’ (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a ‘straying’ form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations between recurrent glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch. Basic premises of this hypothesis are consistent with new, independent evidence from recent surveys of genetic variation in mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA: (1) sockeye salmon are most closely related to pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon with sea-type life histories; (2) the sockeye life history ecotypes exist as polyphyletic lineages within large drainages and geographic regions; (3) the sea/river ecotype exhibits less genetic differentiation among populations than the lake or kokanee ecotypes both within and among drainages; and (4) genetic diversity is typically higher in the sea/river ecotype than in the lake and kokanee ecotypes. Anthropogenic modification of estuarine habitat and intensive coastal fisheries have likely reduced and fragmented historic metapopulations of the sea/river ecotype, particularly in southern areas. In contrast, the kokanee ecotype appears to be favoured by marine fisheries and predicted changes in climate. PMID:25567627

  12. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  13. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  14. PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

  15. WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

  16. The vgll3 Locus Controls Age at Maturity in Wild and Domesticated Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Males

    PubMed Central

    Ayllon, Fernando; Kjærner-Semb, Erik; Furmanek, Tomasz; Wennevik, Vidar; Solberg, Monica F.; Dahle, Geir; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Glover, Kevin A.; Almén, Markus Sällman; Rubin, Carl J; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Wargelius, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon males display large variation for sea age at sexual maturation, which varies between 1–5 years. Previous studies have uncovered a genetic predisposition for variation of age at maturity with moderate heritability, thus suggesting a polygenic or complex nature of this trait. The aim of this study was to identify associated genetic loci, genes and ultimately specific sequence variants conferring sea age at maturity in salmon. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) using a pool sequencing approach (20 individuals per river and phenotype) of male salmon returning to rivers as sexually mature either after one sea winter (2009) or three sea winters (2011) in six rivers in Norway. The study revealed one major selective sweep, which covered 76 significant SNPs in which 74 were found in a 370 kb region of chromosome 25. Genotyping other smolt year classes of wild and domesticated salmon confirmed this finding. Genotyping domesticated fish narrowed the haplotype region to four SNPs covering 2386 bp, containing the vgll3 gene, including two missense mutations explaining 33–36% phenotypic variation. A single locus was found to have a highly significant role in governing sea age at maturation in this species. The SNPs identified may be both used as markers to guide breeding for late maturity in salmon aquaculture and in monitoring programs of wild salmon. Interestingly, a SNP in proximity of the VGLL3 gene in humans (Homo sapiens), has previously been linked to age at puberty suggesting a conserved mechanism for timing of puberty in vertebrates. PMID:26551894

  17. The vgll3 Locus Controls Age at Maturity in Wild and Domesticated Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Males.

    PubMed

    Ayllon, Fernando; Kjærner-Semb, Erik; Furmanek, Tomasz; Wennevik, Vidar; Solberg, Monica F; Dahle, Geir; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Glover, Kevin A; Almén, Markus Sällman; Rubin, Carl J; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Wargelius, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon males display large variation for sea age at sexual maturation, which varies between 1-5 years. Previous studies have uncovered a genetic predisposition for variation of age at maturity with moderate heritability, thus suggesting a polygenic or complex nature of this trait. The aim of this study was to identify associated genetic loci, genes and ultimately specific sequence variants conferring sea age at maturity in salmon. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) using a pool sequencing approach (20 individuals per river and phenotype) of male salmon returning to rivers as sexually mature either after one sea winter (2009) or three sea winters (2011) in six rivers in Norway. The study revealed one major selective sweep, which covered 76 significant SNPs in which 74 were found in a 370 kb region of chromosome 25. Genotyping other smolt year classes of wild and domesticated salmon confirmed this finding. Genotyping domesticated fish narrowed the haplotype region to four SNPs covering 2386 bp, containing the vgll3 gene, including two missense mutations explaining 33-36% phenotypic variation. A single locus was found to have a highly significant role in governing sea age at maturation in this species. The SNPs identified may be both used as markers to guide breeding for late maturity in salmon aquaculture and in monitoring programs of wild salmon. Interestingly, a SNP in proximity of the VGLL3 gene in humans (Homo sapiens), has previously been linked to age at puberty suggesting a conserved mechanism for timing of puberty in vertebrates. PMID:26551894

  18. Satellite tagging and cardiac physiology reveal niche expansion in salmon sharks.

    PubMed

    Weng, Kevin C; Castilho, Pedro C; Morrissette, Jeffery M; Landeira-Fernandez, Ana M; Holts, David B; Schallert, Robert J; Goldman, Kenneth J; Block, Barbara A

    2005-10-01

    Shark populations are declining globally, yet the movements and habitats of most species are unknown. We used a satellite tag attached to the dorsal fin to track salmon sharks (Lamna ditropis) for up to 3.2 years. Here we show that salmon sharks have a subarctic-to-subtropical niche, ranging from 2 degrees to 24 degrees C, and they spend winter periods in waters as cold as 2 degrees to 8 degrees C. Functional assays and protein gels reveal that the expression of excitation-contraction coupling proteins is enhanced in salmon shark hearts, which may underlie the shark's ability to maintain heart function at cold temperatures and their niche expansion into subarctic seas. PMID:16210538

  19. Vibrio viscosus in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Scotland: field and experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Bruno, D W; Griffiths, J; Petrie, J; Hastings, T S

    1998-11-30

    Winter mortality occurred in market-sized (2 to 3 kg) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reared in sea cages in Scottish waters. Many of the fish had skin ulcers. Internally prominent dark-brown petechiae or ecchymotic haemorrhage was observed. Splenomegaly was associated with congestion and widespread necrosis. A Vibrio sp. was isolated from internal organs. Biochemically isolates of the bacterium were similar to a previously described bacterium, Vibrio viscosus, recorded in a phenotypic study from farmed salmon in Norway. This work examines the occurrence of V. viscosus in marine-reared Atlantic salmon for the first time in Scottish waters. An experimental study reproduced the field observations and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. The histopathology associated with natural infection was compared with that in laboratory-infected fish. PMID:9891731

  20. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, E.V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  1. Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Anja B; Jimenez, Daniel; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Grøntvedt, Randi; Stien, Audun; Jansen, Peder A

    2014-12-01

    Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned. PMID:25480132

  2. The European-wide Geo-Seas data space for marine geological and geophysical data and its novel approach in Metadata, Data models and Semantics emerging from the case of Seismic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, Paolo; Busato, Alessandro; Glaves, Helen M.; Schaap, Dick M. A.

    2013-04-01

    The Geo-Seas EU FP7 project aims at providing means to deliver and access integrated sets of primary marine geological and geophysical data. These are among the most important elements in the process of scientific and applied marine research, economic activities, and sustainable environmental management, at regional, European and global scales. Such data space requires an European-wide services infrastructure, standardised practices by the data repositories, and middleware so that end users can identify, locate and access the data they might be interested in. Being Geo-Seas a sibling of the SeaDataNet project, it adopts technologies developed within the latter, extending them and introducing new paradigms. Within this perspective a specific attention was reserved to Seismic data, due to its value in commercial use and scientific community positioning, on one hand, and to the difficulties in handling its file size on the other. To tackle these issues a novel approach was devised, that uses web based data-owner-side visualization facilities installed at each data provider premise. This overcomes the limitations of the common practices in data dissemination, where eventually the data is downloaded and used "off-line" at the end-user workstation. This solution is based on a seismic data visualization software that is strictly integrated with the GeoSeas (and SeaDataNet) project middleware and that therefore allows to perform consistent user authentications and requests handling across all domains and partners. Considering the large and ever increasing number of datasets made available within the project, and that deep examination of seismic data via the viewer could take time, it was devised to introduce a more efficient way to select useful hits within the Geo-Seas data space extending the already existent ISO19115-based SeaDataNet discovery mechanism (CDI). This has been achieved through the introduction of a "browsing" level linked to the CDI where further information on the seismic data is made available within O&M and SensorML documents. Information is entered using controlled vocabularies made available to the whole community of users and partners. The whole system have been tested successfully and is currently operational at a subset of all the Geo-Seas partners. We are currently planning to extend the paradigm to other domains that have similarities with Seismic data.

  3. Comparison of genetic diversity in the recently founded Connecticut River Atlantic salmon population to that of its primary donor stock, Maine's Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to the Connecticut River (CR) from 1996 to 1999 were assayed for variability at nine microsatellite DNA loci. Heterozygosity and allele frequencies were compared to the anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to Maine's Penobscot River from 1998 to 2000. The Penobscot River was the primary source of the salmon used to found the previously extirpated population in the Connecticut River. While there were no significant differences in heterozygosity between the source population and the Connecticut River sea-run spawners, microsatellite allele frequencies were significantly different between the populations. Two techniques of estimating effective population size (Ne) suggested a healthy level of genetic variation in the Connecticut River population of anadromous Atlantic salmon. This is significant because the sea-run population is maintained almost entirely through hatchery production. Healthy ratios of Ne to N indicate that hatchery production has not resulted in excessive inbreeding to date. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  5. Infections by Renibacterium salmoninarum and Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin are associated with reduced growth of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sandell, T A; Teel, D J; Fisher, J; Beckman, B; Jacobson, K C

    2015-04-01

    We examined 1454 juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), captured in nearshore waters off the coasts of Washington and Oregon (USA) from 1999 to 2004 for infection by Renibacterium salmoninarum, Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin and skin metacercariae. The prevalence and intensities for each of these infections were established for both yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. Two metrics of salmon growth, weight residuals and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, were determined for salmon infected with these pathogens/parasites, both individually and in combination, with uninfected fish used for comparison. Yearling Chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum had significantly reduced weight residuals. Chinook salmon infected with skin metacercariae alone did not have significantly reduced growth metrics. Dual infections were not associated with significantly more severe effects on the growth metrics than single infections; the number of triple infections was very low and precluded statistical comparison. Overall, these data suggest that infections by these organisms can be associated with reduced juvenile Chinook salmon growth. Because growth in the first year at sea has been linked to survival for some stocks of Chinook salmon, the infections may therefore play a role in regulating these populations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. PMID:24720546

  6. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker. PMID:26879952

  7. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker. PMID:26879952

  8. Acoustic tracking of migrating salmon.

    PubMed

    Kupilik, Matthew J; Petersen, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Annual salmon migrations vary significantly in annual return numbers from year to year. In order to determine when a species' sustainable return size has been met, a method for counting and sizing the spawning animals is required. This project implements a probability hypothesis density tracker on data from a dual frequency identification sonar to automate the process of counting and sizing the fish crossing an insonified area. Data processing on the sonar data creates intensity images from which possible fish locations can be extracted using image processing. These locations become the input to the tracker. The probability hypothesis density tracker then solves the multiple target tracking problem and creates fish tracks from which length information is calculated using image segmentation. The algorithm is tested on data from the 2010 salmon run on the Kenai river in Alaska and compares favorably with statistical models from sub-sampling and manual measurements. PMID:25324076

  9. [Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: Spanish adaptation of the position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society. Consensus document of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF)].

    PubMed

    Ascaso, Juan F; Mata, Pedro; Arbona, Cristina; Civeira, Fernando; Valdivielso, Pedro; Masana, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). The Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has recently published a clinical guide to diagnose and manage HoFH (Eur Heart J. 2014;35:2146-57). Both the Spanish Society of Atherosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF) consider this European Consensus document of great value and utility. However, there are particularities in our country which advise to have a Spanish adaptation of the European HoFH document in order to approximate this clinical guide to our environment. In Spain, chronic treatment with statins, ezetimibe and resins (colesevelam) has a reduced contribution in the National Health System (NHS) and is one of the few European countries where LDL apheresis is included in the Basic Service Portfolio coverage. This Spanish document also includes clinical experience in the management of these patients in our country. The Drafting Committee emphasizes the need for early identification of HoFH patients, prompt referral to specialized units, and an early and appropriate treatment. These recommendations will provide a guidance for HoFH patient management in Spain. PMID:25757840

  10. Airborne lidar imaging of salmon.

    PubMed

    Churnside, James H; Wilson, James J

    2004-02-20

    Lidar images of adult salmon are presented. The lidar system is built around a pulsed green laser and a gated intensified CCD camera. The camera gating is timed to collect light scattered from the turbid water below the fish to produce shadows in the images. Image processing increases the estimated contrast-to-noise ratio from 3.4 in the original image to 16.4 by means of a matched filter. PMID:15008549

  11. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  12. Differential gene expression of bgp and mgp in trabecular and compact bone of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Krossy, Christel; rnsrud, Robin; Wargelius, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The tissue-specific gene expression of the vitamin K-dependent proteins bone ?-carboxyglutamate-protein (BGP) and matrix ?-carboxyglutamate-protein (MGP) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was investigated. In previous studies, BGP, the most abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, was almost exclusively associated with bone, whereas the non-structural protein MGP has a more widespread tissue distribution. In-situ hybridization of juvenile Atlantic salmon (?40 g, fresh water) vertebrae demonstrated expression of bgp and mgp mRNA in osteoblasts lining the trabecular bone, whereas no staining was observed in the compact bone. By separating the trabecular and compact bone of both juvenile (?40 g, fresh water) and adult (?1000 g, sea water) Atlantic salmon, we observed that the two vertebral bone compartments displayed different levels of bgp, whereas no such differences were seen for mgp. Measurements of the mineral content and Ca/P molar ratio in adult salmon revealed no significant differences between trabecular and compact bone. In conclusion, the osteoblasts covering the salmon vertebrae have unique gene expression patterns and levels of bgp and mgp. Further, the study confirms the presence of mRNA from the vitamin K-dependent proteins BGP and MGP in the vertebrae, fin and gills of Atlantic salmon. PMID:19811564

  13. Salmon Are Carefully Released Using Buckets

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season by at least two months in Oswego County, N.Y. Duringfall 2011 and spring 2012, U.S. Geological Survey scie...

