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1

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability.

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

2

Increasing Regional Temperatures Associated with Delays in Atlantic Salmon Sea-Run Timing at the Southern Edge of the European Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar at the edge of the species’ distribution are the most vulnerable to environmental changes. Those inhabiting southern European rivers are expected to be particularly affected by global warming. However, they are exploited as a very valuable resource for the region, attracting tourism and generating substantial income. In the central part of northern Spain (Asturias),

A. G. Valiente; F. Juanes; E. Garcia-Vazquez

2011-01-01

3

Loss of Salmon from High-Seas Gillnetting with Reference to the Japanese Salmon Mothership Fishery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studied by the National Marine Fisheries Service on the loss of salmon due to high-seas gillnetting were conducted in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from 1964 to 1969. Losses attributed to dropouts and to predators and scavengers, as determined by...

R. R. French J. R. Dunn

1973-01-01

4

ESONET- European sea floor observatory network  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESONET proposes a network of sea floor observatories around the European Ocean margin from the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea for strategic long term monitoring as part of the European GMES (global monitoring for environment and security) with capability in geophysics, geotechnics, chemistry, biochemistry, oceanography, biology and fisheries. Long-term data collection and alarm capability in the event of hazards

I. G. Priede; M. Solan; J. Mienert; R. Person; T. C. E. Van Weering; O. Pfannkuche; N. O'Neill; A. Tselepides; L. Thomsen; P. Favali; F. Gasparoni; N. Zitellini; A. Millot; H. W. Gerber; J. M. A. De Miranda; M. Klages; P. Sigray

2003-01-01

5

A system approach to the demand for salmon in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the demand for salmon in the European Union. A system of demand equations are specified with an almost ideal demand system (AIDS)to analyse the demand structure for fresh, frozen and smoked salmon, using quarterly data for the period 1984–92. The time series porperties of the data series are explored, and the data series are found to be

Frank Asche

1996-01-01

6

A survey of European sea level infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summaries findings from a survey of European sea level infrastructure (tide gauges, telemetry methods, ancillary information) conducted at the end of 2008 on behalf of the Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region (TRANSFER), Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAMTWS), European Sea Level Service (ESEAS) and Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) projects and programmes. Approximately 478 strategic tide gauges were found to be operational at this time, of which about three-quarters have near-real time data telemetry of various kinds. Around half of the gauges take part in real-time international data exchange. The NEAMTWS network can be considered to be in good shape in that most of its sites for which a gauge exists will be capable of meeting required standards in the near future. On the other hand, NEAMTWS (and the European and North African network in general) contains major gaps along the North African coastline and on European Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts which require new installations. The paper also summaries standards for the various sea level programmes, and reviews existing European infrastructure in the form of data centres and web sites.

Woodworth, P. L.; Rickards, L. J.; Pérez, B.

2009-06-01

7

Abundant Salmon in New England Waters is Goal of Sea Grant Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Overfishing and industrial and urban development in the latter part of the nineteenth century brought a severe decline in the numbers of salmon returning from the sea. Damming of many rivers denied salmon access to their once extensive spawning beds. Indu...

E. D. Sawtelle

1976-01-01

8

Interannual variability in stock abundance and body size of Pacific salmon in the central Bering Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and mean body size was examined for pink, chum and sockeye salmon collected with research gillnets in the central Bering Sea in July from 1972 to 2000. The CPUEs for all three species showed significant increasing trends, but with large interannual variability. The CPUE of pink salmon was higher in odd years than in even years,

Y. Ishida; T Azumaya; M Fukuwaka; N Davis

2002-01-01

9

Growth of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) correlated with sea-surface salinity in the North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average adult size-at-return of North Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) has decreased since the 1970s and several hypotheses regarding the cause of this decrease have been proposed. These have included fishing pressure, change of sea-surface temperature (SST) and density-dependence. This paper re-examines recent trends in the catch per unit effort (cpue) of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), SST, sea surface salinity

Shoko H. Morita; Kentaro Morita; Hiroyuki Sakano

2001-01-01

10

Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean.

Ruggerone, G. T.; Nielsen, J. L.; Bumgarner, J.

2007-11-01

11

Acclimatization of Pink Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the European North: mtDNA Restriction Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon spawners introduced into the White Sea basin (the Umba River) were compared to the spawners from the basin of the Sea of Okhotsk (the Ola River) using restriction analysis of two fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One of the fragments included genes ND5\\/ND6, the other, the cytochrome b gene and the D-loop. It was found that mtDNA variation

N. V. Gordeeva; E. A. Salmenkova; Yu. P. Altukhov

2004-01-01

12

The European Consumers' Understanding and Perceptions of Organic Salmon Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising consumer concern over intensive food production issues has resulted in an increase in demand for organic alternatives to a wide variety of foods including fruit and vegetables, meat and poultry. More recently, there has also been considerable interest in the marketing of more environmentally-friendly supplies of fish, including those from farmed production systems. 'Organic' salmon has featured in the

Aarset B; Beckmann S; Bigne J; Bjorndal T; Mariojouls C; Muir J F; Prothero A; L A Reisch; Smith A P; Solbjerg Plads; Paris Grignon

13

Methylmercury as Percentage of Total Mercury in Flesh and Viscera of Salmon and Sea Trout of Various Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of methylmercury to total mercury in the flesh of salmon (Salmo salar) 1 to 7 years old and sea trout (Salmo ocla) 1 and 2 years old was found to average 93 percent with a range of 81 to 98 percent, and to be independent of the age of the fish. In salmon and sea trout 1 and

Gunnel Westoo

1973-01-01

14

Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles  

PubMed Central

Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure.

