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1

Chapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381  

E-print Network

Chapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381 Final EIS ­ December 2009 6.0 CHUM SALMON Five species of salmon occur in Alaskan waters. The remaining four species, after Chinook, are managed together in the `other salmon' management category and reported for accounting purposes as "non

2

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245 Final EIS ­ December 2009 5.0 CHINOOK SALMON This chapter provides information on Chinook salmon biology, distribution, and current stock assessments. This chapter then analyzes the impacts of the alternatives on Chinook salmon

3

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 1020 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmonproposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containmentwill not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

4

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations.  

PubMed

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10-20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon--proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment--will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

Marty, Gary D; Saksida, Sonja M; Quinn, Terrance J

2010-12-28

5

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Regulatory Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Flexibility 2008 ES-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review

6

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2012 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 89 686 597 13% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 35 1,028 993 3% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 84 562 478 15% 0 BS Chinook Salmon

7

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON  

E-print Network

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON MOTHERSHIP FISHERY that the percentage of net-marked sockeye salmon in the daily catch below' Hells Gate on the Fraser River during 1943 and the USSR have reported net injuries to salmon in coastal waters. Thus, Petrova (1964) reported that up

8

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2013 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 35 686 651 5% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 127 1,028 901 12% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 134 560 426 24% 0 BS Chinook

9

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2011 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 120 686 566 17% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 164 1,028 864 16% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 76 498 422 15% 0 BS Chinook

10

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2014-10-01

11

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2012-10-01

12

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2013-10-01

13

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume I Final Environmental Impact Statement North Bycatch Management Volume I FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT December 2009 Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental

14

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1 Final EIS ­ December 2009 1 with an evaluation of the predicted environmental effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch developed the following problem statement for Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management: An effective

15

Energy economy of salmon aquaculture in the Baltic sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource utilization in Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Baltic Sea was investigated by means of an energy analysis. A comparison was made between cage farming and sea ranching enterprises each with yearly yields of 40 t of Atlantic salmon. A variety of sea ranching options were evaluated, including (a) conventional ranching, (b) ranching employing a delayed release to the sea

Carl Folke

1988-01-01

16

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume I FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT December 2009 Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides decision-makers and the public This executive summary summarizes the Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Final Environmental Impact

17

Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations  

E-print Network

Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon ) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from one of the Canada's largest salmon stocks. Migratory allopatry protects juvenile salmon from L. salmonis for two to three months of early marine life (2

Lewis, Mark

18

Sea Louse Infection of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon in Relation to Marine Salmon Farms on Canada's West Coast  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogens are growing threats to wildlife. The rapid growth of marine salmon farms over the past two decades has increased host abundance for pathogenic sea lice in coastal waters, and wild juvenile salmon swimming past farms are frequently infected with lice. Here we report the first investigation of the potential role of salmon farms in transmitting sea lice to juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic analyses to determine the origin of sockeye from Canada's two most important salmon rivers, the Fraser and Skeena; Fraser sockeye migrate through a region with salmon farms, and Skeena sockeye do not. We compared lice levels between Fraser and Skeena juvenile sockeye, and within the salmon farm region we compared lice levels on wild fish either before or after migration past farms. We matched the latter data on wild juveniles with sea lice data concurrently gathered on farms. Fraser River sockeye migrating through a region with salmon farms hosted an order of magnitude more sea lice than Skeena River populations, where there are no farms. Lice abundances on juvenile sockeye in the salmon farm region were substantially higher downstream of farms than upstream of farms for the two common species of lice: Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and changes in their proportions between two years matched changes on the fish farms. Mixed-effects models show that position relative to salmon farms best explained C. clemensi abundance on sockeye, while migration year combined with position relative to salmon farms and temperature was one of two top models to explain L. salmonis abundance. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate a potential role of salmon farms in sea lice transmission to juvenile sockeye salmon during their critical early marine migration. Moreover, it demonstrates a major migration corridor past farms for sockeye that originated in the Fraser River, a complex of populations that are the subject of conservation concern. PMID:21347456

Price, Michael H. H.; Proboszcz, Stan L.; Routledge, Rick D.; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Orr, Craig; Reynolds, John D.

2011-01-01

19

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles  

E-print Network

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea) Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

20

Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon  

E-print Network

Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon Martin Krkosek1,2*, Mark A, Canada T6G 2E7 Marine salmon farming has been correlated with parasitic sea lice infestations and concurrent declines of wild salmonids. Here, we report a quantitative analysis of how a single salmon farm

Lewis, Mark

21

Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?  

PubMed

The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

2014-02-01

22

Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish  

E-print Network

Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish Martin Krkosek of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3, Canada 3 Salmon Coast Field Station, Simoom Sound, British Columbia V0 by the migration of wild fishes, which determines the period of exposure to parasites. For Pacific salmon

Lewis, Mark

23

Stock Identification Studies of High Seas Salmon in Japan: A Review and Future Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To manage salmon internationally, stock identification is indispensable to determine ocean distributions and abundance. In Japan, tag release, scale pattern, parasites, genetic variation, and otolith mark are mainly used to estimate the geographical origin of salmon in the ocean. In collaboration with the North Pacific Rim countries, intensive salmon tagging experiments have been conducted on the high seas since 1956.

Shigehiko Urawa

24

Advances in European sea bass genomics and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Only recently available sequenced and annotated teleost fish genomes were restricted to a few model species, none of which were for aquaculture. The application of marker assisted selection for improved production traits had been largely restricted to the salmon industry and genetic and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) maps were available for only a few species. With the advent of next generation sequencing the landscape is rapidly changing and today the genomes of several aquaculture species have been sequenced. The European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, is a good example of a commercially important aquaculture species in Europe for which in the last decade a wealth of genomic resources, including a chromosomal scale genome assembly, physical and linkage maps as well as relevant QTL have been generated. The current challenge is to stimulate the uptake of the resources by the industry so that the full potential of this scientific endeavor can be exploited and produce benefits for producers and the public alike. PMID:25011579

Louro, Bruno; Power, Deborah M; Canario, Adelino V M

2014-12-01

25

Chapter 10 Preparers & Persons Consulted Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 623  

E-print Network

the University of Puget Sound, and a Masters in agricultural and natural resource economics from the UniversityChapter 10 Preparers & Persons Consulted Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 623 Final EIS December of the Council's King and Tanner Crab Fishery Management Plan Team. She has been working on salmon bycatch issues

26

Preliminary genetic analysis of juvenile chum salmon from the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The arctic region has experienced warming in recent years, resulting in decreased summer sea ice cover and increased sea surface temperatures. In September 2007, the U.S. BASIS survey extended surface trawling into the Chukchi Sea. Juvenile (young-of-the-year) chum salmon were collected at most stat...

27

Interannual variability in stock abundance and body size of Pacific salmon in the central Bering Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and mean body size was examined for pink, chum and sockeye salmon collected with research gillnets in the central Bering Sea in July from 1972 to 2000. The CPUEs for all three species showed significant increasing trends, but with large interannual variability. The CPUE of pink salmon was higher in odd years than in even years, and abruptly increased in the odd years post-1989. Chum salmon also showed odd/even year fluctuations, which were out-of-phase with those of pink salmon. Sockeye salmon showed no biennial such fluctuations. The CPUEs of chum and sockeye salmon were higher during 1979-1984 and 1992-1998, but lower during 1985-1991, especially for younger age group such as ocean age 2 and 3. Data for sea surface temperature (SST) and abundances of chum and sockeye salmon during four periods (1972-1976, 1977-1984, 1985-1990, and 1991-2000) indicated a portion of chum and sockeye salmon were distributed in the northern Gulf of Alaska in 1985-1990, when SST in the Gulf of Alaska was low. However, the fish were more abundant in the Bering Sea in 1977-1984 and 1991-2000 when SST was relatively high in the Gulf of Alaska. Body size of pink salmon showed a significant decreasing trend. Chum and sockeye salmon also showed significant decreasing trends in body size at ocean age 3 and older ages, but not at ocean age 2. Significant negative relationships between CPUE and body size were found within species. No significant correlations were found between an Aleutian low pressure index (ALPI) with CPUE and body size, but the increases in CPUE around the late 1970s and early 1990s may be partly be the result of shifts in the distributions of chum and sockeye salmon caused by SST changes related to the regime shift in 1977 and 1989 identified by the ALPI.

Ishida, Y.; Azumaya, T.; Fukuwaka, M.; Davis, N.

2002-10-01

28

Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Bumgarner, J.

2007-01-01

29

Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean.

Ruggerone, G. T.; Nielsen, J. L.; Bumgarner, J.

2007-11-01

30

Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

31

Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site (1) is intended as an educational resource, but is also fit for a general audience as it introduces salmon, their habitat, the need for conservation, and salmon fisheries. The next site is from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fish FAQs (2) and has several pages of salmon FAQs, all of which can be found by using the next button. The third resource from an Anthropology course at Oregon State University (3) gives an account of the changing Columbia River Basin and the status of commercial fisheries in the region. The King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Web site (4) has information on salmon conservation and recovery efforts in King County. Research papers on salmon and other Pacific Northwest fishes are provided on this Northwest Fisheries Science Center page (5). The Web site for the organization Wild Olympic Salmon (6) celebrates the successful recovery of summer chum salmon to Chimacum Creek. The Wild Salmon Center (7), a nonprofit organization formed to protect salmon and their habitat, provides numerous links to salmon conservation information. Some interesting video clips of salmon runs were caught on tape by the King County Salmon Cam (8).

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

32

Sea & Space: a New European Educational Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This spring, teachers across Europe will enjoy support for exciting, novel educational projects on astronomy, navigation and environmental observations. The largely web-based and highly interactive SEA & SPACE programme makes it possible for pupils to perform field experiments and astronomical observations and to obtain and process satellite images. A contest will take the best pupils for one week to Lisbon (Portugal), to Europe's space port in Kourou (French Guyana) where the European launcher lifts off or to ESO's Very Large Telescope at the Cerro Paranal Observatory in Chile, the largest optical telescope in the world. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It builds on these organisations' several years' successful participation in the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture organised by the European Commission that they intend to continue in 1998. The 1998 World Exhibition EXPO98 in Lisbon will focus on the oceans. This is why the umbrella theme of SEA & SPACE is concerned with the many relations between the oceans and the space that surrounds us, from ancient times to present days. Under the new programme, teaching resources are offered for three major areas, Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment, Navigation and Oceans of Water. Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment : observations of the Earth from Space are made accessible to pupils who will appreciate their usefulness through interactive image processing and field observations; Navigation : the capabilities and functioning of different navigation techniques are explored through experiments using navigation by the stars, with GPS, and via satellite images/maps; Oceans of Water : What is the role of water in Nature? How can one detect water from satellites or with telescopes? How much water is there in rivers and floods, in an ocean, on Mars, in comets, in stars, in the Universe? SEA & SPACE will use the Internet and the WWW to transport teaching resources so that teachers and pupils can communicate with the organisers and among themselves. To this end, the National Committees of the European Association for Astronomy Education will operate sites onto which the information and resources provided by ESA and ESO are loaded. The Contest, in which pupils will write and design a poster or a newspaper on a subject related to SEA & SPACE, will be organised simultaneously in most European countries and will not require Internet access. SEA & SPACE will start as from 1 March 1998. Further information is provided on the Home Pages of ESA, ESO and EAAE. In early February, a dedicated joint SEA & SPACE Home Page will be operational where schools can register for the project and for regular mailing of new information: * http://www.esa.int/seaspace * http://www.eso.org/seaspace * http://www.algonet.se/~sirius/eaae/seaspace Note: [1] This press release is published jointly by ESA, ESO and EAAE. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

1998-01-01

33

Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations.  

PubMed

Animal migrations can affect disease dynamics. One consequence of migration common to marine fish and invertebrates is migratory allopatry-a period of spatial separation between adult and juvenile hosts, which is caused by host migration and which prevents parasite transmission from adult to juvenile hosts. We studied this characteristic for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from one of the Canada's largest salmon stocks. Migratory allopatry protects juvenile salmon from L. salmonis for two to three months of early marine life (2-3% prevalence). In contrast, host diversity facilitates access for C. clemensi to juvenile salmon (8-20% prevalence) but infections appear ephemeral. Aquaculture can augment host abundance and diversity and increase parasite exposure of wild juvenile fish. An empirically parametrized model shows high sensitivity of salmon populations to increased L. salmonis exposure, predicting population collapse at one to five motile L. salmonis per juvenile pink salmon. These results characterize parasite threats of salmon aquaculture to wild salmon populations and show how host migration and diversity are important factors affecting parasite transmission in the oceans. PMID:17939989

Krkosek, Martin; Gottesfeld, Allen; Proctor, Bart; Rolston, Dave; Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Lewis, Mark A

2007-12-22

34

Seabirdsockeye salmon co-variation in the eastern Bering Sea: Phenology as an ecosystem indicator and salmonid predictor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabirds (Rissa spp. and Uria spp.) and sockeye salmon (Onchorhynchus nerka) of the eastern Bering Sea share similarities in their trophic ecology. We tested the role of seabirds as indicators of food web conditions that affect sockeye salmon at sea survival by investigating co-variation between seabirds breeding on the Pribilof Islands and returns of Bristol Bay sockeyes. We examined seabird

William J. Sydeman; Christine L. Abraham; G. Vernon Byrd

2008-01-01

35

International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas.  

PubMed

The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

Galil, B S; Marchini, A; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Minchin, D; Nar?ius, A; Ojaveer, H; Olenin, S

2014-04-01

36

International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas  

PubMed Central

The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Nar?ius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

2014-01-01

37

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles.  

PubMed

Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure. PMID:19060188

Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Catherine M F

2008-12-01

38

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles  

PubMed Central

Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure. PMID:19060188

Lohmann, Kenneth J.; Putman, Nathan F.; Lohmann, Catherine M. F.

2008-01-01

39

The Interaction between Water Currents and Salmon Swimming Behaviour in Sea Cages  

PubMed Central

Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched from the traditional circular polarized group structure, seen at low and moderate current velocities, to a group structure where all fish kept stations at fixed positions swimming against the current. This type of group behaviour has not been described in sea cages previously. The structural changes could be explained by a preferred swimming speed of salmon spatially restricted in a cage in combination with a behavioural plasticity of the fish. PMID:24830443

Johansson, David; Laursen, Frida; Fern, Anders; Fosseidengen, Jan Erik; Klebert, Pascal; Stien, Lars Helge; Vgseth, Tone; Oppedal, Frode

2014-01-01

40

Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 19972009  

PubMed Central

The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice. PMID:23311746

Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

2013-01-01

41

Case report of kidney disease in a wild chinock salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in the sea.  

PubMed

An immature chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that had spent two winters at sea was found in a Puget Sound beach zone. Necropsy indicated the fish was infected with bacterial kidney disease (KD). This is the first report of KD from a wild fish in the marine environment. PMID:633510

Ellis, R W; Novotny, A J; Harrell, L W

1978-01-01

42

Modelling of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) behaviour in sea-cages: A Lagrangian approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a Lagrangian (individual-based) model of the behaviour of Atlantic salmon in sea-cages. The behaviour of individual fish was affected by a set of environmental factors and the other individuals in the population. The model was based on behavioural parameters derived from literature and comparisons between model performance and published quantitative data sets. Simulations demonstrated that the model was

Martin Fre; Tim Dempster; Jo Arve Alfredsen; Vegar Johansen; David Johansson

2009-01-01

43

The thiamine deficiency syndrome M74, a reproductive disorder of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea,  

E-print Network

) and the Bothnian Sea, the two feeding grounds of salmon originating from the northern Gulf of Bothnia rivers flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia (GoB) migrate to the southern Baltic Proper (BPr) to feed, but a small

44

Two Virtual Journeys: Salmon, Spirit of the Land and Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though most people have returned to work and school, the opportunity for travel and adventure still exists...via computer. A northern adventure comes from OneWorldJourneys.com, which is presenting a ten-day photo-documentary Webcast from the coastal waters and rivers of British Columbia's Great Bear Rainforest. This virtual journey, focuses on the natural history and future of the wild Pacific Salmon. Visitors to the site can learn how the salmon is a critical link in the health of an entire ecosystem -- a particularly timely issue in the wake of water rights and forestry disputes in the Northwest. Text, gorgeous photos, and videos can be viewed in either high or low bandwidth formats (Flash, QuickTime, RealPlayer), and the site is also available in Japanese. Salmon is the fifth Webcast expedition produced by OneWorldJourneys.com. The last OneWorldJourneys Webcast that we featured was "Jaguar: Lord of the Mayan Jungle," reviewed in the April 27, 2001 Scout Report.

45

Ghrelin is involved in voluntary anorexia in Atlantic salmon raised at elevated sea temperatures.  

PubMed

Due to global and local climate changes, farmed salmon may experience periods of elevated sea temperatures. An experiment was conducted to examine endocrine and dietary effects of high sea temperatures in adult (2.0 kg) and sexually immature Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Groups of salmon were exposed to 19 C while others were kept as controls at 14 C. The experiment lasted for 56 days, and fish were given iso-nitrogenous diets with either a normal (335 g kg(-1); L34) or a lower lipid level (298 g kg(-1); L30). Fish held at 19 C had a reduction in the daily feed intake, growth and feed utilization of more than 50% compared to the controls. Fish at 19 C retained little ingested fat, and high maintenance cost lead to depleted endogenous energy body reserves. Circulating ghrelin concentration and stomach ghrelin-1 and hypothalamus growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a-like receptor (GHSR1a-LR) mRNA levels were significantly reduced in salmon at 19 C. An increasing number of fish kept at 19 C had empty gastrointestinal tract after 21 days (11-67%) and 56 days (56-100%), with the highest numbers in fish fed the L34 diet. We suggest that lower circulating ghrelin during negative energy homeostasis induce down-regulation of GHSR1a-LR, neuropeptide Y, and anorexigenic factors at transcriptional levels in the hypothalamus, which over time lead to a voluntary anorexia development in adult salmon held at 19 C. Reduction of feed intake and growth may be an important coping strategy for salmon during elevated temperatures. PMID:22036890

Hevry, E M; Waagb, R; Torstensen, B E; Takle, H; Stubhaug, I; Jrgensen, S M; Torgersen, T; Tvenning, L; Susort, S; Breck, O; Hansen, T

2012-01-01

46

Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.  

PubMed

Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and ?gkg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901?gkg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species. PMID:25754010

Ncher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrn, Eduardo; Prez-Snchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernndez, Flix; Berntssen, Marc H G

2015-06-01

47

Transmission of Loma salmonae (Microsporea) to chinook salmon in sea water.  

PubMed Central

Transmission studies were conducted to determine if Loma salmonae was transmissible in sea water. Transmission of L. salmonae to chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) held in sea water was achieved by exposing fish to macerated, infected gill tissue. Fish were exposed in seawater in a flow-through aquarium, and the infection was detected as soon as 5 wk after exposure. Heavily infected fish exhibited numerous xenomas in the branchial arteries, central venous sinusoids, and within the blood channels of the lamellae. The pathological changes were similar to those seen in pen-reared salmon with L. salmonae infections. The infection was not observed in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi, family Clupeidae), or shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata, family Embiotocidae), experimentally exposed using identical methods. This study suggests that L. salmonae is transmissible to chinook salmon in seawater netpens. Fish farmers and fish health specialists should consider this possibility when developing and implementing strategies to control the infection. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7728735

Kent, M L; Dawe, S C; Speare, D J

1995-01-01

48

Technical note: Modifying Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) jumping behavior to facilitate innovation of parasitic sea lice control techniques.  

PubMed

Industrial salmon farms are reservoirs of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus spp.), which causes both production inefficiencies and contributes to population-level declines of wild salmon and trout. Current control methods vary in effect and stimulate controversy by the discharge of chemicals into the environment. An alternate control method uses a thin, chemical-infused oil layer on the sea surface. As farmed salmon jump through the surface, the treatment makes contact with the lipophilic carapace of sea lice and kills them. To enhance the effectiveness of this method, we tested whether the natural jumping behavior of salmon could be increased and directed. In a 2,000-m(3) experimental sea-cage, we removed the ability of groups of salmon to access the surface for different periods (0 to 48 h) and measured their surface behaviors after the surface became accessible again. Surface removal for 24 and 48 h induced 93% of salmon to jump in the 2 h after surface access was reinstated, a result that differed (P < 0.001) from the shorter duration (0 to 12 h) treatments. Salmon without surface access for 24 and 48 h jumped 2 to 3 times more often (P < 0.001), and made their first jump 2 to 3 times sooner (P = 0.003) on average after surface access became available than salmon in the shorter duration treatments. Our results indicate that removal of surface access for short periods may lead to loss of air from the physostomous swim bladder and cause negative buoyancy. This creates a behavioral drive for salmon to jump, swallow air and fill their swim bladders once surface access is reinstated. By combining the increased jumping behavior induced by this technique with a floating, oil-infused treatment, efficiency of sea lice treatments may be improved and treatment chemicals can be re-collected, thus decreasing environmental pollution. PMID:21821806

Dempster, T; Kristiansen, T S; Korsen, J; Fosseidengen, J E; Oppedal, F

2011-12-01

49

Coastal sea surface temperature and coho salmon production off the north-west United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time series of mean weekly sea surface temperature (SST) images was used to investigate the relationship between fluctuations in the marine survival of hatch- ery-reared coho salmon and coastal ocean dynamics off the north-western United States (51? to 37?N) between 1985 and 1996, using univariate and nonlinear bivariate regression analysis. Ocean conditions were matched against survival for a number

James Cole

2000-01-01

50

Chapter 4 Walleye Pollock Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 207  

E-print Network

of Alaska in the eastern Pacific Ocean, across the North Pacific Ocean including the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea (Mecklenburg et al. 2002). Pollock are usually concentrated on the outer shelf and slope of coastal waters). Their distribution extends from the waters of the North Pacific Ocean off Carmel, California throughout the Gulf

51

Organohalogen concentrations and feeding status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Baltic Sea during the spawning run.  

PubMed

Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery. PMID:24056447

Vuorinen, Pekka J; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Pyhnen, Outi; Ikonen, Erkki; Keinnen, Marja

2014-01-15

52

Review on the immunology of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax  

Microsoft Academic Search

European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is a marine species of great economic importance, particularly in Mediterranean aquaculture. However, numerous pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites affect the species, causing various infectious diseases and thereby leading to the most heavy losses in aquaculture production of sea bass. In this respect, knowledge on molecular and genetic mechanisms of resistance to pathogens

Dimitry A. Chistiakov; B. Hellemans; F. A. M. Volckaert

2007-01-01

53

A field efficacy evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of sea lice on Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, 0.2% aquaculture premix, against sea lice on Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Salmon pens received either emamectin benzoate, orally, in feed at 50 micrograms/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days, or the same diet with no added medication. The site veterinarian had the option of administering a bath treatment with azamethiphos to any pen in the trial. The mean number of lice per fish was lower (P < 0.05) in the experimental group when measured 1, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after the start of medication. Treatment efficacy was 70%, 88%, 95%, and 61%, respectively. Three azamethiphos bath treatments were applied to each control pen during the trial, while the treatment pens received no bath treatment. No gravid female parasites were observed on any fish in the treatment group, while these life stages were observed on fish in the control group. Orally administered emamectin benzoate was palatable and highly effective for control of sea lice on salmon. PMID:10945125

Armstrong, R; MacPhee, D; Katz, T; Endris, R

2000-01-01

54

Sea lice infestations on juvenile chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada, from 2003 to 2012.  

PubMed

Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada, during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink salmon, the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice per fish with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the 2 main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, although the nature of this effect differed according to host species. PMID:23872858

Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Krkosek, Martin; Jones, Simon R M; Revie, Crawford W

2013-07-22

55

Seasonal increase in sea temperature triggers pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms.  

PubMed

Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease causing negative impacts on economy of salmon farms and fish welfare. Its transmission route is horizontal, and water transport by ocean currents is an important factor for transmission. In this study, the effect of temperature changes on PD dynamics in the field has been analysed for the first time. To identify the potential time of exposure to the virus causing PD, a hydrodynamic current model was used. A cohort of salmon was assumed to be infected the month it was exposed to virus from other infective cohorts by estimated water contact. The number of months from exposure to outbreak defined the incubation period, which was used in this investigation to explore the relationship between temperature changes and PD dynamics. The time of outbreak was identified by peak in mortality based on monthly records from active sites. Survival analysis demonstrated that cohorts exposed to virus at decreasing sea temperature had a significantly longer incubation period than cohorts infected when the sea temperature was increasing. Hydrodynamic models can provide information on the risk of being exposed to pathogens from neighbouring farms. With the knowledge of temperature-dependent outbreak probability, the farmers can emphasize prophylactic management, avoid stressful operations until the sea temperature is decreasing and consider removal of cohorts at risk, if possible. PMID:23980568

Stene, A; Bang Jensen, B; Knutsen, ; Olsen, A; Viljugrein, H

2014-08-01

56

Recent advances in European sea bass and gilthead sea bream nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream(Sparus aurata) are amongst the most important finfish speciescultured in the Mediterranean region. Production of these species isnowadays a well-controlled process, but knowledge of their nutritionalrequirements is still very limited. Nevertheless, a considerable amountof data has been accumulated in recent years, and the purpose of thispaper is to review the recent advances

Aires Oliva-Teles

2000-01-01

57

Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.  

PubMed

Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB. PMID:25850396

Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

2015-04-01

58

Randomized clinical trial to investigate the effectiveness of teflubenzuron for treating sea lice on Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

A double-blind, randomized control clinical trial was performed to investigate the effectiveness of teflubenzuron in controlling sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. A total of 40 sea cages from 3 commercial cage sites in Atlantic Canada were used in this Good Clinical Practice (GCP) trial. The teflubenzuron was administered in the feed at a dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) biomass d(-1) for 7 d. Medicated and control cages were matched by site, cage size, and pre-treatment mean lice counts using cages as the unit of concern. Post-treatment lice counts and staging of developmental stages were performed at 1 and 2 wk after the end of treatment. Chalimus stages in medicated cages were significantly lower than in control cages at 1 wk (79% reduction in mean lice counts, p < 0.001), and at 2 wk (53% reduction, p < 0.001). Mobile (pre-adult and adult) stages were also significantly reduced in medicated cages at 1 wk (69% reduction, p < 0.01), and at 2 wk (40% reduction, p < 0.01) post-treatment, respectively. Teflubenzuron was proven effective for reducing lice burdens on salmon despite the low parasite levels experienced during the trial and the recruitment of lice from the untreated cages. The use of cage as the unit of concern was an important design component of this trial. PMID:16875396

Campbell, P J; Hammell, K L; Dohoo, I R; Ritchie, G

2006-06-12

59

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

60

Genetic stock identification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations in the southern part of the European range  

PubMed Central

Background Anadromous migratory fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have significant economic, cultural and ecological importance, but present a complex case for management and conservation due to the range of their migration. Atlantic salmon exist in rivers across the North Atlantic, returning to their river of birth with a high degree of accuracy; however, despite continuing efforts and improvements in in-river conservation, they are in steep decline across their range. Salmon from rivers across Europe migrate along similar routes, where they have, historically, been subject to commercial netting. This mixed stock exploitation has the potential to devastate weak and declining populations where they are exploited indiscriminately. Despite various tagging and marking studies, the effect of marine exploitation and the marine element of the salmon lifecycle in general, remain the "black-box" of salmon management. In a number of Pacific salmonid species and in several regions within the range of the Atlantic salmon, genetic stock identification and mixed stock analysis have been used successfully to quantify exploitation rates and identify the natal origins of fish outside their home waters - to date this has not been attempted for Atlantic salmon in the south of their European range. Results To facilitate mixed stock analysis (MSA) of Atlantic salmon, we have produced a baseline of genetic data for salmon populations originating from the largest rivers from Spain to northern Scotland, a region in which declines have been particularly marked. Using 12 microsatellites, 3,730 individual fish from 57 river catchments have been genotyped. Detailed patterns of population genetic diversity of Atlantic salmon at a sub-continent-wide level have been evaluated, demonstrating the existence of regional genetic signatures. Critically, these appear to be independent of more commonly recognised terrestrial biogeographical and political boundaries, allowing reporting regions to be defined. The implications of these results on the accuracy of MSA are evaluated and indicate that the success of MSA is not uniform across the range studied; our findings indicate large differences in the relative accuracy of stock composition estimates and MSA apportioning across the geographical range of the study, with a much higher degree of accuracy achieved when assigning and apportioning to populations in the south of the area studied. This result probably reflects the more genetically distinct nature of populations in the database from Spain, northwest France and southern England. Genetic stock identification has been undertaken and validation of the baseline microsatellite dataset with rod-and-line and estuary net fisheries of known origin has produced realistic estimates of stock composition at a regional scale. Conclusions This southern European database and supporting phylogeographic and mixed-stock analyses of net samples provide a unique tool for Atlantic salmon research and management, in both their natal rivers and the marine environment. However, the success of MSA is not uniform across the area studied, with large differences in the relative accuracy of stock composition estimates and MSA apportioning, with a much higher degree of accuracy achieved when assigning and apportioning to populations in the south of the region. More broadly, this study provides a basis for long-term salmon management across the region and confirms the value of this genetic approach for fisheries management of anadromous species. PMID:20429926

2010-01-01

61

Long-term variability and trends of sea level storminess and extremes in European Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper documents the variability and trends of mean storminess and extreme sea level amplitudes at selected long-term operating tide gauge stations located in the European Seas over different frequency bands, seasons and months. Six stations have been chosen for the analyses-Antalya, Ceuta, Rovinj, Newlyn, Wladyslawowo and Lerwick-which possess at least a half-centurial record of hourly or higher frequency sea level data. The data have been carefully inspected for time shifts and drifts in the record. The analyses included the extraction of sea level amplitudes (envelopes) over four frequency bands: super-diurnal frequencies (0-1 days), small-scale synoptic disturbances (1-3 days), large-scale synoptic disturbances (3-10 days) and planetary-scale disturbances (10-100 days). Interannual variability in sea level amplitudes is occasionally found to coincide with some known variability in the atmosphere. For example, the northern European stations have overall positive sea level storminess and extreme trends, which is opposite from the southern stations, confirming a northward shift in atmosphere storm tracks. Redistribution of sea level amplitudes between different seasons and different frequency bands has been observed at some stations in both variability and trends. The latter may be important for the assessment of a region's total hazard risks and vulnerability, as maximum storminess and extremes may or may not coincide with maximum mean sea level.

Vilibi?, Ivica; epi?, Jadranka

2010-03-01

62

Temporal variability in SeaWiFS derived apparent optical properties in European seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 10-year record of ocean color data provided by the SeaWiFS mission is an important asset for monitoring and research activities conducted on the optically complex European seas. This study makes use of the SeaWiFS data set of normalized water leaving radiances LWN to study the major characteristics of temporal variability associated with optical properties across the entire European domain. Specifically, the time series of LWN and associated band ratios are decomposed into terms representing a fixed seasonal cycle, irregular variations and trends, and the contribution of these components to the total variance is described for the various basins. The diversity of the European waters is fully reflected by the range of results varying with regions and wavelengths. Generally, the Mediterranean and Baltic seas appear as two end-members with, respectively, high and low contributions of the seasonal component to the total variance. The existence of linear trends affecting the satellite products is also explored for each basin. By focusing the analysis on LWN and band ratios, the validity of the results is not limited by the varying levels of uncertainty that characterize derived products such as the concentration of chlorophyll a in optically complex waters. Statistically significant, and in some cases large, trends are detected in the Atlantic Ocean west of the European western shelf, the central North Sea, the English Channel, the Black Sea, the northern Adriatic, and various regions of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern Baltic Sea, revealing changes in the concentrations of optically significant constituents in these regions.

Vantrepotte, V.; Mlin, F.

2010-02-01

63

Temporal variation of genetic composition in Atlantic salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin: influence of anthropogenic factors?  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the temporal patterns of population genetic structure assist in evaluating the consequences of demographic and environmental changes on population stability and persistence. In this study, we evaluated the level of temporal genetic variation in 16 anadromous and 2 freshwater salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin (Russia) using samples collected between 1995 and 2008. To assess whether the genetic stability was affected by human activity, we also evaluated the effect of fishing pressure on the temporal genetic variation in this region. Results We found that the genetic structure of salmon populations in this region was relatively stable over a period of 1.5 to 2.5 generations. However, the level of temporal variation varied among geographical regions: anadromous salmon of the Kola Peninsula exhibited a higher stability compared to that of the anadromous and freshwater salmon from the Karelian White Sea coast. This discrepancy was most likely attributed to the higher census, and therefore effective, population sizes of the populations inhabiting the rivers of the Kola Peninsula compared to salmon of the Karelian White Sea coast. Importantly, changes in the genetic diversity observed in a few anadromous populations were best explained by the increased level of fishing pressure in these populations rather than environmental variation or the negative effects of hatchery escapees. The observed population genetic patterns of isolation by distance remained consistent among earlier and more recent samples, which support the stability of the genetic structure over the period studied. Conclusions Given the increasing level of fishing pressure in the Western White Sea Basin and the higher level of temporal variation in populations exhibiting small census and effective population sizes, further genetic monitoring in this region is recommended, particularly on populations from the Karelian rivers. PMID:24053319

2013-01-01

64

Distributions of Oceanographic Variables, Juvenile Sockeye Salmon and Age0 Walleye Pollock in the Southeastern Bering Sea during Fall 2000-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted surveys in Bristol Bay on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf during late August to mid-September 2000-2003, as part of the Bering-Aleutian Salmon International Survey (BASIS). Our main objective was to compare biological and physical oceanographic characteristics to the distributions of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and age-0 walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) during fall in the southeastern Bering Sea.