  14. 150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

  15. Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Tunison Lab scientists Rich Chiavelli (left) and Emily Waldt (middle) hand a bucketful of young Atlantic salmon to Dan Bishop (right) of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for release into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of you...

  16. SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

  17. Salmon Are Carefully Released Using Buckets

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season by at least two months in Oswego County, N.Y. During fall 2011 and spring 2012, U.S. Geological Survey scie...

  18. SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

  19. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  20. Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

  1. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the sea-level around the northern European coasts reconsidered: the thermosteric effects.

    PubMed

    Tsimplis, M N; Shaw, A G P; Flather, R A; Woolf, D K

    2006-04-15

    The thermosteric contribution of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) to the North Sea sea-level for the winter period is investigated. Satellite sea surface temperature as well as in situ measurements are used to define the sensitivity of winter water temperature to the NAO as well as to determine the trends in temperature. The sea surface temperature sensitivity to the NAO is about 0.85 degrees C per unit NAO, which results in thermosteric sea-level changes of about 1-2 cm per unit NAO. The sensitivity of sea surface temperatures to the NAO is strongly time-dependent. Model data from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic tide+surge model are used in combination with the estimated thermosteric anomalies to explain the observed sea-level changes and, in particular, the sensitivity of the datasets to the NAO variability. The agreement between the model and the observed data is improved by the inclusion of the thermosteric effect. PMID:16537143

  2. Phylogenetic Evidence of Long Distance Dispersal and Transmission of Piscine Reovirus (PRV) between Farmed and Wild Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Garseth, Åse Helen; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Biering, Eirik

    2013-01-01

    The extent and effect of disease interaction and pathogen exchange between wild and farmed fish populations is an ongoing debate and an area of research that is difficult to explore. The objective of this study was to investigate pathogen transmission between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations in Norway by means of molecular epidemiology. Piscine reovirus (PRV) was selected as the model organism as it is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Norway, and because infection not necessarily will lead to mortality through development of disease. A matrix comprised of PRV protein coding sequences S1, S2 and S4 from wild, hatchery-reared and farmed Atlantic salmon in addition to one sea-trout (Salmo trutta L.) was examined. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference indicate long distance transport of PRV and exchange of virus between populations. The results are discussed in the context of Atlantic salmon ecology and the structure of the Norwegian salmon industry. We conclude that the lack of a geographical pattern in the phylogenetic trees is caused by extensive exchange of PRV. In addition, the detailed topography of the trees indicates long distance transportation of PRV. Through its size, structure and infection status, the Atlantic salmon farming industry has the capacity to play a central role in both long distance transportation and transmission of pathogens. Despite extensive migration, wild salmon probably play a minor role as they are fewer in numbers, appear at lower densities and are less likely to be infected. An open question is the relationship between the PRV sequences found in marine fish and those originating from salmon. PMID:24349221

  3. Using Agent-Based Modelling to Predict the Role of Wild Refugia in the Evolution of Resistance of Sea Lice to Chemotherapeutants

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Gregor F.; Groner, Maya L.; Fast, Mark D.; Revie, Crawford W.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for Atlantic salmon farming in the northern hemisphere is infestation by the sea louse parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis. The most frequent method of controlling these sea louse infestations is through the use of chemical treatments. However, most major salmon farming areas have observed resistance to common chemotherapeutants. In terrestrial environments, many strategies employed to manage the evolution of resistance involve the use of refugia, where a portion of the population is left untreated to maintain susceptibility. While refugia have not been deliberately used in Atlantic salmon farming, wild salmon populations that migrate close to salmon farms may act as natural refugia. In this paper we describe an agent-based model that explores the influence of different sizes of wild salmon populations on resistance evolution in sea lice on a salmon farm. Using the model, we demonstrate that wild salmon populations can act as refugia that limit the evolution of resistance in the sea louse populations. Additionally, we demonstrate that an increase in the size of the population of wild salmon results in an increased effect in slowing the evolution of resistance. We explore the effect of a population fitness cost associated with resistance, finding that in some cases it substantially reduces the speed of evolution to chemical treatments. PMID:26485023

  4. Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt) and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt) increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h-180 h) in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and reduced ascorbate (ASC) content. On the contrary, fasted fish could not activate many of these protective systems and rely mainly on CAT and ASC dependent pathways as antioxidative sentinels. The present findings exemplify that in fed fish single factors and a combination of HEA exposure and reduced seawater salinities (upto 10 ppt) were insufficient to cause oxidative damage due to the highly competent antioxidant system compared to fasted fish. However, the impact of HEA exposure at a hypo-saline environment (2.5 ppt) also defied antioxidant defence system in fed fish, suggesting this combined factor is beyond the tolerance range for both feeding groups. Overall, our results indicate that the oxidative stress mediated by the experimental conditions were exacerbated during starvation, and also suggest that feed deprivation particularly at reduced seawater salinities can instigate fish more susceptible to ammonia toxicity. PMID:26241315

  5. Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Zinta, Gaurav; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt) and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt) increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h–180 h) in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h–180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and reduced ascorbate (ASC) content. On the contrary, fasted fish could not activate many of these protective systems and rely mainly on CAT and ASC dependent pathways as antioxidative sentinels. The present findings exemplify that in fed fish single factors and a combination of HEA exposure and reduced seawater salinities (upto 10 ppt) were insufficient to cause oxidative damage due to the highly competent antioxidant system compared to fasted fish. However, the impact of HEA exposure at a hypo-saline environment (2.5 ppt) also defied antioxidant defence system in fed fish, suggesting this combined factor is beyond the tolerance range for both feeding groups. Overall, our results indicate that the oxidative stress mediated by the experimental conditions were exacerbated during starvation, and also suggest that feed deprivation particularly at reduced seawater salinities can instigate fish more susceptible to ammonia toxicity. PMID:26241315

  6. Spatio-temporal covariability in coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) survival, from California to southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Steven L. H.; Botsford, Louis W.; Hastings, Alan

    2009-12-01

    One of the motivations of the GLOBEC Northeast Pacific program is to understand the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon catches in the Gulf of Alaska and concurrent declines in the California Current System (CCS). We therefore used coded wire tag (CWT) data to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of covariability in the survival of hatchery coho salmon along the coast from California to southeast Alaska between release years 1980 and 2004. There is substantial covariability in coho salmon survival between neighboring regions along the coast, and there is clear evidence for increased covariability within two main groups - a northern and southern group. The dividing line between the groups lies approximately at the north end of Vancouver Island. However, CWT survivals do not support inverse covariability in hatchery coho salmon survival between southeast Alaska and the CCS over this 25 year time span. Instead, the hatchery coho survival in southeast Alaska is relatively uncorrelated with coho survival in the California Current System on inter-annual time scales. The 50% correlation and e-folding scales (distances at which magnitude of correlations decreases to 50% and e -1 (32.8%), respectively) of pairwise correlations between individual hatcheries were 150 and 217 km, which are smaller than that reported for sockeye, pink, and chum salmon. The 50% correlation scale of coho salmon is also substantially smaller than those reported for upwelling indices and sea surface temperature. There are also periods of 5-10 years with high covariability between adjacent regions on the scale of hundreds of km, which may be of biological and physical significance.

  7. Footprints of Directional Selection in Wild Atlantic Salmon Populations: Evidence for Parasite-Driven Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Zueva, Ksenia J.; Lumme, Jaakko; Veselov, Alexey E.; Kent, Matthew P.; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of host-parasite co-adaptation have long been of interest in evolutionary biology; however, determining the genetic basis of parasite resistance has been challenging. Current advances in genome technologies provide new opportunities for obtaining a genome-scale view of the action of parasite-driven natural selection in wild populations and thus facilitate the search for specific genomic regions underlying inter-population differences in pathogen response. European populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exhibit natural variance in susceptibility levels to the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957, ranging from resistance to extreme susceptibility, and are therefore a good model for studying the evolution of virulence and resistance. However, distinguishing the molecular signatures of genetic drift and environment-associated selection in small populations such as land-locked Atlantic salmon populations presents a challenge, specifically in the search for pathogen-driven selection. We used a novel genome-scan analysis approach that enabled us to i) identify signals of selection in salmon populations affected by varying levels of genetic drift and ii) separate potentially selected loci into the categories of pathogen (G. salaris)-driven selection and selection acting upon other environmental characteristics. A total of 4631 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in Atlantic salmon from 12 different northern European populations. We identified three genomic regions potentially affected by parasite-driven selection, as well as three regions presumably affected by salinity-driven directional selection. Functional annotation of candidate SNPs is consistent with the role of the detected genomic regions in immune defence and, implicitly, in osmoregulation. These results provide new insights into the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in Atlantic salmon and will enable future searches for the specific genes involved. PMID:24670947

  8. Ecology. Can science rescue salmon?

    PubMed

    Mann, C C; Plummer, M L

    2000-08-01

    At a press conference on 27 July, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) released a long-awaited plan to save the Columbia River's endangered salmon by restoring fish habitat, overhauling hatcheries, limiting harvest, and improving river flow. What the plan did not do, however, was call for immediate breaching of four dams on the Snake River, the Columbia's major tributary--an option that has been the subject of a nationwide environmental crusade. The NMFS will hold that option in abeyance while it sees whether the less drastic measures will do the trick. Responses from both sides were immediate and outraged. PMID:10950712

  9. Infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R J; Pearson, M D

    2005-07-01

    A clinical and histopathological review was carried out of 21 outbreaks of acute infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in Scottish Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms (13 marine and eight fresh water) during 1991-2004. A distinctive syndrome was evident in both post-smolts in sea water and fry in fresh water, where liver lesions, which had not previously been associated with IPN, became a consistent finding in addition to the more typical pancreatic and intestinal changes. Initial cases were described in post-smolts in Shetland, but by the end of the period of investigation this type of pathology had extended down the West coast of Scotland and into Ireland. Limited viral strain analysis suggested that similar strains were involved in both fresh water and sea water and that these differed from earlier isolates from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). In fresh water, recovered fish frequently developed a greatly distended intestine associated with accumulation of undigested food. In sea water, after the initial, often significant (50% or more), losses, there were many fish which failed to grow and became chronically emaciated and prone to sea louse infection. Although use of transfer diets containing immune enhancers and the selection of IPN resistant broodstock has reduced losses the disease remains a serious cause of economic loss. PMID:16083443

  10. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  11. Retention of mercury by salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1970-01-01

    Consuming fish that have been exposed repeatedly to mercury derivatives is a potential public health hazard because fish can accumulate and retain mercury in their tissues (Rucker, 1968). Concern has been expressed in the United States because mercurials have been used extensively in industry and as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in fish hatcheries. Rucker and Amend (1969) showed that yearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to mercurials accumulated excessive amounts of mercury in many tissues. Further, Rucker and Amend (1969) concluded that wild fish that ate mercury-contaminated fish also could contain high mercury levels. Although mercury was eliminated from most tissues within several months, substantial levels remained in the kidney for more than 33 weeks after the last exposure. Since high levels of mercury can be retained in the kidney for an undetermined time, it is possible that returning adult salmon exposed to mercurials as juveniles could constitute a potential hazard to public health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such fish contained high residual levels of mercury.

  12. Atlantic salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.

    1989-01-01

    Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.