Lisa B. Eisner; Edward V. Farley; James M. Murphy; John H. Helle

65

Seabird sockeye salmon co-variation in the eastern Bering Sea: Phenology as an ecosystem indicator and salmonid predictor?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seabirds ( Rissa spp. and Uria spp.) and sockeye salmon ( Onchorhynchus nerka) of the eastern Bering Sea share similarities in their trophic ecology. We tested the role of seabirds as indicators of food web conditions that affect sockeye salmon at sea survival by investigating co-variation between seabirds breeding on the Pribilof Islands and returns of Bristol Bay sockeyes. We examined seabird phenology (hatching dates of eggs) against sockeye returns based on the year of ocean entry. Annual seabird hatching date was inversely related to sockeye returns, with the strongest co-variation found for sockeye which entered the ocean at 2 years of age (age 2 x smolts). The mechanism supporting this co-variation is unknown, but both birds and salmon may be responding to changes in prey availability (a "bottom-up" effect). The co-variation between seabird hatching date and sockeye returns supports the idea that variation in seabird breeding parameters indicates food web conditions that also affect other upper trophic level predators in marine systems. Coupling seabird phenology with existing annual predictions for Bristol Bay salmon may improve forecasts and fishery management.

Sydeman, William J.; Abraham, Christine L.; Vernon Byrd, G.

2008-08-01

66

Temporally stable population-specific differences in run timing of one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon returning to a large river system.  

PubMed

The understanding of migration patterns can significantly contribute to conservation and management. The spawning migrations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cover thousands of kilometers from the feeding areas at sea to their natal rivers to reproduce. Migrating salmon are exposed to intensive harvest, but little is known of the population-specific differences in migration behavior. In this study, timing of return migration was investigated among one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon within a river system. By utilizing knowledge of the genetic population structure, population of origin was reliably identified for c. 1500 fish caught in mixed stock fisheries after adopting an approach to minimize the complications arising from potential nonsampled populations. Results demonstrated significant and temporally stable differences among populations as well as between sexes. Generally, female salmon from tributary populations entered fresh water first. Run timing was not however related to in-river migration distance. Rather, one-sea-winter salmon from larger populations and with a higher proportion of multi-sea-winter females arrived later in the season. These findings are a significant step toward a more thorough understanding of the salmon migration behavior and behavioral ecology, providing concrete tools for the management and conservation of the remaining indigenous Atlantic salmon stocks. PMID:25567952

Vh, Juha-Pekka; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Niemel, Eero; Primmer, Craig R; Saloniemi, Irma; Johansen, Morten; Svenning, Martin; Brrs, Sturla

2011-01-01

67

The chemical cues of male sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis encourage others to move between host Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.  

PubMed

Adult male sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis were more likely to leave host fish Atlantic salmon Salmo salar if they detected the chemical cues of other adult male lice than if they detect cues of female lice. The detection of both male and female chemical cues yielded an intermediate response. These results suggest that males use chemical cues to balance competition for resources and mate acquisition, and they highlight the need for further studies of the chemical ecology of this important parasite. PMID:22880742

Stephenson, J F

2012-08-01

68

Diseases of north European wrasse (Labridae) and possible interactions with cohabited farmed salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

There have been several reported studies of wrasse health but none of these has shown transmission of wrasse diseases when stocked with farmed Atlantic salmon. Most of the studies have focussed on bacterial and parasite issues, including treatment of bacterial diseases with antibiotics and vaccination of wrasse. Classical and atypical furunculosis have been reported in wrasse following stress, and wrasse have been susceptible to vibrio infection. Further study is required on the vaccination of wrasse for furunculosis with latent carrier status to maximize survival. There are studies on viral diseases such as infectious pancreatic necrosis, infectious salmon anaemia and pancreas disease and although these did not give any undue concern for salmon health, there is also scope for further study in this area. Resident parasite communities of wrasse are largely host-specific and do not appear to be a threat to salmon. Given that wrasse have not, to date, been a vector of disease in salmon, attention should be placed on maintaining best practice in cohabiting wrasse with salmon. Other issues that should be addressed are good welfare of wrasse in pens and identifying measures of this, the identification of losses of wrasse in pens, being alert to potential emerging diseases through health screening of mortalities and assessing the risks associated with carrying forward wrasse from one salmon production cycle to the next. Issues of exploitation by fishing on wild wrasse stocks and improved biosecurity may be addressed by the increased movement by the industry to the stocking of farmed wrasse. PMID:22625226

Treasurer, J W

2012-08-01

69

Sea to sky: impacts of residual salmon-derived nutrients on estuarine breeding bird communities  

PubMed Central

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) returning to streams around the North Pacific Rim provide a nutrient subsidy to these ecosystems. While many species of animals feed directly on salmon carcasses each autumn, salmon-derived nutrients can also be stored in coastal habitats throughout the year. The effects of this storage legacy on vertebrates in other seasons are not well understood, especially in estuaries, which can receive a large portion of post-spawning salmon nutrients. We examine the effects of residual salmon-derived nutrients, forest habitats and landscape features on summer breeding birds in estuary forests. We compared models containing environmental variables and combined chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon biomass to test predictions concerning bird density and diversity. We discovered that total bird, insectivore, golden-crowned kinglet and Pacific wren densities and Shannon's diversity in the summer were strongly predicted by salmon biomass in the autumn. For most metrics, this relationship approaches an asymptote beyond 40 000 kg of salmon biomass. Foliage height diversity, watershed catchment area and estuary area were also important predictors of avian communities. Our study suggests that the legacy of salmon nutrients influences breeding bird density and diversity in estuaries that vary across a wide gradient of spawning salmon biomass. PMID:21325324

Field, Rachel D.; Reynolds, John D.

2011-01-01

70

Sea to sky: impacts of residual salmon-derived nutrients on estuarine breeding bird communities.  

PubMed

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) returning to streams around the North Pacific Rim provide a nutrient subsidy to these ecosystems. While many species of animals feed directly on salmon carcasses each autumn, salmon-derived nutrients can also be stored in coastal habitats throughout the year. The effects of this storage legacy on vertebrates in other seasons are not well understood, especially in estuaries, which can receive a large portion of post-spawning salmon nutrients. We examine the effects of residual salmon-derived nutrients, forest habitats and landscape features on summer breeding birds in estuary forests. We compared models containing environmental variables and combined chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon biomass to test predictions concerning bird density and diversity. We discovered that total bird, insectivore, golden-crowned kinglet and Pacific wren densities and Shannon's diversity in the summer were strongly predicted by salmon biomass in the autumn. For most metrics, this relationship approaches an asymptote beyond 40 000 kg of salmon biomass. Foliage height diversity, watershed catchment area and estuary area were also important predictors of avian communities. Our study suggests that the legacy of salmon nutrients influences breeding bird density and diversity in estuaries that vary across a wide gradient of spawning salmon biomass. PMID:21325324

Field, Rachel D; Reynolds, John D

2011-10-22

71

Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea  

PubMed Central

Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

Springer, Alan M.; van Vliet, Gus B.

2014-01-01

72

Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.  

PubMed

Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

2014-05-01

73

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon PSC Transfer Request Page 1 of 3  

E-print Network

Telephone Number: 6. Business Fax Number: 7. Business E-mail Address: BLOCK C ­ CHINOOK SALMON PSC AMOUNT Chinook Salmon PSC Allocations must be received by NMFS A SEASON: by June 25 B SEASON: by December 1 BLOCK. Temporary Business Mailing Address (if applicable): 5. Business Telephone Number: 6. Business Fax Number: 7

74

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): The Super-Chicken of the Sea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the definition of sustainability is discussed, particularly in relation to the use of marine feed resources. The current review gives an overview of the development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture and how it has evolved due to changes in legal and management framework conditions. Atlantic salmon production is characterized with high utilization of nutrients, a high

Ole Torrissen; Rolf Erik Olsen; Reidar Toresen; Gro Ingunn Hemre; Albert G. J. Tacon; Frank Asche; Ronald W. Hardy; Santosh Lall

2011-01-01

75

[Ultrastructure of chloride cell of gill epithelium and body ionic composition of the fry of two species of Pacific salmon during migration to the sea].  

PubMed

Pacific salmon fry were collected in 2001-2002 in the rivers of Southern Sakhalin on the way of their migration to the sea. The comparison of the data on ionic content of chum salmon fry carcass, received in 2002, with those obtained in 2001, has shown that the dispersion of ion concentration values in 2002 samples was significantly smaller than in 2001. Similar results were obtained when the mass of smolts was compared. The significant decrease of Na+ concentration in chum salmon fry during migration to the sea supports the idea on an imperative stimulus formation by means of change of Na+ concentration in migrating fish. The analysis of gill chloride cell (CC) structure in chum salmon and masu salmon fry in fresh and salty water has shown, that in fishes from fresh water CC were located mainly in primary lamellae, at the basis of secondary lamellae. As a rule, CC are large, have a large nucleus with an active chromatin and a light cytoplasm with numerous elongated mitochondria containing dense matrix. Secondary lamellae are short, 1-3 cells thick and practically contain no CC. In some fishes secondary lamellae were more numerous and longer. Some part of secondary lamellae contained large CC; in this place their width was approximately 2 times greater. As a whole, CC number in these fishes was increased. Analyzing all the material received during 2 years, with respect to CC cell structure and functions, a conclusion was drawn that freshwater fry of two salmon species, both chum salmon and masu salmon, caught at the same time and practically in the same reservoirs, could be divided into 3 groups. Masu salmon underyearlings are characterized, as a rule, by a thickened secondary lamellae epithelium, which, however contained few CC. In the chum salmon smolts, on the contrary, epithelium was thin, but contained numerous CC, which demonstrate active structure in the beginning of migration to the sea. But as they approached the sea (and migration duration increased), CC activity fell, though their number remained unchanged. It was only after fish transition to the sea, that CC activity grew again, though their number remained the same. PMID:20593586

Maksimovich, A A

2010-01-01

76

Jellyfish and Juvenile Salmon Associations with Oceanographic Characteristics during Warm and Cool Years in the Eastern Bering Sea  

E-print Network

Abstract: We explored possible associations between jellyfish biomass (Aequorea spp., Aurelia labiata, Chrysaora melanaster, and Cyanea capillata), juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus keta, O. nerka, O. gorbuscha, O. kisutch, and O. tshawytscha) abundance, and oceanographic characteristics (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, and bottom depth) during two warm years (2004, 2005) and two cool years (2006, 2007) in the eastern Bering Sea from the annual Bering-Aleutian Salmon International Surveys (US BASIS). A significant difference was observed in the mean relative biomass of the four jellyfish species in response to the various conditions in warm versus cool years. Our results indicated that juvenile O. tshawytscha were significantly associated with cooler temperatures in only cool years and shallower bottom depths in all years. Juvenile O. kisutch were associated with shallower than average bottom depths for all years and juvenile O. keta had only cool-year associations with lower salinities and shallower bottom depths. Similar spatial distributions were seen between jellyfish and juvenile salmon, suggesting the possibility of competition. Immature O. keta were significantly associated with the same physical ocean factors as Aequorea spp. during fall warm years, indicating a potential for interaction.

Kristin Cieciel; Edward V. Farley; Lisa B. Eisner

77

Warming shelf seas drive the subtropicalization of European pelagic fish communities.  

PubMed

Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57,870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. PMID:25230844

Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J

2015-01-01

78

Preliminary studies on the isolation of bacteria from sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infecting farmed salmon in British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

Using standard OIE bacteriological screening protocols, we sampled the external carapace and internal stomach contents of motile stages (preadult and adult) of Lepeophtheirus salmonis collected from farmed Atlantic salmon from May 2007 to April 2008 in British Columbia, Canada. Three potentially pathogenic bacteria (Tenacibaculum maritimum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Vibrio spp.) were isolated from external (58-100%) and internal (12.5-100%) samples of sea lice. The prevalence of bacteria was higher from lice collected during the months with higher water temperatures and among adult lice. These preliminary results have led to a comprehensive, multi-year study where we plan to examine the possible role of sea lice as a vector for disease. PMID:19565269

Barker, Duane E; Braden, Laura M; Coombs, Maria P; Boyce, Brad

2009-10-01

79

Analysis of gene associated tandem repeat markers in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L. ) populations: implications for restoration and conservation in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among five wild and four hatchery populations of Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea were assessed based on eight assumedly neutral microsatellite loci and six gene-associated markers, including four expressed sequence tag (EST) linked and two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) linked tandem repeat markers (micro- and mini-satellites). The coalescent simulations based on the method

Anti Vasemgi; Riho Gross; Tiit Paaver; Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Marjatta Sis; Jan Nilsson

2005-01-01

80

Influence of dietary blends of menhaden oil and canola oil on growth, muscle lipid composition, and thyroidal status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various dietary blends of menhaden oil (MO) with canola oil (CO) on the growth performance, whole body proximate composition, flesh quality (muscle proximate and lipid composition) and thyroidal status of immature Atlantic salmon in sea water were studied.

B. S. Dosanjh; D. A. Higgs; D. J. McKenzie; D. J. Randall; J. G. Eales; N. Rowshandeli; M. Rowshandeli; G. Deacon

1998-01-01

81

Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how no effect thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

Brauner, C. J.; Sackville, M.; Gallagher, Z.; Tang, S.; Nendick, L.; Farrell, A. P.

2012-01-01

82

Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.  

PubMed

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

2012-06-19

83

Fluctuations in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) recruitment resulting from environmental changes in the Sargasso Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

European eel decline is now widely observed and involves a large number of factors such as overfishing, pollution, habitat loss, dam construction, river obstruction, parasitism and environmental changes. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of envi- ronmental conditions in the Sargasso Sea and Atlantic ocean circulation on European glass eel recruitment success. Over a recent 11-yr period, we

SYLVAIN BONHOMMEAU; EMMANUEL CHASSOT; ETIENNE RIVOT

2008-01-01

84

The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields  

E-print Network

The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP recon- structions lack data

Koek, Frits

85

SURVIVAL OF SALMON SMOLTS IN SEA WATER AFTER EXPOSURE TO AIR-SUPERSATURATED WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Smolts of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were held at 117, 115, 113, 110, 108, and 100% saturation in air-supersaturated fresh water at 12.5C for 3 weeks. At 117% saturation 70% of the fish died, and at 115%, 5% died. Survivors were severely stressed and exhibited many signs...

86

Physiology and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during commercial land and sea transport  

E-print Network

has grown steadily to a point where this industry provides the largest agricultural export product for the province, worth almost $314 million CAD in 2005 [2]. Moreover, food products arising from salmon culture Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, personal comm.). The welfare and humane treatment of aquatic

Farrell, Anthony P.

87

European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a changing ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 C) and two seawater pCO2 levels (ambient and 1,000 ?atm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 C. Similarly, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 were significantly heavier. However, juvenile D. labrax raised under this combination of 19 C and 1000 ?atm pCO2 also exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 C and ambient pCO2. Most studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested that these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. Whilst the increased survival and growth observed in this study supports this view, we conclude that more work is required to investigate whether the differences in juvenile physiology observed in this study manifest as negative impacts in adult fish.

Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.

2014-05-01

88

How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere.  

PubMed

Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry euro300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

Costello, Mark J

2009-10-01

89

How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere  

PubMed Central

Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry 300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

Costello, Mark J.

2009-01-01

90

GH-IGF system regulation of attenuated muscle growth and lipolysis in Atlantic salmon reared at elevated sea temperatures.  

PubMed

Growth regulation in adult Atlantic salmon (1.6 kg) was investigated during 45 days in seawater at 13, 15, 17, and 19 C. We focused on feed intake, nutrient uptake, nutrient utilization, and endocrine regulation through growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors (IGF), and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP). During prolonged thermal exposure, salmon reduced feed intake and growth. Feed utilization was reduced at 19 C after 45 days compared with fish at lower temperatures, and body lipid storage was depleted with increasing water temperature. Although plasma IGF-1 concentrations did not change, 32-Da and 43-kDa IGFBP increased in fish reared at ?17 C, and dropped in fish reared at 19 C. Muscle igf1 mRNA levels were reduced at 15 and 45 days in fish reared at 15, 17, and 19 C. Muscle igf2 mRNA levels did not change after 15 days in response to increasing temperature, but were reduced after 45 days. Although liver igf2 mRNA levels were reduced with increasing temperatures after 15 and 45 days, temperature had no effect on igf1 mRNA levels. The liver igfbp2b mRNA level, which corresponds to circulating 43-kDa IGFBP, exhibited similar responses after 45 days. IGFBP of 23 kDa was only detected in plasma in fish reared at 17 C, and up-regulation of the corresponding igfbp1b gene indicated a time-dependent catabolic response, which was not observed in fish reared at 19 C. However, higher muscle ghr mRNA levels were detected in fish at 17 and 19 C than in fish at lower temperatures, indicating lipolytic regulation in muscle. These results show that the reduction of muscle growth in large salmon is mediated by decreased igf1 and igf2 mRNA levels in addition to GH-associated lipolytic action to cope with prolonged thermal exposure. Accordingly, 13 C appears to be a more optimal temperature for the growth of adult Atlantic salmon at sea. PMID:22991175

Hevry, Ernst M; Hunskr, Christine; de Gelder, Stefan; Shimizu, Munetaka; Waagb, Rune; Breck, Olav; Takle, Harald; Sussort, Sissel; Hansen, Tom

2013-02-01

91

Salmon lice impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-01

92

All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea.  

PubMed

European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5000 km back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between samples. Moreover, European and American eels can hybridize, but hybrids have been observed almost exclusively in Iceland, suggesting hybridization in a specific region of the Sargasso Sea and subsequent nonrandom dispersal of larvae. Here, we report the first molecular population genetics study based on analysis of 21 microsatellite loci in larvae of both Atlantic eel species sampled directly in the spawning area, supplemented by analysis of European glass eel samples. Despite a clear East-West gradient in the overlapping distribution of the two species in the Sargasso Sea, we only observed a single putative hybrid, providing evidence against the hypothesis of a wide marine hybrid zone. Analyses of genetic differentiation, isolation by distance, isolation by time and assignment tests provided strong evidence for panmixia in both the Sargasso Sea and across all continental samples of European eel after accounting for the presence of sibs among newly hatched larvae. European eel has declined catastrophically, and our findings call for management of the species as a single unit, necessitating coordinated international conservation efforts. PMID:21299662

Als, Thomas D; Hansen, Michael M; Maes, Gregory E; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Aarestrup, Kim; Munk, Peter; Sparholt, Henrik; Hanel, Reinhold; Bernatchez, Louis

2011-04-01

93

Opposite Effects of Sea-Surface Temperature on Survival Rates of Pacific Salmon from Northern and Southern Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental conditions cause large variations in productivity of Northeast Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Management of salmon stocks could be improved by better understanding the sources of environmentally driven variability in their productivity. Large-scale climatic and oceanographic variability has been related to aggregate catches of Northeast Pacific salmon (Downton and Miller 1998; Hare et al. 1999). However, catch data may not

Franz J. Mueter; Brian J. Pyper; Randall M. Peterman; Chris C. Wood; David J. Blackbourn

94

Genetic stock identification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations in the southern part of the European range  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anadromous migratory fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have significant economic, cultural and ecological importance, but present a complex case for management and conservation due to the range of their migration. Atlantic salmon exist in rivers across the North Atlantic, returning to their river of birth with a high degree of accuracy; however, despite continuing efforts and

Andrew M Griffiths; Gonzalo Machado-Schiaffino; Eileen Dillane; Jamie Coughlan; Jose L Horreo; Andrew E Bowkett; Peter Minting; Simon Toms; Willie Roche; Paddy Gargan; Philip McGinnity; Tom Cross; Dylan Bright; Eva Garcia-Vazquez; Jamie R Stevens

2010-01-01

95

Original article Lipid and protein changes in chilled sea salmon (Pseudopercis semifasciata): effect of previous rosemary extract (Rossmarinus officinalis L.) application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of rosemary extract application (200 and 500 ppm) on lipid oxidation, colour and protein modifications during the chilled storage (1.0 0.7 ? C) of sea salmon (Pseudopercis semifasciata). Lipid oxidation and x3-22:6 fatty acid content modification were prevented by the addition of rosemary extract. Analysis of interaction between

Valeria Tironi; Mabel Tomas; Mar aA non

2009-01-01

96

National Geographic News: Sea Trout Loss Linked to Salmon Farm Parasite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is an article from National Geographic News, which describes the link between "the explosion of sea lice in farmed fish populations and the decline of Scottish sea trout." In addition to the article, visitors can view a dynamic map of Shieldaig in western Scotland.

Owen, James.

2002-01-01

97

Estimating the cost of sea lice to salmon aquaculture in eastern Canada.  

PubMed Central

Parasitic sea lice are serious problems in aquaculture. The true cost of these parasites is unknown. We demonstrate the economic burden imposed by sea lice, so that researchers, aquatic specialists, and policy makers can approximate the economic cost of this problem and work towards developing alternative control methods. PMID:11195524

Mustafa, A; Rankaduwa, W; Campbell, P

2001-01-01

98

The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes  

SciTech Connect

Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

Jiricka, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.jiricka@boku.ac.at; Proebstl, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.proebstl@boku.ac.at

2013-01-15

99

Genotyping of two populations of Southern Baltic Sea trout Salmo trutta m. trutta using an Atlantic salmon derived SNP-array.  

PubMed

The sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is an anadromous, teleost fish species characterized by homing behaviour. The sea trout has considerable ecological and economic significance. It reproduces naturally in rivers flowing into, and is common in, the Baltic Sea. In Poland spawning aggregations occur in the Vistula River and the rivers of Pomerania. Two populations from the Vistula River (TW) and a Pomeranian river, the S?upia (TP) were mixed in the past by stocking. The main purpose of this study was an assessment of the applicability of the Atlantic salmon custom design Illumina iSelect SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) array containing 15,225 markers for identification of genetic diversity between sea trout populations. A diagnostic panel of 39 SNPs with a mean FST=0.1298 was selected from a pool of 15,225. At each locus, minor allele frequency was higher than 0.01 and mean expected heterozygosity for TW and TP populations were 0.343 and 0.271 respectively. Individuals tested were clustered in one of two groups which corresponded to their origins where the TW population was genetically more homogenous (membership coefficients ranked from 88.8% to 98.6%) while the TP population was more diverse (membership coefficients ranked from 53.8% to 98.5%). The results demonstrated the applicability of the Salmon 15K SNP-chip for determining the differences between Southern Baltic populations of the sea trout, a closely related salmonid species. PMID:23137524

Drywa, Agata; Po?wierz-Kotus, Anita; W?s, Anna; Dobosz, Stefan; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjrn; Berna?, Rafa?; Wenne, Roman

2013-03-01

100

Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been established. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a

K. Arpe; S. A. G. Leroy; H. Lahijani; V. Khan

2011-01-01

101

Relationships among Traits of Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Performance in Individual European Sea Bass  

E-print Network

is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity, such as aerobic endurance capacity, or anaerobic sprint/burst capacity, has been described in numerous animal taxaRelationships among Traits of Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Performance in Individual European Sea

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Experimental susceptibility of European sea bass and Senegalese sole to different betanodavirus isolates.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of juvenile European sea bass and Senegalese sole to three VNNV isolates (a reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV, as well as the parental RGNNV and SJNNV genotypes) has been evaluated by challenges using two inoculation ways (bath and intramuscular injection). The results demonstrate that these two fish species are susceptible to all the VNNV isolates tested. In European sea bass, RGNNV caused the highest cumulative mortality, reaching maximum values of viral RNA and titres. Although the SJNNV isolate did not provoke mortality or clinical signs of disease in this fish species, viral production in survivor fish was determined; on the other hand the reassortant isolate did cause mortality and clinical signs of disease, although less evident than those recorded after RGNNV infection. These results suggest that the changes suffered by the SJNNV RNA2 segment of the reassortant isolate, compared to the parental SJNNV, may have involved host-specificity and/or virulence determinants for European sea bass. Regarding Senegalese sole, although the three isolates caused 100% mortality, the reassortant strain provoked the most acute symptoms, and more quickly, especially in the bath challenge. This was also the isolate showing less difference between the number of RNA copies and viral titre, reaching the highest titres of infective viral particles in nervous tissue of infected animals. The RGNNV isolate produced the lowest values of infective viral particles. All these results suggest that the RGNNV and the reassortant isolates are the most suited for infecting European sea bass and Senegalese sole, respectively. PMID:25770892

Souto, S; Lopez-Jimena, B; Alonso, M C; Garca-Rosado, E; Bandn, I

2015-05-15

103

Sea transport safety A challenge to European maritime society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety matters are boring, bothersome or just a cost factor. These are some of the arguments which prevent safety issues from being treated in the same way as, for example, transport logistics, i.e., rationally aiming at optimum results. National legal evolutions, resulting in distinct rules and regulations, are another handicap for a European approach to common marine safety standards. Political

Jens Froese

1995-01-01

104

Amplification of European Little Ice Age by sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~950-1250 AD) to the Little Ice Age (~1400-1700 AD) is believed to have been driven by an interplay of external forcing and climate system-internal variability. While the hemispheric signal seems to have been dominated by solar irradiance and volcanic eruptions, the understanding of mechanisms shaping the climate on continental scale is less robust. Examining an ensemble of transient model simulations as well as a new type of sensitivity experiments with artificial sea ice growth, we identify a sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism that amplifies the Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic-European region and produces the temperature pattern expected from reconstructions. Initiated by increasing negative forcing, the Arctic sea ice substantially expands at the beginning of the Little Ice Age. The excess of sea ice is exported to the subpolar North Atlantic, where it melts, thereby weakening convection of the ocean. As a consequence, northward ocean heat transport is reduced, reinforcing the expansion of the sea ice and the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere. In the Nordic Seas, sea surface height anomalies cause the oceanic recirculation to strengthen at the expense of the warm Barents Sea inflow, thereby further reinforcing sea ice growth in the Barents Sea. The absent ocean-atmosphere heat flux in the Barents Sea results in an amplified cooling over Northern Europe. The positive nature of this feedback mechanism enables sea ice to remain in an expanded state for decades to centuries and explain sustained cold periods over Europe such as the Little Ice Age. Support for the feedback mechanism comes from recent proxy reconstructions around the Nordic Seas.

Lehner, Flavio; Born, Andreas; Raible, Christoph C.; Stocker, Thomas F.

2013-04-01

105

[Long-term changes in the epizootic of juvenile salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Keret River (White Sea basin) depending on the invasion of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957].  

PubMed

Results of long-term investigations on the population dynamics of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Keret' river (White Sea drainage basin) depending on the invading of Gyrodactylus salaris (Malmberg, 1957) and mass infestation of salmon with this parasite are presented. Gyrodactylus salaris was for the first time recorded in the Keret' river in 1992. During the period lesser than five years the parasite spread along the river. The rise in the infestation of salmon parr with G. salaris caused death of the fish host. As the abundance of juveniles decreased, adult salmon stocks dropped more than 25 times. It was shown, that after the decreasing in number of salmon juveniles following acute epizootic, infestation parameters dropped, and in some years G. salaris was not even found at all. PMID:19198173

Ieshko, E P; Shul'man, B S; Shchurov, I L; Barskaia, Iu Iu

2008-01-01

106

Extensive immigration from compensatory hatchery releases into wild Atlantic salmon population in the Baltic sea: spatio-temporal analysis over 18 years.  

PubMed

Genetic homogenization has been recognized as a serious threat in an increasing number of species, including many salmonid fishes. We assessed the rate and impact of immigration from the main hatchery stocks of Atlantic salmon in the Gulf of Bothnia into one of the largest wild salmon populations in the Baltic Sea, the River Vindellven, within a temporal framework of 18 years (from 1985-2003). We provide genetic evidence based on mtDNA and microsatellite markers, using mixed-stock analysis, that a large proportion (66%) of fin-damaged spawners (n=181) caught in the Ume/Vindellven during 1997-2003 originated from the hatcheries in the Rivers Angermanlven, Lulelven and Ljusnan. The maximum-likelihood estimate of immigration rate from these hatcheries into the wild Vindellven population was 0.068 (95% CI 0.021-0.128) over the studied time period (1985-2003) and reached up to a quarter (m=0.249, 95% CI 0.106-0.419) of the total population during 1993-2000. This resulted in significant (P<0.01) genetic homogenization trend between the wild Vindellven population and hatchery stocks of the Angermanlven and Lulelven. Our results demonstrate extensive straying from geographically distant hatchery releases into wild salmon population and emphasize the genetic risks associated with current large-scale stocking practices in the Baltic Sea. PMID:15931244

Vasemgi, A; Gross, R; Paaver, T; Koljonen, M-L; Nilsson, J

2005-07-01

107

Salmon on the Columbia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit explores aspects of the history of salmon in the Columbia Basin. The materials provided for this unit are primarily social studies related, but include topics in both math and science and. Students have the opportunity to explore data using GIS mapping technology. The learning goals include: understanding the historical, cultural, and economic importance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin to both native and European immigrant populations; identifying technological, economic, and environmental factors that contributed to the decline in salmon populations in the Columbia Basin; use GIS and graphing software to analyze and interpret factors related to changes in the Columbia River salmon population over the last century and describe these phenomena in narrative, graphical or mathematical terms as appropriate; and evaluate the effectiveness of recent actions in helping to restore Columbia Basin salmon populations.

Rick Thomas

108

[Variability of cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha(Walbaum) from the rivers of the continental coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and Zavyalov Island].  

PubMed

Data on the structure and variability of the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome b (cytb) gene fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in pink salmon of adjacent generations from the rivers of the continental coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and Zavyalov Island were obtained. The differences between adjacent generations were discovered. By the marker studied, pink salmon of the even-year line are characterized by a high level of genetic variability. It is shown that reproductive isolation has led to accumulation of specific mutations of the mtDNA cytb gene in each line and, consequently, to their divergence. Analysis of the data showed that the share of intrapopulation genetic variability of northern Sea of Okhotsk pink salmon accounts for about 91%. The intergroup component that was calculated for adjacent generations of the species is relatively small and is 9%, which seems to be indicative of a relatively recent divergence of adjacent generations of salmon. PMID:23662458

Bachevskaia, L T; Pereverzev, V V

2013-01-01

109

New perspectives on sea use management: initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning.  

PubMed

Increased development pressures on the marine environment and the potential for multiple use conflicts, arising as a result of the current expansion of offshore wind energy, fishing and aquaculture, dredging, mineral extraction, shipping, and the need to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation, have led to increased interest in sea use planning with particular emphasis on marine spatial planning. Several European countries, on their own initiative or driven by the European Union's Marine Strategy and Maritime Policy, the Bergen Declaration of the North Sea Conference, and the EU Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, have taken global leadership in implementing marine spatial planning. Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany in the North Sea, and the United Kingdom in the Irish Sea, have already completed preliminary sea use plans and zoning proposals for marine areas within their national jurisdictions. This paper discusses the nature and context of marine spatial planning, the international legal and policy framework, and the increasing need for marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, the authors review briefly three marine spatial planning initiatives in the North Sea and conclude with some initial lessons learned from these experiences. PMID:18786758

Douvere, Fanny; Ehler, Charles N

2009-01-01

110

SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common SeaDataNet formats and procedures and software tools for preparing and updating metadata, processing and quality control of data, and presentation of data in viewing services, and for production of data products. SeaDataNet maintains and operates several discovery services with overviews of marine organisations in Europe and their engagement in marine research projects, managing large datasets, and data acquisition by research vessels and monitoring programmes for the European seas and global oceans: o European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) (at present > 4300 entries from more than 600 data holding centres in Europe) is a comprehensive reference to the marine data and sample collections held within Europe providing marine scientists, engineers and policy makers with a simple discovery mechanism. It covers all marine environmental disciplines. This needs regular maintenance. o European Directory of Marine Environmental Research Projects (EDMERP) (at present > 2200 entries from more than 300 organisations in Europe) gives an overview of research projects relating to the marine environment, that are relevant in the context of data sets and data acquisition activities ( cruises, in situ monitoring networks, ..) that are covered in SeaDataNet. This needs regular updating, following activities by dataholding institutes for preparing metadata references for EDMED, EDIOS, CSR and CDI. o Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) directory (at present > 43000 entries) provides a coarse-grained inventory for tracking oceanographic data collected by research vessels. o European Directory of Oceanographic Observing Systems (EDIOS) (at present > 10000 entries) is an initiative of EuroGOOS and gives an overview of the ocean measuring and monitoring systems operated by European countries. European Directory of Marine Organisations (EDMO) (at present > 2000 entries) contains the contact information and activity profiles for the organisations whose data and activities are described by the discovery services. Common Vocabularies (at present > 120000

Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

2012-04-01

111

Physiology and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during commercial land and sea transport.  

PubMed

This study examined the physiology (plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, potassium, sodium and chloride concentrations) and behaviour (underwater video footage) of commercially produced Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during transport from freshwater farms to saltwater net pens. Smolts were transported by truck in closed tanks from two freshwater farms to the dock (30-60 min), and then in the flow-through cargo holds of a live-haul vessel, the Sterling Carrier, to the saltwater net pens (~2 h). Some fish were dockside in the vessel for up to 8 h while successive deliveries were loaded into the holds. Fish and water were sampled both before and after truck transport, and then at several time points aboard the vessel. Analysis of plasma constituents showed modest primary and secondary stress responses due to loading and truck transport, and the recovery that occurred dockside in the live-haul vessel was maintained when the vessel was underway. Underwater video footage revealed behavioural differences between fish from the two freshwater facilities that were not evident from the physiological measurements, but the behaviours observed during transport on a live-haul vessel were consistent with a non-stressful environment. Although smolts were subjected to moderately stressful conditions during loading and trucking, they began to recover rapidly aboard the Sterling Carrier. We therefore conclude that smolt transport, as currently conducted by our industry partner, appears to reflect good fish welfare. PMID:18955074

Nomura, M; Sloman, K A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Farrell, A P

2009-02-16

112

Salmon Patch  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Salmon Patch A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Salmon patches frequently occur at the center of the forehead. Overview Salmon patch is the name given to a very ...

113

SeaDataNet Pan-European infrastructure for Ocean & Marine Data Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEADATANET is developing a Pan-European data management infrastructure to insure access to a large number of marine environmental data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties), safeguard and long term archiving. Data are derived from many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. SeaDataNet allows to have information on real time and archived marine environmental data collected at a pan-european level, through directories on marine environmental data and projects. SeaDataNet allows the access to the most comprehensive multidisciplinary sets of marine in-situ and remote sensing data, from about 40 laboratories, through user friendly tools. The data selection and access is operated through the Common Data Index (CDI), XML files compliant with ISO standards and unified dictionaries. Technical Developments carried out by SeaDataNet includes: A library of Standards - Meta-data standards, compliant with ISO 19115, for communication and interoperability between the data platforms. Software of interoperable on line system - Interconnection of distributed data centres by interfacing adapted communication technology tools. Off-Line Data Management software - software representing the minimum equipment of all the data centres is developed by AWI "Ocean Data View (ODV)". Training, Education and Capacity Building - Training 'on the job' is carried out by IOC-Unesco in Ostende. SeaDataNet Virtual Educational Centre internet portal provides basic tools for informal education

Manzella, G. M.; Maillard, C.; Maudire, G.; Schaap, D.; Rickards, L.; Nast, F.; Balopoulos, E.; Mikhailov, N.; Vladymyrov, V.; Pissierssens, P.; Schlitzer, R.; Beckers, J. M.; Barale, V.

2007-12-01

114

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan  

E-print Network

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan May 2004 # # # # # # # # # # # LemhiRiverBig Creek PahsimeroiRiver PantherCreek LittleSalmonRiver RapidRiver E.Fk.SalmonRiver Chamberlain Creek N.Fk. SalmonRiver MidFkSalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver S.Fk.SalmonRiver Salmon River Salmon River IDAHO LEMHI CUSTER VALLEY

115

Increase in maturation size after the closure of a high seas gillnet fishery on hatchery-reared chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.  

PubMed

Gillnet fisheries are strongly size-selective and seem to produce changes in size at maturity for exploited fishes. After Word War II, large-scale gillnet fisheries targeted Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the high seas area of the North Pacific and the Bering Sea, but these fisheries were closed in 1993. To assess the effects of this high seas gillnet fishery (and its closing) on size at maturity, we examined long-term trends in size at 50% probability of maturing (L50) for chum salmon (O. keta) from three populations in Hokkaido, Japan. The L50 trends were statistically different among rivers, but showed similar temporal patterns with decreases in the 1970s and early 1980s and increases after the 1985 brood year. While fishery-induced evolution seemed largely responsible for this temporal change in L50 during the fishing period, natural selection and phenotypic plasticity induced by environmental changes could contribute to the increases in L50 after the relaxation of fishing pressure. PMID:25567638

Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Morita, Kentaro

2008-05-01

116

Effect of manipulation of the renin-angiotensin system in control of drinking in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmosalar L) in fresh water and after transfer to sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles was investigated in fresh water and following transfer to sea water. There was a significant effect of fish size\\u000a on drinking, and smolts (2030?g) imbibed about ten times less water than alevins of 0.20.3?g. Freshwater smolts drank at\\u000a a rate of 0.15? 0.03?ml??kg?1??h?1 and administration of doses of 10 or 20?mg??kg?1 of papaverine

Juan Fuentes; F. B. Eddy

1997-01-01

117

Contemporary ocean warming and freshwater conditions are related to later sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon spawning in Norwegian rivers.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon populations are reported to be declining throughout its range, raising major management concerns. Variation in adult fish abundance may be due to variation in survival, growth, and timing of life history decisions. Given the complex life history, utilizing highly divergent habitats, the reasons for declines may be multiple and difficult to disentangle. Using recreational angling data of two sea age groups, one-sea-winter (1SW) and two-sea-winter (2SW) fish originated from the same smolt year class, we show that sea age at maturity of the returns has increased in 59 Norwegian rivers over the cohorts 1991-2005. By means of linear mixed-effects models we found that the proportion of 1SW fish spawning in Norway has decreased concomitant with the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea. Furthermore, the decrease in the proportion of 1SW fish was influenced by freshwater conditions as measured by water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration. These results suggest that part of the variability in age at maturity can be explained by the large-scale changes occurring in the north-eastern Atlantic pelagic food web affecting postsmolt growth, and by differences in river conditions influencing presmolt growth rate and later upstream migration. PMID:23139878

Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'abe-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik, Geir O; Vllestad, Leif Asbjrn

2012-09-01

118

Reduced gut bacterial translocation in European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mannan oligosaccharides derived from the outer cell wall of a select strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bio-Mos, Alltech Inc, USA) on mucus production, selected mucus immune parameters activity, gut morphology and in vivo and ex vivo gut bacterial translocation for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Specimens were fed 4gkg?1 dietary

Silvia Torrecillas; Alex Makol; Tibibin Bentez-Santana; Mara Jos Caballero; Daniel Montero; John Sweetman; Marisol Izquierdo

2011-01-01

119

The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?  

PubMed Central

Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

2011-01-01

120

The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?  

PubMed

Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

2011-09-01

121

The effect of vaccination and sea water entry on immunocompetence and susceptibility to Kudoa thyrsites in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).  

PubMed

The effect of intraperitoneal (IP) vaccination and sea water entry (SWE) on the immunocompetence of Cascade Atlantic salmon was investigated. Smolts were IP injected with Aqua Health's Forte trade mark vaccine (Listonella (Vibrio) anguillarum, Listonella ordalii, Vibrio salmonicida and Aeromonas salmonicida) at four times (42, 238, 433 and 630 degree days, DD) prior to SWE and were examined for immunocompetence. Immune response measurements included mitogen-driven proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), head kidney leukocyte respiratory burst activity and alternative complement hemolytic titres and were measured 24h prior to SWE, 72 h post-SWE and again 3.5 weeks post-SWE. A 50% reduction in the number of PBL was observed 3 days post-vaccination. At this time LPS-driven proliferation was low (stimulation index, SI, 1.5-2.9) in all groups prior to SWE compared with that of PBL from freshwater-reared Atlantic salmon parr (6.7). By 72 h and 3.5 weeks post-SWE, the LPS-driven SI from unvaccinated salmon and those vaccinated 630 and 433 DD prior to SWE increased 3-fold. In contrast, SI from salmon vaccinated 42 and 238 DD prior to SWE remained low. A similar pattern was observed for cultured PBL stimulated with PHA, although unlike LPS-stimulated PBL, the SI of cells from parr and unvaccinated control smolts remained low following SWE but increased in fish vaccinated 433 and 630 DD prior to SWE. The respiratory burst activity of head kidney leukocytes was not affected by SWE but showed a transient 50% depression 3 days post-vaccination. The alternative complement activity (ACH50) was similar for all treatment groups prior to and at 72h post-SWE. By 3.5 weeks post-SWE, ACH50 values in salmon vaccinated 42 and 238 DD prior to SWE doubled to 874 and 860 U/ml, respectively. The prevalence and severity of Kudoa thyrsites infections, detected in all treatment groups approximately 2400 DD following SWE, were not significantly different among groups. Atlantic salmon parr should be IP vaccinated no earlier than 433 DD before SWE to avoid an enhanced risk of acquiring pathogens because of transient depression in some immune mechanisms. PMID:15312664

Funk, V A; Jones, S R M; Kim, E; Kreiberg, H; Taylor, K; Wu, S; Young, C

2004-10-01

122

The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.  

PubMed

Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to underline the future challenges for European marine research in terms of the integrated coastal zone management of these highly significant coastal zones. PMID:18061212

Dauvin, Jean-Claude

2008-01-01

123

The effect of Mediterranean exchange flow on European time mean sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a suite of ocean model simulations and a set of dedicated twin experiments, we show that the exchange flow between the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic leads to a drop in time mean European coastal sea level along the Atlantic coast north of Gibraltar. The drop is about 7 cm along the Portuguese coast and remains apparent (though reduced) as far north as the Norwegian coast. We also show that Mediterranean time and spatial mean sea level is about 9 cm lower than it would be without the exchange flow (but assuming a small supply from the Atlantic to balance evaporation). Each of these relationships makes possible an estimate of the magnitude of the exchange flow based on sea level measurements, and estimates of 0.8 and 0.91 sverdrups are made consistent with previous determinations based mainly on current measurements in the Strait of Gibraltar.

Hughes, Chris W.; Bingham, Rory J.; Roussenov, Vassil; Williams, Joanne; Woodworth, Philip L.

2015-01-01

124

Differentiating size-dependent responses of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) to sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infections.  

PubMed

Salmon infected with an ectoparasitic marine copepod, the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, incur a wide variety of consequences depending upon host sensitivity. Juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) migrate from natal freshwater systems to the ocean at a young age relative to other Pacific salmon, and require rapid development of appropriate defenses against marine pathogens. We analyzed the early transcriptomic responses of nave juvenile pink salmon of sizes 0.3 g (no scales), 0.7 g (mid-scale development) and 2.4 g (scales fully developed) six days after a low-level laboratory exposure to L. salmonis copepodids. All infected size groups exhibited unique transcriptional profiles. Inflammation and inhibition of cell proliferation was identified in the smallest size class (0.3 g), while increased glucose absorption and retention was identified in the middle size class (0.7 g). Tissue-remodeling genes were also up-regulated in both the 0.3 g and 0.7 g size groups. Profiles of the 2.4 g size class indicated cell-mediated immunity and possibly parasite-induced growth augmentation. Understanding a size-based threshold of resistance to L. salmonis is important for fisheries management. This work characterizes molecular responses reflecting the gradual development of innate immunity to L. salmonis between the susceptible (0.3 g) and refractory (2.4 g) pink salmon size classes. PMID:21543273

Sutherland, Ben J G; Jantzen, Stuart G; Sanderson, Dan S; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

2011-06-01

125

Intestinal barrier function of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post smolts is reduced by common sea cage environments and suggested as a possible physiological welfare indicator  

PubMed Central

Background Fish farmed under high intensity aquaculture conditions are subjected to unnatural environments that may cause stress. Therefore awareness of how to maintain good health and welfare of farmed fish is important. For Atlantic salmon held in sea cages, water flow, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature will fluctuate over time and the fish can at times be exposed to detrimentally low DO levels and high temperatures. This experimental study investigates primary and secondary stress responses of Atlantic salmon post smolts to long-term exposure to reduced and fluctuating DO levels and high water temperatures, mimicking situations in the sea cages. Plasma cortisol levels and cortisol release to the water were assessed as indicators of the primary stress response and intestinal barrier integrity and physiological functions as indicators of secondary responses to changes in environmental conditions. Results Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish exposed to low (50% and 60% saturation) DO levels and low temperature (9C), at days 9, 29 and 48. The intestinal barrier function, measured as electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of mannitol at the end of the experiment, were reduced at 50% DO, in both proximal and distal intestine. When low DO levels were combined with high temperature (16C), plasma cortisol levels were elevated in the cyclic 1:5 h at 85%:50% DO group and fixed 50% DO group compared to the control (85% DO) group at day 10 but not at later time points. The intestinal barrier function was clearly disturbed in the 50% DO group; TER was reduced in both intestinal regions concomitant with increased paracellular permeability in the distal region. Conclusions This study reveals that adverse environmental conditions (low water flow, low DO levels at low and high temperature), that can occur in sea cages, elicits primary and secondary stress responses in Atlantic salmon post smolts. The intestinal barrier function was significantly affected by prolonged hypoxic stress even when no primary stress response was observed. This suggests that intestinal barrier function is a good experimental marker for evaluation of chronic stress and that it can be a valuable tool to study the impact of various husbandry conditions on health and welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:21062437

2010-01-01

126

Influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on European sea level: results based on the wavelet transform method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine relationships between the variability in the long-term time series of European sea level and the large-scale atmospheric circulation represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) indices using the wavelet transform (WT). Results demonstrate that between 10% and 35% of the variance in winter mean sea level may be explained by the atmospheric circulation influence.

S. J EVREJEV; J. C. MOORE; P. L. W O O DW; O RT; A. G RINSTED

2005-01-01

127

Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jrgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

2014-06-01

128

Changes in epidemiological patterns of sea lice infestation on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Scotland between 1996 and 2006.  

PubMed

Analyses of a unique database containing sea lice records over an 11 year period provide evidence of changing infestation patterns in Scotland. The data, collected from more than 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms, indicate that both species of sea lice commonly found in Scotland, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, have declined on farms over the past decade. Reductions for both species have been particularly marked since 2001 when more effective veterinary medicines became available. Treatment data were also available in the database and these show a growing trend towards the use of the in-feed medication emamectin benzoate (Slice), particularly in the first year of the salmon production cycle. However, this trend towards single product use has not been sustained in 2006, the latest year for which data are available. There is some evidence of region to region variation within Scotland with the Western Isles experiencing higher levels of infestation. However, compared to the levels observed between 1996 and 2000, all regions have benefited from reduced lice infestation, with the overall pattern showing a particular reduction in the second and third quarters of the second year of production. PMID:18353017

Lees, F; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

2008-04-01

129

Synthesis of knowledge on marine biodiversity in European Seas: from census to sustainable management.  

PubMed

The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000-2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Coll, Marta; Danovaro, Roberto; Davidson, Keith; Ojaveer, Henn; Renaud, Paul E

2013-01-01

130

2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008  

E-print Network

2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008 Report to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council on the Bering Sea Pollock Intercooperative Salmon Avoidance Agreement Karl Haflinger, Sea State (BSAI) Pollock Intercoop Salmon Avoidance Agreement ("ICA"). During the course of the fishery

131

Carbon flux to the deep in three open sites of the Southern European Seas (SES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the strength and efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Southern European Seas (SES), by analyzing the export of POC at three deep sites located in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED) and the Black Sea (BS). We combine estimations of satellite and algorithm-generated primary production data, calculated POC fluxes out of the euphotic layer and POC fluxes measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers during a one year period, with an ultimate goal to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of the biological pump in the SES. Annual particulate primary production based on satellite estimations (SeaWiFS) at the three sites, averages 205, 145 and 225 gC m- 2 y- 1 at the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. According to our findings, the fraction of primary production that is exported out of the euphotic zone in the SES ranges between 4.2% and 11.4%, while the fraction reaching the mesopelagic layer (1000-1400 m depth) ranges between 0.6% and 1.8%. Finally, the fraction of primary production exported at the bathypelagic layer (2000-2800 m depth) is found to be 0.6%, 0.3% and 1.4% in the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. The role of various processes responsible for the replenishment of surface waters with nutrients, giving rise to productivity episodes and organic carbon export to depth at the three SES sites is considered.

Gogou, Alexandra; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Stavrakakis, Spyros; Calafat, Antoni M.; Stabholz, Marion; Psarra, Stella; Canals, Miquel; Heussner, Serge; Stavrakaki, Ioanna; Papathanassiou, Evangelos

2014-01-01

132

A comprehensive inventory of ship traffic exhaust emissions in the European sea areas in 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions originated from ship traffic in European sea areas were modelled using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM), which uses Automatic Identification System data to describe ship traffic activity. We have estimated the emissions from ship traffic in the whole of Europe in 2011. We report the emission totals, the seasonal variation, the geographical distribution of emissions, and their disaggregation between various ship types and flag states. The total ship emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, CO and PM2.5 in Europe for year 2011 were estimated to be 131, 2.9, 1.2, 0.2 and 0.3 million tons, respectively. The emissions of CO2 from Baltic Sea were evaluated to be more than a half (58%) of the emissions of the North Sea shipping; the combined contribution of these two sea regions was almost as high (96%) as the total emissions from ships in the Mediterranean. As expected, the shipping emissions of SOx were significantly lower in the SOx Emission Control Areas, compared with the corresponding values in the Mediterranean. Shipping in the Mediterranean Sea is responsible for 39 and 49% of the European ship emitted CO2 and SOx emissions, respectively. In particular, this study reported significantly smaller emissions of NOx, SOx and CO for shipping in the Mediterranean than the EMEP inventory; however, the reported PM2.5 emissions were in a fairly good agreement with the corresponding values reported by EMEP. The vessels registered to all EU member states are responsible for 55% of the total CO2 emitted by ships in the study area. The vessels under the flags of convenience were responsible for 25% of the total CO2 emissions.

Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.

2015-03-01

133

REVIEW Japanese Salmon Research in the Ocean: A Review and Future Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provided a review on the results of Japanese salmon research conducted in 1993-2000 under the Science Plan decided by the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission (NPAFC). Recent developments of stock identification techniques and high-seas salmon population surveys provided new information for the ocean distribution of chum salmon: Japanese chum salmon inhabit the Okhotsk Sea in the early ocean

Shigehiko Urawa; Yukimasa Ishida; Masa-aki Fukuwaka

2000-01-01

134

Application of the CARLIT index along a biogeographical gradient in the Alboran Sea (European Coast).  

PubMed

An index, based on littoral communities assemblages (CARLIT), was applied to assess the ecological status of Northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters, following the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive. The biogeographical particularities of the Alboran Sea suggested a reassessment of this index, and that was the main objective of this work. Due to these biogeographical particularities, two regions were proposed in the studied region, with new reference conditions for each region. Subsequently, by means of a multivariate analysis, littoral community abundances and the CARLIT index were compared with factors related to geomorphology, biogeography and anthropogenic pressures. Overall, the biogeographical component determined the distribution of littoral communities. In contrast, the ecological status yielded by the index only was significantly related to anthropogenic pressures. The results pointed out that the reassessment of the CARLIT index was suitable to evaluate the ecological status of the Alboran Sea. PMID:23673205

Bermejo, Ricardo; de la Fuente, Gina; Vergara, Juan J; Hernndez, Ignacio

2013-07-15

135

Tides, sea-level rise and tidal power extraction on the European shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An established numerical tidal model has been used to investigate the impact of various sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios, as well as SLR in combination with large-scale tidal power plants on European shelf tidal dynamics. Even moderate and realistic levels of future SLR are shown to have significant impacts on the tidal dynamics of the area. These changes are further enhanced when SLR and tidal power plants are considered in combination, resulting in changes to tidal amplitudes, currents and associated tidal dissipation and bed shear stresses. Sea-level rise is the dominant influence on any far-field impacts, whereas tidal power plants are shown to have the prevailing influence over any changes close to the point of energy extraction. The spatial extent of the impacts of energy extraction is shown to be affected by the sea level when more than one tidal power plant in the Irish Sea was considered. Different ways to implement SLR in the model are also discussed and shown to be of great significance for the response of the tides.

Ward, Sophie L.; Green, J. A. Mattias; Pelling, Holly E.

2012-08-01

136

Modelling of European hake nurseries in the Mediterranean Sea: An ecological niche approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ecological niche modelling (ENM) approach was developed to model the suitable habitat for the 0-group European hake, Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, in the Mediterranean Sea. The ENM was built combining knowledge on biological traits of hake recruits (e.g. growth, settlement, mobility and feeding strategy) with patterns of selected ecological variables (chlorophyll-a fronts and concentration, bottom depth, sea bottom current and temperature) to highlight favourable nursery habitats. The results show that hake nurseries require stable bottom temperature (11.8-15.0 C), low bottom currents (<0.034 m s-1) and a frequent occurrence of productive fronts in low chlorophyll-a areas (0.1-0.9 mg m-3) to support a successful recruitment. These conditions mostly occur recurrently in outer shelf and shelf break areas. The prediction explains the relative balance between biotic and abiotic drivers of hake recruitment in the Mediterranean Sea and the primary role of unfavourable environmental conditions on low recruitment in specific years (i.e. 2011). The ENM outputs particularly agree spatially with biomass data of recruits, although processes such as fishing and natural mortality are not accounted for. The seasonal mapping of suitable habitats provides information on potential nurseries and recruitment carrying capacity which are relevant for spatial fisheries management of hake in the Mediterranean Sea.

Druon, Jean-Nol; Fiorentino, Fabio; Murenu, Matteo; Knittweis, Leyla; Colloca, Francesco; Osio, Chato; Mrigot, Bastien; Garofalo, Germana; Mannini, Alessandro; Jadaud, Anglique; Sbrana, Mario; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Carlucci, Roberto; Heikkonen, Jukka

2015-01-01

137

Influence of the sea surface temperature conditions in the Pacific subarctic frontal zone on the pink salmon's winter survival ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to other high-latitude ocean basins, the subarctic Pacific exhibits strong seasonal and inter-annual variations in the abiotic factors of the environment, which, in turn, strongly influence biological objects. One of the principal factors of this kind is the temperature regime. For our research, we chose pink salmon because more than 90% of its natural mortality occurs precisely during the wintering period. The lifetime of pink salmon is only one year, and the conditions of their populations reflect the thermal regime of the given year. The main wintering area of Asian pink salmon is the part of the subarctic frontal zone located south of the Aleutian Islands (43 46N). This region features sufficiently high wintertime concentrations of chlorophyll a and temperature conditions favorable for pink salmon wintering. The interannual temperature variability in the frontal zone is close to zero, and the width of the frontal zone may significantly change depending on the winter severity. In milder winters, the area of wintering extends, while, in severe winters, it is rather narrow, the forage base for fish decreases, they become more accessible for predators, and their survival rates sharply drop.

Tananaeva, Yu. N.

2008-06-01

138

Fishing in a Sea of Court Orders:: Puget Sound Salmon Management 10 Years after the Boldt Decision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States obtained title to nearly all of western Washington from the Indians in the mid-1850's in exchange for a small amount of money and the promise that the Indians would be able to go on fishing for salmon as they always had \\

WILLIAM G. CLARK

1985-01-01

139

Bulk oxygen uptake measured with over 60,000 kg of adult salmon during live-haul transportation at sea  

E-print Network

in the live holds, which revealed that fish faced the water flow and ventilated lightly while slowly cycling, loading, transport and unloading), all of which could generate stress and affect fish welfare Abstract We are unaware of any assessments of fish welfare during live-hauling of adult salmon in very high

Farrell, Anthony P.

140

EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping - Developing a higher resolution digital bathymetry for the European seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). The EMODNet Hydrography - Seabed Mapping projects made good progress in developing the EMODNet Hydrography portal to provide overview and access to available bathymetric survey datasets and to generate an harmonised digital bathymetry for Europe's sea basins. Up till end 2012 more than 8400 bathymetric survey datasets, managed by 14 data centres from 9 countries and originated from 118 institutes, have been gathered and populated in the EMODNet Hydrography Data Discovery and Access service, adopting SeaDataNet standards. These datasets have been used as input for analysing and generating the EMODNet digital terrain model (DTM), so far for the following sea basins: the Greater North Sea, including the Kattegat the English Channel and Celtic Seas Western and Central Mediterranean Sea and Ionian Sea Bay of Biscay, Iberian coast and North-East Atlantic Adriatic Sea Aegean - Levantine Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Azores - Madeira EEZ The Hydrography Viewing service gives users wide functionality for viewing and downloading the EMODNet digital bathymetry: water depth in gridded form on a DTM grid of a quarter a minute of longitude and latitude option to view QC parameters of individual DTM cells and references to source data option to download DTM tiles in different formats: ESRI ASCII, XYZ, CSV, NetCDF (CF), GeoTiff and SD for Fledermaus 3 D viewer software option for users to create their Personal Layer and to upload multibeam survey ASCII datasets for automatic processing into personal DTMs following the EMODNet standards The NetCDF (CF) DTM files are fit for use in a special 3D Viewer software package which is based on the existing open source NASA World Wind JSK application. It has been developed in the frame of the EU Geo-Seas project (another sibling of SeaDataNet for marine geological and geophysical data) and is freely available. The 3D viewer also supports the ingestion of WMS overlay maps. The EMODNet consortium is actively seeking cooperation with Hydrographic Offices, research institutes, authorities and private organisations for additional data sets (single and multibeam surveys, sounding tracks, composite products) to contribute to an even better geographical coverage. These datasets will be used for upgrading and extending the EMODNet regional Digital Terrain Models (DTM). The datasets themselves are not distributed but described in the metadata service, giving clear information about the background survey data used for the DTM, their access restrictions, originators and distributors and facilitating requests by users to originators. This way the portal provides originators of bathymetric data sets an attractive shop window for promoting their data sets to potential users, without losing control. The EMODNet Hydrography Consortium consists of MARIS (NL), ATLIS (NL), IFREMER (FR), SHOM (FR), IEO (ES), GSI (IE), NERC-NOCS (UK), OGS (IT), HCMR (GR), and UNEP/GRID-Arendal (NO) with associate partners CNR-ISMAR (IT), OGS-RIMA (IT), IHPT (PT), and LNEG (PT). Website: http://www.emodnet-hydrography.eu

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Moussat, Eric

2013-04-01

141

Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages. PMID:23347188

Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

2013-03-01

142

Long term change of nutrient concentrations of rivers discharging in European seas.  

PubMed

Cases of severe eutrophication are still observed in European surface waters even though tough regulation has been in place since the beginning of the 1990s to control nutrient losses and inputs in the environment. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evolution since 1991 of the quality of the water entering European seas in terms of the concentration of major nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and to analyze the effectiveness of implemented national/international measures and EU legislation in reducing water nutrient pollution. Despite the reduction in large portions of the European territory of agricultural nutrient applications and nutrient point source emissions, the impact on water quality is limited. It is shown using two large river basins that this lack of response for nitrogen, and nitrate in particular, between the reduction of the nitrogen surplus and the recovery of water quality is partly explained by the lag time due to transfer of nitrates in the unsaturated and saturated zones and storage in the soils and aquifers. In order to monitor efficiently the impact of policy implementation on water quality, the Nitrates Directive and the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive in particular, it is recommended to use long term permanent monitoring stations to be able to separate the impact of climate variability from that of policy implementation. It is also recommended to investigate and develop harmonized methodologies for estimating the lag time in order to come up with realistic estimates of response time of water bodies due to the implementation of measures. PMID:21911245

Bouraoui, Fayal; Grizzetti, Bruna

2011-11-01

143

European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation  

PubMed Central

The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S.T.; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M.; Bonhomme, Franois; Canario, Adelino V. M.; Reinhardt, Richard

2014-01-01

144

Spatio -temporal Variability and Air-sea Exchanges of Carbon Dioxide In Three European Coastal Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a contribution to the understanding of the role of the coastal ocean in the global carbon cycle, we report the annual evolution of the distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of surface waters in 3 European regions with contrasting ecological and physical characteristic: the plume of the river Scheldt (Belgium), the English Channel (U.K./France) and the Galician upwelling system (NW Spain). The major processes controlling pCO2 spatial and temporal variability, as well as the estimation of air-sea fluxes of CO2 are discussed. The net annual emission of CO2 from the plume of the river Scheldt is estimated between +3 to +5 mmolC m-2 day-1. Provisional air-sea CO2 flux computations suggest that the English Channel is neutral from the point of view of atmospheric coupling. The Galician upwelling system is a net sink of CO2 in the range of -4 to -7 mmolC m-2 day-1. Our data confirm from a direct and observational approach that distal (marginal) continental shelves are net autotrophic while proximal continental shelves (influenced by terrestrial and anthropogenic carbon inputs) are net heterotrophic corresponding to a net sink and net source of atmospheric CO2, respectively. The air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the studied regions exhibit intense seasonal variations but the resulting annually integrated flux is high and probably significant for global carbon budgeting efforts.

Borges, A. V.; Frankignoulle, M.

145

European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation.  

PubMed

The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S T; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A M; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M; Bonhomme, Franois; Canario, Adelino V M; Reinhardt, Richard

2014-01-01

146

Matrilinear phylogeography of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Europe and postglacial colonization of the Baltic Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-four samples from 46 salmon populations totalling 2369 specimens were used for polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial ND1 region. The final analyses included 3095 specimens from 60 populations in Northern Europe. A subsample was analysed by RFLP of ND3\\/4\\/5\\/6. Representative RFLP haplotypes from different parts of the distribution area were sequenced and the phylogeny

J. Nilsson; R. Gross; T. Asplund; O. Dove; H. Jansson; J. Kelloniemi; K. Kohlmann; A. LOytynoja; E. E. Nielsen; T. Paaver; C. R. Primmer; S. Titov; A. VasemAgi; A. Veselov; T. Ost; J. Lumme

2001-01-01

147

Request for a new exempted fishing permit (EFP) to continue research on salmon bycatch reduction devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one  

E-print Network

Request for a new exempted fishing permit (EFP) to continue research on salmon bycatch reduction devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one field season to improve to Chinook salmon fishing permit for our continuing research on salmon excluders for the Bering Sea pollock fishery

148

Controls on pH in surface waters of northwestern European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a high resolution surface water pH dataset obtained in the Northwest European shelf seas in summer 2011. This is the first time that pH has been measured at such a high spatial resolution (10 measurements h-1) in this region. The aim of our paper is to investigate the carbonate chemistry dynamics of the surface water using pH and ancillary data. The main processes controlling the pH distribution along the ship's transect, and their relative importance, were determined using a statistical approach. The study highlights the impact of biological activity, temperature and riverine inputs on the carbonate chemistry dynamics of the shelf seas surface water. For this summer cruise, the biological activity formed the main control of the pH distribution along the cruise transect. Variations in chlorophyll and nutrients explained 29% of the pH variance along the full transect and as much as 68% in the northern part of the transect. In contrast, the temperature distribution explained ca. 50% of the pH variation in the Skagerrak region. Riverine inputs were evidenced by high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels in the Strait of Moyle (northern Irish Sea) and the southern North Sea with consequent remineralisation processes and a reduction in pH. The DOC distribution described 15% of the pH variance along the full transect. This study highlights the high spatial variability of the surface water pH in shelf seawaters where a range of processes simultaneously impacts the carbonate chemistry.

Rrolle, V. M. C.; Ribas-Ribas, M.; Kitidis, V.; Brown, I.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Lee, G. A.; Shi, T.; Mowlem, M. C.; Achterberg, E. P.

2014-01-01

149

Chl a trends in European seas estimated using ocean-colour products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean-colour remote-sensing products have been used to estimate Chl a trends in European seas. This work aims to develop a new indicator based on ocean-colour data for the European Environment Agency (EEA). The new indicator, called CSI023(+), produced from satellite ocean-colour products from the MyOcean Marine Core Service (www.myocean.eu) has been defined and calculated. CSI023 (+) is intended to complement the EEA CSI023 (Core Set of Indicators n.23) indicator for eutrophication, which is based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) in-situ observations. Validation of ocean-colour products has been carried out through comparison with observations of the Eionet EEA database, and we believe that such validation should continue in the future, perhaps with a dedicated data-collection exercise. Ocean colour has a much higher spatial and temporal resolution than the in-situ observations. The ocean-colour observations, however, are based on indirect measurements of the optical properties of the ocean, which are transformed to Chl a using an appropriate algorithm. This algorithm can either be a global algorithm that reproduces the average global Chl a concentrations well or one that is adjusted to specific regional conditions. In our analysis we have used both global and regional (adjusted to specific regional Mediterranean conditions) ocean-colour products, but the results highlight the fact that regional products produced with regional algorithms are recommended for the future. This work proposes a methodology for analysing trends comparable to the method EEA uses for its CSI23 indicator. Analysis has revealed the potential of ocean colour as a CSI023(+) indicator: large-scale, and in some cases even local-scale, changes appear to be captured by the satellite images even though in general the ocean-colour products underestimate the Chl a values. CSI023(+) shows, in the period 1998-2009, decreasing Chl a concentrations throughout the Black Sea, in the Eastern Mediterranean, in the southern part of the Western Mediterranean, in the English Channel and in the north part of the North Sea, whereas large areas with increasing trends are observed in the Bay of Biscay, in the North-East Atlantic regions of Ireland and the UK, in the northern part of the North Sea, in the Kattegat and in the Baltic. Specific analysis has been performed in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea: we first defined Chl a areas and then calculated the CSI023(+) for each of the Chl a areas. This last analysis reveals that about 80 % of Chl a areas do not show significant trends; increasing significant Chl a trends were detected in 3 Chl a areas in the Black Sea and 32 Chl a areas in the Mediterranean. Decreasing significant trends were detected in 6 Chl a areas in the Mediterranean and 2 Chl a areas in the Black Sea.

Coppini, G.; Lyubarstev, V.; Pinardi, N.; Colella, S.; Santoleri, R.; Christiansen, T.

2012-03-01

150

The future of European neighbourhood policy and the role of regional cooperation in the Black Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the regional dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the Black Sea area. Specifically, it analyses the emerging forms of regional cooperation and their interrelation with ENP. It has been demonstrated that the different regional cooperation initiatives, of varying quality and importance for the countries of the area, have been experiencing substantial change due to the

Svetlozar A. Andreev

2008-01-01

151

Enhanced intestinal epithelial barrier health status on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

The study assesses the effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) posterior intestinal lipid class composition and its possible relation to the potential prostaglandins production and Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) stimulation. Fish were fed 4 g kg(-1) MOS (Bio-Mos() Aquagrade, Alltech, Inc., USA) for eight weeks. Fish fed MOS presented higher (P ? 0.05) weight gain, total length, and specific and relative growth rates than fish fed the control diet. Stimulated posterior gut of fish fed MOS showed higher (P ? 0.05) prostaglandins production than fish fed the control diet. Lipid class analyses of posterior gut revealed a reduction (P ? 0.05) in the neutral lipid fraction in fish fed MOS compared to fish fed the control diet, particularly due to a reduction (P ? 0.05) in triacylglycerols content. The polar lipid fraction increased (P ? 0.05) in fish fed MOS compared to fish fed the control diet, mainly due to an increase (P ? 0.05) in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcoline contents. Light microscopy of posterior gut revealed increased number or goblet cells as well as higher level of infiltrated eosinophilic granulocytes for fish fed MOS. Transmission electron microscopy qualitative observations revealed a better preserved cytoarchitecture of the intestinal epithelial barrier in the posterior gut of fish fed MOS. Posterior gut of fish fed MOS presented more densely packed non-damaged enterocytes, better preserved tight junctions structure, healthier and more organized microvilli, and a higher presence of infiltrated lymphocytes and granulocytes compared fish fed the control diet. The present study indicates that dietary MOS enhances European sea bass posterior gut epithelial defense by increasing membrane polar lipids content in relation to a stimulation of the eicosanoid cascade and GALT, promoting posterior gut health status. PMID:23528875

Torrecillas, Silvia; Makol, Alex; Betancor, Mnica Beatriz; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria Jos; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

2013-06-01

152

The spatial data infrastructure for the European Seas Observatory Network (ESONET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESONET is a Multidisciplinary European Network of Excellence (NoE) in which scientists and engineers from 50 partners and 14 countries cooperate in building the infrastructure for a lasting integration of research and development in deep sea observatories in Europe. This NoE aims to develop strong links between regional nodes of a European network of sub sea observatories and to promote multidiciplinarity and transnationality within each node. Essential for these goals is the provision of an effective data and knowledge infrastructure for both, management and archiving of observatory data as well as knowledge and data sharing among network participants. The ESONET data infrastructure roughly consists of four major components: data policies a common agreement on the data management procedures and prerequisites, data acquisition technologies serve to collect data directly from ESONET observatories, data archives care for long term data management of collected ESONET data and data integration and portal tools which ensure harmonisation of collected data and allow access to the data in a common way. Most critical for ESONET was the development of a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) by using standardised protocols to directly access observatory data in its spatial and temporal context. The ESONET SDI provides means to either access data in quasi real time or harvest locally stored data in order to transfer it to a long term data archive. ESONET SDI largely builds upon the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards. Among those, the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), the Observations & Measurements (O&M), Sensor Markup Language (SensorML) are especially important for the integration of observatory data as well as for the contribution of ESONET data to GEOSS.