  13. Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM) or fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Results We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD), but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD). Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663). Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein catabolism, amino acid transaminations, RNA splicing and blood coagulation were also found to be regulated by diet, while the expression of genes involved in protein and ATP synthesis differed between the half-sibfamilies. Conclusions Overall, the combined gene expression, compositional and biochemical studies demonstrated a large panel of metabolic and physiological effects induced by total substitution of both FM and FO in the diets of European sea bass and revealed physiological characteristics associated with the two half-sibfamilies. PMID:22017880

  14. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  15. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Jenkins, Erica S.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  16. Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgren, L. . Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm ); Andersson, T. . Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. . Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. )

    1993-11-01

    In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

  17. Modelling the migration opportunities of diadromous fish species along a gradient of dissolved oxygen concentration in a European tidal watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, J.; Stevens, M.; Breine, J.

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between poor water quality and migration opportunities for fish remains poorly documented, although it is an essential research step in implementing EU water legislation. In this paper, we model the environmental constraints that control the movements of anadromous and catadromous fish populations that migrate through the tidal watershed of River Scheldt, a heavily impacted river basin in Western Europe. Local populations of sturgeon, sea lamprey, sea trout, Atlantic salmon, houting and allis shad were essentially extirpated around 1900. For remaining populations (flounder, three-spined stickleback, twaite shad, thinlip mullet, European eel and European smelt), a data driven logistic model was parameterized. The presence or absence of fish species in samples taken between 1995 and 2004 was modelled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, river flow and season. Probabilities to catch individuals from all diadromous species but three-spined stickleback increased as a function of the interaction between temperature and dissolved oxygen. The hypoxic zone situated in the freshwater tidal part of the estuary was an effective barrier for upstream migrating anadromous spawners since it blocked the entrance to historical spawning sites upstream. Similarly, habitat availability for catadromous fish was greatly reduced and restricted to lower brackish water parts of the estuary. The model was applied to infer preliminary dissolved oxygen criteria for diadromous fish, to make qualitative predictions about future changes in fish distribution given anticipated changes in water quality and to suggest necessary measures with respect to watershed management.

  18. The Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate against Infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) in Scotland, 2002–2006

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Fiona; Baillie, Mark; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE®, Schering Plough Animal Health). The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. Conclusions/Significance Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated. PMID:18253496

  19. Using the H-index to assess disease priorities for salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G; Wardeh, Maya; McIntyre, K Marie

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic salmon's (Salmo salar) annual aquaculture production exceeds 2M tonnes globally, and for the UK forms the largest single food export. However, aquaculture production is negatively affected by a range of different diseases and parasites. Effort to control pathogens should be focused on those which are most "important" to aquaculture. It is difficult to specify what makes a pathogen important; this is particularly true in the aquatic sector where data capture systems are less developed than for human or terrestrial animal diseases. Mortality levels might be one indicator, but these can cause a range of different problems such as persistent endemic losses, occasional large epidemics or control/treatment costs. Economic and multi-criteria decision methods can incorporate this range of impacts, however these have not been consistently applied to aquaculture and the quantity and quality of data required is large, so their potential for comparing aquatic pathogens is currently limited. A method that has been developed and applied to both human and terrestrial animal diseases is the analysis of published scientific literature using the H-index method. We applied this method to salmon pathogens using Web of Science searches for 23 pathogens. The top 3 H-indices were obtained for: sea lice, furunculosis, and infectious salmon anaemia; post 2000, Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) replaced furunculosis. The number of publications per year describing bacterial disease declined significantly, while those for viruses and sea lice increased significantly. This reflects effective bacterial control by vaccination, while problems related to viruses and sea lice have increased. H-indices by country reflected different national concerns (e.g. AGD ranked top for Australia). Averaged national H-indices for salmon diseases tend to increase with log of salmon production; countries with H-Indices significantly below the trend line have suffered particularly large disease losses. The H-index method, supported by other literature analyses, is consistent with the nature and history of salmon diseases and so provides a useful quantitative measure for comparing different diseases in the absence of other measures. PMID:26952883

  20. Effects of water salinity on melatonin levels in plasma and peripheral tissues and on melatonin binding sites in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Lpez-Olmeda, J F; Oliveira, C; Kalamarz, H; Kulczykowska, E; Delgado, M J; Snchez-Vzquez, F J

    2009-04-01

    Sea bass is an euryhaline fish that lives in a wide range of salinities and migrates seasonally from lagoons to the open sea. However, to date, the influence of water salinity on sea bass melatonin levels has not been reported. Here, we evaluated the differences in plasma and tissue melatonin contents and melatonin binding sites in sea bass under four different salinity levels: seawater (36 per thousand), isotonic water (15 per thousand), brackish water (4 per thousand) and freshwater (0 per thousand). The melatonin content was evaluated in plasma, whole brain, gills, intestine and kidney, while melatonin binding sites were analyzed in different brain regions and in the neural retina. Plasma melatonin levels at mid-dark varied, the lowest value occurring in seawater (102 pg/mL), and the highest in freshwater (151 pg/mL). In gills and intestine, however, the highest melatonin values were found in the seawater group (209 and 627 pg/g tissue, respectively). Melatonin binding sites in the brain also varied with salinity, with the highest density observed at the lower salinities in the optic tectum, cerebellum and hypothalamus (30.3, 13.0, and 8.0 fmol/mg protein, respectively). Melatonin binding sites in the retina showed a similar pattern, with the highest values being observed in freshwater. Taken together, these results reveal that salinity influences melatonin production and modifies the density of binding sites, which suggests that this hormone could play a role in timing seasonal events in sea bass, including those linked to fish migration between waters of different salinities for reproduction and spawning. PMID:19110064

  1. A "virus" disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Epizootics among chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery have occurred periodically since 1941. A virus or virus-like filterable agent has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of this disease.

  2. THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  3. Classroom-Community Salmon Enhancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard-Gray, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook salmon in the classroom and later release them into a nearby stream. (TW)

  4. SALMON SPAWNING & REARING HABITAT IN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spawning & rearing, rearing only, and essential habitat identified by Oregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife for chum, coho, fall chinook, and spring chinook salmon in Oregon. Each of the species workspaces contains coverages specific to individual USGS hydrologic cataloging unit; each co...

  5. Salmon habitat assessment for conservation planning in the lower White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Allen, M. Brady

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Condit Dam was removed from the White Salmon River, Washington. Since dam removal, there has been interest among scientists (State and Federal), Tribes, non-profit organizations, and the general public in assessing Pacific salmon habitat and use in the White Salmon River for conservation planning and potential fishery management actions. The study area extended from the lower 6 miles of the White Salmon River to the confluence with the Columbia River, including the former reservoir area. The Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group received a grant to initiate efforts to plan for salmon habitat protection in the lower 6 river miles of the White Salmon River. As part of efforts by the Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group to conduct conservation planning, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used current and historical habitat information to assist in the planning process. The USGS compiled existing georeferenced habitat data into a Geographic Information System to identify areas of high quality habitat for salmon, potential areas for restoration/improvement, and areas that could be threatened. The primary sources of georeferenced data for this project include a lidar flight contracted by PacifiCorp, bathymetry from USGS, and fall Chinook salmon redd surveys from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Redd observations provided support that the study area is a migratory corridor for salmon and steelhead and that the lowest 23 miles had the highest concentration of documented fall Chinook salmon redds. The study area has potential for restoration/conservation areas to improve/conserve salmon habitat.

  6. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  7. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  8. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of a vasa homolog in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): tissue distribution and mRNA expression levels during early development and sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Blzquez, Mercedes; Gonzlez, Alicia; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Piferrer, Francesc

    2011-01-15

    Vasa is a protein expressed mainly in germ cells and conserved across taxa. However, sex-related differences and environmental influences on vasa expression have not been documented. This study characterized the cDNA of a vasa homolog in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchuslabrax (sb-vasa), a gonochoristic fish with temperature influences on gonadogenesis. The 1911 bp open reading frame predicted a 637-amino acid protein with the eight conserved domains typical of Vasa proteins. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequence with those of other vertebrates and invertebrates revealed the highest homology (68-85%) with those of other teleosts. An updated tree with the full-length sequences for Vasa proteins in 66 species belonging to six different phyla was constructed, establishing the evolutionary relationships of Vasa amino acid sequences. European sea bass vasa was highly expressed in gonads with little or no expression in other tissues. Real time RT-PCR quantification of the temporal expression of sb-vasa from early development throughout sex differentiation showed that mRNA levels were high in unfertilized eggs, decreased during larval development and increased again during the period of germ cell proliferation. Rearing of fish at high temperature resulted in further increased sb-vasa levels, most likely reflecting temperature effects on both somatic and gonadal growth. Differences in expression were also found well before sex differentiation and persisted until the end of the first year, with higher levels present in females. These differences in expression demonstrate the implication of vasa during the initial stages of fish sex differentiation and gametogenesis and suggest that, through its helicase activity, it might be implicated in the translational regulation of mRNAs involved in the specification and differentiation of gonadal-specific cell types. PMID:20955711

  10. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  11. Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2003-01-01

    In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon

  12. Genetic differentiation of Alaska Chinook salmon: the missing link for migratory studies.

    PubMed

    Templin, William D; Seeb, James E; Jasper, James R; Barclay, Andrew W; Seeb, Lisa W

    2011-03-01

    Most information about Chinook salmon genetic diversity and life history originates from studies from the West Coast USA, western Canada and southeast Alaska; less is known about Chinook salmon from western and southcentral Alaska drainages. Populations in this large area are genetically distinct from populations to the south and represent an evolutionary legacy of unique genetic, phenotypic and life history diversity. More genetic information is necessary to advance mixed stock analysis applications for studies involving these populations. We assembled a comprehensive, open-access baseline of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 172 populations ranging from Russia to California. We compare SNP data from representative populations throughout the range with particular emphasis on western and southcentral Alaska. We grouped populations into major lineages based upon genetic and geographic characteristics, evaluated the resolution for identifying the composition of admixtures and performed mixed stock analysis on Chinook salmon caught incidentally in the walleye pollock fishery in the Bering Sea. SNP data reveal complex genetic structure within Alaska and can be used in applications to address not only regional issues, but also migration pathways, bycatch studies on the high seas, and potential changes in the range of the species in response to climate change. PMID:21429177

  13. Identification and characterisation of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR) gene cluster in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, reveals recurrent gene expansion and diversification by positive selection

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Heiner; Milan, Massimo; Ritchie, David W.; Secombes, Christopher J.; Reinhardt, Richard; Bargelloni, Luca

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, a new gene family encoding non-rearranging receptors, called novel immune-type receptors (NITRs), has been discovered in teleost fish. NITRs belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and represent an extraordinarily divergent and rapidly evolving gene complex. Genomic analysis of a region spanning 270 kb led to the discovery of a NITR gene cluster in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In total, 27 NITR genes and three putative pseudogenes, organised in a tandemly arrayed cluster, were identified. Sea bass NITR genes maintain the three major genomic organisations that appear to be essentially conserved among fish species along with new features presumably involving processes of intron loss, exon deletion and acquisition of new exons. Comparative and evolutionary analyses suggest that these receptors have evolved following a “birth-and-death” model of gene evolution in which duplication events together with lineage-specific gain and loss of individual members contributed to the rapid diversification of individual gene families. In this study, we demonstrate that species-specific gene expansions provide the raw material for diversifying, positive Darwinian selection favouring the evolution of a highly diverse array of molecules. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-009-0398-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19851764

  14. Sequencing the genome of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Collaboration to Sequence the Atlantic Salmon Genome (ICSASG) will produce a genome sequence that identifies and physically maps all genes in the Atlantic salmon genome and acts as a reference sequence for other salmonids. PMID:20887641

  15. RHEOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SALMON PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rheological and thermal properties of salmon oil and biodiesel derived from salmon oil are important for designing processing equipment. For example, the viscosity of biodiesel at different temperatures is required for designing a heat exchanger for winterization purposes. Understanding rheological ...