Huber, Robert; Diepenbroek, Michael

2010-05-01

153

Piling underwater noise impact on migrating salmon fish during Lithuanian LNG terminal construction (Curonian Lagoon, Eastern Baltic Sea Coast).  

PubMed

Development of human activities in the Klaip?da strait generates a wide spectrum of underwater noise. In the fall of 2013, at the liquid natural gas terminal construction site in the shallow Curonian Lagoon area, an assessment of possible negative impacts on migrating salmon fish caused by pile driving noise was made. It is well known that impact hammer pile driving generates pulses with extremely high underwater noise levels. The obtained results proved that the pile hammering into the lagoon bottom generated pulses with a sound exposure level of 218dB re 1?Pa(2)s @1m thus posing a risk to the migrating fish. PMID:25599630

Bago?ius, Donatas

2015-03-15

154

Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources  

E-print Network

355 Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea is a potentially important mech- anism affecting salmon growth and population in the ocean has been observed among sock- eye (O. nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), and chum salmon (O. keta

155

THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

156

SALMON: A WORLD AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

157

SeaDataNet II - EMODNet - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011 and is making good progress. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. Recently the 1st Innovation Cycle has been completed, including upgrading of the CDI Data Discovery and Access service to ISO 19139 and making it fully INSPIRE compliant. The extensive SeaDataNet Vocabularies have been upgraded too and implemented for all SeaDataNet European metadata directories. SeaDataNet is setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has also increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.4 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 90 connected data centres from 30 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for leading the data management component of the EMODNet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. In the past 4 years EMODNet portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are now being expanded to all European seas in successor projects, which started mid 2013 from EU DG MARE. EMODNet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODNet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy with SeaDataNet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place in the new phase. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far, and give further insights in the EMODNet Bathymetry progress.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

2014-05-01

158

Reduced gut bacterial translocation in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides (MOS).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mannan oligosaccharides derived from the outer cell wall of a select strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bio-Mos, Alltech Inc, USA) on mucus production, selected mucus immune parameters activity, gut morphology and in vivo and ex vivo gut bacterial translocation for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Specimens were fed 4 g kg? dietary MOS level of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet for eight weeks. At the end of this period, anterior gut mucosal folds height, width and folds surface area were increased by MOS supplementation (P < 0.05, n = 240). Posterior gut presented shorter folds (P < 0.05, n = 240) but wider that those fed control diet (P < 0.05, n = 240) resulting in increased total surface area (P < 0.05, n = 240). For rectum, feeding MOS reduced fold length (P < 0.05, n = 240). Gut morphological analyses showed an enhancement in the number of cells secreting acid mucins by area unit, higher density of eosinophilic granulocytes (ECGs) in the mucosa for fish fed MOS together with an improvement in gut mucus lysozyme activity which could be related to the reduced in vivo and ex vivo gut bacterial translocation found. No differences were found for the skin mucus immune parameters evaluated. PMID:21195771

Torrecillas, Silvia; Makol, Alex; Bentez-Santana, Tibibin; Caballero, Mara Jos; Montero, Daniel; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

2011-02-01

159

WILDERNESS SOCIETY'S SALMON STATUS DATA FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

The fish status layers show the historic distribution of freshwater habitat and current status of ten different species of anadromous fish: spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, winter chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, sea-run cutthroat, summer steel...

160

Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data. Helen Glaves1 and Colin Graham2 on behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium The Geo-Seas project will create a network of twenty six European marine geoscience data centres from seventeen coastal countries including six from the Baltic Sea area. This will be achieved through the development of a pan-European infrastructure for the exchange of marine geoscientific data. Researchers will be able to locate and access harmonised and federated marine geological and geophysical datasets and data products held by the data centres through the Geo-Seas data portal, using a common data catalogue. The new infrastructure, an expansion of the exisiting SeaDataNet, will create an infrastructure covering oceanographic and marine geoscientific data. New data products and services will be developed following consultations with users on their current and future research requirements. Common data standards will be implemented across all of the data centres and other geological and geophysical organisations will be encouraged to adopt the protocols, standards and tools which are developed as part of the Geo-Seas project. Oceanographic and marine data include a wide range of variables, an important category of which are the geological and geophysical data sets. This data includes raw observational and analytical data as well as derived data products from seabed sediment samples, boreholes, geophysical surveys (seismic, gravity etc) and sidescan sonar surveys. All of which are essential in order to produce a complete interpretation of seabed geology. Despite there being a large volume of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way between organisations due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations and also within different countries. This makes the direct use of primary data in an integrated way very difficult and also hampers use of the data sets in a harmonised way to produce multidisciplinary data products and services. To ensure interoperability with other marine environmental data types Geo-Seas ISO19115 metadata, OGC and GeoSciML standards will be used as the basis for the metadata profiles for the geological and geophysical data. This will be largely achieved by modifying the SeaDataNet metadata standard profile (Common Data Index or CDI), which is itself based upon the ISO19115 standard, to accommodate the requirements of the Geo-Seas project. The overall objective of Geo-Seas project is to build and deploy a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure within Europe which will in effect provide a data grid for the sharing of marine geological and geophysical data. This will result in a major improvement in the locating, accessing and delivery of federated marine geological and geophysical data and data products from national geological surveys and research institutes across Europe. There is an emphasis on interoperability both with other disciplines as well as with other key framework projects including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and One Geology - Europe. In addition, a key objective of the Geo-Seas project is to underpin European directives such as INSPIRE as well as recent framework programmes on both the global and European scale, for example Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), all of which are intended to encourage the exchange of data and information. Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), INETI (Portugal), IGME (Greece), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI (Poland), EGK (Estonia), LIGG (Lithuania), IO-BAS (Bulgaria), NOA (Greece), CIRIA (United Kingd

Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

2010-05-01

161

Influence of sea temperature and initial marine feeding on survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts from the Rivers Orkla and Hals, Norway.  

PubMed

The abundance of returning adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, in the River Orkla in mid-norway (1 sea-winter, SW, fish) and River Hals in north Norway (1-3 SW fish), was tested against the early marine feeding and the seawater temperature experienced by their corresponding year classes of post-smolts immediately after entry into the Trondheimsfjord (Orkla smolts, 22 years of data) and Altafjord (Hals smolts, 17 years of data). In both river-fjord systems, there was a significant positive correlation between the abundance of returning S. salar and the mean seawater temperature at the time of smolts descending to the sea. The number of 1SW fish reported caught in River Orkla was positively correlated to the proportion of fish larvae in the post-smolt stomachs in Trondheimsfjord. The abundance of returning S.salar was, however, neither correlated to forage ratio (R(F)) nor other prey groups in post-smolt stomachs in the two fjord systems. In the Altafjord, the post-smolts fed mainly on pelagic fish larva (70-98%) and had a stable R(F) (0.009-0.023) over the 6 years analysed. In the Trondheimsfjord, however, there was a higher variation in R(F) (0.003-0.036), and pelagic fish larvae were dominant prey in only two (50 and 91%) of the 8 years analysed. These 2 years also showed the highest return rates of S. salar in River Orkla. These results demonstrate that the thermal conditions experienced by post-smolts during their early sea migration may be crucial for the subsequent return rate of adults after 1-3 years at sea. Pelagic marine fish larvae seem to be the preferred initial prey for S. salar post-smolts. As the annual variation in abundance of fish larvae is related to seawater temperature, it is proposed that seawater temperature at sea entry and the subsequent abundance of returning adult S. salar may be indirectly linked through variation in annual availability of pelagic fish larvae or other suitable food items in the early post-smolt phase. PMID:20735652

Hvidsten, N A; Jensen, A J; Rikardsen, A H; Finstad, B; Aure, J; Stefansson, S; Fiske, P; Johnsen, B O

2009-05-01

162

75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...that pertain to the management of Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea subarea of...

2010-09-24

163

The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recolonizing the River Mersey in northwest England.  

PubMed

By the 1950s, pollution had extirpated Atlantic salmon in the river Mersey in northwest England. During the 1970s, an extensive restoration program began and in 2001, an adult salmon was caught ascending the river. Subsequently, a fish trap was installed and additional adults are now routinely sampled. In this study, we have genotyped 138 adults and one juvenile salmon at 14 microsatellite loci from across this time period (2001-2011). We have used assignment analysis with a recently compiled pan-European microsatellite baseline to identify their most probable region of origin. Fish entering the Mersey appear to originate from multiple sources, with the greatest proportion (45-60%, dependent on methodology) assigning to rivers in the geographical region just north of the Mersey, which includes Northwest England and the Solway Firth. Substantial numbers also appear to originate from rivers in western Scotland, and from rivers in Wales and Southwest England; nonetheless, the number of fish originating from proximal rivers to the west of the Mersey was lower than expected. Our results suggest that the majority of salmon sampled in the Mersey are straying in a southerly direction, in accordance with the predominantly clockwise gyre present in the eastern Irish Sea. Our findings highlight the complementary roles of improving water quality and in-river navigability in restoring salmon to a river and underlines further the potential benefits of restoration over stocking as a long-term solution to declining fish stocks. PMID:23145338

Ikediashi, Charles; Billington, Sam; Stevens, Jamie R

2012-10-01

164

The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recolonizing the River Mersey in northwest England  

PubMed Central

By the 1950s, pollution had extirpated Atlantic salmon in the river Mersey in northwest England. During the 1970s, an extensive restoration program began and in 2001, an adult salmon was caught ascending the river. Subsequently, a fish trap was installed and additional adults are now routinely sampled. In this study, we have genotyped 138 adults and one juvenile salmon at 14 microsatellite loci from across this time period (20012011). We have used assignment analysis with a recently compiled pan-European microsatellite baseline to identify their most probable region of origin. Fish entering the Mersey appear to originate from multiple sources, with the greatest proportion (4560%, dependent on methodology) assigning to rivers in the geographical region just north of the Mersey, which includes Northwest England and the Solway Firth. Substantial numbers also appear to originate from rivers in western Scotland, and from rivers in Wales and Southwest England; nonetheless, the number of fish originating from proximal rivers to the west of the Mersey was lower than expected. Our results suggest that the majority of salmon sampled in the Mersey are straying in a southerly direction, in accordance with the predominantly clockwise gyre present in the eastern Irish Sea. Our findings highlight the complementary roles of improving water quality and in-river navigability in restoring salmon to a river and underlines further the potential benefits of restoration over stocking as a long-term solution to declining fish stocks. PMID:23145338

Ikediashi, Charles; Billington, Sam; Stevens, Jamie R

2012-01-01

165

Behavioural Stress Responses Predict Environmental Perception in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)  

PubMed Central

Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour. PMID:25264870

Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; verli, yvind; Oliveira, Rui F.; Martins, Catarina I. M.

2014-01-01

166

Biological responses of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to contaminated sediments.  

PubMed

Multiple anthropogenic activities present along coastal environments may affect the health status of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, specimens of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed for 30 days to highly contaminated sediment collected from the industrial area between Augusta and Priolo (Syracuse, Italy), defined as the most mercury polluted site in the Mediterranean. The aim was to evaluate the responses of juvenile D. labrax to highly contaminated sediments, particularly enriched in Hg, in order to enhance the scarce knowledge on the potential compensatory mechanisms developed by organisms under severe stress conditions. Apoptotic and proliferative activities [cell turnover: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and FAS Ligand (FasL)], onset of hypoxic condition [hypoxia: Hypoxia Inducibile Factor-1? (HIF-1?)], and changes in the neuroendocrine control mechanisms [neurotransmission: Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 (5-HT3)] were investigated in sea bass gill tissues. In the specimens exposed to the polluted sediment, the occurrence of altered cell turnover may result in impaired gas exchange that leads to a condition of "functional hypoxia". Changes in neurotransmission pathways were also observed, suggesting a remodeling process as an adaptive response to increase the O2-carrying capacity and restore the normal physiological conditions of the gills. Overall, these findings demonstrated that although chronic exposure to heavy metal polluted sediments alters the functioning of both the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as plasticity of the gill epithelium, fish are able to trigger a series of physiological adjustments or adaptations interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms that enable their long-term survival. PMID:23953925

De Domenico, Elena; Mauceri, Angela; Giordano, Daniela; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Natalotto, Antonino; D'Agata, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Fasulo, Salvatore

2013-11-01

167

The Relationship between Phytoplankton Distribution and Water Column Characteristics in North West European Shelf Sea Waters  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the Ellett Line cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN?DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN?DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of growth at most stations and depths. PMID:22479533

Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J. S.; Brand, Tim D.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2012-01-01

168

AL ASK A SALMON alaska Salmon  

E-print Network

189 AL ASK A SALMON UNIT 13 alaska Salmon INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon have played an important and pivotal role in the history of Alaska. Salmon, along with mining, timber, and furs, were the keystone now, the abundant salmon resources of this region continue to shape much of the con- temporary lives

169

["Non-aging" pearl oyster and aging salmon (about lack of basis for production of medicines based on European pearl oyster Margaritifera margaritifera)].  

PubMed

The article focuses on disproof of the claim by Valery Ziuganov, that pearl oyster infection prolongs the lifespan of salmon and that pearl oyster can be used as a source of medicine. His activity on the production of medicine pretending to care cancer and senescence based on the gills of salmon infected by pearl oyster is blamed. The data on pearl oyster and salmon biology are presented: Atlantic salmon survives after spawning irrespectively of oyster infection. The problem of shady medicines production is discussed. It was shown that even Academic editions and formal attributes of the belonging to scientific community do not provide a necessary barrier to frauds in this field. Adaptationist program popularity contributes such a situation, because it provides "grounds" for any speculation concerning advantages of any biological process. PMID:20405726

Popov, I Iu

2009-01-01

170

Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.  

PubMed

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

Rogers, Luke A; Peacock, Stephanie J; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R M; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G G; Revie, Crawford W; Krkoek, Martin

2013-01-01

171

Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon  

PubMed Central

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the MarchJune juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkoek, Martin

2013-01-01

172

Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

2014-05-01

173

The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei) is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690) were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish. PMID:20105308

2010-01-01

174

ICOWES2013 Conference 17-19 June 2013, Lyngby WINDS OBSERVED IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN SEAS WITH  

E-print Network

ICOWES2013 Conference 17-19 June 2013, Lyngby 1 WINDS OBSERVED IN THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN SEAS WITH WIND LIDARS, METEOROLOGICAL MASTS AND SATELLITE C.B. Hasager1 , D. Stein2 , A. Peña1 , S Hagemann3 , T. Bingöl1 , M. Courtney1 , A. Oldroyd6 1 DTU Wind Energy, Risø Campus, Roskilde (DK), cbha@dtu.dk, aldi

Haak, Hein

175

Expression of kisspeptins in the brain and pituitary of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

Kisspeptins are now considered key players in the neuroendocrine control of puberty and reproduction, at least in mammals. Most teleosts have two kiss genes, kiss1 and kiss2, but their sites of expression are still poorly documented. As a first step in investigating the role of kisspeptins in the European sea bass, a perciform fish, we studied the distribution of kiss1 and kiss2-expressing cells in the brain of males and females undergoing their first sexual maturation. Animals were examined at early and late in the reproductive season. We also examined the putative expression of estrogen receptors in kiss-expressing cells and, finally, we investigated whether kisspeptins are expressed in the pituitary gland. We show that kiss1-expressing cells were consistently detected in the habenula and, in mature males and females, in the rostral mediobasal hypothalamus. In both sexes, kiss2-expressing cells were consistently detected at the level of the preoptic area, but the main kiss2 mRNA-positive population was observed in the dorsal hypothalamus, above and under the lateral recess. No obvious sexual differences in kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression were detected. Additional studies based on confocal imaging clearly showed that most kiss1 mRNA-containing cells of the mediobasal hypothalamus strongly express ER? and slightly express ER?2. At the pituitary level, both sexes exhibited kiss1 mRNA expression in most FSH?-positive cells and never in LH?-positive cells. PMID:22886357

Escobar, Sebastin; Felip, Alicia; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Kah, Olivier; Servili, Arianna

2013-03-01

176

Intercomparison of carbonate chemistry measurements on a cruise in northwestern European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four carbonate system variables were measured in surface waters during a cruise traversing northwestern European shelf seas in the summer of 2011. High resolution surface water data were collected for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; using two independent instruments) and pHT, in addition to discrete measurements of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. We thus overdetermined the carbonate system (four measured variables, two degrees of freedom) which allowed us to evaluate the level of agreement between the variables. Calculations of carbonate system variables from other measurements generally compared well (Pearson's correlation coefficient always ? 0.94; mean residuals similar to the respective uncertainties of the calculations) with direct observations of the same variables. We therefore conclude that the four independent datasets of carbonate chemistry variables were all of high quality, and as a result that this dataset is suitable to be used for the evaluation of ocean acidification impacts and for carbon was observed in the difference between the pCO2; values obtained by the two independent analytical pCO2; systems, and this was partly attributed to irregular seawater flows to the equilibrator and partly to biological activity inside the seawater supply and one of the equilibrators. We discuss how these issues can be addressed to improve carbonate chemistry data quality on research cruises.

Ribas-Ribas, M.; Rrolle, V. M. C.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Kitidis, V.; Lee, G. A.; Brown, I.; Achterberg, E. P.; Tyrrell, T.

2014-02-01

177

Fish farms, parasites, and predators: implications for salmon population dynamics.  

PubMed

For some salmon populations, the individual and population effects of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transmission from sea cage salmon farms is probably mediated by predation, which is a primary natural source of mortality of juvenile salmon. We examined how sea lice infestation affects predation risk and mortality of juvenile pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon, and developed a mathematical model to assess the implications for population dynamics and conservation. A risk-taking experiment indicated that infected juvenile pink salmon accept a higher predation risk in order to obtain foraging opportunities. In a schooling experiment with juvenile chum salmon, infected individuals had increased nearest-neighbor distances and occupied peripheral positions in the school. Prey selection experiments with cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) predators indicated that infection reduces the ability of juvenile pink salmon to evade a predatory strike. Group predation experiments with coho salmon (O. kisutch) feeding on juvenile pink or chum salmon indicated that predators selectively consume infected prey. The experimental results indicate that lice may increase the rate of prey capture but not the handling time of a predator. Based on this result, we developed a mathematical model of sea lice and salmon population dynamics in which parasitism affects the attack rate in a type II functional response. Analysis of the model indicates that: (1) the estimated mortality of wild juvenile salmon due to sea lice infestation is probably higher than previously thought; (2) predation can cause a simultaneous decline in sea louse abundance on wild fish and salmon productivity that could mislead managers and regulators; and (3) compensatory mortality occurs in the saturation region of the type II functional response where prey are abundant because predators increase mortality of parasites but not overall predation rates. These findings indicate that predation is an important component of salmon-louse dynamics and has implications for estimating mortality, reducing infection, and developing conservation policy. PMID:21639053

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M; Ford, Helen; Peacock, Stephanie; Mages, Paul; Ford, Jennifer S; Morton, Alexandra; Volpe, John P; Hilborn, Ray; Dill, Lawrence M; Lewis, Mark A

2011-04-01

178

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania

Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

2009-04-01

179

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon.  

PubMed

The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect wild salmon populations and habitats in several countries. In Canada, much attention has focused on outbreaks of parasitic copepods, sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), on farmed and wild salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Several recent studies have reached contradictory conclusions on whether the spread of lice from salmon farms affects the productivity of sympatric wild salmon populations. We analyzed recently available sea lice data on farms and spawner-recruit data for pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago and nearby regions where farms are not present. Our results show that sea lice abundance on farms is negatively associated with productivity of both pink and coho salmon in the Broughton Archipelago. These results reconcile the contradictory findings of previous studies and suggest that management and policy measures designed to protect wild salmon from sea lice should yield conservation and fishery benefits. PMID:21873246

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M; Morton, Alexandra; Lewis, Mark A; Dill, Lawrence M; Hilborn, Ray

2011-08-30

180

Final Report for EFP 08-02 to explore the potential for flapper-style salmon excluders for the Bering Sea pollock fishery  

E-print Network

1 Final Report for EFP 08-02 to explore the potential for flapper-style salmon excluders Escape Port Packing Tube orCodend #12;2 Final Report for EFP 08-02 to explore the potential for flapper salmon excluder design called the "flapper" excluder. In its initial concept, the "flapper" was simply

181

The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European Contribution to the Investigation of the Energy and Water Cycle over a Large Drainage Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide

E. Raschke; J. Meywerk; K. Warrach; U. Andrea; S. Bergstrm; F. Beyrich; F. Bosveld; K. Bumke; C. Fortelius; L. P. Graham; S.-E. Gryning; S. Halldin; L. Hasse; M. Heikinheimo; H.-J. Isemer; D. Jacob; I. Jauja; K.-G. Karlsson; S. Keevallik; J. Koistinen; A. van Lammeren; U. Lass; J. Launianen; A. Lehmann; B. Liljebladh; M. Lobmeyr; W. Matthus; T. Mengelkamp; D. B. Michelson; J. Napirkowski; A. Omstedt; J. Piechura; B. Rockel; F. Rubel; E. Ruprecht; A.-S. Smedman; A. Stigebrandt

2001-01-01

182

Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been established. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea Level (CSL). The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot have led to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for other cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly), 7 cm from October to the end of 2010 and another 5 cm to the end of May 2011. From October 2010 to February 2011 excessive precipitation occurred over the Volga basin, equivalent to an increase of the CSL of 7 cm which might just compensate the 7 cm of the remaining deficit from the summer drought. A deficit of water took however already place in the months before July 2010. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS. Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are investigated as well which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive quantities like surface evaporation and precipitation. The comparison with independent data and the consistency between such data for calculating the water budget over the CS gives a high confidence in the quality of the data used. This investigation provides some scope for making forecasts of the CSL few months ahead to allow for mitigating societal impacts.

Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Lahijani, H.; Khan, V.

2011-08-01

183

Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB) and the Caspian Sea (CS) have been analysed. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia. A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea level (CSL). The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot lead to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated here to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for deficient precipitation and for winter cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until the end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly). So the remaining drop of 20 cm can be expected in the months to follow if no other anomalies happen. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS. Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are also investigated, which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive quantities like surface evaporation and precipitation. The comparison with independent data and the consistency between such data for calculating the water budget over the CS gives a high confidence in the quality of the data used. This investigation provides some scope for making forecasts of the CSL few months ahead to allow for mitigating societal impacts.

Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Lahijani, H.; Khan, V.

2012-01-01

184

A top-down survival mechanism during early marine residency explains coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska  

E-print Network

, whereas chum, sockeye, and Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon generally spend 2­5 years at sea Harvest Growth rate Size Body condition a b s t r a c t Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are a vital in adult coho salmon harvest was largely explained by indices of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus

185

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

2003-01-01

186

Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for a network of ocean observing systems cross many applied and research areas of earth and marine science. Many of the science areas that can be examined using such systems have direct impacts on societal health and well being and our understanding of ocean function in a shifting climate. The European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET) Network of Excellence has been evaluating ocean observatory design requirements, data management needs, standardization and interoperability concerns, social implications, outreach and education, as well as financial and legal aspects of developing such a system. ESONET has great potential to address a growing set of Earth science questions that require a broad and integrated network of ocean and seafloor observations. ESONET activities are also importantly integrating researchers in the European Community, as well as internationally. There is now wide recognition that research addressing science questions of international priority, such as understanding the potential impacts of climate change or geohazards like earthquakes and tsunamis should be conducted in a framework that can address questions across adequate temporal and spatial scales. We will present the relevant science priorities in the four interconnected fields of geoscience, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and marine ecology, and some of the practical ways in which these questions can be addressed using ESONET. Several key questions persist that will require comprehensive interdisciplinary approaches including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, fluid pore chemistry and pressure, improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? To what extent do seabed processes influence ocean physics, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems? How are physical and biogeochemical processes that occur at differing scales related? What aspects of physical oceanography and biogeochemical cycling will be most sensitive to climate change? What will the important feedbacks of potential ecological change be on biogeochemical cycles? What are the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine life and what will the influence of anthropogenic change be? We will outline a set of science objectives and observation parameters to be collected at all ESONET sites, as well as a set of rather specific objectives and thus parameters that might only be measured at some sites. We will also present the preliminary module specifications now being considered by ESONET. In a practical sense the observatory design has been divided into those that will be included in a so called generic' module and those that will be part of science-specific modules. Outlining preliminary module specifications is required to move forward with studies of observatory design and operation. These specifications are importantly provisional and can be updated as science needs and feasibility change. A functional cleavage not only comes between aspects that are considered generic or specific, but also the settings in which those systems will be used. For example, some modules will be on the seabed and some will be moored in the water column. In order to address many of the questions posed above ESONET users will require other supporting data from other programs from local to international levels. Examples of these other data sources include satellite oceanographic data, climatic data, air-sea interface data, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna. Thus the connection of ESONET to other programs is integral to its success. The development of ESONET provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Furthermore, ESONET and several other developing ocean observatory programs are integrating into larger science frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programs. It is only in a greater integrated framework that the full potential of the component systems will be realized.

Ruhl, H.; Gli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colao, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

2009-04-01

187

Intercomparison of carbonate chemistry measurements on a cruise in northwestern European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four carbonate system variables were measured in surface waters during a cruise aimed at investigating ocean acidification impacts traversing northwestern European shelf seas in the summer of 2011. High-resolution surface water data were collected for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; using two independent instruments) and pH using the total pH scale (pHT), in addition to discrete measurements of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. We thus overdetermined the carbonate system (four measured variables, two degrees of freedom), which allowed us to evaluate the level of agreement between the variables on a cruise whose main aim was not intercomparison, and thus where conditions were more representative of normal working conditions. Calculations of carbonate system variables from other measurements generally compared well with direct observations of the same variables (Pearson's correlation coefficient always greater than or equal to 0.94; mean residuals were similar to the respective accuracies of the measurements). We therefore conclude that four of the independent data sets of carbonate chemistry variables were of high quality. A diurnal cycle with a maximum amplitude of 41 ?atm was observed in the difference between the pCO2 values obtained by the two independent analytical pCO2 systems, and this was partly attributed to irregular seawater flows to the equilibrator and partly to biological activity inside the seawater supply and one of the equilibrators. We discuss how these issues can be addressed to improve carbonate chemistry data quality on future research cruises.

Ribas-Ribas, M.; Rrolle, V. M. C.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Kitidis, V.; Lee, G. A.; Brown, I.; Achterberg, E. P.; Hardman-Mountford, N. J.; Tyrrell, T.

2014-08-01

188

Reprint of: Carbon flux to the deep in three open sites of the Southern European Seas (SES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the strength and efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Southern European Seas (SES), by analyzing the export of POC at three deep sites located in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED) and the Black Sea (BS). We combine estimations of satellite and algorithm-generated primary production data, calculated POC fluxes out of the euphotic layer and POC fluxes measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers during a one year period, with an ultimate goal to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of the biological pump in the SES. Annual particulate primary production based on satellite estimations (SeaWiFS) at the three sites, averages 205, 145 and 225 gC m- 2 y- 1 at the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. According to our findings, the fraction of primary production that is exported out of the euphotic zone in the SES ranges between 4.2% and 11.4%, while the fraction reaching the mesopelagic layer (1000-1400 m depth) ranges between 0.6% and 1.8%. Finally, the fraction of primary production exported at the bathypelagic layer (2000-2800 m depth) is found to be 0.6%, 0.3% and 1.4% in the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. The role of various processes responsible for the replenishment of surface waters with nutrients, giving rise to productivity episodes and organic carbon export to depth at the three SES sites is considered.

Gogou, Alexandra; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Stavrakakis, Spyros; Calafat, Antoni M.; Stabholz, Marion; Psarra, Stella; Canals, Miquel; Heussner, Serge; Stavrakaki, Ioanna; Papathanassiou, Evangelos

2014-07-01

189

Sea lice monitoring on Atlantic salmon farms in New Brunswick, Canada: comparing audit and farm staff counts.  

PubMed

Sea lice audits were performed by the Atlantic Veterinary College on commercial aquaculture sites in New Brunswick, Canada, in 2011. Although the primary objective was to verify that farms were reporting similar lice counts to third-party counts, more detailed comparisons were made to identify when lice counts were more likely to differ between the audit team and farm employees. A total of 28 sea lice audits were conducted on 16 sites between June and December 2011. During each audit, 10 cages were evaluated per site where possible, with ten fish per cage being evaluated by an audit technician and a further ten by a farm employee. Data analysis included descriptive statistics of lice counts by stage and limits of agreement plots. A random effects negative binomial model that accounted for clustering of cages within sites was applied to assess the effect of counter type and season on lice counts by stage. The results indicate that farms counts were generally in agreement with audit counts. However, when the average counts for chalimus and preadult (male and female) and adult male lice stages were high, farm counters were more likely to report a lower value. Higher lice counts were observed during autumn compared to summer especially for the adult female stage. Finally, there was a significant clustering effect for site and cage, with most of the variation attributable to site. PMID:23311676

Elmoslemany, A; Whyte, S K; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

2013-03-01

190

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This is known as the Common Data Index (CDI) V0 system Version 1: harmonisation and upgrading of the metadatabases through adoption of the ISO 19115 metadata standard and provision of transparent data access and download services from all partner data centres through upgrading the Common Data Index and deployment of a data object delivery service. Version 2: adding data product services and OGC compliant viewing services and further virtualisation of data access. SeaDataNet Version 0: The SeaDataNet portal has been set up at http://www.seadatanet.org and it provides a platform for all SeaDataNet services and standards as well as background information about the project and its partners. It includes discovery services via the following catalogues: CSR - Cruise Summary Reports of research vessels; EDIOS - Locations and details of monitoring stations and networks / programmes; EDMED - High level inventory of Marine Environmental Data sets collected and managed by research institutes and organisations; EDMERP - Marine Environmental Research Projects ; EDMO - Marine Organisations. These catalogues are interrelated, where possible, to facilitate cross searching and context searching. These catalogues connect to the Common Data Index (CDI). Common Data Index (CDI) The CDI gives detailed insight in available datasets at partners databases and paves the way to direct online data access or direct online requests for data access / data delivery. The CDI V0 metadatabase contains more than 340.000 individual data entries from 36 CDI partners from 29 countries across Europe, covering a broad scope and range of data, held by these organisations. For purposes of standardisation and international exchange the ISO19115 metadata standard has been adopted. The CDI format is defined as a dedicated subset of this standard. A CDI XML format supports the exchange between CDI-partners and the central CDI manager, and ensures interoperability with other systems and networks. CDI XML entries are generated by participating data centres, directly from their databases. CDI-partners can make use

Schaap, D. M. A.; Maudire, G.

2009-04-01

191

PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon  

E-print Network

181 PACIFIC COAST SALMON UNIT 12 pacific Coast Salmon Unit 12 ROBERT G. KOPE NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon support important commercial and recreational fisheries in Washington, Oregon, and California. Salmon are a vital part of the cul- ture

192

Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites.  

PubMed

The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. PMID:23734489

Peacock, Stephanie J; Krkosek, Martin; Proboszcz, Stan; Orr, Craig; Lewis, Mark A

2013-04-01

193

Antimicrobial response is increased in the testis of European sea bass, but not in gilthead seabream, upon nodavirus infection.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have a crucial role in the fish innate immune response, being considered a fundamental component of the first line of defence against pathogens. Moreover, AMPs have not been studied in the fish gonad since this is used by some pathogens as a vehicle or a reservoir to be transmitted to the progeny, as occurs with nodavirus (VNNV), which shows vertical transmission through the gonad and/or gonadal fluids, but no study has looked into the gonad of infected fish. In this framework, we have characterized the antimicrobial response triggered by VNNV in the testis of European sea bass, a very susceptible species of the virus, and in the gilthead seabream, which acts as a reservoir, both invivo and invitro, and compared with that present in the serum and brain (target tissue of VNNV). First, our data show a great antiviral response in the brain of gilthead seabream and in the gonad of European sea bass. In addition, for the first time, our results demonstrate that the antimicrobial activities (complement, lysozyme and bactericidal) and the expression of AMP genes such as complement factor 3 (c3), lysozyme (lyz), hepcidin (hamp), dicentracin (dic), piscidin (pis) or ?-defensin (bdef) in the gonad of both species are very different, but generally activated in the European sea bass, probably related with the differences of susceptibility upon VNNV infection, and even differs to the brain response. Furthermore, the invitro data suggest that some AMPs are locally regulated playing a local immune response in the gonad, while others are more dependent of the systemic immune system. Data are discussed in the light to ascertain their potential role in viral clearance by the gonad to avoid vertical transmission. PMID:25707600

Valero, Yulema; Garca-Alczar, Alicia; Esteban, M ngeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

2015-05-01

194

Salmon lice increase the age of returning Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

The global increase in the production of domestic farmed fish in open net pens has created concerns about the resilience of wild populations owing to shifts in hostparasite systems in coastal ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of increased parasite abundance on life-history traits in wild fish populations. Here, we report the results of two separate studies in which 379 779 hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts were treated (or not) against salmon lice, marked and released. Adults were later recaptured, and we specifically tested whether the age distribution of the returning spawners was affected by the treatment. The estimates of parasite-induced mortality were 31.9% and 0.6% in the River Vosso and River Dale stock experiments, respectively. Age of returning salmon was on average higher in treated versus untreated fish. The percentages of fish returning after one winter at sea were 37.5% and 29.9% for the treated and untreated groups, respectively. We conclude that salmon lice increase the age of returning salmon, either by affecting their age at maturity or by disproportionately increasing mortality in fish that mature early. PMID:24478199

Vollset, Knut Wiik; Barlaup, Bjrn Torgeir; Skoglund, Helge; Normann, Eirik Straume; Skilbrei, Ove Tommy

2014-01-01

195

Salmon's Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,

Shannon, Thomas A.

1994-01-01

196

Pituitary Levels of Three Forms of GnRH in the Male European Sea Bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) during Sex Differentiation and First Spawning Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, levels of three GnRH forms [seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), and salmon GnRH (sGnRH)] were analyzed in the pituitary of male sea bass during sex differentiation and the first spawning season. Plasma levels of gonadotropin (GTH-2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were determined during the same periods. All GnRH forms were present in the pituitary.

L. Rodr??guez; M. Carrillo; L. A. Sorbera; M. A. Soubrier; E. Maans; M. C. H. Holland; Y. Zohar; S. Zanuy

2000-01-01

197

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness Dylan J. Fraser,1 Adam M. Cook,1 James escapes of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recur from sea cages (Fiske et al. 2006). Escaped farmed

Fraser, Dylan J.

198

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN  

E-print Network

1 A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST IN BRITISH COLUMBIA?" Report 1: Parasitic Sea Lice and Other Diseases of Pacific Salmon December 2012 review funded by the BC Salmon Farmers Association #12;2 Table of Contents PREAMBLE

Farrell, Anthony P.

199

75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures for Groundfish...be a novel approach to managing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery...combines a limit on the amount of Chinook salmon that may be caught incidentally with...

2010-02-18

200

Productivity, facies and stable-isotope records of OAE2 (Cenomanian - Turonian) in the NW European epicontinental sea: from the English Chalk to North Sea black shales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Cretaceous (100.5 - 66.0 Ma) provides perhaps the best example of how the Earth System may function under long-term extreme greenhouse conditions. Rapidly rising global temperatures indicate that we are heading 'back to the Cretaceous' within a few hundred years, so a better understanding of this time interval is essential. The beginning of the Late Cretaceous was characterized by a period of rapidly rising eustatic sea level, the Cenomanian transgression, which flooded continental margins and established large areas of new epicontinental sea that accumulated thick sequences of pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate (chalk). Highest global temperatures were reached during the early part of the Turonian Stage (93.9 - 89.8 Ma). This period of dramatic palaeoenvironmental change was accompanied by one the largest perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the Mesozoic: Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which was characterized by a 500 kyr episode of oceanic anoxia, widespread black shale deposition, biotic turnover, and a large global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion (2 - 6 ?13C) recorded in marine carbonates and both marine and terrestrial organic matter. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval exposed at Eastbourne, southern England, has become established as a European reference section for OAE2. Here, and elsewhere in Europe, the base of the ?13C excursion is coincident with a marked facies change from rhythmically bedded grey chalks and marls, to a >8 m thick package of dark greenish-grey marl - the Plenus Marl. The termination of OAE2 occurs 6 m above, in a package of pale-yellow-weathering nodular chalks with prominent marl seams. Sediments are organic lean (<0.2 wt% TOC) and bioturbated throughout, and although a case can be made for periodic oxygen depletion in bottom waters, there is no evidence here of marine surface- or bottom-water anoxia. The Plenus Marl displays a distinctive succession of 8 beds that can be correlated throughout southern England and northern France, and the formation is widely developed in the North Sea Basin where it forms an important lithostratigraphic and geophysical marker. In contrast to southern England, the Plenus Marl of the North Sea (Blodks Formation of the Norwegian sector) consists of a succession with laminated black shales yielding TOC >10 wt%. The onshore equivalent in eastern England (the Black Band) is similarly organic-rich, as are comparable sections in northern Germany (e.g. Wunstorf), indicating likely fully anoxic episodes within some NW European basins. The exact stratigraphic equivalence between the onshore Plenus Marl, North Sea black shales and the Black Band remains controversial. Here, we compare the lithofacies, sedimentology, elemental and stable-isotope records, and palynology of Upper Cenomanian - Lower Turonian sections in southern England to those from a central North Sea cored reference well that includes a 6 m package with laminated black shales (Plenus Marl). Factors influencing carbonate and organic matter ?13C trends in the records will be considered in the context of the palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic events that accompanied eustatic sea-level change, culminating in OAE2 and the subsequent global climatic optimum. The effects of diagenesis on the stable-isotope records will be discussed.

Jarvis, Ian; Olde, Kate; Trabucho-Alexandre, Joo; Grcke, Darren

2013-04-01

201

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic

Dick M. A. Schaap; Gilbert Maudire

2010-01-01

202

Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding.  

PubMed

European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed that even the smallest larvae feed on a striking variety of plankton organisms, and that gelatinous zooplankton is of fundamental dietary importance. Hence, the specific plankton composition seems essential for eel larval feeding and growth, suggesting a linkage between eel survival and regional plankton productivity. These novel insights into the prey of Atlantic eels may furthermore facilitate eel larval rearing in aquaculture, which ultimately may replace the unsustainable use of wild-caught glass eels. PMID:20573615

Riemann, Lasse; Alfredsson, Hanna; Hansen, Michael M; Als, Thomas D; Nielsen, Torkel G; Munk, Peter; Aarestrup, Kim; Maes, Gregory E; Sparholt, Henrik; Petersen, Michael I; Bachler, Mirjam; Castonguay, Martin

2010-12-23

203

Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding  

PubMed Central

European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed that even the smallest larvae feed on a striking variety of plankton organisms, and that gelatinous zooplankton is of fundamental dietary importance. Hence, the specific plankton composition seems essential for eel larval feeding and growth, suggesting a linkage between eel survival and regional plankton productivity. These novel insights into the prey of Atlantic eels may furthermore facilitate eel larval rearing in aquaculture, which ultimately may replace the unsustainable use of wild-caught glass eels. PMID:20573615

Riemann, Lasse; Alfredsson, Hanna; Hansen, Michael M.; Als, Thomas D.; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Munk, Peter; Aarestrup, Kim; Maes, Gregory E.; Sparholt, Henrik; Petersen, Michael I.; Bachler, Mirjam; Castonguay, Martin

2010-01-01

204

Chinook Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can painted wooden fish on a schoolyard fence change human behavior and help clean up the ocean for the real salmon? Stream of Dreams in British Columbia thinks so, and a lot of wooden fish and some 100,000 school kids later, they have some intriguing results to show for their effort. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

205

Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Mller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen; Saksida, Sonja M.

2015-01-01

206

1O.-kOTES ON THE CAPTURE OF ATLANTIC SALMON AT SEA AND IN THE COAST WATERS OF THE EASTERN STATES.  

E-print Network

, discusses the question of the Whereabouts of salmon 95 #12;~6 BULLE'fIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION press and in the reports of several of the State fish commissions, notably the New York commission. to. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, in addition to direct efforts to increase the abundance of fishes ua

207

Assessment of Salmon Stocks  

E-print Network

Annual Assessment of Salmon Stocks and Fisheries in England and Wales 2009 #12;#12;SALMON STOCKS;Acknowledgement: This report has been compiled jointly by staff from the Cefas Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries and assessment of salmon stocks is funded by Defra. Both Cefas and the Environment Agency would like to extend

208

Salmon Patties Ingredients  

E-print Network

Salmon Patties Ingredients: 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 15 ounces salmon, canned 1 cup whole wheat to medium. 2. While skillet is heating, open can of salmon and add to bowl. Use a fork to remove skin to bowl with salmon. 5. Use hands to mix ingredients together and shape mixture into eight patties. 6. Add

Liskiewicz, Maciej

209

Disease Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Coinfection of the Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi  

PubMed Central

Background Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. Methodology In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC?=?44 copepodites per fish; HC?=?88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. Main Findings C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality?=?251/545; LC mortality?=?544/544 and HC mortality?=?545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI?=?0.230.07; h2LC?=?0.170.08; h2HC?=?0.240.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC?=?0.990.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC?=??0.140.33; rg SI-HC?=?0.320.34). Conclusions/Significance C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon farming, selective breeding and conservation. PMID:24736323

Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, Jos A.; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabao, Mara J.; Neira, Roberto

2014-01-01

210

Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are

Devaney, Laurel

211

Developmental expression of DAX1 in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: lack of evidence for sexual dimorphism during sex differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: DAX1 (NR0B1), a member of the nuclear receptors super family, has been shown to be involved in the genetic sex determination and in gonadal differentiation in several vertebrate species. In the aquaculture fish European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and in the generality of fish species, the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation have not been elucidated. The present study

Rute ST Martins; Laurence AM Deloffre; Constantinos C Mylonas; Deborah M Power; Adelino VM Canrio

2007-01-01

212

Winter and summer climate patterns in the European-Middle East during recent centuries as documented in a northern Red Sea coral record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ras Umm Sidd coral 6180 record from the northern Red Sea is the northernmost centuries long coral time series that is currently available in seasonal resolution (AD 1750-1995). Here we investigate climate patterns associated with the coral 6180 time series separately for boreal winter and summer, using instrumental and reconstructed climate fields for the European-Middle East region. The winter

Norel Rimbu; Thomas Felis; Gerrit Lohmann; Jrgen Patzold

2006-01-01

213

Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: The case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH) has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW) due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic

Michael M Hansen; Dylan J Fraser; Thomas D Als; Karen-Lise D Mensberg

2008-01-01

214

Is the European shipping industry aware of corporate social responsibility? The case of the Greek-owned short sea shipping companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to clarify the meaning of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the context of the European maritime sector and examines its application in the case of the Greek-owned short sea shipping companies. CSR is assessed in terms of a number of variables such as employees satisfaction, corporate productivity and efficiency, social welfare, awareness and social accountability of managers

Irene Fafaliou; Maria Lekakou; Ioannis Theotokas

2006-01-01

215

Reproductive performance in male European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) fed two PUFA-enriched experimental diets: a comparison with males fed a wet diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive performance of male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed a wet diet (WD) was compared to that of fish fed two commercial pelleted diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by the use of Northern hemisphere fish oil (ST) or tuna orbital oil (RO). Broodstock growth, spermiation duration, milt production, milt spermatozoa density, sperm motility, milt lipid composition, and

J. F. Asturiano; L. A. Sorbera; M. Carrillo; S. Zanuy; J. Ramos; J. C. Navarro; N. Bromage

2001-01-01

216

THE ATHENS SEA-FRONT REHABILITATION PROJECTS. EUROPEAN GUIDELINES IMPLEMENTATION IN METROPOLITAN COASTAL AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a critical review of the experience gained from planning projects of the Athens Urban seafront area promoted by the Organization of Athens, independently or within various European programs. Structural weaknesses tin the existing planning system in Greece (administrative malfunctions, social practices and scientific approaches) result in difficulties in applying an Integrated Coastal Zone Management policy. The new

Maro Evangelidou

2001-01-01

217

Rudderless in a Sea of Yellow: The European Political Economy Impasse for Renewable Transport Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with the twin challenges of anthropogenic climate change and peak oil, the need for an urgent and radical transformation of transport energy has been widely recognised. Adopting a neo-Polanyian economic sociology approach, this article asks what conditions European governance capacity to respond to these challenges, at either national or regional levels, using biofuels as a case study. It asks

Mark Harvey; Sarah Pilgrim

2012-01-01

218

Imbalanced dietary ascorbic acid alters molecular pathways involved in skeletogenesis of developing European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

The influence of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on growth and morphogenesis during the larval development of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was evaluated until 45days post hatching. Diets incorporated 0, 5, 15, 30, 50 or 400mg AA per kg diet to give AA-0, AA-5, AA-15, AA-30, AA-50 and AA-400 dietary treatments, respectively. Dietary AA levels lower than 15mg/kg reduced larval growth and survival was affected in specimens fed diets devoid of AA. Globally, disruption of the expression of genes involved in AA and calcium absorption in the intestine (SVCT-1, TRPV-6), skeletogenesis (BMP-4, IGF-1, RAR?) and bone mineralization (VDR?, osteocalcin) were observed in groups fed doses lower and higher than 50mg AA/kg diet. Such disturbances detected at molecular level were associated with disruptions of the ossification process and the appearance of skeletal abnormalities. PMID:21281732

Darias, Maria J; Mazurais, David; Koumoundouros, Giorgos; Le Gall, Marie M; Huelvan, Christine; Desbruyeres, Elisabeth; Quazuguel, Patrick; Cahu, Chantal L; Zambonino-Infante, Jose L

2011-05-01

219

New insights in developmental origins of different GnRH (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone) systems in perciform fish: an immunohistochemical study in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

The knowledge of the roles and origins of different gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) systems could greatly contribute to improve the understanding of mechanisms involved in the physiological control of early development, puberty and spawning. Thus, in this study, we have analyzed the distribution of the cells expressing salmon GnRH, seabream GnRH and chicken GnRH-II forms in the brain and pituitary of developing sea bass using specific antibodies to their corresponding GnRH-associated peptides. The first prepro-chicken GnRH-II-immunoreactive cells arose in the germinal zone of the third ventricle at 4 days after hatching, increasing their number from days 10 to 30, in which they adopted their adult position. The prepro-chicken GnRH-II-immunoreactive fibers became conspicuous in the first week and from day 26 they reached almost all brain areas, especially the hindbrain, being never detected in the pituitary. First prepro-salmon GnRH-immunoreactive cells were detected in the olfactory placode at day 7 after hatching and reached the olfactory bulbs at day 10. Migrating prepro-salmon GnRH cells arrived at the ventral telencephalon at day 15, and became apparent in the preoptic area from day 45. The prepro-salmon GnRH innervation was more evident in the forebrain and increased notably between 10 and 30 days, at which fibers already extended from the olfactory bulbs to the medulla. A few prepro-salmon GnRH-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the pituitary from day 30. The prepro-seabream GnRH-immunoreactive cells were first detected at day 26 in the rostral olfactory bulbs. On day 30, prepro-seabream GnRH-immunoreactive cells were also present in the ventral telencephalon, reaching the preoptic area and the hypothalamus at 45 and 60 days, respectively. The prepro-seabream GnRH innervation appeared restricted to the ventral forebrain, increasing notably during the sixth week, when fibers also reached the pituitary. A significant prepro-seabream GnRH innervation was not detected in the pituitary until day 60. PMID:15363486

Gonzlez-Martnez, David; Zmora, Nilli; Saligaut, Dany; Zanuy, Silvia; Elizur, Abigail; Kah, Olivier; Muoz-Cueto, Jos Antonio

2004-09-01

220

Salmon Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.

221

Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

None

2010-01-04

222

The retina is a target for GnRH-3 system in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

The European sea bass expresses three GnRH (Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone) forms that exert pleiotropic actions via several classes of receptors. The GnRH-1 form is responsible for the endogenous regulation of gonadotrophin release by the pituitary gland but the role of GnRH-2 and GnRH-3 remains unclear in fish. In a previous study performed in sea bass, we have provided evidence of direct links between the GnRH-2 cells and the pineal organ and demonstrated a functional role for GnRH-2 in the modulation of the secretory activity of this photoreceptive organ. In this study, we have investigated the possible relationship between the GnRH-3 system and the retina in the same species. Thus, using a biotinylated dextran-amine tract-tracing method, we reveal the presence of retinopetal cells in the terminal nerve of sea bass, a region that also contains GnRH-3-immunopositive cells. Moreover, GnRH-3-immunoreactive fibers were observed at the boundary between the inner nuclear and the inner plexiform layers, and also within the ganglion cell layer. These results strongly suggest that the GnRH-3 neurons located in the terminal nerve area represent the source of GnRH-3 innervation in the retina of this species. In order to clarify whether the retina is a target for GnRH, the expression pattern of GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR) was also analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. RT-PCR revealed the retinal expression of dlGnRHR-II-2b, -1a, -1b and -1c, while in situ hybridization only showed positive signals for the receptors dlGnRHR-II-2b and -1a. Finally, double-immunohistochemistry showed that GnRH-3 projections reaching the sea bass retina end in close proximity to tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic) cells, which also expressed the dlGnRHR-II-2b receptor subtype. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for GnRH-3 in the modulation of dopaminergic cell activities and retinal functions in sea bass. PMID:22138555

Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Prez, Patricia; Kah, Olivier; Muoz-Cueto, Jos Antonio

2012-02-01

223

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products. Version 1 of its infrastructure upgrade was launched in April 2008 and is now well underway to include all 40 data centres at V1 level. It comprises the network of 40 interconnected data centres (NODCs) and a central SeaDataNet portal. V1 provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, that are managed at these data centres. The SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure comprises the following middleware services: Discovery services = Metadata directories and User interfaces Vocabulary services = Common vocabularies and Governance Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting Delivery services = Requesting and Downloading of data sets Viewing services = Mapping of metadata Monitoring services = Statistics on system usage and performance and Registration of data requests and transactions Maintenance services = Entry and updating of metadata by data centres Also good progress is being made with extending the SeaDataNet infrastructure with V2 services: Viewing services = Quick views and Visualisation of data and data products Product services = Generic and standard products Exchange services = transformation of SeaDataNet portal CDI output to INSPIRE compliance As a basis for the V1 services, common standards have been defined for metadata and data formats, common vocabularies, quality flags, and quality control methods, based on international standards, such as ISO 19115, OGC, NetCDF (CF), ODV, best practices from IOC and ICES, and following INSPIRE developments. An important objective of the SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 metadata service provides the link between discovery and delivery of data sets. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

2010-05-01

224

Potential impact of tidal power plants and future sea-level rise on the dynamics of the European Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal power is a potential renewable energy source internationally, although financial and technical limitations to tidal power have been addressed. There is also a dynamical aspect of the extraction of tidal energy from shallow shelf seas: what will happen with the tidal dynamics on the shelf if energy is extracted at point sources? The tidal currents and the dissipation of tidal energy control the location of shelf sea fronts and thereby the seasonal stratification. Any change in the tides may thus have far-reaching implications for the biogeochemical and physical systems on the shelf, e.g. primary production, draw-down of atmospheric CO2, and sediment transport. Here we suggest ways to implement tidal power plants in dynamic tidal models, and we investigate how the tidal dynamics of the European shelf changes if we extract large amounts of tidal energy during both present and future climate-change scenarios. With a 1 m future sea-level rise the results show significantly modified tidal amplitudes with up to 20% in certain areas, and the effects may reach the global ocean. These changes are attributed to modifications of the resonant properties of the ocean, which induce a shift in the location of the amphidromic points. During present day conditions the addition of a large-scale Severn barrage induces amplitude changes of 10-20% of the regional tide in several locations. Significant changes can be found at locations far from the barrage itself, i.e. on the Northwest coast of Scotland and in the English Channel, again due to movement of the amphidromic points. However, the back effects on the open ocean tides from tidal power plants are negligible. The combination of a 1 m sea-level rise and a Severn barrage show even larger modifications with effects at large distances from the shelf and the power plant itself. The conclusion is that care must be taken in the implementation of tidal power plants to ensure that the full impact of the power extraction is understood and quantified.

Green, Mattias; Pelling, Holly

2010-05-01

225

GROWTH OF PREMIGRATORY CHINOOK SALMON IN SEAWATER BERNARD M. KEPSHlRE, JR., AND WILLIAM J. McNEIL'  

E-print Network

GROWTH OF PREMIGRATORY CHINOOK SALMON IN SEAWATER BERNARD M. KEPSHlRE, JR., AND WILLIAM J. McNEIL' ABSTRACT A potential demand exists in sea farming for premigratory juvenile Pacific salmon that have been acclimated to seawater. This paper reports experiments on growth of premigratory chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus

226

Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canadas Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canadas Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

2013-01-01

227

Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By exploiting the available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences - spanning over a sampling period of more than 10 yr - retrieved from sediments of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV), Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) and eastern Mediterranean (Amsterdam and Kazan mud volcanoes; AMSMV, KZNMV) mud volcanoes/pockmarks, we investigated whether these systems are characterized by high (interconnectivity) or low (isolation) connection degree based on shared bacterial and archaeal phylotypes. We found only two archaeal and two bacterial phylotypes to occur in all three sites and a few more that were found in two of the three sites. Although the number of shared species depends a lot on the analysis depth of each sample, the majority of the common phylotypes were related mostly to cold seep deep-sea habitats, while for some of them their relative abundance was high enough to be considered as key-species for the habitat they were found. As new tools, like next generation sequencing platforms, are more appropriate for revealing greater depth of diversity but also allow sample replication and uniform sampling protocols, and gain wider recognition and usage, future attempts are more realistic now for fully elucidating the degree of specificity in deep-sea mud volcanoes and pockmarks microbial communities.

Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

2012-12-01

228

Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

229

Calcitonin Salmon Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

230

SALMON 2100 PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty eight salmon scientists and policy experts have joined forces in an innovative project to identify ways that, if adopted, likely would restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. ...

231

Distribution and persistence of the anti sea-lice drug teflubenzuron in wild fauna and sediments around a salmon farm, following a standard treatment.  

PubMed

The salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) is a challenge in the farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To treat an infestation, different insecticides are used like the orally administered chitin synthetase inhibitor teflubenzuron. The concentrations and distribution of teflubenzuron were measured in water, organic particles, marine sediment and biota caught in the vicinity of a fish farm following a standard medication. Low concentrations were found in water samples whereas the organic waste from the farm, collected by sediment traps had concentrations higher than the medicated feed. Most of the organic waste was distributed to the bottom close to the farm but organic particles containing teflubenzuron were collected 1100 m from the farm. The sediment under the farm consisted of 5 to 10% organic material and therefore the concentration of teflubenzuron was much lower than in the organic waste. Teflubenzuron was persistent in the sediment with a stipulated halflife of 170 days. Sediment consuming polychaetes had high but decreasing concentrations of teflubenzuron throughout the experimental period, reflecting the decrease of teflubenzuron in the sediment. During medication most wild fauna contained teflubenzuron residues and where polychaetes and saith had highest concentrations. Eight months later only polychaetes and some crustaceans contained drug residues. What dosages that induce mortality in various crustaceans following short or long-term exposure is not known but the results indicate that the concentrations in defined individuals of king crab, shrimp, squat lobster and Norway lobster were high enough shortly after medication to induce mortality if moulting was imminent. Considering food safety, saith and the brown meat of crustaceans contained at first sampling concentrations of teflubenzuron higher than the MRL-value set for Atlantic salmon. The concentrations were, however, moderate and the amount of saith fillet or brown meat of crustaceans to be consumed in order to exceed ADI is relatively large. PMID:25474168

Samuelsen, Ole B; Lunestad, Bjrn T; Hannisdal, Rita; Bannister, Raymond; Olsen, Siri; Tjensvoll, Tore; Farestveit, Eva; Ervik, Arne

2015-03-01

232

The influence of ocean acidification on nitrogen regeneration and nitrous oxide production in the North-West European shelf sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assimilation and regeneration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the concentration of N2O, was investigated at stations located in the NW European shelf sea during June/July 2011. These observational measurements within the photic zone demonstrated the simultaneous regeneration and assimilation of NH4+, NO2- and NO3-. NH4+ was assimilated at 1.82-49.12 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 3.46-14.60 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO2- was assimilated at 0-2.08 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.01-1.85 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO3- was assimilated at 0.67-18.75 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.05-28.97 nmol N L-1 h-1. Observations implied that these processes were closely coupled at the regional scale and nitrogen recycling played an important role in sustaining phytoplankton growth during the summer. The [N2O], measured in water column profiles, was 10.13 1.11 nmol L-1 and did not strongly diverge from atmospheric equilibrium indicating that sampled marine regions where neither a strong source nor sink of N2O to the atmosphere. Multivariate analysis of data describing water column biogeochemistry and its links to N-cycling activity failed to explain the observed variance in rates of N-regeneration and N-assimilation, possibly due to the limited number of process rate observations. In the surface waters of 5 further stations, Ocean Acidification (OA) bioassay experiments were conducted to investigate the response of NH4+ oxidising and regenerating organisms to simulated OA conditions, including the implications for [N2O]. Multivariate analysis was undertaken which considered the complete bioassay dataset of measured variables describing changes in N-regeneration rate, [N2O] and the biogeochemical composition of seawater. While anticipating biogeochemical differences between locations, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism through which pelagic N-regeneration responded to simulated OA conditions was independent of location and that a mechanistic understanding of how NH4+ oxidation, NH4+ regeneration and N2O production responded to OA could be developed. Results indicated that N-regeneration process responses to OA treatments were location specific; no mechanistic understanding of how N-regeneration processes respond to OA in the surface ocean of the NW European shelf sea could be developed.

Clark, D. R.; Brown, I. J.; Rees, A. P.; Somerfield, P. J.; Miller, P. I.

2014-02-01

233

The influence of ocean acidification on nitrogen regeneration and nitrous oxide production in the northwest European shelf sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assimilation and regeneration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the concentration of N2O, was investigated at stations located in the NW European shelf sea during June/July 2011. These observational measurements within the photic zone demonstrated the simultaneous regeneration and assimilation of NH4+, NO2- and NO3-. NH4+ was assimilated at 1.82-49.12 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 3.46-14.60 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO2- was assimilated at 0-2.08 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.01-1.85 nmol N L-1 h-1; NO3- was assimilated at 0.67-18.75 nmol N L-1 h-1 and regenerated at 0.05-28.97 nmol N L-1 h-1. Observations implied that these processes were closely coupled at the regional scale and that nitrogen recycling played an important role in sustaining phytoplankton growth during the summer. The [N2O], measured in water column profiles, was 10.13 1.11 nmol L-1 and did not strongly diverge from atmospheric equilibrium indicating that sampled marine regions were neither a strong source nor sink of N2O to the atmosphere. Multivariate analysis of data describing water column biogeochemistry and its links to N-cycling activity failed to explain the observed variance in rates of N-regeneration and N-assimilation, possibly due to the limited number of process rate observations. In the surface waters of five further stations, ocean acidification (OA) bioassay experiments were conducted to investigate the response of NH4+ oxidising and regenerating organisms to simulated OA conditions, including the implications for [N2O]. Multivariate analysis was undertaken which considered the complete bioassay data set of measured variables describing changes in N-regeneration rate, [N2O] and the biogeochemical composition of seawater. While anticipating biogeochemical differences between locations, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism through which pelagic N-regeneration responded to simulated OA conditions was independent of location. Our objective was to develop a mechanistic understanding of how NH4+ regeneration, NH4+ oxidation and N2O production responded to OA. Results indicated that N-regeneration process responses to OA treatments were location specific; no mechanistic understanding of how N-regeneration processes respond to OA in the surface ocean of the NW European shelf sea could be developed.

Clark, D. R.; Brown, I. J.; Rees, A. P.; Somerfield, P. J.; Miller, P. I.

2014-09-01

234

Salmon Homing Instincts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon Homing Instincts is an activity that enables learners to experience what it is like to be a returning salmon attempting to find its home by smell. Scientific research suggests that salmon use the smell of water to find their home stream; even after being out in the open ocean as many as six years. The activity allows the entire class to participate in the life cycle of the Pacific salmon and the hazards (i.e. pollution) of their journey.

Deborah Werner

1998-01-01

235

@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

236

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

PubMed Central

Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries. PMID:18271629

Ford, Jennifer S; Myers, Ransom A

2008-01-01

237

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

238

Cooking with Canned Salmon  

E-print Network

baking dish. 5. Spread the mashed potatoes over the top of the salmon mixture. ... that might be in the canned salmon. 4. Mix the salmon, liquid, soup, bread crumbs, eggs, onion and lemon juice. 5. Press the mixture into a greased 9- by 5-inch loaf pan. 6. Bake at 375 degrees F for about 1 hour. Cool it for 10 minutes before removing...

Anding, Jenna

2001-09-10

239

Genetic Inactivation of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Eggs Using UV-Irradiation: Observations and Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Androgenesis is a form of uniparental reproduction leading to progenies inheriting only the paternal set of chromosomes. It has been achieved with variable success in a number of freshwater species and can be attained by artificial fertilization of genetically inactivated eggs following exposure to gamma (?), X-ray or UV irradiation (haploid androgenesis) and by restoration of diploidy by suppression of mitosis using a pressure or thermal shock. The conditions for the genetic inactivation of the maternal genome in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were explored using different combinations of UV irradiation levels and durations. UV treatments significantly affected embryo survival and generated a wide range of developmental abnormalities. Despite the wide range of UV doses tested (from 7.2 to 720 mJ.cm?2), only one dose (60 mJ.cm?2.min?1 with 1 min irradiation) resulted in a small percentage (14%) of haploid larvae at hatching in the initial trials as verified by flow cytometry. Microsatellite marker analyses of three further batches of larvae produced by using this UV treatment showed a majority of larvae with variable levels of paternal and maternal contributions and only one larva displaying pure paternal inheritance. The results are discussed also in the context of an assessment of the UV-absorbance characteristics of egg extracts in this species that revealed the presence of gadusol, a compound structurally related to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) with known UV-screening properties. PMID:25329931

Collter, Julie; Penman, David J.; Lallement, Stphane; Fauvel, Christian; Hanebrekke, Tanja; Osvik, Renate D.; Eilertsen, Hans C.; DCotta, Helena; Chatain, Batrice; Peruzzi, Stefano

2014-01-01

240

Carbon cycling and phytoplankton responses within highly-replicated shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European Shelf Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which in part likely reflects inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series of highly replicated (n = 8), short term (2-4 days) multi-level (? 4 conditions) carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically different experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterized by a suppression of net growth for small sized cells (< 10 ?m), were observed in the majority of the experiments, irrespective of nutrient status. Remaining between-experiment variability was potentially linked to initial community structure and/or other site-specific environmental factors. Analysis of carbon cycling within the experiments revealed the expected increased sensitivity of carbonate chemistry to biological processes at higher pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasize how biological-chemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

Richier, S.; Achterberg, E. P.; Dumousseaud, C.; Poulton, A. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Tyrrell, T.; Zubkov, M. V.; Moore, C. M.

2014-03-01

241

Feeding habits of European pilchard late larvae in a nursery area in the Adriatic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European pilchard Sardina pilchardus late larvae were collected in the Gulf of Manfredonia, an important nursery area, during their seasonal inshore occurrence. Thanks to diel cycle sampling and to the wide range of larval lengths (from a minimum of 27 mm to a maximum of 45 mm), both feeding rhythm and ontogenetic changes were analysed. The feeding peak was observed in the afternoon, before sunset. Sardine larvae were exclusively zooplanktivorous, their diet being based on Calanoid Copepods from the genus Paracalanus (IRI% = 65.7), on the species Temora longicornis (IRI% = 15.5) and other small-sized Copepods. Other planktonic organisms appeared in the stomach contents occasionally and never reached IRI% values > 1. The number of prey per stomach increased suddenly at larval lengths around 40 mm, corresponding to the development of the stomach. Prey composition in the environment was established by contemporaneous sampling of plankton, performed by means of two plankton nets with different meshes. The main prey items were positively selected among those available in the field, but some other prey (Centropages spp., Harpacticoids, Corycaeids, Temora stylifera and Acartia spp.) were also preferred, although rare in the plankton samples. In contrast, copepod nauplii, despite their abundance in the environment (15,848 4441 individuals m- 3), were only occasionally recovered in the larval gut contents (N = 0.26%). This shows that sardine late larvae have switched to larger prey items.

Borme, Diego; Tirelli, Valentina; Palomera, Isabel

2013-04-01

242

Marine Litter Distribution and Density in European Seas, from the Shelves to Deep Basins  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments. PMID:24788771

Pham, Christopher K.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Alt, Claudia H. S.; Amaro, Teresa; Bergmann, Melanie; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B.; Davies, Jaime; Duineveld, Gerard; Galgani, Franois; Howell, Kerry L.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Isidro, Eduardo; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Lastras, Galderic; Morato, Telmo; Gomes-Pereira, Jos Nuno; Purser, Autun; Stewart, Heather; Tojeira, Ins; Tubau, Xavier; Van Rooij, David; Tyler, Paul A.

2014-01-01

243

Relationships among traits of aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance in individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits. PMID:24019879

Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S; Domenici, Paolo; Claireaux, Guy; McKenzie, David J

2013-01-01

244

Relationships among Traits of Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Performance in Individual European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax  

PubMed Central

Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits. PMID:24019879

Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S.; Domenici, Paolo; Claireaux, Guy; McKenzie, David J.