  16. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  17. Salmon 2100: Some recovery strategies that just might work

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

  18. Directional selection by fisheries and the timing of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) migrations.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Thomas P; Hodgson, Sayre; Flynn, Lucy; Hilborn, Ray; Rogers, Donald E

    2007-04-01

    The timing of migration from feeding to breeding areas is a critical link between the growth and survival of adult animals, their reproduction, and the fitness of their progeny. Commercial fisheries often catch a large fraction of the migrants (e.g., salmon), and exploitation rates can vary systematically over the fishing season. We examined daily records of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the Egegik and Ugashik management districts in Bristol Bay, Alaska (USA), for evidence of such temporally selective fishing. In recent years, the early migrants have experienced lower fishing rates than later migrants, especially in the Egegik district, and the median migration date of the fish escaping the fisheries has been getting progressively earlier in both districts. Moreover, the overall runs (catch and escapement) in the Egegik district and, to a lesser extent the Ugashik district, have been getting earlier, as predicted in response to the selection on timing. The trends in timing were not correlated with sea surface temperature in the region of the North Pacific Ocean where the salmon tend to concentrate, but the trends in the two districts were correlated with each other, indicating that there may be some common environmental influence in addition to the effect of selection. Despite the selection, both groups of salmon have remained productive. We hypothesize that this resilience may result from representation of all component populations among the early and late migrants, so that the fisheries have not eliminated entire populations, and from density-dependent processes that may have helped maintain the productivity of these salmon populations. PMID:17494392

  19. Biogeomorphic impacts of migration and disturbance: Implications of salmon spawning and decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    Geomorphologic processes often involve a biotic element that acts to regulate landform development. This biotic element can be plant or animal-based with a feedback that ultimately benefits the ecology of the organism. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) are an example of an animal biogeomorphic agent exhibiting such feedbacks and, because of long migrations from the sea to freshwater spawning grounds, are a species of interest that act on both local and regional scales. Upon returning to their natal streams, salmon generate a dual disturbance, resuspending large amounts of sediment as they construct nests while at the same time generating a substantial nutrient pulse through post-spawn die-off and decay. The retention and export of these nutrients are of importance to any hypothesized productivity boost driven by the marine derived nutrients (MDNs). Using experimental enclosures in the Horsefly River spawning channel in north-central British Columbia, our objectives for this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of organic and inorganic sediment export and retention from an active-spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of fine sediment MDN storage. Using a suspended sediment mass balance model, marine isotope enrichment and a time series of gravel bed sediment infiltration, we found strongly linear relationships between sediment infiltration and marine-derived nutrient enrichment. Elevated suspended sediment produced by salmon redd (nest) construction acted as an effective vector for MDN infiltration into the gravel bed. This study demonstrated that localized patterns of sediment deposition are regulated by salmon activity which in turn act to control MDN storage within, and release from, the gravel bed. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the ability of a biogeomorphic agent like salmon to establish a feedback mechanism that creates favorable conditions which ultimately benefit the organism.

  20. Genetic identification and distribution of the parasitic larvae of Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) in European hake Merluccius merluccius from the Tyrrhenian Sea and Spanish Atlantic coast: implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Paolo; Smaldone, Giorgio; Acerra, Virginia; D'Angelo, Luisa; Anastasio, Aniello; Bellisario, Bruno; Palma, Giuseppe; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of the hake Merluccius merluccius is widespread in European countries, where this fish has a high commercial value. To date, different larval species of Anisakis have been identified as parasites in M. merluccius from European waters, Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) being the two most common. The aim of the study is to present data on the occurrence of Anisakis spp. larvae in the viscera and flesh of M. merluccius. Consequently, the distribution and infection rates of different species of Anisakis in different sites (viscera, and dorsal and ventral fillets) were investigated in hake caught in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (FAO 37.1.3) and the NE Atlantic Ocean (FAO 27 IXa). A sample of N=65 fish individuals (length>26 cm) was examined parasitologically from each fishing ground. The fillets were examined using the pepsin digestion method. A large number (1310) of Anisakis specimens were identified by multilocus allozyme electrophoresis (MAE) and mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis; among these, 814 larvae corresponded to A. simplex (s. s.) and 476 to A. pegreffii. They were found to infect both the flesh and the viscera. The two species co-infected the same individual fish (both in the viscera and in the flesh) from the FAO 27 area, whereas only A. pegreffii was found in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea. The average parasite burden of A. pegreffii in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea was significantly lower to that observed from hake off the Atlantic coast of Spain, both in prevalence and in abundance. In addition, whereas no significant difference in overall prevalence values was recorded between the two Anisakis species in the viscera of the FAO 27 sample, significant differences were found in the abundance levels observed between these species in the flesh, with A. simplex (s. s.) exhibiting significantly higher levels than that observed for A. pegreffii (p<0.001). Given that the pathogenic role in relation to man is known for these two species of Anisakis, both the flesh inspection and the infection rates of the different anisakid species assume particular importance in terms of assessing the risk they pose to humans. PMID:25584776

  1. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of above and below average strength of the Aleutian Low pressure system. During periods of stronger low pressure, sea surface temperature anomalies are warm in the northeast Pacific and cool in the central and northwest Pacific, a condition referred to as the positive phase of the Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation (PDO). Historically, during positive phases of the PDO Alaska salmon abundance is generally high. Consistent with this pattern, records of reconstructed sockeye salmon generally show higher abundance during warm periods over the past 300 years. However, the long-term trend suggests generally higher abundance during the cooler Little Ice Age, which southern Alaska glacial records suggest occurred between about 1200 - 1900 AD. The apparent complexity of salmon-climate relationships may be due to several factors. Long-term paleoclimate records from this region suggest additional modes of North Pacific climate variability, relative to the PDO. In addition, data on primary and secondary production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean indicates that climatic forcing has a direct impact on lower trophic levels, which subsequently affects salmon production. Thus records of ocean productivity, which are currently unavailable, may provide a mechanistic linkage between climate change and salmon abundance. The long-term perspective provided by the paleodata suggest that historical observations provide a limited understanding of how Pacific salmon respond to climatic change, and point to important areas of research necessary to better predict future responses.

  2. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

  3. The legacy of a vanished sea: a high level of diversification within a European freshwater amphipod species complex driven by 15 My of Paratethys regression.

    PubMed

    Mamos, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi; Burzyński, Artur; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-02-01

    The formation of continental Europe in the Neogene was due to the regression of the Tethys Ocean and of the Paratethys Sea. The dynamic geology of the area and repetitious transitions between marine and freshwater conditions presented opportunities for the colonization of newly emerging hydrological networks and diversification of aquatic biota. Implementing mitochondrial and nuclear markers in conjunction with a large-scale sampling strategy, we investigated the impact of this spatiotemporal framework on the evolutionary history of a freshwater crustacean morphospecies. The Gammarus balcanicus species complex is widely distributed in the area previously occupied by the Paratethys Sea. Our results revealed its high diversification and polyphyly in relation to a number of other morphospecies. The distribution of the studied amphipod is generally characterized by very high local endemism and divergence. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny and geographical distribution of ancestral nodes indicates that this species complex started to diversify in the Early Miocene in the central Balkans, partially in the shallow epicontinental sea. It is possible that there were several episodes of inland water colonization by local brackish water lineages. Subsequent diversification within clades and spread to new areas could have been induced by Alpine orogeny in the Miocene/Pliocene and, finally, by Pleistocene glaciations. The present distribution of clades, in many cases, still reflects Miocene palaeogeography of the area. Our results point out that investigations of the historical aspect of cryptic diversity in other taxa may help in a general understanding of the origins of freshwater invertebrate fauna of Europe. PMID:26615060

  4. Scientists Strategize at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists (L to R) Emily Waldt, Ross Abbett, and Jim Johnson chat with Dan Bishop (far left)of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation while watching hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon&nbs...

  5. USGS Scientists Prepare to Release Salmon into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Ross Abbett transfers young Atlantic salmon from their transportation tank on the back of a truck to small buckets for release into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminishe...

  6. 7,000 Atlantic Salmon Transported in Tank

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    About 7,000 young Atlantic salmon are transported in a large tank from the USGS Tunison Laboratory in Cortland, N.Y., to Beaverdam Brook in Altmar for release. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish...

  7. POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  8. Anisakis simplex (s.s.) larvae in wild Alaska salmon: no indication of post-mortem migration from viscera into flesh.

    PubMed

    Karl, Horst; Baumann, Florian; Ostermeyer, Ute; Kuhn, Thomas; Klimpel, Sven

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of Anisakis nematode third-stage larvae (L3) in the muscle and viscera of wild-caught chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, pink salmon O. gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka were compared immediately after catch. Salmon were collected during the fishing season in July 2007 in Bristol Bay and Prince William Sound close to Cordova, Alaska (USA). All fish were infected, and more than 90% of the nematode larvae were found in the edible muscle meat. The isolated anisakid L3 were genetically identified as A. simplex (s.s.). The distribution of nematodes in the muscle meat of fresh-caught salmon was examined in 49 O. keta, 50 O. nerka and 12 O. gorbuscha from Cordova. Most of the larvae were detected in the muscle parts around the body cavity, but nematodes were also found in the tail meat and epaxial muscle (loins). The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in the edible part was 21 individuals for O. gorbuscha, 62 individuals for O. keta and 63 individuals for O. nerka. No difference in the intensity of Anisakis larvae in the hypaxial muscle was found between fresh-caught and immediately gutted salmon and individuals stored ungutted for 24 h either on ice or in refrigerated sea water. PMID:21790067

  9. Microbiological spoilage and volatiles production of gutted European sea bass stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere package at 2C.

    PubMed

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Nychas, George-John E; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Microbiological, sensory, TVB-N and TMA-N changes and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) detection using the SPME/GC-MS technique, were performed to evaluate potential chemical spoilage indices (CSI) of gutted sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored at 2C under air and in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP CO2: 60%, O2: 10%, N2: 30%). Shelf-life, determined by sensory evaluation, of gutted sea bass stored at 2C under air and MAP was 9 and 13d respectively. Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria were among the dominant spoilage microorganisms under both storage conditions, while Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta were co-dominant with Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria under MAP. The traditional CSIs such as TVB-N and TMA-N were increased substantially only at the late stages of storage or after rejection of the products, making them unsuitable for freshness/spoilage monitoring throughout storage. A substantial number of VOCs attributed to microbiological action or chemical activity, were detected including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids and esters. The level of microbial origin VOCs such as ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal and some ethyl esters increased during storage, suggesting their potential as CSIs. PMID:25998814

  10. Mixture toxicity effects of sea louse control agents in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephanie; Altenburger, Rolf; Sturm, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Caligid sea lice are ectoparasites causing major disease problems in industrial salmon farming. Sea louse control currently relies widely on parasiticides. Among non-target species, crustaceans are particularly susceptible to salmon delousing agents. Drug combinations have recently been suggested for sea louse control; however, no information is available on the non-target effects of such mixtures. To obtain first insights into combination effects of salmon parasiticides, acute toxicity tests with the crustacean model species Daphnia magna were conducted. Four compounds, including two organophosphates and two pyrethroids, were tested individually and in all pair-wise combinations at one fixed concentration ratio. For most combinations, observed toxicities were close to predictions assuming concentration additivity. However, deltamethrin and cypermethrin showed greater than predicted combination effects, while the inverse was observed for deltamethrin and malathion. The results demonstrate combination effects of anti-sea louse agents and suggest that predictions based on concentration additivity are in most cases protective. PMID:26401637

  11. Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (p<0.05). CSP performed slightly better than FSP at inhibiting salmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. PMID:25624255

  12. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  13. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes. PMID:26434500

  14. Teratological hermaphroditism in the chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1957-01-01

    The anomalous condition of hermaphroditism appears to be no less rare in fish than in other normally dioecious animals. Previous records of bisexuality' in the Pacific salmons, Oncorhynchus spp., are few in number despite the intensive study accorded this group. Rutter (1902) reported the condition in two king salmon (O. tshawytscha); Crawford (1927) reported the condition in a silver salmon (O. kisutch); and Gibbs (1956) described a bisexual steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and briefly noted another instance of hermaphroditism in the king salmon. We wish to record an example of this anomaly in the chum salmon (O. keta).

  15. Isolation and characterization of Ff1 and Gsdf family genes in European sea bass and identification of early gonadal markers of precocious puberty in males.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Berta; Gmez, Ana; Mazn, Mara Jos; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia

    2013-09-15

    Puberty represents the transition from an immature to a mature reproductive stage. The mechanisms underlying the onset of normal or precocious puberty have not yet been elucidated. With the goal of gaining an understanding of early events that occur in the testes of precocious animals during this process, a hemigonadectomy was performed on male juvenile sea bass and expression levels of candidate mRNAs were determined through quantitative real-time RT-PCR. For this purpose, the gonadal soma-derived factors gsdf1 and gsdf2, the nuclear receptor 5 subfamily members nr5a1a (ff1b), nr5a1b (ff1d), nr5a2 (ff1a) and nr5a5 (ff1c) and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen or pcna, genes with a putative role in the beginning of spermatogenesis, were isolated and cloned. Hemigonadectomy proved to be a suitable strategy for the study of gonadal stages prior to the appearance of histological differences between precocious and non-precocious fish, as it allowed the subsequent classification of these gonads. The upregulation of the gene encoding the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star) in precocious testes indicates that sex steroids could play a role in the onset of spermatogenesis in sea bass. In contrast, the downregulation observed in ff1b expression indicates that this initial surge in star expression is not the result of Ff1b transactivation, suggesting an alternative pathway for this transcriptional activation. Finally, a decrease in gsdf1 expression in precocious animals suggests that this gene may play a role in the onset of puberty, while its correlation with ff1b expression points to gsdf1 as a putative target for Ff1b-mediated transactivation. PMID:23791759

  16. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  17. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

  18. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Carlson, T J; Li, H; Xiao, J; Myjak, M J; Lu, J; Martinez, J J; Woodley, C M; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

  19. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation, and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  20. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation,more » and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.« less

  1. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  2. Sea Grant Extension Crucial Link to Coastal Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumbos, John

    1997-01-01

    University of California Sea Grant Extension Program provides training and technical assistance to fishers, farmers, planners, and conservationists on projects such as coastal ecosystem health, marine environmental protection, fisheries management, aquaculture, salmon habitat restoration, and controlling nonpoint-source pollution; supports

  3. Sea Grant Extension Crucial Link to Coastal Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumbos, John

    1997-01-01

    University of California Sea Grant Extension Program provides training and technical assistance to fishers, farmers, planners, and conservationists on projects such as coastal ecosystem health, marine environmental protection, fisheries management, aquaculture, salmon habitat restoration, and controlling nonpoint-source pollution; supports…

  4. Evaluation of a chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in both the laboratory and the field. Chinook salmon in laboratory tanks were fed alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), the predominant food of chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. Food consumption and growth by chinook salmon during the experiment were measured. To estimate the efficiency with which chinook salmon retain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from their food in the laboratory, PCB concentrations of the alewife and of the chinook salmon at both the beginning and end of the experiment were determined. Based on our laboratory evaluation, the bioenergetics model was furnishing unbiased estimates of food consumption by chinook salmon. Additionally, from the laboratory experiment, we calculated that chinook salmon retained 75% of the PCBs contained within their food. In an earlier study, assimilation rate of PCBs to chinook salmon from their food in Lake Michigan was estimated at 53%, thereby suggesting that the model was substantially overestimating food consumption by chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. However, we concluded that field performance of the model could not be accurately assessed because PCB assimilation efficiency is dependent on feeding rate, and feeding rate of chinook salmon was likely much lower in our laboratory tanks than in Lake Michigan.

  5. Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

  6. HEALTHY STOCKS OF NW SALMON FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geographic distribution of eight species/races of Pacific salmon and steelhead (spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, summer steelhead and winter steelhead. The data are based upon the Oregon Trout report Healthy Native Stock...

  7. Calcium response of KCl-excited populations of ventricular myocytes from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): a promising approach to integrate cell-to-cell heterogeneity in studying the cellular basis of fish cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Hlne; Marchant, James; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Servili, Arianna; Claireaux, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Climate change challenges the capacity of fishes to thrive in their habitat. However, through phenotypic diversity, they demonstrate remarkable resilience to deteriorating conditions. In fish populations, inter-individual variation in a number of fitness-determining physiological traits, including cardiac performance, is classically observed. Information about the cellular bases of inter-individual variability in cardiac performance is scarce including the possible contribution of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. This study aimed at providing insight into EC coupling-related Ca(2+) response and thermal plasticity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A cell population approach was used to lay the methodological basis for identifying the cellular determinants of cardiac performance. Fish were acclimated at 12 and 22C and changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) following KCl stimulation were measured using Fura-2, at 12 or 22C-test. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i resulted primarily from extracellular Ca(2+) entry but sarcoplasmic reticulum stores were also shown to be involved. As previously reported in sea bass, a modest effect of adrenaline was observed. Moreover, although the response appeared relatively insensitive to an acute temperature change, a difference in Ca(2+) response was observed between 12- and 22C-acclimated fish. In particular, a greater increase in [Ca(2+)]i at a high level of adrenaline was observed in 22C-acclimated fish that may be related to an improved efficiency of adrenaline under these conditions. In conclusion, this method allows a rapid screening of cellular characteristics. It represents a promising tool to identify the cellular determinants of inter-individual variability in fishes' capacity for environmental adaptation. PMID:26205950

  8. CAN WE SUSTAIN WILD SALMON THROUGH 2100? THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for presentation Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appe...

  9. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

  10. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

  11. Life history reconstruction of modern and fossil sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) by oxygen isotopic analysis of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth: Implication for paleoenvironmental reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazzo, A.; Smith, G. R.; Patterson, W. P.; Dufour, E.

    2006-09-01

    We evaluate the use of oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite for tracking freshwater to marine migration in modern and fossil Pacific sockeye salmon. Oxygen isotope analyses of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth of three anadromous modern sockeye salmon from Alaska establish a basis for the interpretation of fossil vertebrae and tooth apatite from Pleistocene sockeye salmon of the Skokomish River Valley, Washington. High resolution δ18O profiles in salmon otoliths provide, at a monthly resolution, a detailed record of individual history including continental rearing, migration to sea, seasonal variation in sea surface temperatures during marine life, and spawning migration before capture. Pacific salmon teeth are constantly renewed with the last set of teeth forming under the influence of freshwater. Therefore, they do not allow inference concerning sea-run versus landlocked life history in fossil salmon. Salmon vertebrae are also ambiguous indicators of life history regarding fresh versus marine water because centra are minimally ossified in the freshwater stages of life and the outermost layer of vertebral bone might be resorbed to provide nutrients during the non-feeding phase of the spawning migration. Therefore, δ18O values of accretionary growth rings in sea-run salmon vertebrae are dominated by the marine signal only if they are not diagenetically altered in freshwater deposits. In Pleistocene sockeye reported here, neither the teeth nor vertebral apatite present clear marine δ18O values due to the combined effects of tooth replacement and diagenetic alteration of bone and dentine. δ18O(PO 4) values of fossil vertebrae are intermediate between δ18O(PO 4) values of enamel and basal tooth dentin. Assuming a similar rate of isotope exchange of vertebrae and dentine with freshwater during diagenesis, these results are interpreted to reflect formation of the teeth under the influence of freshwater, and formation of the vertebrae under the influence of oceanic water. Our approach demonstrates that when appropriate knowledge of tissue formation is available, isotopic differences between altered and unaltered tissue holds promise of distinguishing between marine and freshwater origin of the tissues.

  12. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is highly expressed and active in the ovary of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), during gonadal development.

    PubMed

    Jos Ibez, Antonio; Peinado-Onsurbe, Julia; Snchez, Elisa; Cerd-Reverter, Jos Miguel; Prat, Francisco

    2008-07-01

    The oocytes of many fish species accumulate high amounts of neutral lipids as a caloric reserve for embryonic and larval development. We propose that lipoprotein lipase (LPL, EC 3.1.1.34) plays an important role in supplying the oocytes with fatty acids and we have cloned its cDNA from the ovary of sea bass, and determined the patterns of LPL activity and LPL mRNA expression in the ovary. The cDNA obtained was 3051 bp long with an open reading frame encoding 518 amino acids. The amino acid sequence has a high similarity and shows similar structural features to LPL of other species. Northern blot analysis revealed LPL expression in adipose tissue and gonads only. LPL activity and LPL mRNA expression in the ovary was very high in fish with a gonadosomatic index (GSI) above 5, coinciding with the appearance of a high number of lipid droplets in the ooplasm. The LPL mRNA expression was localised to the follicle cells surrounding the oocyte. Our results suggest that LPL is likely to play an important role in the incorporation of neutral lipids into the oocytes, and that follicle cells, in addition to participating in steroidogenesis, also may be important in building up oocyte lipid reserves. PMID:18511315

  13. The hydrological context determines the beta-diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in European Arctic seas but does not favor endemism

    PubMed Central

    Lehours, Anne-Catherine; Jeanthon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of studies over the last 15 years, aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophic (AAP) bacteria remain a puzzling functional group in terms of physiology, metabolism, and ecology. To contribute to a better knowledge of their environmental distribution, the present study aims at analyzing their diversity and structure at the boundary between the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents Seas. The polymorphism of a marker gene encoding a sub-unit of the photosynthetic apparatus (pufM gene) was analyzed and attempted to be related to environmental parameters. The Atlantic or Arctic origin of water masses had a strong impact on the AAP bacterial community structure whose populations mostly belonged to the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. A majority (>60%) of pufM sequences were affiliated to the Gammaproteobacteria reasserting that this class often represents the major component of the AAP bacterial community in oceanic regions. Two alphaproteobacterial groups dominate locally suggesting that they can constitute key players in this marine system transiently. We found that temperature is a major determinant of alpha diversity of AAP bacteria in this marine biome with specific clades emerging locally according to the partitioning of water masses. Whereas we expected specific AAP bacterial populations in this peculiar and newly explored ecosystem, most pufM sequences were highly related to sequences retrieved elsewhere. This observation highlights that the studied area does not favor AAP bacteria endemism but also opens new questions about the truthfulness of biogeographical patterns and on the extent of AAP bacterial diversity. PMID:26191046

  14. Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  15. Basis of acoustic discrimination of Chinook salmon from other salmons by echolocating Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Horne, John K; Jones, Christopher

    2010-10-01

    The "resident" ecotype of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the waters of British Columbia and Washington State have a strong preference for Chinook salmon even in months when Chinook comprise less than about 10% of the salmon population. The foraging behavior of killer whales suggests that they depend on echolocation to detect and recognize their prey. In order to determine possible cues in echoes from salmon species, a series of backscatter measurements were made at the Applied Physics Laboratory (Univ. of Wash.) Facility on Lake Union, on three different salmon species using simulated killer whale echolocation signals. The fish were attached to a monofilament net panel and rotated while echoes were collected, digitized and stored on a laptop computer. Three transducer depths were used; same depth, 22 and 45 above the horizontal plane of the fish. Echoes were collected from five Chinook, three coho and one sockeye salmon. Radiograph images of all specimens were obtained to examine the swimbladder shape and orientation. The results show that echo structure from similar length but different species of salmon were different and probably recognizable by foraging killer whales. PMID:20968392

  16. Phylogenetic analysis and serotyping of Vibrio splendidus-related bacteria isolated from salmon farm cleaner fish.

    PubMed

    Gulla, Snorre; Srum, Henning; Vgnes, yvind; Colquhoun, Duncan J

    2015-12-01

    Cleaner fish, i.e. various wrasse (Labridae) species and lumpsucker Cyclopterus lumpus, are to an increasing extent used for biocontrol of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis in European salmon farming. Although efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon farms are often high. Bacterial infections are common, and Vibrio splendidus-related strains are frequently identified during diagnostic investigations. The population structure of 112 V. splendidus-related isolates, derived primarily from wrasse species, was investigated by means of multilocus sequence analysis using 5 housekeeping genes (rpoD, ftsZ, pyrH, rpoA and atpA). Most isolates were found to be closely related to the V. splendidus type strain, yet displayed extensive genetic microdiversity. Slide agglutination testing using polyclonal rabbit antisera further indicated O-antigen variability. Intra-outbreak genetic and antigenic diversity suggests direct infection from seawater, rather than fish-to-fish transmission, as the main route of infection. The variable nature of isolates involved complicates qualified selection of representative candidate strains, e.g. for infection and vaccine trials. PMID:26648104

  17. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, Lee W.

    1985-02-01

    The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.

  18. A Novel Betaproteobacterial Agent of Gill Epitheliocystis in Seawater Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Toenshoff, Elena R.; Kvellestad, Agnar; Mitchell, Susan O.; Steinum, Terje; Falk, Knut; Colquhoun, Duncan J.; Horn, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Epitheliocystis, a disease characterised by cytoplasmic bacterial inclusions (cysts) in the gill and less commonly skin epithelial cells, has been reported in many marine and freshwater fish species and may be associated with mortality. Previously, molecular and ultrastructural analyses have exclusively associated members of the Chlamydiae with such inclusions. Here we investigated a population of farmed Atlantic salmon from the west coast of Norway displaying gill epitheliocystis. Although Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis, previously reported to be present in such cysts, was detected by PCR in most of the gill samples analysed, this bacterium was found to be a rare member of the gill microbiota, and not associated with the observed cysts as demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization assays. The application of a broad range 16 S rRNA targeted PCR assay instead identified a novel betaproteobacterium as an abundant member of the gill microbiota. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated that this bacterium, tentatively classified as Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, was the cyst-forming agent in these samples. While histology and ultrastructure of Ca. B. cysticola cysts revealed forms similar to the reticulate and intermediate bodies described in earlier reports from salmon in seawater, no elementary bodies typical of the chlamydial developmental cycle were observed. In conclusion, this study identified a novel agent of epitheliocystis in sea-farmed Atlantic salmon and demonstrated that these cysts can be caused by bacteria phylogenetically distinct from the Chlamydiae. PMID:22427865

  19. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1983-1984 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, David L.