2013-01-01

245

SeaDataNet II - Second phase of developments for the pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of the major players in informatics in oceanography and collaborative relationships have been created with other EU and non EU projects. In particular SeaDataNet has recognised roles in the continuous serving of common vocabularies, the provision of tools for data management, as well as giving access to metadata, data sets and data products of importance for society. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users not only background information about SeaDataNet and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools, but also a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, and highlight a number of key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

2013-04-01

246

Effects on mortality and stress response in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), fed mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) after Vibrio anguillarum exposure.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS; 4?g?kg(-1) ; Bio-Mos, Alltech Inc, USA) in diets for European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), juveniles in relation to disease and stress resistance, combining intestinal infection with Vibrio anguillarum and stress challenge by confinement, were assessed in this study. After 8?weeks of MOS supplementation, fish were exposed to a pathogen challenge test against V.anguillarum by direct gut inoculation combined with a confinement stressor panel. Cumulative mortality of fish fed MOS caused by anally inoculated V.anguillarum decreased from 66% to 12.5% and from 54.1% to 25% in infected and infected?+?stressed fish, respectively, compared to fish fed control diet. Results for European sea bass revealed a positive effect of MOS dietary inclusion on disease resistance, in terms of cumulative mortality, against gut inoculated V.anguillarum, as well as reduced effects of stress on microbiota diversity. Both of these findings, together with the enhanced innate immune response and the higher gut mucus production and density of eosinophil granulocytes in gut mucosa obtained in previous studies after MOS supplementation (Torrecillas etal. 2007, 2011a,b) suggest that general reinforcement of the innate immune system, and particularly of the intestinal barrier efficiency, is the main defence mechanism of European sea bass fed MOS against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:22690841

Torrecillas, S; Makol, A; Caballero, M J; Montero, D; Dhanasiri, A K S; Sweetman, J; Izquierdo, M

2012-08-01

247

Identification of the 3' and 5' terminal sequences of the 8 rna genome segments of european and north american genotypes of infectious salmon anemia virus (an orthomyxovirus) and evidence for quasispecies based on the non-coding sequences of transcripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. This virus, which was first characterized following its isolation in cell culture in 1995, belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus, Isavirus. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments of negative sense, each with one

Vikas Kulshreshtha; Molly Kibenge; Kira Salonius; Nathalie Simard; Angela Riveroll; Frederick Kibenge

2010-01-01

248

Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Hkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cdiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan), we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641) belonging to the ANME-3 group and one ?-Proteobacteria (HQ588562) were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

2013-05-01

249

Management of Atlantic salmon in the Simojoki river, northern Gulf of Bothnia: effects of stocking and fishing regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered natural stock of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Simojoki river, northern Baltic Sea, has been managed primarily by fishing regulation, and by stocking with parr and smolts. The Finnish national regulation of salmon fishing in the Baltic Sea has changed considerably during recent decades: regulation was slight until 1996, strict in 19961997 and moderate from 1998

Eero Jutila; Erkki Jokikokko; Markku Julkunen

2003-01-01

250

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms  

E-print Network

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms Brendan M of pathogen transmission from farmed fish on species interactions or other ecosystem components. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch smolts are susceptible hosts to the parasitic salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis as well

Dill, Lawrence M.

251

GEO-MOTION: A fresh approach to land, water and sea level changes in a European habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state and behaviour of the Shallow Earth System is a consequence of processes on a wide range of time scales. These include the long term tectonic effects on uplift, subsidence and river systems, residual effects of the ice ages on crustal movement and geochemistry, natural climate to environmental changes over recent millennia and up to the present, and the powerful anthropogenic impacts of the last century. If we are to understand the present state of the system, to predict its future and to engineer our use of it, this spectrum of processes, operating concurrently but on different time scales, needs to be better understood. The challenge to the Geosciences is to describe the state of the system, to monitor its changes, to forecast its evolution and, in collaboration with others, to evaluate modes of sustainable use by human society. Land, water and sea level changes can seriously affect the sustainability of ecological and human habitats in Europe. When sea water or surface water levels rise, or land subsides, the risk of flooding increases, directly inflicting on local ecosystems and human habitats. The effects on society are widely known as many of the affected areas in Europe are densely populated and the financial loss foreseen is tremendous. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of desertification. These changes are caused by both natural processes and human activities, but the absolute and relative contributions of each of these processes are still little understood. Only very recently, the impact of processes located in the underlying subsurface of intraplate areas has been recognized in the coastal realm, leading to the newly coined term Environmental Earth System Dynamics. The members of the Geo-Motion consortium have joined forces in order to create a fully integrated pan-European research infrastructure (a virtual scientific centre) on a hitherto not existing scale. It runs monitoring programs including satellite, surface and borehole monitoring instruments. It integrates large scale and excellent geo-mechanical, geo-chemical and geo-biological laboratory facilities. Based on existing structures and data sets it develops a new geo data infrastructure containing historical data on global and regional changes in combination with the vulnerability of natural and human habitats. Most significant milestones are a large scale and excellent know-how base on geo-motion modelling and simulation, as well as on risk and impact assessment. The development of a foresight and assessment competency represents a long-term strategic scientific objective for the consortium. It is vital that it is also promoted in education, which will be done through the development of a European School for Predictive Geoscience, in which parallel masters programmes will be offered by the university partners based on their pooled expertise. The national geoscience surveys play a key role in delivering the outputs of research into the public, policy and industrial domains.

Cloetingh, S.; Geo-Motion Consortium, T.; GEO-MOTION Consortium

2003-04-01

252

Molecular characterization, gene structure and antibacterial activity of a g-type lysozyme from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).  

PubMed

In fish, the first line of defense is represented by the innate immune system and the lysozyme is one of the molecules involved in this mechanism of protection. Three types of lysozymes have been identified in metazoan, the c-type (chicken or conventional), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type). They are all involved in the hydrolysation of the bacterial cell wall. Our work has been focused on the molecular characterization, expression analysis by real-time PCR, both at basal condition and after in vivo challenges, and 3D structural studies on the g-type lysozyme from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Moreover, a recombinant sea bass lysozyme has been produced in Escherichia coli and used to investigate the activity of the enzyme at different pH and temperatures and to perform antibacterial assays against typical fish pathogens. The cloned sea bass cDNA for g-type lysozyme (accession number FN667957) consists of 742 bp and translates for a putative protein of 188 amino acids. The molecular weight is 20.251, 41Da with a theoretical pI of 8.53, two cysteine residues along the sequence and no putative signal peptide. These features of the enzyme are in agreement with the expected characteristics of a proper g-type lysozyme, except for the cysteine residues that in fish are quite variable in number. An alignment between known g-type lysozyme sequences evidences that the amino acid residues thought to be involved in the enzyme catalysis (Glu(71), Asp(84) and Asp(95) in sea bass) are quite well conserved between mammalian, avian and fish sequences. The sea bass g-type lysozyme gene is composed of four exons and three introns and this gene structure is more compact compared to other known fish lysozyme homologues. Modeling of 3D structure has been performed on the template structure of g-type lysozyme from Atlantic cod. The catalytic site appears well conserved when compared with known structures of fish g-type lysozymes (cod and salmon). The basal expression of lysozyme transcripts is highest in gills, followed by head kidney and peripheral blood leukocytes. The lysozyme expression is up regulated in head kidney leukocytes both after challenge with the fish bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. The lytic activity, determined using as substrate Micrococcus lysodeikticus, was optimal at pH 5.5 and at a temperature of 30C. In conclusion, these results suggest that the identified g-type lysozyme should be involved in the innate immune responses of sea bass. PMID:24929449

Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Trisolino, Pamela; Facchiano, Angelo; de Pascale, Donatella; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

2014-11-01

253

Do experimental units of different scale affect the biological performance of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larvae?  

PubMed

The effects of different tank volumes (2000, 500 and 40?l) on European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larval rearing, relating to growth, survival, quality and stress variables, were investigated. A dynamic energy budget (DEB) model was used to analyse the results. The hydrodynamics of the tanks exhibited differences, with the water currents in the 2000?l tanks to be almost one order of magnitude stronger than those in the 40?l ones. Important differences in fish growth were observed between small and large tank-rearing volumes, with the smallest tank resulting in the slowest growth. Based on the DEB model analysis, growth differences were related to feeding rates, with growth in the smaller tank limited by food availability. Differences in survival rates were not statistically significant among the tank-rearing volumes. The quality evaluation of the fry (in terms of swimbladder, jaw and skeletal abnormalities) showed differences, with the smallest tank having the highest percentage of deformed individuals. This could be attributed to both the feeding variances and the hydrodynamics in the tanks. No differences were observed in terms of whole-body cortisol at the two developmental stages; flexion, and when the larvae body was fully covered by melanophores; when analysis was performed. This indicates that the allostatic load exerted on fish of different groups was similar and inside the fish-coping abilities range, in terms of the cortisol response axis. The selection of the experimental scale is of importance, especially when the results are to be transferred and applied on an industrial scale. PMID:25846855

Lika, K; Pavlidis, M; Mitrizakis, N; Samaras, A; Papandroulakis, N

2015-04-01

254

Phytoplankton responses and associated carbon cycling during shipboard carbonate chemistry manipulation experiments conducted around Northwest European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is significantly altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a phenomenon referred to as ocean acidification. Experimental manipulations have been increasingly used to gauge how continued ocean acidification will potentially impact marine ecosystems and their associated biogeochemical cycles in the future; however, results amongst studies, particularly when performed on natural communities, are highly variable, which may reflect community/environment-specific responses or inconsistencies in experimental approach. To investigate the potential for identification of more generic responses and greater experimentally reproducibility, we devised and implemented a series (n = 8) of short-term (2-4 days) multi-level (?4 conditions) carbonate chemistry/nutrient manipulation experiments on a range of natural microbial communities sampled in Northwest European shelf seas. Carbonate chemistry manipulations and resulting biological responses were found to be highly reproducible within individual experiments and to a lesser extent between geographically separated experiments. Statistically robust reproducible physiological responses of phytoplankton to increasing pCO2, characterised by a suppression of net growth for small-sized cells (<10 ?m), were observed in the majority of the experiments, irrespective of natural or manipulated nutrient status. Remaining between-experiment variability was potentially linked to initial community structure and/or other site-specific environmental factors. Analysis of carbon cycling within the experiments revealed the expected increased sensitivity of carbonate chemistry to biological processes at higher pCO2 and hence lower buffer capacity. The results thus emphasise how biogeochemical feedbacks may be altered in the future ocean.

Richier, S.; Achterberg, E. P.; Dumousseaud, C.; Poulton, A. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Tyrrell, T.; Zubkov, M. V.; Moore, C. M.

2014-09-01

255

Salmon Population Depleted  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon populations face several serious threats, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. In this publication, the reason for the downward spiral of salmon populations is discussed. This video segment features Elders discussing the decline in the local population of salmon, which are at the heart of the cultural identity of the Native American Lummi Nation of Washington State. Fish were very abundant a few decades ago, but now even the fishermen have to buy fish. The background essay explains the many threats that the salmon population faces. There is also a brief description of the salmon lifecycle. The four discussion questions asks the reasons why the salmon population is depleting, and what people can do to help. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

256

A NEW MODEL OF OCEAN MIGRATIONS OF BRISTOL BAY SOCKEYE SALMON  

E-print Network

inhabit extensive areas of the ocean during various stages of their life at sea, ranging aCross mostA NEW MODEL OF OCEAN MIGRATIONS OF BRISTOL BAY SOCKEYE SALMON ROBERT R. FRENCH AND RICHARD G. BAKKALA1 ABSTRACT A model is presented that describes the ocean migrations of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon

257

Evolution of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) populations in New Zealand: pattern, rate, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of

Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin

2001-01-01

258

Changing ocean circulation and hydrothermal inputs during Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (Cenomanian-Turonian): Evidence from Nd-isotopes in the European shelf sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd isotopes of fish debris collected from the English Chalk at Eastbourne (Sussex, UK) are used to reconstruct the history of ocean circulation in the NW European shelf sea during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2, Cenomanian-Turonian). The Eastbourne ?Nd record exhibits a 1-unit negative excursion (decreasing from ?-9 to ?-10), immediately followed by a 3-unit positive excursion reaching ?-7. The onset of the negative ?Nd excursion lags the global ?13C rise characteristic of OAE 2, suggesting stable patterns of ocean circulation in the NW European shelf sea at this time. Both negative and positive Nd-isotope excursions took place during a transient cooling episode within OAE 2. The negative ?Nd excursion is interpreted as due to a change in ocean circulation with northerly sourced water masses becoming the dominant bottom waters at Eastbourne. The positive excursion is best explained by the transport of radiogenic Nd derived from a volcanic source, possibly the High Arctic or Caribbean large igneous province (LIP). An input of volcanic Nd may reconcile the Eastbourne record with coeval ?Nd records on Demerara Rise in the western tropical Atlantic. The broad synchroneity of high ?Nd values (?-7) registered at both sites suggests a possible period with efficient oceanic mixing between the tropical Atlantic and the NW European shelf sea during the cooling episode. The Eastbourne ?Nd record of OAE 2, together with coeval temperature reconstructions, provides evidence for the coincidence of changes in ocean circulation and transient climatic cooling, implying a tight coupling between the two phenomena during this interval.

Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Gale, Andrew S.; Ward, David J.; Henderson, Gideon M.

2013-08-01

259

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt August 1, 2006  

E-print Network

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt Les Hatton August 1, 2006 $Date: 2003/01/15 00:05:52 $ 1 pleasure to so many. 2 Exposition It starts quite innocently with a bottle of wine, a plate of salmon penne in a Stockholm restaurant and a copy of "The Salmon of Doubt" by Douglas Adams. Whilst eating the meal with my

Hatton, Les

260

USGS Releases Atlantic Salmon at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists (L to R) Ross Abbett and Rich Chiavelli watch as hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, e...

261

Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminish...

262

Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visitthe Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this dim...

263

Velocity model of the crust and upper mantle at the southern margin of the East European Craton (Azov Sea-Crimea-Black Sea area), DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern part of the eastern European continental landmass consists mainly of a thick platform of Vendian and younger sediments overlying Precambrian basement, part of the East European Craton (EEC). The Scythian Platform (SP) lies between the EEC and the (mainly Alpine) deformed belt running from Dobrudja (Romania) to Crimea (Ukraine) and the Greater Caucasus (Russia), along the northern margin of the Black Sea. Hard constraints on the Palaeozoic history on the SP are very sparse and little is known of its crustal structure in this area. The poster presents the seismic results of a multidisciplinary project that fills some of this gap. The project is called DOBRE-2 (as it forms a prolongation of the successful DOBRE project executed in 1999-2001). The main objectives of DOBRE-2 were to elucidate the deep-seated structure of the lithosphere and geodynamic setting of the shelf zones of the Azov and Black seas and the Crimean peninsula and to study the deep controls on the structure of basement and sedimentary cover. DOBRE-2 traverses a number of major faults and suture zones separating the EEC from the SP, the Crimean Mountains, and the Black Sea depression. Significant hydrocarbon reserves occur in the basins traversed by DOBRE-2. Deep seismic reflection profiling (30 second, Vibroseis) has been completed on a 100-km segment of the profile on the Azov massif (part of the Ukrainian Shield) as well as a 47-km segment in Crimea. These are complemented by refraction profiling on the shelf zones of the Azov (~53 km) and Black (~160 km) seas and coincident near-vertical (CDP) in the Black Sea, using a combination of onshore seismograph stations, ocean-bottom seismometers, onshore explosive energy sources (6 shot points), as well as ship-borne seismic acquisition. We present a 2-D seismic velocity model (Vp in the crust, depth to the Moho and depth to the intracrustal reflectors) along (~780 km) the DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect. Our model extends the model published for the DOBRE'99 profile (The DOBREfraction'99 Working Group, 2003) to the southwest. The Moho dips in this direction, from a depth of 40 km below the Azov Sea to ~47 km, below Crimea. A short segment of a reflector interpreted to represent Moho was detected at a depth of ~37 km in the Black Sea part of the profile. We also present a comparison of the DOBRE-2 velocity model with an interpretation of a coincident CDP profile.

Starostenko, Vitaly; Janik, Tomasz; Stephenson, Randell; Gryn, Dmytro; Tolkunov, Anatoliy; Czuba, Wojciech; ?roda, Piotr; Sydorenko, Grigoriy; Lysynchuk, Dmytro; Omelchenko, Victor; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Kolomiyets, Katerina; Thybo, Hans; Dannowski, Anke; Fl?h, Ernst R.; Legostaeva, Olga

2013-04-01

264

Cytokine expression in head-kidney leucocytes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) after incubation with the probiotic Vagococcus fluvialis L-21.  

PubMed

The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)is one of the most extensively farmed marine fish in the Mediterranean sea. Under the high-density condition, common in aquaculture, the infectious diseases can cause significant economic losses. Probiotics are presented as an alternative to antibiotics for the control of aquaculture diseases. This study used real-time PCR to investigate invitro the dynamic of expression of immune-related genes in sea bass after incubation with live and inactivated (heat and Uv-light) probiotic Vagoccus fluvialis L-21 at different times (T1, T12, T24, T48). The immune associated genes, interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), TumourTumour necrosis factor- (TNF-), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Mx were studied in head-kidney (HK) leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the probiotic strain. Transcript of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-, COX-2) was highly up-regulated after 1h of incubation with the probiotic strain V. fluvialis L-21. We found statistically significant difference in pick of expression of TNF-, after 1h of incubation with Uv-light inactivated probiotic strain. The COX-2 expression was highly up-regulated at all times studied, with the exception of 12 and 24h post incubation for the Uv-light inactivated bacteria. Transcript of IL-10 and Casp-3 showed the higher statistically significant differences of expression after 48h post incubation with live bacteria. In the contrast, sea bass HK leucocytes expressed Mx at 12 and 48h without statistically differences among treatments. Our results suggest that V. fluvialis L-21 is able to stimulate invitro some immune-related genes associated with the early inflammatory response. Future studies invivo are necessary to clarify this process in sea bass. PMID:23927874

Romn, L; Real, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Dniz, S; Grasso, V; Acosta, F

2013-10-01

265

Sea Surface Temperature for Climate Applications: A New Dataset from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many datasets describing the evolution of global sea surface temperature (SST) over recent decades -- so why make another one? Answer: to provide observations of SST that have particular qualities relevant to climate applications: independence, accuracy and stability. This has been done within the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initative (CCI) project on SST. Independence refers to the fact that the new SST CCI dataset is not derived from or tuned to in situ observations. This matters for climate because the in situ observing network used to assess marine climate change (1) was not designed to monitor small changes over decadal timescales, and (2) has evolved significantly in its technology and mix of types of observation, even during the past 40 years. The potential for significant artefacts in our picture of global ocean surface warming is clear. Only by having an independent record can we confirm (or refute) that the work done to remove biases/trend artefacts in in-situ datasets has been successful. Accuracy is the degree to which SSTs are unbiased. For climate applications, a common accuracy target is 0.1 K for all regions of the ocean. Stability is the degree to which the bias, if any, in a dataset is constant over time. Long-term instability introduces trend artefacts. To observe trends of the magnitude of 'global warming', SST datasets need to be stable to <5 mK/year. The SST CCI project has produced a satellite-based dataset that addresses these characteristics relevant to climate applications. Satellite radiances (brightness temperatures) have been harmonised exploiting periods of overlapping observations between sensors. Less well-characterised sensors have had their calibration tuned to that of better characterised sensors (at radiance level). Non-conventional retrieval methods (optimal estimation) have been employed to reduce regional biases to the 0.1 K level, a target violated in most satellite SST datasets. Models for quantifying uncertainty have been developed to attach uncertainty to SST across a range of space-time scales. The stability of the data has been validated.

Merchant, C. J.; Hulley, G. C.

2013-12-01

266

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea

D. M. A. Schaap; G. Maudire

2009-01-01

267

Saving the Salmon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require

Sprangers, Donald

2004-01-01

268

Young Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecos...

269

Yearling Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and economy. To restore the population, young Atlantic salmon are reared at the USGS Tunison Laboratory of Aquaitic Science&nb...

270

Salmon-Filled Tanks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Specialized tanks at the USGS Tunison Lab hold young Atlantic salmon until they are released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and ...

271

Young Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. Anew, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local...

272

Salmon fishing boats of the North American Pacific Coast in the era of oar and sail  

E-print Network

for small craft identification by archaeologists working on the Pacific Coast. The information gained from studying various salmon fishing boats and their distribution reflects changing hull shape due to local sea conditions, competition amid diminishing...

Moore, Charles David

1993-01-01

273

Saving the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Students participate in the Salmon in the Schools Program, sponsored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine. Through this collaborative effort, students raise 300 river-specific, wild Atlantic salmon and then release them into the East Machias River at the culminating annual Salmon Release Day Field Trip. In addition to releasing salmon fry into the headwaters of the river, students perform physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the river.

Donald Sprangers

2004-05-01

274

Historical growth of Bristol Bay and Yukon River, Alaska chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in relation to climate and inter- and intraspecific competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined Bristol Bay and Yukon River adult chum salmon scales to determine whether climate variability, such as changes in sea surface temperature and climate indices, and high pink and Asian chum salmon abundance reduced chum salmon growth. Annual marine growth increments for 1965-2006 were estimated from scale growth measurements and were modeled as a function of potential explanatory variables using a generalized least squares regression approach. First-year growth of salmon originating from Bristol Bay and the Yukon River showed increased growth in association with higher regional ocean temperatures and was negatively affected by wind mixing and ice cover. Third-year growth was lower when Asian chum salmon were more abundant. Contrary to our hypothesis, warmer large-scale sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska were also associated with reduced third-year growth. Negative effects of high abundances of Russian pink salmon on third-year growth provided some evidence for interspecific interactions, but the effects were smaller than the effects of Asian chum salmon abundance and Gulf of Alaska sea surface temperature. Although the relative effects of Asian chum salmon and sea surface temperature on the growth of Yukon and Bristol Bay chum salmon were difficult to untangle, we found consistent evidence that high abundances of Asian chum salmon contributed to a reduction in the growth of western Alaska chum salmon.

Agler, Beverly A.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Wilson, Lorna I.; Mueter, Franz J.

2013-10-01

275

Associations between piscine reovirus infection and life history traits in wild-caught Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in Norway.  

PubMed

Piscine Reovirus (PRV), the putative causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Norway. While HSMI is a common and commercially important disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, the presence of PRV has so far not been associated with HSMI related lesions in wild salmon. Factors associated with PRV-infection were investigated in returning Atlantic salmon captured in Norwegian rivers. A multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model confirmed clustering within rivers and demonstrated that PRV-infection is associated with life-history, sex, catch-year and body length as a proxy for sea-age. Escaped farmed salmon (odds ratio/OR: 7.32, p<0.001) and hatchery-reared salmon (OR: 1.69 p=0.073) have higher odds of being PRV-infected than wild Atlantic salmon. Male salmon have double odds of being PRV infected compared to female salmon (OR: 2.11, p<0.001). Odds of being PRV-infected increased with body-length measured as decimetres (OR: 1.20, p=0.004). Since body length and sea-age are correlated (r=0.85 p<0.001), body length serves as a proxy for sea-age, meaning that spending more years in sea increases the odds of being PRV-infected. PMID:23906390

Garseth, Ase Helen; Biering, Eirik; Aunsmo, Arnfinn

2013-10-01

276

Monitoring the impact of litter in large vertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD): constraints, specificities and recommendations.  

PubMed

In its decision (2010/477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement, ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socio-economic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of "ingestion" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. PMID:24612883

Galgani, F; Claro, F; Depledge, M; Fossi, C

2014-09-01

277

Pacific Salmon Information Via the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Marine Fisheries Service maintains this Pacific Salmon metasite, which covers the life history, habitat, and economic status of salmon, the role of US state fisheries and Canadian agencies in managing salmon stocks, and additional salmon information. From the University of Washington's concise and informative "Salmon Life History" page, to the Pacific Salmon Alliance's proud "Stand up for Canada: Save our Salmon" page, interested users will find much information on the ecology and politics of Salmon.

278

PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND  

E-print Network

THIS IS A SALMO HATCH PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND SPORT FISHERIES SHKT* illiiniltiiiii SALMON HATCHERY? To maintain the resource, enough of the mature salmon entering and destroyed young salmon. To counteract the effects of these, salmon hatcheries are necessary. Hatchery salmon

279

EFFECTS OF COPPER AND ZINC ON SMOLTIFICATION OF COHO SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many species of trout and salmon spend their early life in freshwater and then migrate to the sea. Transition from freshwater to marine existence requires physiological changes which are involved in the development of the migratory smolt stage. Sublethal exposure to pollutants in...

280

Pen Rearing Pacific Salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., in San Francisco Bay  

E-print Network

) Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center at its Manchester Field Station on Clam Bay in Puget Sound, Wash in Puget Sound beyond the time of their normal migration into the sea tended to remain in the SoundPen Rearing Pacific Salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., in San Francisco Bay WILLIAM S. LEET, ROGER E. GREEN

281

Physiological mechanism of homing migration in Pacific salmon from behavioral to molecular biological approaches.  

PubMed

The amazing abilities of Pacific salmon to migrate long distances from the ocean to their natal streams for spawning have been investigated intensively since 1950's, but there are still many mysteries because of difficulties to follow their whole life cycle and to wait their sole reproductive timing for several years. In my laboratory, we have tried to clarify physiological mechanisms of homing migration in Pacific salmon, using four anadromous Pacific salmon (pink, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha; chum, Oncorhynchus keta; sockeye, Oncorhynchus nerka; masu, Oncorhynchus masou) in the north Pacific Ocean as well as two lacustrine salmon (sockeye and masu) in Lake Toya and Lake Shikotsu, Hokkaido, Japan, where the lakes serve as a model "ocean". Three different approaches from behavioral to molecular biological researches have been conducted using these model fish. First, the homing behaviors of adult chum salmon from the Bering Sea to Hokkaido as well as lacustrine sockeye and masu salmon in Lake Toya were examined by means of physiological biotelemetry techniques, and revealed that salmon can navigate in open water using different sensory systems. Second, the hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis were investigated in chum salmon and lacustrine sockeye salmon during their homing migration by means of hormone specific time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) systems, and clarified that salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) plays leading roles on homing migration. Third, the olfactory functions of salmon were studied by means of electrophysiological, behavioral, and molecular biological techniques, and made clear that olfactory discriminating ability of natal stream odors. These results have discussed with the evolutional aspects of four Pacific salmon, sexual differences in homing profiles, and the possibility of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) as natal stream odors for salmon. PMID:20144612

Ueda, Hiroshi

2011-01-15

282

State of the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon, like many other species of fish, know no political boundaries. In effect, this makes it hard for humans to craft detailed and meaningful policies for the survival and health of these important creatures. The State of the Salmon is an international consortium that is "dedicated to improving understanding of salmon status and trends across the North Pacific--and building a knowledge network that can inform salmon conservation and management decisions in the future." Given this broad range of cooperation, visitors will not be surprised to find that much of the material featured on the site is available in Russian, English, and Chinese. The materials on the site are divided into several sections, including "Monitoring", "Data & Maps", "Status & Trends", and "Collaborate". The "Data & Maps" area is quite useful, and it features a variety of interactive maps that document existing salmon populations and their movements. Moving on, the "Status & Trends" area provides updates on salmon population trends in Canada, Japan, Russia, and the United States. The site is rounded out by a glossary and information about the organization's basic operating principles.

283

Behavioral responses of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae and Artemia sp. exposed to constant light or darkness vs. light\\/dark cycles of white, red or blue wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and survival of fish larvae are strongly influenced by their surrounding photic environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of light characteristics (spectrum and photoperiod) on the feeding and locomotor behaviors of European sea bass larvae and its prey (Artemia sp.). To this end, constant light (LL), constant darkness (DD) and 12:12h LD cycles

N. Villamizar; G. Garca-Mateos; F. J. Snchez-Vzquez

2011-01-01

284

Biological mechanisms enabling sympatry between salmonids with special reference to sockeye and chum salmon in oceanic waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific relationships between salmonids in oceanic waters were examined with special reference to sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, which are sympatric species in the Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean and have ocean migrations of similar duration. Although there certainly exist similarities or overlaps between the two species, several conspicuous differences in ecological, physiological and

Teruo Azuma

1995-01-01

285

References: Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Critical Habitat for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon  

E-print Network

. The Penobscot River; an Atlantic salmon river management report. Maine Atlantic Sea Run Salmon Commission. State report 88(9). Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. University of Maine, Orono, ME Brodeur in rivers and streams. Fisheries Research 1428: 1-28 Atkins, C.G. & N.W. Foster. 1867. Report of Commission

286

Abundance, Stock Origin, and Length of Marked and Unmarked Juvenile Chinook Salmon in the Surface Waters of Greater Puget Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery)

Casimir A. Rice; Correigh M. Greene; Paul Moran; David J. Teel; David R. Kuligowski; Reginald R. Reisenbichler; Eric M. Beamer; James R. Karr; Kurt L. Fresh

2011-01-01

287

PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

288

Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON  

E-print Network

Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON Indiana University EVER SINCE IUS CLASSIC PAPER with Paul Science Foundation for support of the sesearch contained in this paper. 29 30 : Wesley C. Salmon probabi

Fitelson, Branden

289

Enteroendocrine profile of ?-transducin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates, chemosensitivity of nutrients occurs through activation of taste receptors coupled with G protein subunits, including ?-transducin (G?tran) and ?-gustducin (G?gust). This study was aimed at characterizing the cells expressing G?tran-immunoreactivity throughout the mucosa of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. G?tran immunoreactive cells were mainly found in the stomach, and a lower number of immunopositive cells were detected in the intestine. Some G?tran immunoreactive cells in the stomach contained G?gust immunoreactivity. Gastric G?tran immunoreactive cells co-expressed ghrelin, obestatin and 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity. In contrast, G?tran immunopositive cells did not contain somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, substance P, or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in any investigated segments of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. Specificity of G?tran and G?gust antisera was determined by Western blot analysis, which identified two bands at the theoretical molecular weight of ~45 and ~40 kDa, respectively, in sea bass gut tissue as well as in positive tissue, and by immunoblocking with the respective peptide, which prevented immunostaining. The results of the present study provide a molecular and morphological basis for a role of taste related molecules in chemosensing in the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23748963

Latorre, Rocco; Mazzoni, Maurizio; De Giorgio, Roberto; Vallorani, Claudia; Bonaldo, Alessio; Gatta, Pier Paolo; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Ruggeri, Eugenio; Bernardini, Chiara; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Clavenzani, Paolo

2013-01-01

290

Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on metabolic utilization of diets by european sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were performed with sea bass juveniles to study the effect of dietary protein (trial I) and lipid (trial II) levels on the metabolic utilization of diets at 25C. The effect of water temperature (18 and 25C) on metabolism was also tested in trialI. For that purpose, oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were measured both in fed and in

H. Peres; A. Oliva-Teles

2001-01-01

291

Effect of an experimental oil spill on vertebral bone tissue quality in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).  

PubMed

In order to identify biomarkers of oil pollution in fish we tested the effects of an experimental Light Cycle Oil (LCO) exposure on vertebral bone of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. A total of 60 adult fish were acclimated for fifteen days, then twenty were collected as controls (Day 0) while 40 were exposed to a soluble fraction of LCO (1136 ng L(-1) of ten Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) for seven days. Twenty of them were sampled at the end of the exposure period and the twenty last after a recovery period of fourteen days in clean seawater. Vertebral abnormalities were counted and bone mineralization, total bone area and bone density profiles were established for several post-cranial and caudal vertebrae. In sea bass, seven days of LCO exposure did not affect the frequency and severity of the vertebral abnormalities. No significant differences were observed in bone density and bone repartition (parameters of bone area profiles) between unexposed (Day 0), exposed (D7) and decontaminated (D21) fish. In contrast, bone mineralization of the vertebrae decreased in contaminated sea bass, but in a reversible way, which confirms a previous study in trout showing that this parameter is an early stress indicator. Our results suggest that vertebral bone mineralization could be used as a biomarker of PAH pollution in sea bass. It would be interesting to check this new biomarker in other teleost species exposed to various xenobiotics. PMID:21831432

Danion, Morgane; Deschamps, Marie-Hlne; Thomas-Guyon, Hlne; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Le Floch, Stphane; Quentel, Claire; Sire, Jean-Yves

2011-10-01

292

First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chilo in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chilo Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line, characteristics which make it distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates from Europe and North America. Conclusion In conclusion, the present work constitutes the first report of a case of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. The clinical signs and lesions are consistent with the classical descriptions of the disease in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. The outbreak was caused by ISAV of European genotype (or Genotype I) of HPR 7b but distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates. PMID:18680586

Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendao, Fernando; Imiln, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB

2008-01-01

293

Influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin bioconcentration and toxicity in the marine fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

The present study investigated the influence of nano-TiO(2) (1 mg L(-1)) on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(2,3,7,8-TCDD) (46 pg L(-1)) bioconcentration and toxicity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during 7 days in vivo exposure. A multimarkers approach was applied in different organs: detoxification in liver; innate immunity and pro-inflammatory response and adaptive immunity in gills and spleen; genotoxicity in peripheral erythrocytes and muscle. Bioconcentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in presence of nano-TiO2 was investigated in liver, skin and muscle as well as interaction between nano-TiO2 and organic pollutants in artificial sea water (ASW). Nano-TiO2 negatively influenced immune response induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in spleen but not in gills and reduced the DNA damage induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in erythrocytes. nano-TiO2 did not interfere with 2,3,7,8-TCDD detoxification and bioconcentration according to the observed no interaction of the nano-TiO2 with organic pollutants in ASW. PMID:25463713

Torre, Camilla Della; Buonocore, Francesco; Frenzilli, Giada; Corsolini, Simonetta; Brunelli, Andrea; Guidi, Patrizia; Kocan, Anton; Mariottini, Michela; Mottola, Filomena; Nigro, Marco; Pozo, Karla; Randelli, Elisa; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Picchietti, Simona; Santonastaso, Marianna; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Focardi, Silvano; Marcomini, Antonio; Rocco, Lucia; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Corsi, Ilaria

2015-01-01

294

VOLUNTEER-BASED SALMON RIVER  

E-print Network

VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS Institute Environment Canada VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS STREAM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH #12;Volunteer-Based Monitoring Program for the Salmon River

295

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD RECOVERY AND SUBBASIN PLAN Technical Foundation Executive Council MAY 28, 2004 DRAFT #12;Lower Columbia River Salmon Recovery Plan Technical Foundation Executive. This information provides a basis for an integrated Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan prepared by the Fish Recovery

296

a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^-'^ "^  

E-print Network

Take a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^·-'^ "^ #12;\\ V 4- #12;balmon has been nourishing the human race of the easy-to-store, easy-to- use can are two good reasons for cooking and serving salmon frequently. But there are even better reasons. The protein in salmon is a complete protein, in the same food group as meat

297

14th European Marine Biology Symposium Protection of Life in the Sea: Summary of symposium papers and conclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This last paper of the 14th European Marine Biology Symposium refers to organizational aspects of the meeting; provides a\\u000a summary of the papers presented in this volume; and attempts to draw conclusions. The summary highlights essentials of the\\u000a facts presented and of the interpretations offered. It has been written in order to facilitate access to the vast amount of\\u000a information

O. Kinne

1980-01-01

298

Societal need for improved understanding of climate change, anthropogenic impacts, and geo-hazard warning drive development of ocean observatories in European Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Societys needs for a network of in situ ocean observing systems cross many areas of earth and marine science. Here we review the science themes that benefit from data supplied from ocean observatories. Understanding from existing studies is fragmented to the extent that it lacks the coherent long-term monitoring needed to address questions at the scales essential to understand climate change and improve geo-hazard early warning. Data sets from the deep sea are particularly rare with long-term data available from only a few locations worldwide. These science areas have impacts on societal health and well-being and our awareness of ocean function in a shifting climate. Substantial efforts are underway to realise a network of open-ocean observatories around European Seas that will operate over multiple decades. Some systems are already collecting high-resolution data from surface, water column, seafloor, and sub-seafloor sensors linked to shore by satellite or cable connection in real or near-real time, along with samples and other data collected in a delayed mode. We expect that such observatories will contribute to answering major ocean science questions including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, pore fluid chemistry and pressure, and gas hydrate stability improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? What aspects of physical oceanography, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystems will be most sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic change? What are natural versus anthropogenic changes? Most fundamentally, how are marine processes that occur at differing scales related? The development of ocean observatories provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Here we also describe some basic attributes of network design. Observatory networks provide the means to coordinate and integrate the collection of standardised data capable of bridging measurement scales across a dispersed area in European Seas adding needed certainty to estimates of future oceanic conditions. Observatory data can be analysed along with other data such as those from satellites, drifting floats, autonomous underwater vehicles, model analysis, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna in order to address some of the questions posed above. Standardised methods for information management are also becoming established to ensure better accessibility and traceability of these data sets and ultimately to increase their use for societal benefit. The connection of ocean observatory effort into larger frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and the Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) is integral to its success. It is in a greater integrated framework that the full potential of the component systems will be realised.