    1985-04-01

    Hydroelectric development coupled with numerous other encroachments on the supply and quality of water has reduced the natural habitat for the spawning and rearing of salmon in the Columbia river system. Artificial production in hatcheries has become a critical link in the restoration of natural stocks of salmon. Released hatchery salmon must survive predation, be able to acquire sustainable nutrients under natural conditions, possess the vitality to surmount man-made impediments to seaward migration and adapt to a sea water environment. Survival of hatchery salmonids is dependent upon a number of factors. Time of release, natural food abundance, fish size and the health and/or quality of smolts all play synergistic roles. The nutritional and physical characteristics of ration regimes for hatchery fish plays a major role in determining the effectiveness of hatchery production and the health and/or quality of smolts.Ration regimes containing high quality components in uniform and fine-free pellet forms produce efficient growth response and minimize loss of nutrients maintaining the quality of hatchery water supply. Under such feed regimes, fish are less susceptible to disease and more uniform and desirable fish sizes can be achieved at release time. High quality smolts would help to optimize out-migration survival and successful adaptation to salt water.

  20. Vaccination and triploidy increase relative heart weight in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Fraser, T W K; Mayer, I; Hansen, T; Poppe, T T; Skjaeraasen, J E; Koppang, E O; Fjelldal, P G

    2015-02-01

    Heart morphology is particularly plastic in teleosts and differs between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon. However, little is known about how different culture practices and sex affect heart morphology. This study investigated how vaccination, triploidy and sex affected heart size and heart morphology (ventricle shape, angle of the bulbus arteriosus) in farmed Atlantic salmon for 18 months following vaccination (from c. 50-3000 g body weight). In addition, hearts were examined histologically after 7 months in sea water. All fish sampled were sexually immature. Vaccinated fish had significantly heavier hearts relative to body weight and a more triangular ventricle than unvaccinated fish, suggesting a greater cardiac workload. Irrespective of time, triploids had significantly heavier hearts relative to body weight, a more acute angle of the bulbus arteriosus and less fat deposition in the epicardium than diploids. The ventricle was also more triangular in triploids than diploids at seawater transfer. Sex had transient effects on the angle of the bulbus arteriosus, but no effect on relative heart weight or ventricle shape. From a morphological perspective, the results indicate that vaccination and triploidy increase cardiac workload in farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:24422684

  1. n-TiO2 and CdCl2 co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles and cadmium: Genomic, DNA and chromosomal damage evaluation in the marine fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Nigro, M; Bernardeschi, M; Costagliola, D; Della Torre, C; Frenzilli, G; Guidi, P; Lucchesi, P; Mottola, F; Santonastaso, M; Scarcelli, V; Monaci, F; Corsi, I; Stingo, V; Rocco, L

    2015-11-01

    Due to the large production and growing use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO2), their release in the marine environment and their potential interaction with existing toxic contaminants represent a growing concern for biota. Different end-points of genotoxicity were investigated in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax exposed to n-TiO2 (1mgL(-1)) either alone and combined with CdCl2 (0.1mgL(-1)) for 7 days. DNA primary damage (comet assay), apoptotic cells (diffusion assay), occurrence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities (cytome assay) were assessed in peripheral erythrocytes and genomic stability (random amplified polymorphism DNA-PCR, RAPD assay) in muscle tissue. Results showed that genome template stability was reduced after CdCl2 and n-TiO2 exposure. Exposure to n-TiO2 alone was responsible for chromosomal alteration but ineffective in terms of DNA damage; while the opposite was observed in CdCl2 exposed specimens. Co-exposure apparently prevents the chromosomal damage and leads to a partial recovery of the genome template stability. PMID:26448269

  2. Gut morphology and hepatic oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles fed plant feedstuffs or fishmeal-based diets supplemented with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides and xylo-oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2015-12-28

    The effects of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on gut morphology and hepatic oxidative status were studied in European sea bass juveniles weighing 60 g. Fish were fed diets including fishmeal (FM diets) or plant feedstuffs (PF diets; 30 FM:70 PF) as main protein sources (control diets). Four other diets were formulated similar to the control diets but including 1 % scFOS or 1 % XOS. At the end of the trial, fish fed PF-based diets presented histomorphological alterations in the distal intestine, whereas only transient alterations were observed in the pyloric caeca. Comparatively to fish fed FM-based diets, fish fed PF diets had higher liver lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lower glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. In fish fed the PF diets, prebiotic supplementation decreased SOD activity and XOS supplementation further decreased CAT activity. In fish fed the FM diets, XOS supplementation promoted a reduction of all antioxidant enzyme activities. Overall, dietary XOS and scFOS supplementation had only minor effects on gut morphology or LPO levels. However, dietary XOS reduced antioxidant enzymatic activity in both PF and FM diets, which indicate a positive effect on reduction of hepatic reactive oxygen species production. PMID:26435350

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics and air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes during coccolithophorid blooms in the Northeast European continental margin (northern Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suykens, Kim; Delille, Bruno; Chou, Lei; de Bodt, Caroline; Harlay, Jrme; Borges, Alberto V.

    2010-05-01

    We present a data-set of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) obtained during three cruises in the northern Bay of Biscay carried out in June 2006, May 2007, and May 2008. During these cruises, blooms of coccolithophores occurred, as indicated by patches of high reflectance on remote sensing images, phytoplankton pigment signatures, and microscopic examinations. Total alkalinity (TA) showed a non-conservative behaviour as a function of salinity due to the cumulated effect of net community calcification (NCC) during bloom development on seawater carbonate chemistry. The cumulated impact of NCC and net community production (NCP) on DIC and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were evaluated. The decrease of DIC (and increase of pCO2) due to NCC was overwhelmingly lower than the decrease of DIC (and decrease of pCO2) due to NCP (NCC:NCP << 1). During the cruises, the northern Bay of Biscay acted as a sink of atmospheric CO2 (on average ~-9.7 mmol C m-2 d-1 for the 3 cruises). The overall effect of NCC in decreasing the CO2 sink during the cruises was low (on average ~12% of total air-sea CO2 flux). If this is a general feature in naturally occurring phytoplankton blooms in the northern North Atlantic Ocean (where coccolithophorid blooms are the most intense and recurrent), and in the global ocean, then the potential feed-back on increasing atmospheric CO2 of the projected decrease of pelagic calcification due to thermodynamic CO2 "production" from calcification is probably minor compared to feed-backs related to changes of NCP.

  4. Estuarine Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Western Alaska: a Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, large declines in numbers of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha returning to the Arctic-YukonKuskokwim (AYK) region (Alaska, USA) illuminated the need for an improved understanding of the variables controlling salmon abundance at all life stages. In addressing questions about salmon abundance, large gaps in our knowledge of basic salmon life history and the critical early marine life stage were revealed. In this paper, results from studies conducted on the estuarine ecology of juvenile salmon in western Alaska are summarized and compared, emphasizing timing and distribution during outmigration, environmental conditions, age and growth, feeding, and energy content of salmon smolts. In western Alaska, water temperature dramatically changes with season, ranging from 0C after ice melt in late spring/early summer to 19C in July. Juvenile salmon were found in AYK estuaries from early May until August or September, but to date no information is available on their residence duration or survival probability. Chum salmon were the most abundant juvenile salmon reported, ranging in percent catch from <0.1% to 4.7% and most research effort has focused on this species. Abundances of Chinook salmon, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and pink salmon O. gorbuscha varied among estuaries, while coho salmon O. kisutch juveniles were consistently rare, never amounting to more than 0.8% of the catch. Dietary composition of juvenile salmon was highly variable and a shift was commonly reported from epibenthic and neustonic prey in lower salinity water to pelagic prey in higher salinity water. Gaps in the knowledge of AYK salmon estuarine ecology are still evident. For example, data on outmigration patterns and residence timing and duration, rearing conditions and their effect on diet, growth, and survival are often completely lacking or available only for few selected years and sites. Filling gaps in knowledge concerning salmon use and survival in estuarine and near-shore habitats within the AYK region will aid in assessing the relative roles of all habitats (freshwater to marine) in controlling salmon abundance.

  5. Eco-evolutionary dynamics in Pacific salmon

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, S M; Quinn, T P; Hendry, A P

    2011-01-01

    Increasing acceptance of the idea that evolution can proceed rapidly has generated considerable interest in understanding the consequences of ongoing evolutionary change for populations, communities and ecosystems. The nascent field of ‘eco-evolutionary dynamics' considers these interactions, including reciprocal feedbacks between evolution and ecology. Empirical support for eco-evolutionary dynamics has emerged from several model systems, and we here present some possibilities for diverse and strong effects in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We specifically focus on the consequences that natural selection on body size can have for salmon population dynamics, community (bear-salmon) interactions and ecosystem process (fluxes of salmon biomass between habitats). For example, we find that shifts in body size because of selection can alter fluxes across habitats by up to 11% compared with ecological (that is, numerical) effects. More generally, we show that selection within a generation can have large effects on ecological dynamics and so should be included within a complete eco-evolutionary framework. PMID:21224877

  6. Echo characteristics of two salmon species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealson, Patrick A.; Horne, John K.; Burwen, Debby L.

    2005-04-01

    The Alaska Department of Fish and Game relies on split-beam hydroacoustic techniques to estimate Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returns to the Kenai River. Chinook counts are periodically confounded by large numbers of smaller sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Echo target-strength has been used to distinguish fish length classes, but was too variable to separate Kenai River chinook and sockeye distributions. To evaluate the efficacy of alternate echo metrics, controlled acoustic measurements of tethered chinook and sockeye salmon were collected at 200 kHz. Echo returns were digitally sampled at 48 kHz. A suite of descriptive metrics were collected from a series of 1,000 echoes per fish. Measurements of echo width were least variable at the -3 dB power point. Initial results show echo elongation and ping-to-ping variability in echo envelope width were significantly greater for chinook than for sockeye salmon. Chinook were also observed to return multiple discrete peaks from a single broadcast echo. These characteristics were attributed to the physical width of chinook exceeding half of the broadcast echo pulse width at certain orientations. Echo phase variability, correlation coefficient and fractal dimension distributions did not demonstrate significant discriminatory power between the two species. [Work supported by ADF&G, ONR.

  7. SALMON RECOVERY: CATEGORIZING AGENTS, DRIVERS, AND DELUSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the downward trajectory for wild sal...

  8. Eco-evolutionary dynamics in Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Carlson, S M; Quinn, T P; Hendry, A P

    2011-03-01

    Increasing acceptance of the idea that evolution can proceed rapidly has generated considerable interest in understanding the consequences of ongoing evolutionary change for populations, communities and ecosystems. The nascent field of 'eco-evolutionary dynamics' considers these interactions, including reciprocal feedbacks between evolution and ecology. Empirical support for eco-evolutionary dynamics has emerged from several model systems, and we here present some possibilities for diverse and strong effects in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We specifically focus on the consequences that natural selection on body size can have for salmon population dynamics, community (bear-salmon) interactions and ecosystem process (fluxes of salmon biomass between habitats). For example, we find that shifts in body size because of selection can alter fluxes across habitats by up to 11% compared with ecological (that is, numerical) effects. More generally, we show that selection within a generation can have large effects on ecological dynamics and so should be included within a complete eco-evolutionary framework. PMID:21224877

  9. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  10. Animal navigation: salmon track magnetic variation.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C

    2013-02-18

    How animals navigate long distances to specific targets remains enigmatic. For Pacific salmon, new evidence suggests fish imprint on the magnetic coordinates of their home river and use this information to guide their return from distant open-ocean feeding areas. PMID:23428320

  11. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible syngas in a high temperature (above 700 C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  12. SALMON AND NATIVE FISH HABITAT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research described in this project deals with the influence of human activities on aquatic and aquatic-dependent biota at landscape, watershed, and regional scales. Specifically, it will examine watershed and landscape scale habitat issues affecting salmon and native fishes i...

  13. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  14. Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our

  15. The economic benefits of disease triggered early harvest: A case study of pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon from Norway.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Rich, K M; Jensen, B Bang; Aunsmo, A

    2015-10-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is an important viral disease in Norwegian, Scottish and Irish aquaculture causing biological losses in terms of reduced growth, mortality, increased feed conversion ratio, and carcass downgrading. We developed a bio-economic model to investigate the economic benefits of a disease triggered early harvesting strategy to control PD losses. In this strategy, the salmon farm adopts a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) diagnostic screening program to monitor the virus levels in stocks. Virus levels are used to forecast a clinical outbreak of pancreas disease, which then initiates a prescheduled harvest of the stock to avoid disease losses. The model is based on data inputs from national statistics, literature, company data, and an expert panel, and use stochastic simulations to account for the variation and/or uncertainty associated with disease effects and selected production expenditures. With the model, we compared the impacts of a salmon farm undergoing prescheduled harvest versus the salmon farm going through a PD outbreak. We also estimated the direct costs of a PD outbreak as the sum of biological losses, treatment costs, prevention costs, and other additional costs, less the costs of insurance pay-outs. Simulation results suggests that the economic benefit from a prescheduled harvest is positive once the average salmon weight at the farm has reached 3.2kg or more for an average Norwegian salmon farm stocked with 1,000,000smolts and using average salmon sales prices for 2013. The direct costs from a PD outbreak occurring nine months (average salmon weight 1.91kg) after sea transfer and using 2013 sales prices was on average estimated at NOK 55.4 million (5%, 50% and 90% percentile: 38.0, 55.8 and 72.4) (NOK=€0.128 in 2013). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the losses from a PD outbreak are sensitive to feed- and salmon sales prices, and that high 2013 sales prices contributed to substantial losses associated with a PD outbreak. PMID:26297077

  16. Juvenile Salmon Usage of the Skeena River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Moore, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2–8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected. PMID:25749488

  17. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Wheat, Rachel E; Allen, Jennifer M; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability. PMID:26339539

  18. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    PubMed

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected. PMID:25749488

  19. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Rachel E.; Allen, Jennifer M.; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability. PMID:26339539

  20. Trace metals in tissues of the six most common fish species in the Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Didem; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Ag and Pb in scale, skin, muscle, gills, liver and the gonads of Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Black Sea salmon (Salmo trutta labrax), Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and Whiting (Merlangius merlangius euxinus) from the Black Sea, in Turkey, were investigated. Elemental analyses were performed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after sample preparation by microwave digestion. Mean metal concentrations in different tissues were in the following ranges: Mn 0.09-23.1, Fe 0.58-326, Co 0.01-0.22, Ni 0.03-1.34, As 0.13-3.40, Se 0.13-4.42, Ag 0.01-0.18, Cd 0.32-6.25, Pb 0.02-0.38 mg kg⁻¹ wet weight. Metal concentrations in the muscles of the examined species were generally lower than those in scale, skin, gills, liver and the gonads. The described method was validated by analysis of Dogfish Liver-certified reference material, DOLT-4. PMID:25082436

  1. Wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho: Some recovery strategies that just might work

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify salmon recovery options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project doe...

  2. Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish use these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

  3. Ichthyophoniasis: An emerging disease of Chinook salmon in the Yukon River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Winton, J.

    2004-01-01

    Before 1985, Ichthyophonus was unreported among Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. from the Yukon River; now it infects more than 40% of returning adult Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha. Overall infection prevalence reached about 45% in the Yukon River and about 30% in the Tanana River between 1999 and 2003. Mean infection prevalence was greater in females than males in the main-stem Yukon River during each of the 5 years of the study, but the infection prevalence in males increased each year until the difference was no longer significant. Clinical signs of ichthyophoniasis (presence of visible punctate white lesions in internal organs) were least at the mouth of the Yukon River (???10%) but increased to 29% when fish reached the middle Yukon River and was 22% at the upper Tanana River. However, clinical signs increased each year from 7% in 1999 to 27% in 2003 at the mouth of the river. As fish approached the upper reaches of the Yukon River (Canada) and the spawning areas of the Chena and Salcha rivers (Alaska), infection prevalence dropped significantly to less than 15% in females on the Yukon River and less than 10% for both sexes in the Chena and Salcha rivers, presumably because of mortality among infected prespawn fish. Age was not a factor in infection prevalence, nor was the position of fish within the run. The source of infection was not determined, but Ichthyophonus was not found in 400 Pacific herring Clupea pallasi from the Bering Sea or in 120 outmigrating juvenile Chinook salmon from two drainages in Alaska and Canada. Freshwater burbot Lota lota from the middle Yukon River were subclinically infected with Ichthyophonus, but the origin and relationship of this agent to the Chinook salmon isolate is unknown.

  4. Linkages between coastal and open-ocean habitats and dynamics of Japanese stocks of chum salmon and Japanese sardine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsu, Akihiko; Kaeriyama, Masahide

    2005-03-01

    Coastal-ocean-open-ocean migrations, prey-predator relations and long-term population dynamics of chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) and Japanese sardine ( Sardinops melanostictus), associated with large-scale climate and oceanographic conditions, are reviewed. After early marine life in coastal waters in northern Japan, chum salmon of Japanese origin spend their first summer in the Okhotsk Sea, then move to the Western Subarctic Gyre for the first winter at sea. Thereafter, they migrate between summer feeding grounds in the Bering Sea and wintering grounds in the Alaskan Gyre for a period of usually up to four years, and finally return to their natal rivers to spawn. Carrying capacity ( K) for chum salmon at an unfished equilibrium level was estimated from a Ricker spawner-recruitment curve, and the residual carrying capacity ( RCC=(K-abundance)K-1). was positively correlated with body size at age 4, and negatively correlated with age at maturity. Marine survival of Hokkaido chum populations was affected by body size at release, but neither by Aleutian low pressure activity nor sea-surface temperature (SST) around coastal Hokkaido in spring, although there is some correlation between survival rate and coastal SST. Juveniles of the Pacific stock of Japanese sardine become broadly distributed in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) as far east as 180 longitude during spring. Adults disperse as far as the central Pacific and the southern areas of the Okhotsk Sea and Western Subarctic Gyre in years of high abundance. Somatic growth and age at maturation of sardine are density-dependent. We used catch, biomass and residuals of observed recruitment numbers from a Ricker curve (LNRR) as a measure of sardine population dynamics. LNRR was highly correlated with SST of KE in winter, which shifted in 1970 and 1988. Recent biomass and catch remain at extremely low levels due to a combination of adverse environmental conditions and intensive fishing. We suggest that Japanese populations of chum salmon and Japanese sardine have a broader geographic range than North American populations, perhaps because of differences between western and eastern boundary current systems, and associated larval drift (sardine) or avoidance of intra-species competition (chum salmon).

  5. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angela; Larsen, Kimberly; Reisenbichler, Reginald

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. The preservation of the Nisqually delta ecosystem coupled with extensive restoration of approximately 1,000 acres of diked estuarine habitat is identified as the highest priority action for the recovery of naturally spawning Nisqually River Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Nisqually Chinook Recovery Plan. In order to evaluate the response of Chinook salmon to restoration, a pre-restoration baseline of life history diversity and estuary utilization must be established. Otolith analysis has been proposed as a means to measure Chinook salmon life history diversity, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: (1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, (2) compare pre and post restoration residence times and growth rates, and (3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile Chinook salmon can exhibit a variety of life history trajectories ? some enter the sea (or Puget Sound) as fry, some rear in the estuary before entering the sea, and some rear in the river and then move rapidly through the estuary into the sea as smolts. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and use analysis of otolith microstructure as a tool for characterizing the importance of the estuary to Chinook salmon in the Nisqually River before and after restoration efforts at the Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge (NNWR). This tool is used to quantify changes in habitat use and help assess restoration benefits to the federally threatened Nisqually River Chinook salmon population. Analysis of otolith microstructure typically is superior to the alternative of traditional mark-recapture methods. The latter are extremely expensive or inadequate in estuary habitats, typically are biased and substantially underestimate use, and do not directly reveal the importance or contribution to adult recruitment (i.e., they do not account for differential survival afterward in Puget Sound or the ocean). Analysis of otolith microstructure for these purposes, while new, is proving highly successful in a similar study that USGS and partners are conducting in the Skagit River estuary system located in northern Puget Sound. This work has been based on research by Neilson et al. (1985). We expect to use the Skagit River data as a reference for the before/after restoration comparison in the Nisqually River.

  6. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  7. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, D.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  8. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishment of a localized broodstock in the near-term, and provide the opportunity to establish natural production over the long-term. Phase II information is presented in this document to clearly articulate the long-term intent and vision of the coho salmon reintroduction program. Phase II would be proposed only if Phase I meets several indicators of success. If Phase I meets all identified indicators of success, authorization for Phase II funding would be pursued via a supplement to this Master Plan.

  9. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

  10. Effect of inclusion of salmon roe on characteristics of salmon baby food products.

    PubMed

    DeSantos, F A; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

    2010-05-01

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree + chunks, puree + pink row, puree + pink row + chunks, puree + red row, puree + red roe + chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristics were determined. Samples containing roe were lighter and less red (by approximately 3 to 4 a* units) than formulations without roe regardless of the type of roe added. Visual pink color followed the same trend. Formulations with roe, both pink and sockeye, were almost twice as fibrous as formulations without roe. Salmon flavor was stronger in samples containing roe from sockeye salmon. In the 2nd study, retort processed samples were stored at room temperature for 6 mo. Sweaty odor decreased over storage time. Visual cream-brown color correlated with L*, a*, b*, and chroma values (r =-0.80, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively). TBARS values of all samples were < 0.35 mg MDA/kg and declined after month 0 indicating that these products were oxidatively stable. Overall, adding roe to these products lightened them and increased fibrous texture. Samples containing sockeye salmon roe had stronger salmon flavor. Once retort processed, these products were quite stable in terms of color, odor, and TBARS. Potential nutrient contributions of this type of product to the infant diet warrant additional research. PMID:20546426

  11. Does increased intake of salmon increase markers of oxidative stress in pregnant women? The salmon in pregnancy study.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Cruz E; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Mesa, María Dolores; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gil, Angel; Basu, Samar

    2011-12-01

    The Salmon in Pregnancy Study provided two meals of salmon per week to pregnant women from week 20 of gestation; the control group maintained their habitual diet low in oily fish. Salmon is a rich source of marine n-3 fatty acids. Since marine n-3 fatty acids may increase oxidative stress, we investigated whether increased salmon consumption could affect markers of oxidative stress in mid and late pregnancy. Urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and plasma lipid peroxide concentrations did not change from week 20 to 38 of pregnancy and were not altered by increased consumption of salmon. Thus, increased intake of salmon during pregnancy does not increase oxidative stress, as judged by the markers of oxidative damage to lipids and DNA measured herein. PMID:21689025

  12. Downstream Migration of Masu Salmon Smolt at a Diversion Facility of Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, K.; Nii, H.; Kasuga, K.; Watanabe, K.

    2014-12-01

    A diversion facility was installed on the upstream of Pirika Dam in Northern Japan that produced a downstream flow into the fishway, thus allowing the fish to migrate to the sea. On the other hand, if the flow rate in the river was more than 7.00 m 3/s (design flow rate of diversion facility), masu salmon smolt were concerned about accessing the dam reservoir, because the smolt can't migrate to the sea through the diversion facility unfortunately. Therefore, the downstream migration of smolt was investigated around the diversion facility. The PIT tag system and radio transmitters as the biotelemetry were used to determine 1) whether masu salmon smolt were able to migrate downstream through the diversion facility and fishway at Pirika Dam, 2) when the smolt started to migrate downstream, 3) whether the downstream migration of smolt were affected by the flow increase in the river. It was clarified that 88% of the smolt were able to enter the diversion facility, and then 81% of the smolt were able to access the fishway. It was also clarified that smolt downstream migration had two peaks in a day (5:00 and 18:00). During the study period, although the flow rate was in the 2.21 m3/s to 30.44 m3/s range (average 6.70 m3/s), it was revealed that the diversion facility has a satisfactory function for the downstream migration of smolt as presented above. The survey clarified the downstream migration behavior of masu salmon by using two types of biotelemetry equipment. PIT tag and radio transmitter were found to be very effective in tracking the behavior of small fish such as smolt. PIT tags, in particular, require very little operating cost, because once they are inserted in the fish, they do not need human labor for tracking. It is desirable to actively introduce the biotelemetry as tracking equipment when surveying the fish migration in the river.

  13. European Mistletoe

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common names, what the science says, potential side effects and cautions, and resources for more information. European mistletoe is a semiparasitic plant that grows on several types of trees in ...