Ruhl, Henry A.; Andr, Michel; Beranzoli, Laura; a?atay, M. Namik; Colao, Ana; Cannat, Mathilde; Daobeitia, Juanjo J.; Favali, Paolo; Gli, Louis; Gillooly, Michael; Greinert, Jens; Hall, Per O. J.; Huber, Robert; Karstensen, Johannes; Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; Lykousis, Vasilios; Mienert, Jrgen; Miguel Miranda, J.; Person, Roland; Priede, Imants G.; Puillat, Ingrid; Thomsen, Laurenz; Waldmann, Christoph

2011-10-01

299

Daily and seasonal expression of clock genes in the pituitary of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

The expression of select clock genes (clock, bmal, per1, per2, cry1, cry2) was investigated throughout the day and across the four seasons for two consecutive years in the pituitary of adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A rhythmic pattern of daily expression was consistently observed in summer and autumn, while arrhythmicity was observed for some clock genes during spring and winter, concomitant with low water temperatures. The expression of clock and bmal showed highest values at the end of the day and during the night, while that of per and cry was mostly antiphasic, with high values during the day. Melatonin affects clock-gene expression in the pituitary of mammals. We therefore sought to test the effect of melatonin on clock-gene expression in the pituitary of sea bass both in vivo and in vitro. Melatonin modestly affected the expression of some clock genes (in particular cry genes) when added to the fish diet or the culture medium of pituitary glands. Our data show that clock genes display rhythmic daily expression in the pituitary of adult sea bass, which are profoundly modified according to the season. We suggest that the effect of photoperiod on clock gene expression may be mediated, at least in part, by melatonin, and that temperature may have a key role adjusting seasonal variations. PMID:25148807

Herrero, Mara Jess; Lepesant, Julie M J

2014-11-01

300

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL  

E-print Network

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL An lnstruction Manual for Hatching Salmon and Trout Eggs in Classroom and Game Native Salmonids of California Map \\|/try Hatcheries? Activities Fish Journals Habitats of Salmon and Trout 11 Seagoing Salmon and Steelhead 12 Trout Life Cycle 13 Salmon and Steelhead Life Cycle 14 Making

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

301

Atlantic salmon show capability for cardiac acclimation to warm temperatures.  

PubMed

Increases in environmental temperature predicted to result from global warming have direct effects on performance of ectotherms. Moreover, cardiac function has been observed to limit the tolerance to high temperatures. Here we show that two wild populations of Atlantic salmon originating from northern and southern extremes of its European distribution have strikingly similar cardiac responses to acute warming when acclimated to common temperatures, despite different local environments. Although cardiac collapse starts at 21-23?C with a maximum heart rate of ~150 beats per min (bpm) for 12?C-acclimated fish, acclimation to 20?C considerably raises this temperature (27.5?C) and maximum heart rate (~200?bpm). Only minor population differences exist and these are consistent with the warmer habitat of the southern population. We demonstrate that the considerable cardiac plasticity discovered for Atlantic salmon is largely independent of natural habitat, and we propose that observed cardiac plasticity may aid salmon to cope with global warming. PMID:24957572

Anttila, Katja; Couturier, Christine S; Overli, Oyvind; Johnsen, Arild; Marthinsen, Gunnhild; Nilsson, Gran E; Farrell, Anthony P

2014-01-01

302

Effect of chronic exposure to ammonia on growth, food utilisation and metabolism of the European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic effects of exposing sea bass (average initial weight 100g) to ammonia in water at 22C were first evaluated over a 61-day period (period 1, P1) during which nine different groups were submitted to nine ambient ammonia levels ranging from 0.014to 0.493mg l1 NH3-N (0.5316.11mg l1 total ammonia nitrogen (TA-N)) and fed using self-feeders. At the end of P1,

Antoine Dosdat; Jeanine Person-Le Ruyet; Denis Covs; Gilbert Dutto; Eric Gasset; Annick Le Roux; Gilles Lemari

2003-01-01

303

Linking oceanic food webs to coastal production and growth rates of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), using models on three scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three independent modeling methodsa nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ) model (NEMURO), a food web model (Ecopath/Ecosim), and a bioenergetics model for pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)were linked to examine the relationship between seasonal zooplankton dynamics and annual food web productive potential for Pacific salmon feeding and growing in the Alaskan subarctic gyre ecosystem. The linked approach shows the importance of seasonal and ontogenetic prey switching for zooplanktivorous pink salmon, and illustrates the critical role played by lipid-rich forage species, especially the gonatid squid Berryteuthis anonychus, in connecting zooplankton to upper trophic level production in the subarctic North Pacific. The results highlight the need to uncover natural mechanisms responsible for accelerated late winter and early spring growth of salmon, especially with respect to climate change and zooplankton bloom timing. Our results indicate that the best match between modeled and observed high-seas pink salmon growth requires the inclusion of two factors into bioenergetics models: (1) decreasing energetic foraging costs for salmon as zooplankton are concentrated by the spring shallowing of pelagic mixed-layer depth and (2) the ontogenetic switch of salmon diets from zooplankton to squid. Finally, we varied the timing and input levels of coastal salmon production to examine effects of density-dependent coastal processes on ocean feeding; coastal processes that place relatively minor limitations on salmon growth may delay the seasonal timing of ontogenetic diet shifts and thus have a magnified effect on overall salmon growth rates.

Aydin, Kerim Y.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; King, Jacquelynne R.; Megrey, Bernard A.; Myers, Katherine W.

2005-03-01

304

Evolution of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) populations in New Zealand: Pattern, rate, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their\\u000a present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate\\u000a salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of

Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin

305

A field study on intraperitoneal vaccination of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) against furunculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection and side-effects after intraperitoneal (i.p.) vaccination of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) against furunculosis were studied in a field trial. Pre-smolts held in fresh water and salmon growers held in sea water were immunised with different monovalent furunculosis vaccines. In both cohorts, disease attack rates and cumulative mortalities after field challenge were significantly lower in populations given a mineral oil

P. J. MIDTLYNG

1996-01-01

306

Pacific Salmon, Nutrients, and the Dynamics of Freshwater and Riparian Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) accumulate substantial nutrients in their bodies as they grow to adulthood at sea. These nutrients are carried to predominantly\\u000a oligotrophic lakes and streams, where they are released during and after spawning. Research over more than 3 decades has shown\\u000a that the annual deposition of salmon-borne marine-derived nutrients (MD-nutrients) is important for the productivity of freshwater\\u000a communities

Robert J. Naiman; Robert E. Bilby; Daniel E. Schindler; James M. Helfield

2002-01-01

307

Saving Coho Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how theyre looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call the vortex of extinction.

2012-03-12

308

Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the previous biological concepts based on seasonal breeding stocks or geographical subspecies designations. The trans-Arctic herring phylogeography is notably similar to those of the amphi-boreal mollusk taxa Macoma and Mytilus, suggesting similar histories of inter-oceanic connections. We also considered the time dependency of molecular rates, critical for interpreting timing of relatively recent biogeographical events, by comparing the estimates from coding and non-coding mitochondrial regions of presumably different mutation dynamics. PMID:23510113

2013-01-01

309

Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.  

PubMed

Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon migration timing. Although salmon phenological diversity will complicate future predictions of migration timing, this variation likely acts as a major contributor to population and ecosystem resiliency in southeast Alaska. PMID:25482609

Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

2015-05-01

310

Ocean Conditions, Salmon, and Climate Change  

E-print Network

points: -Salmon cycles can last ~1,000 years -Anchovy & sardines out of phase with salmon in Alaska -Within millennia, cycles last 60-100 years Sockeye salmon -AK Anchovy - CA Sardine - CA Fish bones - BC

311

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies  

E-print Network

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies R. SALESSE, J. GARNIER, B en Josas, France Summary. Pituitary gonadotropins of female and male pacific salmon Oncorhynchus) and in salmon (Donaldson et al., 1972), although physicochemical, biological or immunological evidence for two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON,  

E-print Network

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, Oncorhynchus nerka Marine Biological #12;#12;SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPJLATION OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS

313

The Mediterranean Sea Regime Shift at the End of the 1980s, and Intriguing Parallelisms with Other European Basins  

PubMed Central

Background Regime shifts are abrupt changes encompassing a multitude of physical properties and ecosystem variables, which lead to new regime conditions. Recent investigations focus on the changes in ecosystem diversity and functioning associated to such shifts. Of particular interest, because of the implication on climate drivers, are shifts that occur synchronously in separated basins. Principal Findings In this work we analyze and review long-term records of Mediterranean ecological and hydro-climate variables and find that all point to a synchronous change in the late 1980s. A quantitative synthesis of the literature (including observed oceanic data, models and satellite analyses) shows that these years mark a major change in Mediterranean hydrographic properties, surface circulation, and deep water convection (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient). We provide novel analyses that link local, regional and basin scale hydrological properties with two major indicators of large scale climate, the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Northern Hemisphere Temperature index, suggesting that the Mediterranean shift is part of a large scale change in the Northern Hemisphere. We provide a simplified scheme of the different effects of climate vs. temperature on pelagic ecosystems. Conclusions Our results show that the Mediterranean Sea underwent a major change at the end of the 1980s that encompassed atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological systems, for which it can be considered a regime shift. We further provide evidence that the local hydrography is linked to the larger scale, northern hemisphere climate. These results suggest that the shifts that affected the North, Baltic, Black and Mediterranean (this work) Seas at the end of the 1980s, that have been so far only partly associated, are likely linked as part a northern hemisphere change. These findings bear wide implications for the development of climate change scenarios, as synchronous shifts may provide the key for distinguishing local (i.e., basin) anthropogenic drivers, such as eutrophication or fishing, from larger scale (hemispheric) climate drivers. PMID:20502704

Conversi, Alessandra; Fonda Umani, Serena; Peluso, Tiziana; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Santojanni, Alberto; Edwards, Martin

2010-01-01

314

The Changing Arctic and Subarctic Environment (CASE): a european network on marine biotic indicators of recent climate changes in the Nordic seas and adjacent domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Marie Curie Initial Training Network CASE (FP7 - ITN) is formalizing long-standing research collaborations in the field of empirical and simulated climate and oceanographic changes in the Nordic and Barents Seas. CASE offers an ideal setting for running integrated and innovative projects on recent (Holocene) Arctic and Subarctic climate changes and implementing a multidisciplinary and intersectorial training on biotic proxies of past marine environments through a Marie Curie Network. The EU-funded 12 CASE PhDs projects are concerned with the sensitivity of marine primary and secondary producers to changes in marine physical aspects, and the invaluable information on past oceanic and climatic conditions given by their fossil remains contained in sedimentary archives. Climate modelling provides complementary physical information. The investigations cover an extended field of disciplines, from micropaleontology, to organic and inorganic geochemistry, and an array of expertise such as taxonomy, molecular and stable isotope geochemistry, and climate modelling. This presentation will provide information on the structure of the consortium, the content and philosophy of the training actions, as well as the main scientific objectives of the various research projects carried out by the CASE partner institutions.

Deme, I.; Giraudeau, J.; Belt, S. T.; Hald, M.; Husum, K.; Knies, J.; Renssen, H.; Spielhagen, R. F.

2011-12-01

315

Defensive response of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) against Listonella anguillarum or Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida experimental infection.  

PubMed

Sea bass were experimentally infected with Listonella anguillarum or Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). At 24 and 72h post-infection, the expression analysis of immune-relevant genes (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, Hepcidin), the transcriptional level and detection of HSP70, and the quantification of serum iron were investigated in association with the histological analysis and the bacterial recognition in tissues by immunohistochemistry. At 15 days post-infection, the specific antibody response was detected in surviving fish, as well as the transcriptional levels of TcR and BcR sequences. Both experimental infections were characterized by a similar acute response, whereas different histological and immunohistochemistry evidences were observed. In particular, the early reaction appeared suitable for the clearance of L. anguillarum, thus limiting the histological lesions, the bacterial dissemination and the further development of acquired immunity in surviving fish. On the contrary, the innate response appeared not enough to resolve the Phdp infection, which was characterized by tissue damage, bacterial widespread and substantial detection of specific humoral immunity in surviving fish, also associated to lymphocytes clonal expansion. Besides the opportunistic conditions involved in fish vibriosis and pasteurellosis, the comparison between these experimental infection models seems to suggest that the rate of development of the acquired immunity is strictly linked to the activation of the host innate response combined to the degree of bacterial virulence. PMID:25454083

Mosca, Francesco; Ciulli, Sara; Volpatti, Donatella; Romano, Nicla; Volpe, Enrico; Bulfon, Chiara; Massimini, Marcella; Caccia, Elisabetta; Galeotti, Marco; Tiscar, Pietro G

2014-12-15

316

Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1. smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd-numbered years.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Farley, E.; Nielsen, J.; Hagen, P.

2005-01-01

317

The Fight Over Pacific Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

318

The Impact of Escaped Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) on Catch Statistics in Scotland  

PubMed Central

In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

Green, Darren M.; Penman, David J.; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E.; Taggart, John B.; McAndrew, Brendan J.

2012-01-01

319

Growth evaluation of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) raised in seawater or freshwater and fed either fishmeal based on marine-free diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A forty week feeding study was conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in two recirculating aquaculture systems. Twelve salmon (average initial weight 117 g; initial density 9.4 kg/m3) were stocked per tank. Two identical systems were used and contained either freshwater (0 ppt) or sea...

320

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic  

E-print Network

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon ..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. Salmon to catch the salmon; it's not so good. Salmon goes over, piles up rocks, here and here. He goes up the bank

O'Laughlin, Jay

321

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load, lipid reserves and biotransformation activity in migrating Atlantic salmon from River Mrrum, Sweden.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon accumulate high levels of contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in their lipids during the adult growth phase spent at sea. The lipids are later utilized during migration for swimming and biological adaptations. We hypothesize that migrating salmons' biotransformation processes are affected by the high levels of built-up PCBs compared to salmon that in a pre-migrational stage. For these analyses we sampled adult Atlantic salmon during migration in the Swedish River Mrrum and measured the 21 most common PCB congeners ( summation operatorPCB) and lipid levels in muscle tissue, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) transcript levels as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver. We also determined which AHR2 genotypes the salmon carried. We show that EROD activity is correlated to CYP1A1 level but not to summation operatorPCB concentration. summation operatorPCB concentration does not predict levels of neither the AHR2 nor CYP1A1 genes. We find no associations between specific AHR2 transcription levels and AHR2 genotypes or a correlation between AHR2 and CYP1A1 transcription levels, which is in direct contrast to pre-migrational adult salmon from the Baltic Sea. When we compare River Mrrum to salmon we have previously sampled in the Baltic Sea we show that migrating salmon have significantly lower lipid levels in their muscles; higher muscle concentrations of summation operatorPCB on a lipid basis; and significantly lower CYP1A1 and EROD levels compared to salmon from the Baltic Sea. Also, transcript levels of three out of four AHR2 genes are significantly different. In conclusion, migrating Swedish Atlantic salmon carry higher concentrations of PCBs in their lipids compared to salmon in the Baltic Sea, but have lower activation of biotransformation genes and enzymes. Our results indicate that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea are deactivated inside the migrating salmon's lipid tissues and increase in concentration when migration is initiated thereby limiting their impact on biotransformation processes. PMID:19616879

Hansson, Maria C; Persson, Maria E; Larsson, Per; von Schantz, Torbjrn

2009-12-01

322

Telemetry link for an automatic salmon migration monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The antenna and transmitter described in this report were designed for integration into the remote acoustic assessment system for detection of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay region of the Bering Sea. The assessment system configuration consists of an upward directed sonar buoy anchored 150 ft below the surface and attached by cable to a spar buoy tethered some 300 ft laterally. The spar buoy contains a telemetry transmitter, power supply, data processing electronics, an antenna and a beacon light.

Baldwin, H. A.; Freyman, R. W.

1973-01-01

323

SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

324

Evolution of Mediterranean sea surface temperature: Evidence for an intensification of European glaciation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the most continental of the ocean basins, the Mediterranean provides a unique climate archive for monitoring the history of the climate of southern Europe and northern Africa over time. It also lies in a strategic position to trace the evolution of the northern edge of the African monsoonal regime and the southward extent of glaciation during the Plio-Pleistocene ice ages. We report here results on sea surface temperature (SST) over the critical time of initial growth of the northern hemisphere ice sheets (3.3-2.7 Ma) and into the heart of the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene 41 kyr ice age regime. We present a continuous record of SST from 3.3-1.6 Ma, sampled at orbital resolution, from a composite of marine sections outcropping on land and from ODP Site 964, based on the alkenone unsaturation proxy. We find that SSTs are quite decoupled from the amount of alkenones in the sediment (C37 total). The C37 total record is paced throughout by the precessional cycle that determines the well-known episodes of sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean. In contrast, the SST record traces a larger-scale evolution in northern hemisphere climate. Prior to ~2.7 Ma, SST fluctuated predominantly at the precessional time scale. After the advent of northern hemisphere glaciation, SST followed a 41 kyr rhythm, in conjunction with the waxing and waning of northern hemisphere ice sheets during late Pliocene and early Pleistocene time. However, we detected a major increase in the amplitude of SST change at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary. Glacial coolings increase by 2-3oC at this time. As this change is not reflected in the marine oxygen isotope record, it seems to shed light on a regional increase in the influence of ice sheets on the glacial climate of the Mediterranean. We hypothesize that the extent of glaciation in northern and central Europe increased significantly at approximately the dawn of the Pleistocene.

Herbert, T.; Ng, G.; Cleaveland, L. C.

2009-12-01

325

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming  

E-print Network

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming Ida Scheel1 salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major, worldwide. We study the data covering salmon farming in Norway from 2002 to 2005 and propose a stochastic

Aldrin, Magne

326

Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities.  

PubMed

We investigated the interactive effect of ammonia toxicity, salinity challenge and nutritional status on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to normal seawater (32ppt), to brackish water (20ppt and 10ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20mg/L ?1.18mM representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12h, 48h, 84h and 180h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Biochemical responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea excretion rate, plasma ammonia, urea and lactate, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) and osmolality, muscle water content (MWC) and liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and ion- osmoregulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. During HEA, Jamm was inhibited in fasted fish at 10ppt, while fed fish were still able to excrete efficiently. At 2.5ppt, both feeding groups subjected to HEA experienced severe reductions and eventually a reversion in Jamm. Overall, the build-up of plasma ammonia in HEA exposed fed fish was much lower than fasted ones. Unlike fasted fish, fed fish acclimated to lower salinities (10ppt-2.5ppt) could maintain plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and MWC during HEA exposure. Thus fed fish were able to sustain ion-osmotic homeostasis which was associated with a more pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity. At 2.5ppt both feeding groups activated H(+)-ATPase. The expression of NKCC1 was down-regulated at lower salinities in both fed and fasted fish, but was upregulated within each salinity after a few days of HEA exposure. Though an increment in plasma lactate content and a decline in energy stores were noted for both feeding regimes, the effect was more severe in feed deprived fish. Overall, several different physiological processes were disturbed in fasted sea bass during HEA exposure while feeding alleviated adverse effects of high ammonia and salinity challenge. This suggests that low food availability can render fish more vulnerable to external ammonia, especially at reduced seawater salinities. PMID:25625520

Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; Boeck, Gudrun De

2015-03-01

327

Preliminary study on expression of antimicrobial peptides in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) following in vivo infection with Vibrio anguillarum. A time course experiment.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial polypeptides (AMPPs) are humoral components of the vertebrates and invertebrates innate immune system. Their potent broad spectrum antimicrobial activities have drawn the attention of the scientific community to their potential use not only as an alternative to antibiotics but also as functional targets for immunostimulants in order to enhance the host immunity. Fish synthesize a great number of these peptides but in European sea bass, an important fish species in the Mediterranean aquaculture, only a few AMPPs have been studied and these surveys have highlighted their functional role as predictive markers of stressful conditions. Many aspects concerning AMPP mode of action in the host during bacterial infections are still unknown. In this work a 72 h time course experiment, performed on juvenile sea bass intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with a sub-lethal dose of Vibrio anguillarum, was aimed to investigate the mRNA expression of four specific AMPP genes and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in skin, gills, spleen, and head kidney. AMPP genes were: dicentracin (DIC), histone-like protein 1 (HLP-1), histone-like protein 2 (HLP-2) and hemoglobin-like protein (Hb-LP). The delta-delta C(T) method in real-time RT-PCR allowed to gain more knowledge about temporal dynamics, preferential sites of expression as well as immunological and physiological role of these molecular markers. DIC was significantly up-regulated mainly in head kidney at 1.5-3 h post-infection (p.i.). HLP-1 showed an extended-time overexpression in gills and a significant up-regulation in spleen. HLP-2 was interestingly overexpressed in gills at 24 h p.i., while Hb-LP showed a significant up-regulation in skin for all the 72 h trial as well as lower but always significant values either in gills or in spleen. Different was the response of IL-1? that showed a dramatic up-regulation in spleen and head kidney at 8 h p.i. whilst in gills it displayed a severe inhibition. During this survey the i.p. stimulus surely conditioned the AMPP expression in skin and gills, especially as regards the DIC that as piscidin-related gene has an important defensive role in the mucosal tissues. However, two unconventional AMPP genes such as HLP-2 and Hb-LP, strictly related to the physiological mechanisms of fish, were less affected in terms of expression by the route of infection, being more evident in peripheral loci. These findings might suggest them as potential markers to be analyzed within plans of health survey in fish farms. PMID:25542381

Meloni, Mauro; Candusso, Sabrina; Galeotti, Marco; Volpatti, Donatella

2015-03-01

328

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

329

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon  

E-print Network

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

330

WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

331

New York State Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

332

Oxidative stress during Baltic salmon feeding migration may be associated with yolk-sac fry mortality.  

PubMed

The wild populations of salmon in the Baltic Sea suffer from yolk-sac fry mortality (M74). M74 mainly occurs in populations spawning in rivers flowing to the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. On the basis of studies with fry, M74 may be caused by oxidative stresses. Because the eggs of M74-offspring-producing females have lower thiamine and astaxanthin levels and more oxidized fatty acids than eggs of females producing healthy offspring, oxidative stresses that adult salmon experience during their feeding migration may be decisive for the development of M74. In this study we have measured several oxidative stress parameters and have evaluated bothtemporal and regional differences in these parameters in salmon individuals during their feeding migration. At present, salmon feeding in the Gulf of Finland and in the Bothnian Sea are affected by oxidative stress as compared to populations feeding in the Baltic Proper. Moreover, the feeding population of salmon in the central Baltic Proper suffered much more from oxidative stress in 1999 than in 2006-2007. In 1999 the incidence of M74 was higher than that expected in 2007/2008. Oxidative stresses experienced by feeding salmon may thus be behind the development of M74. PMID:18505014

Vuori, Kristiina A; Kanerva, Mirella; Ikonen, Erkki; Nikinmaa, Mikko

2008-04-01

333

DNA Methylation of the Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a) Promoter Is Involved in Temperature-Dependent Sex Ratio Shifts in the European Sea Bass  

PubMed Central

Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive. We show in the European sea bass (sb), a fish in which temperature effects on sex ratios are maximal before the gonads form, that juvenile males have double the DNA methylation levels of females in the promoter of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a), the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens. Exposure to high temperature increased the cyp19a promoter methylation levels of females, indicating that induced-masculinization involves DNA methylation-mediated control of aromatase gene expression, with an observed inverse relationship between methylation levels and expression. Although different CpGs within the sb cyp19a promoter exhibited different sensitivity to temperature, we show that the increased methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter, which occurs in the gonads but not in the brain, is not a generalized effect of temperature. Importantly, these effects were also observed in sexually undifferentiated fish and were not altered by estrogen treatment. Thus, methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter is the cause of the lower expression of cyp19a in temperature-masculinized fish. In vitro, induced methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter suppressed the ability of SF-1 and Foxl2 to stimulate transcription. Finally, a CpG differentially methylated by temperature and adjacent to a Sox transcription factor binding site is conserved across species. Thus, DNA methylation of the aromatase promoter may be an essential component of the long-sought-after mechanism connecting environmental temperature and sex ratios in vertebrate species with temperature-dependent sex determination. PMID:22242011

Navarro-Martn, Laia; Vias, Jordi; Ribas, Laia; Daz, Noelia; Gutirrez, Arantxa; Di Croce, Luciano; Piferrer, Francesc

2011-01-01

334

Hypo-osmotic stress-induced physiological and ion-osmoregulatory responses in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) are modulated differentially by nutritional status.  

PubMed

We investigated the impact of nutritional status on the physiological, metabolic and ion-osmoregulatory performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) when acclimated to seawater (32ppt), brackish water (20 and 10ppt) and hyposaline water (2.5ppt) for 2weeks. Following acclimation to different salinities, fish were either fed or fasted (unfed for 14days). Plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle water content were severely altered in fasted fish acclimated to 10 and 2.5ppt in comparison to normal seawater-acclimated fish, suggesting ion regulation and acid-base balance disturbances. In contrast to feed-deprived fish, fed fish were able to avoid osmotic perturbation more effectively. This was accompanied by an increase in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression and activity, transitory activation of H(+)-ATPase (only at 2.5ppt) and down-regulation of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) gene expression. Ammonia excretion rate was inhibited to a larger extent in fasted fish acclimated to low salinities while fed fish were able to excrete efficiently. Consequently, the build-up of ammonia in theplasma of fed fish was relatively lower. Energy stores, especially glycogen and lipid, dropped in the fasted fish at low salinities and progression towards the anaerobic metabolic pathway became evident by an increase in plasma lactate level. Overall, the results indicate no osmotic stress in both feeding treatments within the salinity range of 32 to 20ppt. However, at lower salinities (10-2.5ppt) feed deprivation tends to reduce physiological, metabolic, ion-osmo-regulatory and molecular compensatory mechanisms and thus limits the fish's abilities to adapt to a hypo-osmotic environment. PMID:25483239

Sinha, Amit Kumar; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

2015-03-01

335

In vivo effects of the soluble fraction of light cycle oil on immune functions in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linn).  

PubMed

Hydrocarbons are major contaminants that may affect biota at various trophic levels in estuaries and coastal ecosystems. The effects of accidental pollution by light cycle oil (LCO), a refined product of heavy fuel oil, on bioaccumulation, depuration processes and immune-related parameters in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were investigated in the laboratory after 7 days of exposure and a 2-week recovery period. Exposure of fish to the soluble fraction of LCO (1600ngL(-1)) for 7 days led to the bioaccumulation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in muscles: naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. After 7 days of recovery period, half-elimination of naphthalene was reported in fish muscles due to facilitated diffusive loss by the epithelium and a faster elimination rate proven by the presence of a high level of naphthalene biliary metabolites. The other bioaccumulated molecules displayed a slower depuration rate due to their elimination by the formation of hydrophobic metabolites excreted through bile or urine. Three days after the beginning of the recovery period, each contaminated fish showed severe external lesions (tissue necrosis, suppurative exudates, haemorrhagic area). The hypothesis of a possible link with inflammatory phenomenon was supported by (i) an inversion of the leucocyte sub-population percentage, (ii) a significant up-expression in the spleen of the tumour necrosis factor alpha gene, (iii) a significant increase in ACH(50). Moreover, the lack of C3 gene regulation in the spleen suggested a non-renewal of this component. The reduction of phagocytic activity and lysozyme concentration reflected immune suppression. Finally, LCO toxicity in this fish was clearly demonstrated to be related to inflammatory reaction and immune depletion. PMID:21764455

Bado-Nilles, Anne; Quentel, Claire; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, Jos Luis; Auffret, Michel; Thomas-Guyon, Hlne; Le Floch, Stphane

2011-10-01

336

Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance.  

PubMed

Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration performance during their 6 mo in the mesocosm; this performance was found to be inversely proportional to growth rate. PMID:23099467

Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A

2012-01-01

337

Expression of Kisspeptins and Kiss Receptors Suggests a Large Range of Functions for Kisspeptin Systems in the Brain of the European Sea Bass  

PubMed Central

This study, conducted in the brain of a perciform fish, the European sea bass, aimed at raising antibodies against the precursor of the kisspeptins in order to map the kiss systems and to correlate the expression of kisspeptins, kiss1 and kiss2, with that of kisspeptin receptors (kiss-R1 and kiss-R2). Specific antibodies could be raised against the preprokiss2, but not the preoprokiss1. The data indicate that kiss2 neurons are mainly located in the hypothalamus and project widely to the subpallium and pallium, the preoptic region, the thalamus, the pretectal area, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mediobasal medial and caudal hypothalamus, and the neurohypophysis. These results were compared to the expression of kiss-R1 and kiss-R2 messengers, indicating a very good correlation between the wide distribution of Kiss2-positive fibers and that of kiss-R2 expressing cells. The expression of kiss-R1 messengers was more limited to the habenula, the ventral telencephalon and the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. Attempts to characterize the phenotype of the numerous cells expressing kiss-R2 showed that neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase are targets for kisspeptins, while GnRH1 neurons did not appear to express kiss-R1 or kiss-R2 messengers. In addition, a striking result was that all somatostatin-positive neurons expressed-kissR2. These data show that kisspeptins are likely to regulate a wide range of neuronal systems in the brain of teleosts. PMID:23894610

Escobar, Sebastin; Servili, Arianna; Espigares, Felipe; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Brocal, Isabel; Felip, Alicia; Gmez, Ana; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier

2013-01-01

338

Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high consumption rates and rapid growth, degree of diet overlap or consumption of lower trophic level prey, and early migration timing into the ocean. The consistent pattern of findings from multiple regions of the ocean provides evidence that interspecific competition can significantly influence salmon population dynamics and that pink salmon may be the dominant competitor among salmon in marine waters. ?? Springer 2005.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

2004-01-01

339

The European-wide Geo-Seas data space for marine geological and geophysical data and its novel approach in Metadata, Data models and Semantics emerging from the case of Seismic data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geo-Seas EU FP7 project aims at providing means to deliver and access integrated sets of primary marine geological and geophysical data. These are among the most important elements in the process of scientific and applied marine research, economic activities, and sustainable environmental management, at regional, European and global scales. Such data space requires an European-wide services infrastructure, standardised practices by the data repositories, and middleware so that end users can identify, locate and access the data they might be interested in. Being Geo-Seas a sibling of the SeaDataNet project, it adopts technologies developed within the latter, extending them and introducing new paradigms. Within this perspective a specific attention was reserved to Seismic data, due to its value in commercial use and scientific community positioning, on one hand, and to the difficulties in handling its file size on the other. To tackle these issues a novel approach was devised, that uses web based data-owner-side visualization facilities installed at each data provider premise. This overcomes the limitations of the common practices in data dissemination, where eventually the data is downloaded and used "off-line" at the end-user workstation. This solution is based on a seismic data visualization software that is strictly integrated with the GeoSeas (and SeaDataNet) project middleware and that therefore allows to perform consistent user authentications and requests handling across all domains and partners. Considering the large and ever increasing number of datasets made available within the project, and that deep examination of seismic data via the viewer could take time, it was devised to introduce a more efficient way to select useful hits within the Geo-Seas data space extending the already existent ISO19115-based SeaDataNet discovery mechanism (CDI). This has been achieved through the introduction of a "browsing" level linked to the CDI where further information on the seismic data is made available within O&M and SensorML documents. Information is entered using controlled vocabularies made available to the whole community of users and partners. The whole system have been tested successfully and is currently operational at a subset of all the Geo-Seas partners. We are currently planning to extend the paradigm to other domains that have similarities with Seismic data.

Diviacco, Paolo; Busato, Alessandro; Glaves, Helen M.; Schaap, Dick M. A.

2013-04-01

340

Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

2009-06-01

341

Diphyllobothriasis associated with eating raw pacific salmon.  

PubMed

The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet. PMID:19523283

Arizono, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

2009-06-01

342

SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

343

Risk-Based Consumption Advice for Farmed Atlantic and Wild Pacific Salmon Contaminated with Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds  

PubMed Central

We reported recently that several organic contaminants occurred at elevated concentrations in farmed Atlantic salmon compared with concentrations of the same contaminants in wild Pacific salmon [Hites et al. Science 303:226229 (2004)]. We also found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, dieldrin, dioxins, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers occurred at higher concentrations in European farm-raised salmon than in farmed salmon from North and South America. Health risks (based on a quantitative cancer risk assessment) associated with consumption of farmed salmon contaminated with PCBs, toxaphene, and dieldrin were higher than risks associated with exposure to the same contaminants in wild salmon. Here we present information on cancer and noncancer health risks of exposure to dioxins in farmed and wild salmon. The analysis is based on a tolerable intake level for dioxin-like compounds established by the World Health Organization and on risk estimates for human exposure to dioxins developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Consumption of farmed salmon at relatively low frequencies results in elevated exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds with commensurate elevation in estimates of health risk. PMID:15866762

Foran, Jeffery A.; Carpenter, David O.; Hamilton, M. Coreen; Knuth, Barbara A.; Schwager, Steven J.

2005-01-01

344

[Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: Spanish adaptation of the position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society. Consensus document of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF)].  

PubMed

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). The Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has recently published a clinical guide to diagnose and manage HoFH (Eur Heart J. 2014;35:2146-57). Both the Spanish Society of Atherosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF) consider this European Consensus document of great value and utility. However, there are particularities in our country which advise to have a Spanish adaptation of the European HoFH document in order to approximate this clinical guide to our environment. In Spain, chronic treatment with statins, ezetimibe and resins (colesevelam) has a reduced contribution in the National Health System (NHS) and is one of the few European countries where LDL apheresis is included in the Basic Service Portfolio coverage. This Spanish document also includes clinical experience in the management of these patients in our country. The Drafting Committee emphasizes the need for early identification of HoFH patients, prompt referral to specialized units, and an early and appropriate treatment. These recommendations will provide a guidance for HoFH patient management in Spain. PMID:25757840

Ascaso, Juan F; Mata, Pedro; Arbona, Cristina; Civeira, Fernando; Valdivielso, Pedro; Masana, Luis

2015-01-01

345

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

WGBH

346

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For generations, Native Americans have depended on their observations of nature for their survival. In this video segment adapted from Northwest Indian College, an Elder recalls how fishermen suspected the water was warming after observing salmon retreating to deeper waters.

2010-03-24

347

Pacific Salmon at the Crossroads: Stocks at Risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Fisheries Society herein provides a list of depleted Pacific salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat stocks from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, to accompany the list of rare inland fishes reported by Williams et al. (1989). The list includes 214 native naturally-spawning stocks: 101 at high risk of extinction, 58 at moderate risk of extinction, 54 of special concern,

Jack E. Williams; Willa Nehlsen; James A. Lichatowich

1991-01-01

348

Fine structure of the adenohypophysis in immature sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the adenohypophysis of juvenile sockeye salmon was investigated. Pituitary glands were collected from immature fish transferred experimentally to sea water and subsequently returned to fresh water. The rostral pars distalis contained three cell types: ACTH cells, prolactin cells, and non-secretory cells. The prolactin and non-secretory cells were joined together in the form of

B. A. McKeown; John F. Leatherland

1973-01-01

349

Sustainable salmon aquaculture and tidal flushing in a macrotidal ecosystem: Cobscook Bay, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobscook Bay, Maine is located at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. Cobscook Bay supports an unusually productive and diverse ecosystem including scallops, clams, mussels, sea urchins and macroalgae, all of which are commercially valuable. Salmon aquaculture has been introduced in Cobscook Bay and the adjoining Passamaquoddy Bay, and aquaculture has become an important contributor to the economy on

David A. Brooks; Michael W. Baca; Yao-Tsai Lo

1998-01-01

350

Genetic, environmental and interaction effects on the incidence of jacking in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jacking in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, is defined as sexual maturation of males after at least 1 year in sea water, occurring 1 year prior to any of the females of the same cohort. A breeding experiment was carried out with jack and non-jack sires nested within six dams. The resulting 12 families were reared under two different temperatures for

Daniel D Heath; Robert H Devlin; John W Heath; George K Iwama

1994-01-01

351

Downstream migrations of juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in a glacial transboundary river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrations of juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchusspp.) in the glacial Taku River (seventh order) were studied to assess movement from upriver spawning areas (in British Columbia) into lower-river rearing areas (in Alaska). Differences between fyke-net catches in the river and seine catches in the river's estuary indicated that many downstream migrants remained in the lower river instead of migrating to sea.

Michael L. Murphy; K V. Koski; J. Mitchel Lorenz; John F. Thedinga

1998-01-01

352

Hybrid origin of Baltic salmon-specific parasite Gyrodactylus salaris: a model for speciation by host switch for hemiclonal organisms.  

PubMed

Host switching explains the high species number of ectoparasitic, viviparous, mainly parthenogenetic but potentially hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Gyrodactylus. The starlike mitochondrial phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salaris suggested parallel divergence of several clades on grayling (also named as Gyrodactylus thymalli) and an embedded sister clade on Baltic salmon. The hypothesis that the parasite switched from grayling to salmon during the glacial diaspora was tested using a 493-bp nuclear DNA marker ADNAM1. The parasites on salmon in lakes Onega and Ladoga were heterozygous for divergent ADNAM1 alleles WS1 and BS1, found as nearly fixed in grayling parasites in the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins, respectively. In the Baltic salmon-specific mtDNA clade, the WS/BS heterozygosity was maintained in 23 out of the 24 local clones. The permanently heterozygous clade was endemic in the Baltic Sea basin, and it had accumulated variation in mtDNA (31 variable sites on 1600 bp) and in the alleles of the nuclear locus (two point mutations and three nucleotide conversions along 493 bp). Mendelian shuffling of the nuclear alleles between the local clones indicated rare sex within the clade, but the WS/BS heterozygosity was lost in only one salmon hatchery clone, which was heterozygous WS1/WS3. The Baltic salmon-specific G. salaris lineage was monophyletic, descending from a single historical hybridization and consequential host switch, frozen by permanent heterozygosity. A possible time for the hybridization of grayling parasite strains from the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins was during the Eemian interglacial 132 000 years bp. Strains having a separate divergent mtDNA observed on farmed rainbow trout, and on salmon in Russian lake Kuito were suggested to be clones derived from secondary and tertiary recombination events. PMID:17971088

Kuusela, Jussi; Zietara, Marek S; Lumme, J

2007-12-01

353

Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

2000-01-01

354

Toward a salmon conjecture  

E-print Network

By using a result from the numerical algebraic geometry package Bertini we show that (with extremely high probability) a set of degree 6 and degree 9 polynomials cut out the secant variety $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{2}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{2} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$. This, combined with an argument provided by Landsberg and Manivel, implies set-theoretic defining equations in degrees 5, 6 and 9 for a much larger set of secant varieties, including $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{3}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$ which is of particular interest in light of the salmon prize offered by E. Allman for the ideal-theoretic defining equations.

Oeding, Luke

2010-01-01

355

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon  

E-print Network

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon Martin Krkoseka,b,1 , Brendan a Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 9016; b Salmon Coast Field Station, Simoom) The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect

Dill, Lawrence M.

356

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages  

PubMed Central

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Kryer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

Dalvin, Sussie T.; Bron, James E.; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

357

Transmission of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in farmed populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

In the present study, 24 smolt production sites were screened for the presence of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) with the help of a specific real-time RT PCR assay, and 22 of these sites had smolts that were positive. If these smolt production sites are representative for the prevalence of ISAV in Norwegian smolts, then most marine production sites must be considered to be positive for ISAV. In addition, 92 European ISAV isolates have been genotyped based on the hemagglutinin-esterase gene (HE), and their distribution pattern was analysed. This pattern has been coupled to information about the origin of smolt, eggs, and broodfish in those cases where it has been possible to obtain such information, and with information about ISAV in neighbouring farms. The pattern suggests that an important transmission route for the ISAV could be that the salmon farming industry in Norway is circulating some of the isolates in the production cycle, i.e. some sort of vertical or transgenerational transmission may occur. It has also been shown that avirluent ISAV isolates are fairly common in Norwegian farmed salmon. Based on this, it is hypothesized that the change from avirulent to virulent ISAV isolates is a stochastic event that is dependent on the replication frequency of the virus and the time available for changes in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the HE gene to occur. This, and the possibility that only avirluent ISAV isolates are vertically transmitted, may explain why ISA most often occurs at marine sites and why no more than about 15 farms get ISA every year in Norway. PMID:16941061

Nylund, A; Plarre, H; Karlsen, M; Fridell, F; Ottem, K F; Bratland, A; Saether, P A

2007-01-01

358

Physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.  

PubMed

After several years of feeding at sea, salmonids have an amazing ability to migrate long distances from the open ocean to their natal stream to spawn. Three different research approaches from behavioural to molecular biological studies have been used to elucidate the physiological mechanisms underpinning salmonid imprinting and homing migration. The study was based on four anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, migrating from the North Pacific Ocean to the coast of Hokkaido, Japan, as well as lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya, Hokkaido, where the lake serves as the model oceanic system. Behavioural studies using biotelemetry techniques showed swimming profiles from the Bering Sea to the coast of Hokkaido in O. keta as well as homing behaviours of lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya. Endocrinological studies on hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of O. keta, and lacustrine O. nerka identified the hormonal changes during homing migration. Neurophysiological studies revealed crucial roles of olfactory functions on imprinting and homing during downstream and upstream migration, respectively. These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in anadromous and lacustrine salmonids. PMID:22803723

Ueda, H

2012-07-01

359

High Gyrodactylus salaris infection rate in triploid Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.  

PubMed

We describe an unusually high infection rate of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. of Baltic Sea origin, which are generally believed to be more resistant to G. salaris than East Atlantic salmon populations. Based on analyses of mitochondrial (complete cytochrome oxidase 1 [CO1] gene, 1548 bp) and nuclear (ADNAM1, 435 bp; internal transcribed spacer [ITS] rDNA region, 1232 bp) DNA fragments, the closest relatives of the characterized Estonian G. salaris strain were parasites found off the Swedish west coast and in Raasakka hatchery, Iijoki (Baltic Sea, Finland). Analyses of 14 microsatellite loci of the host S. salarrevealed that approximately 40% of studied fish were triploids. We subsequently identified triploid Atlantic salmon of Baltic origin as more susceptible to G. salaris infection than their diploid counterparts, possibly due to compromised complement-dependent immune pathways in triploid salmon. This is in accordance with earlier studies that have shown elevated susceptibility of triploids to various viral or bacterial pathogens, and represents one of the first reports of increased susceptibility of triploid salmonid fish to an ectoparasite. However, further experimental work is needed to determine whether triploid Atlantic salmon is generally more susceptible to G. salaris compared to their diploid counterparts, irrespective of the particular triploidization method and population of origin. PMID:21387992

Ozerov, M Y; Lumme, J; Pkk, P; Rintamki, P; Zietara, M S; Barskaya, Y; Lebedeva, D; Saadre, E; Gross, R; Primmer, C R; Vasemgi, A

2010-09-01

360

Effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide on gene expressions of the cytokines interleukin-1? and interleukin-10 and of heme oxygenase-1 in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L.  

PubMed

Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most frequently used herbicides in the world. We evaluated the effect of Roundup 360 SL on the expression of interleukin-1? (il-1?), interleukin-10 (il-10) and heme-oxygenase-1 (ho-1) in the gills, intestines and spleen of young European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax L.), aged 8 mo. A group of fish was exposed to 647 mg/L of Roundup for 96 h. This treatment did not alter gene expression levels of il-1? and il-10 cytokine in the intestines, but significantly lowered both levels in the gills (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04 respectively). Expression levels of ho-1 were increased significantly in the three organs of fish from the treated group (the gills p = 0.04, the intestines p = 0.004 and the spleen p < 0.001). These changes may in turn negatively impact the immune system of European sea bass exposed to Roundup. PMID:24408037

Richard, Simone; Prvot-D'Alvise, Nathalie; Bunet, Robert; Simide, Rmy; Couvray, Sylvain; Coup, Stphane; Grillasca, Jol Paul

2014-03-01

361

THE KING SALMON OF COOK INLET, ALASKA  

E-print Network

, Alaska ABSTRACT Runs of king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Cook Inlet, Alaska, are de- clining for spawning. INTRODUCTION Historically, the king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is one of the most

362

The Forebrain-Midbrain Acts as Functional Endocrine Signaling Pathway of Kiss2/Gnrh1 System Controlling the Gonadotroph Activity in the Teleost Fish European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

Some teleost species, including European sea bass, harbor two different kisspeptin coding genes: kiss1 and kiss2. Both genes are expressed in the brain, but their differential roles in the central control of fish reproduction are only beginning to be elucidated. In this study, we have examined the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of the highly active sea bass peptides Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 on spermiating male sea bass. Physiological saline, Kiss1-15, or Kiss2-12 was injected into the third ventricle. To establish the gene expression cascade involved in the action of kisspeptins, the expression of the two sea bass kisspeptin receptor genes (kiss1r and kiss2r) and the three sea bass Gnrh genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) were analyzed in the forebrain-midbrain and the hypothalamus. In addition, the protein levels of hypothalamic and pituitary Gnrh1 were measured. Blood samples were collected at different times after injection to analyze the effects of kisspeptins on the release of gonadotropins (Lh and Fsh) and androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone). The present results provide the first evidence that the effects of Kiss2 on central regulation of reproductive function involve the neuroendocrine areas of the forebrain-midbrain in teleost fish. The marked effect of Kiss2 on kiss2r and gnrh1 expression in the forebrain-midbrain and on Gnrh1 release suggest that this neuronal system is involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotroph activity. This hypothesis was confirmed by a surge of plasma Lh in response to Kiss2, which presumably has a strong stimulatory effect on testosterone release, and thus on sperm quality parameters. PMID:25609835

Espigares, Felipe; Carrillo, Manuel; Gmez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

2015-03-01

363

Unraveling the estrogen receptor (er) genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals expression differences between the two adult life stages but little impact from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptors (ers) not only are activated by hormones but also interact with many human-derived environmental contaminants. Here, we present evidence for four expressed er genes in Atlantic salmon cDNA - two more ers (er?2 and er?2) than previously published. To determine if er gene expression differs between two adult life-stages we sampled 20 adult salmon from the feeding phase in the Baltic Sea and during migration in the River Mrrum, Sweden. Results show that all four er genes are present in the investigated tissues, except for er?2 not appearing in the spleen. Overall, a profile analysis reveals the er?1 gene to be the most highly expressed er gene in both female and male Baltic Sea salmon tissues, and also in female River Mrrum salmon. In contrast, this gene has the lowest gene expression level of the four er genes in male salmon from the River Mrrum. The er?2 gene is expressed at the lowest levels in both female/male Baltic Sea salmon and in female River Mrrum salmon. Statistical analyses indicate a significant and complex interaction where both sex and adult life stage can impact er gene expression. Regression analyses did not demonstrate any significant relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and er gene expression level, suggesting that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea may be deactivated inside the salmon's lipid tissues and have limited impact on er activity. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of four er gene expression levels in two wild salmon populations from two different adult life stages where information about PCB load is also available. PMID:25451980

Nikoleris, Lina; Hansson, Maria C

2015-01-15

364

L'originalit de Juglar Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

L'originalité de Juglar Pierre Salmon Thèse complémentaire soutenue le 28 mars 1966 Université de -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Version verbatim avec quelques corrections de forme mars 2011 Pierre Salmon Université de Bourgogne Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion (UMRS CNRS 5118) pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract This is a version

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

365

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role  

E-print Network

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role In Fishery Management CIRCULAR 24 FISH- crease have intensified the problems of salmon-fishery maintenance. Natural propagation has been interfered with by pollution and by dams that cut off the salmon from their natural spawning grounds

366

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead  

E-print Network

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead To Healthy, Harvestable Levels Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board December 15, 2004 Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife Subbasin Plan Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Skamania And Wahkiakum Counties #12;Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife

367

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian  

E-print Network

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian Networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen, Petri Karlsson and Ingemar Per¨a December 22, 2002 HIIT TECHNICAL REPORT 2002­7 #12;PREDICTING THE WILD SALMON elsewhere. #12;Predicting the wild salmon production using Bayesian networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen

Myllymäki, Petri

368

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

369

USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON  

E-print Network

353 USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRARY Of. zi 1960 WOODS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON by Richard W Page The effect of dynamite on salmon 2 Description and results of variables tested 3 Effect of water

370

-----WESLEy C. SALMON-----Confirmation and Relevance ,  

E-print Network

-----WESLEy C. SALMON----- Confirmation and Relevance , Item: One of the earliest surprises of Probability (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), sec. 1l0A. ~ Wesley C. Salmon, "Partial Entailment Foundations, secs. 86-88. #12;Wesley C. Salmon that the first edition had been unclear with regard

Fitelson, Branden

371

BLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka  

E-print Network

and Wildlife Service, John L . Farley, Director BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARDBLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARD MIGRATION PAST BONNEVILLE DAM Marine Summary and conclusions 35 Literature cited 36 Appendix 37 #12;#12;BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCOHYNCHUS NERKA AGE

372

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON  

E-print Network

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman

373

Atlantic Salmon Released into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS employee Marisa Lubeck releases the day's last young Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingreleased into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season b...

374

Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Tunison Lab scientist Emily Waldt (right)assists Dan Bishop of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservationin releasing Atlantic salmoninto Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmonare beingrelease...

375

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming  

E-print Network

farmers alone ex- pect to produce 80,000 t of Atlantic salmon, but farmers in other coun- tries also plan to expand operations in their own country, several Norwegian com- panies have exported their salmon farming salmon has become an im- portant Norwegian fishery export. In 1983, Norway exported 15,500 t of farmed

376

ALKALI EXTRACTED PROTEIN FRACTIONS FROM SALMON BYPRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

From 1995-2000 the harvest of wild salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) from Alaska waters averaged 364,000 mt. It has been estimated that the major byproducts available in Alaska from Pacific salmon processing include over 50,000 mt of salmon heads and 30,000 mt of viscera, of which much is under utilized. ...

377

Development of sex control techniques for European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) aquaculture: effects of dietary 17 ?-methyltestosterone prior to sex differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the hormonal masculinization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) reared under natural conditions of photoperiod and temperature. Sexually undifferentiated sea bass were fed 17?-methyltestosterone (MT) at 10 mg kg?1 food during three distinct periods of 100 days each: Period I, 126226 days post fertilization (DPF) (JulyNovember); Period II, 226326

Mercedes Blzquez; Francesc Piferrer; Silvia Zanuy; Manuel Carrillo; Edward M. Donaldson

1995-01-01

378

Molecular cloning and characterisation of a novel P-glycoprotein in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis.  

PubMed

The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is a crustacean ectoparasite of salmonid fish. At present, sea louse control on salmon farms relies heavily upon chemical treatments. Drug efflux transport, mediated by ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp), represents a major mechanism for drug resistance in parasites. We report here the molecular cloning of a new Pgp from the salmon louse, called SL-PGY1. A partial Pgp sequence was obtained by searching sea louse ESTs, and extended by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of SL-PGY1 encodes a protein of 1438 amino acids that possesses typical structural traits of P-glycoproteins, and shows a high degree of sequence homology to invertebrate and vertebrate P-glycoproteins. In the absence of drug exposure, SL-PGY1 mRNA expression levels did not differ between a drug-susceptible strain of L. salmonis and a strain showing a ~7-fold decrease in sensitivity against emamectin benzoate, the active component of the in-feed sea louse treatment SLICE (Merck Animal Health). Aqueous exposure of the hyposensitive salmon louse strain to emamectin benzoate (24h, 410 ?g/L) provoked a 2.9-fold upregulation of SL-PGY1. Adult male lice of both strains showed a greater abundance of SL-PGY1 mRNA than adult females. PMID:21867772

Heumann, Jan; Carmichael, Stephen; Bron, James E; Tildesley, Andy; Sturm, Armin

2012-03-01

379

Ocean Carrying Capacity : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 6 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival of coho salmon appears to be determined in the first month at sea while the fish are still in local marine areas in the upwelling zone. There is stronger evidence that upwelling might influence vulnerability to predation. A broader ecosystem view which considers salmon as a member of a complex marine community offers additional insight and raises new questions regarding the marine mortality of salmon. The pelagic fish community in the upwelling zone has undergone dramatic change in the last 50 years. That change is consistent with the historical record, however, the system has not completed a full cycle of change (as it has in the past) since the stocks have been subjected to intense commercial and sport exploitation. Salmon seem to be responding to shifts in productivity in the coastal upwelling zone.

Lichatowich, Jim

1993-06-01

380

Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution.  

PubMed

We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The 'recurrent evolution' (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a 'straying' form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations between recurrent glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch. Basic premises of this hypothesis are consistent with new, independent evidence from recent surveys of genetic variation in mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA: (1) sockeye salmon are most closely related to pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon with sea-type life histories; (2) the sockeye life history ecotypes exist as polyphyletic lineages within large drainages and geographic regions; (3) the sea/river ecotype exhibits less genetic differentiation among populations than the lake or kokanee ecotypes both within and among drainages; and (4) genetic diversity is typically higher in the sea/river ecotype than in the lake and kokanee ecotypes. Anthropogenic modification of estuarine habitat and intensive coastal fisheries have likely reduced and fragmented historic metapopulations of the sea/river ecotype, particularly in southern areas. In contrast, the kokanee ecotype appears to be favoured by marine fisheries and predicted changes in climate. PMID:25567627

Wood, Chris C; Bickham, John W; John Nelson, R; Foote, Chris J; Patton, John C

2008-05-01

381

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, learn about subsistence fishing and harvesting. Hear from an Elder who speaks about how he used to go trolling (fishing) for salmon with his father, uncles, and cousins when he was young. He recalls that they noticed that the salmon were moving farther offshore, into deeper water. They suspected it was because the water was warming. The video segment was adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham, Washington. The background essay explains the huge significance of climate change for people who rely on the earth so much, and the correlation between the temperature of water and the abundance of salmon is further explained. The Discussion questions will help kids think about the issues,and therefore understand them in a better way. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

382

Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM) or fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Results We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD), but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD). Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663). Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein catabolism, amino acid transaminations, RNA splicing and blood coagulation were also found to be regulated by diet, while the expression of genes involved in protein and ATP synthesis differed between the half-sibfamilies. Conclusions Overall, the combined gene expression, compositional and biochemical studies demonstrated a large panel of metabolic and physiological effects induced by total substitution of both FM and FO in the diets of European sea bass and revealed physiological characteristics associated with the two half-sibfamilies. PMID:22017880

2011-01-01

383

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 -2008  

E-print Network

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 - 2008 Peter Hassemer Idaho Department of Fish;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Spring Chinook Salmon (Includes Snake River Summers) #12;Spring

384

Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

Farley, E.V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

2007-01-01

385

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are the most abundant Pacific salmon  

E-print Network

- Analysis of contemporary genetic structure of even-broodyear populations of Asian and western Alaskan pink part of the North American Pacific coast has only small even-year runs; and in western Alaska, even and conservation of the pink salmon resource requires thor- ough knowledge of their biology, includ- ing population

386

Comparison of genetic diversity in the recently founded Connecticut River Atlantic salmon population to that of its primary donor stock, Maine's Penobscot River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to the Connecticut River (CR) from 1996 to 1999 were assayed for variability at nine microsatellite DNA loci. Heterozygosity and allele frequencies were compared to the anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to Maine's Penobscot River from 1998 to 2000. The Penobscot River was the primary source of the salmon used to found the previously extirpated population in the Connecticut River. While there were no significant differences in heterozygosity between the source population and the Connecticut River sea-run spawners, microsatellite allele frequencies were significantly different between the populations. Two techniques of estimating effective population size (Ne) suggested a healthy level of genetic variation in the Connecticut River population of anadromous Atlantic salmon. This is significant because the sea-run population is maintained almost entirely through hatchery production. Healthy ratios of Ne to N indicate that hatchery production has not resulted in excessive inbreeding to date. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

2004-01-01

387

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004 14 Lower Columbia Mainstem Subbasin ­ Salmon Creek Figure 14-1. Location of the Salmon Creek Basin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 14.1 Basin Overview The Salmon Creek Basin comprises approximately

388

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004 18 Little White Salmon Subbasin Figure 18-1. Location of the Little White Salmon River Subbasin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 18.1 Basin Overview The Little White Salmon Subbasin

389

Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differ

Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

2009-03-09

390

The European coastal zone: characterization and first assessment of ecosystem metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geomorphic, oceanographic, terrestrial and anthropogenic attributes of the European coastal zone are described and published data on ecosystem function (primary production and respiration) are reviewed. Four regions are considered: the Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the European Atlantic coast including the North Sea. The metabolic database (194 papers) suffers from a non-homogeneous geographical coverage with no usable

Frdric Gazeau; Stephen V. Smithsupcs; Bernard Gentili; Michel Frankignoulle; Jean-Pierre Gattuso

2004-01-01

391

Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms.  

PubMed

Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned. PMID:25480132

Kristoffersen, Anja B; Jimenez, Daniel; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Grntvedt, Randi; Stien, Audun; Jansen, Peder A

2014-12-01

392

Chemokine receptors in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Teleost sequence data have revealed that many immune genes have evolved differently when compared to other vertebrates. Thus, each gene family needs functional studies to define the biological role of individual members within major species groups. Chemokine receptors, being excellent markers for various leukocyte subpopulations, are one such example where studies are needed to decipher individual gene function. The unique salmonid whole genome duplication that occurred approximately 95 million years ago has provided salmonids with many additional duplicates further adding to the complexity and diversity. Here we have performed a systematic study of these receptors in Atlantic salmon with particular focus on potential inflammatory receptors. Using the preliminary salmon genome data we identified 48 chemokine or chemokine-like receptors including orthologues to the ten receptors previously published in trout. We found expressed support for 40 of the bona fide salmon receptors. Eighteen of the chemokine receptors are duplicated, and when tested against a diploid sister group the majority were shown to be remnants of the 4R whole genome duplication with subsequent high sequence identity. The salmon chemokine receptor repertoire of 40 expressed bona fide genes is comparably larger than that found in humans with 23 receptors. Diversification has been a major driving force for these duplicate genes with the main variability residing in ligand binding and signalling domains. PMID:25445904

Grimholt, Unni; Hauge, Helena; Hauge, Anna Germundsson; Leong, Jong; Koop, Ben F

2015-03-01

393

Managing High Volume Astronimical Data with Heterogeneous Beowulf Clusters John Salmon, Daniel F. Savarese, and Thomas Sterling  

E-print Network

Managing High Volume Astronimical Data with Heterogeneous Beowulf Clusters John Salmon, Daniel F with the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Caltech has investigated the application of Beowulf clusters. Using char- acterstic workloads, we #12;nd that a Beowulf cluster can gen- erate astronomical data

Lumetta, Steve

394

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

395

77 FR 60631 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 0648-XC222 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2012-10-04

396

76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead...

2011-01-03

397

75 FR 78929 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 300 RIN 0648-XZ20 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The orders...

2010-12-17

398

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

399

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. By CHARLES H. GILBERT,  

E-print Network

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. ~ By CHARLES H. GILBERT, Professor of Zoology, Stanford University. " .. " .. " .. " .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 The king salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) " , .. .. . 318 Rate of travel. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 The chum or dog salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) , '" '" . .. .. .. . . . . . 325 Rate of travel

400

75 FR 14135 - Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration RIN 0648-ZC16 Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund AGENCY: National Marine...announces the availability of Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Funding (PCSRF), as authorized...restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and their...

2010-03-24

401

Evolution of introduced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Lake Huron  

E-print Network

Evolution of introduced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Lake Huron: emergence divergence; rapid evolution Introduction Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Wal- baum) in Lake Huron October 21, 2011 Abstract ­ Population genetic structure was detected in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus

Neff, Bryan D.

402

Abstract.-Chinook salmon. Onco-rhynchus tshawytscha, transplanted  

E-print Network

colonizing suitable habitat. Origin and genetic structure of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ofchinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. used in the genetic comparison with New Zealand populations. San506 Abstract.-Chinook salmon. Onco- rhynchus tshawytscha, transplanted from the Sacramento River

403

Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.  

PubMed

Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival. PMID:22233513

Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

2012-02-01

404

WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

405

PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

406

Infections by Renibacterium salmoninarum and Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin are associated with reduced growth of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

We examined 1454 juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), captured in nearshore waters off the coasts of Washington and Oregon (USA) from 1999 to 2004 for infection by Renibacterium salmoninarum, Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin and skin metacercariae. The prevalence and intensities for each of these infections were established for both yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. Two metrics of salmon growth, weight residuals and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, were determined for salmon infected with these pathogens/parasites, both individually and in combination, with uninfected fish used for comparison. Yearling Chinook salmon infected with R.salmoninarum had significantly reduced weight residuals. Chinook salmon infected with skin metacercariae alone did not have significantly reduced growth metrics. Dual infections were not associated with significantly more severe effects on the growth metrics than single infections; the number of triple infections was very low and precluded statistical comparison. Overall, these data suggest that infections by these organisms can be associated with reduced juvenile Chinook salmon growth. Because growth in the first year at sea has been linked to survival for some stocks of Chinook salmon, the infections may therefore play a role in regulating these populations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. PMID:24720546

Sandell, T A; Teel, D J; Fisher, J; Beckman, B; Jacobson, K C

2015-04-01

407

Acute toxicity of a commercial glyphosate formulation on European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aromatases (cyp19a and cyp19b).  

PubMed

Acute toxicity of Roundup, a commercial glyphosate--based herbicide, was evaluated in a teleost marine fish, the European sea bass, after 96 h of exposure. The LC50 96-h value of Roundup was 529 mg/L. Juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were exposed to a sublethal concentration (35% of the LC50, i.e. 193 mg/L) of Roundup for 96-h. The study of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) gene expression was performed in four tissues (liver, gills, brain and gonads) and highlighted the disruption of antioxidant defence system. Results showed that ho-1 mRNA levels in liver and gills significantly decreased (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively) in fish exposed to 193 mg/L of Roundup, whereas in brain and gonads, ho-1 mRNA level was not altered. The analysis of acetylcholinesterase expression was used to evaluate the overall neurotoxicity of the herbicide and aromatase genes to assess the alteration of the endocrine system. Results showed that AChE and cyp19b gene transcriptions significantly increased (p<0.01) in brain of sea bass, whereas aromatase gene expression (cyp19a) in gonads was not significantly altered. Our results showed complex tissue-specific transcriptional responses after 96 h of exposure to a sublethal concentration. All these disruptions confirmed the deleterious effects of this glyphosate-based herbicide in a marine species. PMID:24461331

Prevot-D'Alvise, N; Richard, S; Coup, S; Bunet, R; Grillasca, J P

2013-01-01

408

Identification and characterisation of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR) gene cluster in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, reveals recurrent gene expansion and diversification by positive selection  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, a new gene family encoding non-rearranging receptors, called novel immune-type receptors (NITRs), has been discovered in teleost fish. NITRs belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and represent an extraordinarily divergent and rapidly evolving gene complex. Genomic analysis of a region spanning 270kb led to the discovery of a NITR gene cluster in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In total, 27 NITR genes and three putative pseudogenes, organised in a tandemly arrayed cluster, were identified. Sea bass NITR genes maintain the three major genomic organisations that appear to be essentially conserved among fish species along with new features presumably involving processes of intron loss, exon deletion and acquisition of new exons. Comparative and evolutionary analyses suggest that these receptors have evolved following a birth-and-death model of gene evolution in which duplication events together with lineage-specific gain and loss of individual members contributed to the rapid diversification of individual gene families. In this study, we demonstrate that species-specific gene expansions provide the raw material for diversifying, positive Darwinian selection favouring the evolution of a highly diverse array of molecules. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-009-0398-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19851764

Kuhl, Heiner; Milan, Massimo; Ritchie, David W.; Secombes, Christopher J.; Reinhardt, Richard; Bargelloni, Luca

2009-01-01

409

76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2011-12-29

410

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2013-02-14

411

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2012-12-19

412

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2012-10-01

413

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2014-10-01

414

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2013-10-01

415

The Highly conserved gonadotropin-releasing hormone-2 form acts as a melatonin-releasing factor in the pineal of a teleost fish, the european sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

With the exception of modern mammals, most vertebrate species possess two GnRH genes, GnRH-1 and GnRH-2. In addition, in many teleost fish, there is a third gene called GnRH-3. If the main function of GnRH-1 is unambiguously to stimulate gonadotropin release, the other two GnRH forms still lack clear functions. This is particularly true for the highly conserved GnRH-2 that encodes chicken GnRH-II. This GnRH variant is consistently expressed in neurons of the dorsal synencephalon in most vertebrate groups but still has no clear functions supported by anatomical, pharmacological, and physiological data. In this study performed on a perciform fish, the European sea bass, we show for the first time that the pineal organ receives GnRH-2-immunoreactive fibers originating from the synencephalic GnRH-2 neurons. This was shown through a combination of retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry, using highly specific antibodies. Supporting the presence of GnRH-2 functional targets, RT-PCR data together with the in situ hybridization studies showed that the sea bass pineal gland strongly expressed a GnRH receptor (dlGnRHR-II-2b) with clear selectivity for GnRH-2 and, to a lesser extent, the dlGnRHR-II-1a subtype. Finally, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate stimulatory effects of GnRH-2 on nocturnal melatonin secretion by the sea bass pineal organ. Altogether, these data provide, for the first time in a vertebrate species, converging evidence supporting a role of GnRH-2 in the modulation of fish pineal functions. PMID:20215565

Servili, Arianna; Lethimonier, Christle; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Lpez-Olmeda, Jos Fernando; Snchez-Vzquez, Francisco Javier; Kah, Olivier; Muoz-Cueto, Jos Antonio

2010-05-01