  14. Interspecific habitat associations of juvenile salmonids in Lake Ontario tributaries: implications for Atlantic salmon restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Diel variation in habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), subyearling coho salmon (O. kisutch), yearling steelhead (O. mykiss), and yearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was examined during the spring in two tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1318 habitat observations were made on juvenile salmonids including 367 on steelhead, 351 on Chinook salmon, 333 on Atlantic salmon, and 261 on coho salmon. Steelhead exhibited the most diel variation in habitat use and Chinook the least. Juvenile salmonids were generally associated with more cover and larger substrate during the day in both streams. Interspecific differences in habitat use in both streams occurred with Atlantic salmon (fast velocities) and coho salmon (pools) using the least similar habitat. Chinook salmon and Atlantic salmon used similar habitat in both streams. These findings should help guide future management actions specific to habitat protection and restoration of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries.

  15. Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, Odd Terje; Karlsson, Sten; Thorstad, Eva B; Berg, Ole Kristian; Kent, Matthew P; Norum, Ine C J; Hindar, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    The river-resident Salmo salar (smblank) has been isolated from other Atlantic salmon populations for 9,500 years in upper River Namsen, Norway. This is the only European Atlantic salmon population accomplishing its entire life cycle in a river. Hydropower development during the last six decades has introduced movement barriers and changed more than 50% of the river habitat to lentic conditions. Based on microsatellites and SNPs, genetic variation within smblank was only about 50% of that in the anadromous Atlantic salmon within the same river. The genetic differentiation (FST) between smblank and the anadromous population was 0.24. This is similar to the differentiation between anadromous Atlantic salmon in Europe and North America. Microsatellite analyses identified three genetic subpopulations within smblank, each with an effective population size Ne of a few hundred individuals. There was no evidence of reduced heterozygosity and allelic richness in contemporary samples (20052008) compared with historical samples (195556 and 197879). However, there was a reduction in genetic differentiation between sampling localities over time. SNP data supported the differentiation of smblank into subpopulations and revealed downstream asymmetric gene flow between subpopulations. In spite of this, genetic variation was not higher in the lower than in the upper areas. The meta-population structure of smblank probably maintains genetic variation better than one panmictic population would do, as long as gene flow among subpopulations is maintained. Smblank is a unique endemic island population of Atlantic salmon. It is in a precarious situation due to a variety of anthropogenic impacts on its restricted habitat area. Thus, maintaining population size and avoiding further habitat fragmentation are important. PMID:24967074

  16. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  17. Role of the GH-IGF-1 system in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout postsmolts at elevated water temperature.

    PubMed

    Hevry, Ernst M; Tipsmark, Christian K; Rem, Sofie C; Hansen, Tom; Fukuda, Miki; Torgersen, Thomas; Vikes, Vibeke; Olsvik, Pl A; Waagb, Rune; Shimizu, Munetaka

    2015-10-01

    A comparative experiment with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) postsmolts was conducted over 35 days to provide insight into how growth, respiration, energy metabolism and the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) system are regulated at elevated sea temperatures. Rainbow trout grew better than Atlantic salmon, and did not show reduced growth at 19 C. Rainbow trout kept at 19 C had increased blood hemoglobin concentration compared to rainbow trout kept at 13 C, while salmon did not show the same hemoglobin response due to increased temperature. Both species showed reduced length growth and decreased muscle glycogen stores at 19 C. Circulating IGF-1 concentration was higher in rainbow trout than in Atlantic salmon, but was not affected by temperature in either species. Plasma IGF-binding protein 1b (IGFBP-1b) concentration was reduced in Atlantic salmon reared at 19 C after 15 days but increased in rainbow trout at 19 C after 35 days. The igfbp1b mRNA level in liver showed a positive correlation to plasma concentrations of glucose and IGFBP-1b, suggesting involvement of this binding protein in carbohydrate metabolism at 19 C. At this temperature muscle igfbp1a mRNA was down-regulated in both species. The muscle expression of this binding protein correlated negatively with muscle igf1 and length growth. The plasma IGFBP-1b concentration and igfbp1b and igfbp1a expression suggests reduced muscle igf1 signaling at elevated temperature leading to glucose allostasis, and that time course is species specific due to higher thermal tolerance in rainbow trout. PMID:26144599

  18. Differential metabolite levels in response to spawning-induced inappetence in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Rocco C; Smith, McKenzie L; Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Dove, Alistair D M; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-03-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar undergo months-long inappetence during spawning, but it is not known whether this inappetence is a pathological state or one for which the fish are adapted. Recent work has shown that inappetent whale sharks can exhibit circulating metabolite profiles similar to ketosis known to occur in humans during starvation. In this work, metabolite profiling was used to explore differences in analyte profiles between a cohort of inappetent spawning run Atlantic salmon and captively reared animals that were fed up to and through the time of sampling. The two classes of animals were easily distinguished by their metabolite profiles. The sea-run fish had elevated ?-9 fatty acids relative to the domestic feeding animals, while other fatty acid concentrations were reduced. Sugar alcohols were generally elevated in inappetent animals, suggesting potentially novel metabolic responses or pathways in fish that feature these compounds. Compounds expected to indicate a pathological catabolic state were not more abundant in the sea-run fish, suggesting that the animals, while inappetent, were not stressed in an unnatural way. These findings demonstrate the power of discovery-based metabolomics for exploring biochemistry in poorly understood animal models. PMID:25668602

  19. Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Agler, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

  20. Expression of GnRH genes is elevated in discrete brain loci of chum salmon before initiation of homing behavior and during spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Makino, Keita; Ando, Hironori; Ban, Masatoshi; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Urano, Akihisa

    2010-09-15

    Our previous studies suggested the importance of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) for initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon, although supporting evidence had been not available from oceanic fish. In farmed masu salmon, the amounts of salmon GnRH (sGnRH) mRNAs in the forebrain increased in the pre-pubertal stage from winter through spring, followed by a decrease toward summer. We thus hypothesized that gene expression for GnRHs in oceanic chum salmon changes similarly, and examined this hypothesis using brain samples from winter chum salmon in the Gulf of Alaska and summer fish in the Bering Sea. They were classified into sexually immature and maturing adults, which had maturing gonads and left the Bering Sea for the natal river by the end of summer. The absolute amounts of GnRH mRNAs were determined by real-time PCRs. The amounts of sGnRH mRNA in the maturing winter adults were significantly larger than those in the maturing summer adults. The amounts of sGnRH and chicken GnRH mRNAs then peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. Such changes were observed in various brain loci including the olfactory bulb, terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, nucleus preopticus parvocellularis anterioris, nucleus preopticus magnocellularis and midbrain tegmentum. These results suggest that sGnRH neurons change their activity for gonadal maturation prior to initiation of homing behavior from the Bering Sea. The present study provides the first evidence to support a possible involvement of neuropeptides in the onset of spawning migration. PMID:20470776

  1. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be intensively monitored. Planners recommended that a combination of natural and hatchery production would be the most likely way to produce the most rapid sustainable improvement in chum runs. Specifically, it was assumed that improving habitat conditions would promote efficient natural production, and that the most rapid way to rebuild the run would be to combine releases of an appropriate stock into the improved habitat. WDFW's recovery strategy for LCR chum salmon, as outlined in the WDFW Grays River and Washougal Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP), is as follows. First, determine if remnant populations of chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration that include the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation where necessary, and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan.

  2. Ecology. Pacific salmon run hot and cold.

    PubMed

    Brown, K

    2000-10-27

    Using a novel technique, described on page 795, paleoceanographers have been able to chart the abundance of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay and Kodiak Island regions of Alaska over the past 300 years--by far the most complete record yet. Through time, they found, sockeye populations have alternately soared and slipped, following natural climate variations--well before commercial fishers began throwing nets over the sides of boats. PMID:11184190

  3. White-spot disease of salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazuranich, J.J.; Nielson, W.E.

    1959-01-01

     White-spot disease, sometimes referred to as coagulated-yolk disease, has been associated with excessive mortalities occurring among the fry and early fingerling stages of the fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytacha) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Stations at Carson, Cook, Underwood, and Willard, Washington. This disease of eggs and fry should not be confused with the "white-spot" infection that is caused in fingerlings by members of the protozoan genus Ichthyophthirius.

  4. Salmon Spawning Effects on Streambed Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, T. H.; Buffington, J. M.; Yager, E.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Female salmon build nests ("redds") in streambeds to protect their eggs from predation and damage by bed scour. During spawning, streambed material is mixed, fine sediment is winnowed downstream, and sediment is moved into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Redd surfaces are coarser and better sorted than unspawned beds, which is thought to increase redd stability because larger grains are heavier and harder to move and sorting leads to higher friction angles for grain mobility. However, spawning also loosens sediment and creates topography that accelerates flow, both of which may increase particle mobility. We address factors controlling the relative stability of redds and unspawned beds using simulated salmon redds and water worked ("unspawned") beds composed of mixed-grain surfaces in a laboratory flume. Results show that simulated spawning lowered packing resistance to particle mobility on redds by an average of 32-39% compared to unspawned beds. Reductions in packing were sufficient to counter the higher inherent stability of relatively coarse, well sorted grains on redds, overall reducing critical shear stress by 8-20% relative to unspawned beds. In addition, boundary shear stress was 13-41% higher on redds due to flow convergence over the tailspill structure. Finally, redd instability relative to unspawned beds was observed in visual measurements of grain mobility, where bed-averaged shear stress was 22% lower at incipient motion and 29% lower at the discharge that mobilized all grain sizes on redds. Results of these complementary observations, along with sediment mass transport rates being nearly five times higher on a redd than an unspawned bed, indicate that redds are unstable compared to unspawned beds. Given these findings, further research is needed to investigate linkages between spawning disturbance and streambed mobility that may affect salmon reproduction in streams, and to assess whether a certain level of bed disturbance from spawning is required to restore ecosystem functions in streams with threatened populations of salmon.

  5. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish. Captive Lemhi River females produced smaller and fewer eggs than the Rapid River females; however, relative fecundity was higher than that of the Rapid River fish. Female coho salmon that ceased or slowed oocyte development in the spring had lower body growth from the previous August onward compared with females that continued oocyte growth. This indicates that growth during the late summer and fall, one year prior to spawning, can determine the decision to mature the following spring. Therefore it is important to maintain the growth of broodstock during the summer/fall period to ensure the continuation of ovary development in the subsequent spring. A combined whole cell vaccine of Renogen with killed R. salmoninarum strain MT239 may be effective in reducing the occurrence of BKD during the period immediately after seawater transfer, but not in yearling seawater-adapted chinook salmon. Control of BKD is likely to require an integrated disease management plan, utilizing three components, namely broodstock segregation, antibiotics, and vaccination. Vaccine results incorporated with antibiotic treatment will be used to work toward an integrated disease management plan to help to reduce the cycle of BKD transmission in the captive stocks to increase survival safely. Patterns of estimated survival in one chinook salmon stock (Grovers Creek)were generally consistent with inbreeding depression: progeny of fish that were full siblings (approximate increment in F of 0.25) survived to return at much lower rates than did progeny of fish that were half siblings (F {approx} 0.125) or unrelated individuals (F {approx} 0). Growth at sea of Grovers Creek Hatchery stock study fish was lower than that of UWH stock fish. Among the inbreeding groups alone, no clear differences in growth were detectable. However, preliminary results suggest the general pattern of growth was opposite that expected if inbreeding depression reduced growth: the highest growth was in progeny of related parents.

  6. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  7. Wild juvenile salmonids in Muchalat Inlet, British Columbia, Canada: factors associated with sea lice prevalence.

    PubMed

    Elmoslemany, Ahmed; Revie, Crawford W; Milligan, Barry; Stewardson, Lance; Vanderstichel, Raphael

    2015-12-01

    The Muchalat Inlet, British Columbia, is among the most westerly points at which aquaculture is practiced in Canada. In this paper, we summarise data from over 18000 wild fish sampled at 16 sites over an 8 yr period, between 2004 and 2011. The most prevalent wild species was chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (82.4%), followed by Chinook O. tshawytscha (10%) and coho O. kisutch (4.3%). However, inter-annual and seasonal variation was evident, and smaller numbers of other Pacific salmon and stickleback species were sporadically observed. A high percentage of wild salmon (~95%) had no sea lice parasites present, with less than 1% of the fish hosting a mobile-stage sea louse. Of the data for which sea lice species were recorded, just over 96% of samples were identified as Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Logistic regression models assessed the association between the presence of lice and a range of independent variables. These models indicated a significant degree of spatial variation, much of which could be explained in terms of salinity levels. There were also important variations through time, both over the season within a year and across years. In addition, coho salmon were significantly more likely (odds ratio = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.20-2.3) to be infected than chum salmon. The protective effect of low salinity was most clearly seen at values lower than 15 psu, although this was dependent on fish species. PMID:26648103

  8. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

  9. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

  10. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

  11. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

  13. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 1

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the test