Lohmann, Kenneth J.; Putman, Nathan F.; Lohmann, Catherine M. F.

2008-01-01

15

Detrimental effects of recent ocean surface warming on growth condition of Atlantic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean climate impacts on survivorship and growth of Atlantic salmon are complex, but still poorly understood. Stock abundances have declined over the past three decades and 1992-2006 has seen widespread sea surface temperature (SST) warming of the NE Atlantic, including the foraging areas exploited by salmon of southern European origin. Salmon cease feeding on return migration, and here we express

CHRISTOPHER D. T ODD; S ARAH L. H UGHES; M AC LEAN; E. L ONERGAN

2008-01-01

16

Detrimental effects of recent ocean surface warming on growth condition of Atlantic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean climate impacts on survivorship and growth of Atlantic salmon are complex, but still poorly understood. Stock abundances have declined over the past three decades and 1992-2006 has seen widespread sea surface temperature (SST) warming of the NE Atlantic, including the foraging areas exploited by salmon of southern European origin. Salmon cease feeding on return migration, and here we express

CHRISTOPHER D. T ODD; S ARAH L. H UGHES; C. T A R A M A R S H A L Lz

17

Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997-2009.  

PubMed

The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice. PMID:23311746

Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

2013-01-13

18

Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997-2009  

PubMed Central

The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice.

Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

2013-01-01

19

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), infestation in sympatric populations of Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), and sea trout, Salmo trutta (L.), in areas near and distant from salmon farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bjørn, P. A., and Finstad, B. 2002. Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), infestation in sympatric populations of Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), and sea trout, Salmo trutta (L.), in areas near and distant from salmon farms. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 131-139. The abundance of salmon lice was examined in two stocks of sympatric anadromous Arctic char and

Bengt Finstad

20

Ghrelin is involved in voluntary anorexia in Atlantic salmon raised at elevated sea temperatures.  

PubMed

Due to global and local climate changes, farmed salmon may experience periods of elevated sea temperatures. An experiment was conducted to examine endocrine and dietary effects of high sea temperatures in adult (2.0 kg) and sexually immature Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Groups of salmon were exposed to 19 °C while others were kept as controls at 14 °C. The experiment lasted for 56 days, and fish were given iso-nitrogenous diets with either a normal (335 g kg(-1); L34) or a lower lipid level (298 g kg(-1); L30). Fish held at 19 °C had a reduction in the daily feed intake, growth and feed utilization of more than 50% compared to the controls. Fish at 19 °C retained little ingested fat, and high maintenance cost lead to depleted endogenous energy body reserves. Circulating ghrelin concentration and stomach ghrelin-1 and hypothalamus growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a-like receptor (GHSR1a-LR) mRNA levels were significantly reduced in salmon at 19 °C. An increasing number of fish kept at 19 °C had empty gastrointestinal tract after 21 days (11-67%) and 56 days (56-100%), with the highest numbers in fish fed the L34 diet. We suggest that lower circulating ghrelin during negative energy homeostasis induce down-regulation of GHSR1a-LR, neuropeptide Y, and anorexigenic factors at transcriptional levels in the hypothalamus, which over time lead to a voluntary anorexia development in adult salmon held at 19 °C. Reduction of feed intake and growth may be an important coping strategy for salmon during elevated temperatures. PMID:22036890

Hevrøy, E M; Waagbø, R; Torstensen, B E; Takle, H; Stubhaug, I; Jørgensen, S M; Torgersen, T; Tvenning, L; Susort, S; Breck, O; Hansen, T

2011-10-21

21

Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal migrations can affect disease dynamics. One consequence of\\u000a migration common to marine fish and invertebrates is migratory allopatry\\u000a -a period of spatial separation between adult and juvenile hosts, which\\u000a is caused by host migration and which prevents parasite transmission\\u000a from adult to juvenile hosts. We studied this characteristic for sea\\u000a lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) and pink salmon

Martin Krkosek; Allen Gottesfeld; Bart Proctor; Dave Rolston; Charmaine Carr-Harris; Mark A. Lewis

2007-01-01

22

A field efficacy evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of sea lice on Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, 0.2% aquaculture premix, against sea lice on Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Salmon pens received either emamectin benzoate, orally, in feed at 50 micrograms/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days, or the same diet with no added medication. The site veterinarian had the option of administering a bath treatment with azamethiphos to any pen in the trial. The mean number of lice per fish was lower (P < 0.05) in the experimental group when measured 1, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after the start of medication. Treatment efficacy was 70%, 88%, 95%, and 61%, respectively. Three azamethiphos bath treatments were applied to each control pen during the trial, while the treatment pens received no bath treatment. No gravid female parasites were observed on any fish in the treatment group, while these life stages were observed on fish in the control group. Orally administered emamectin benzoate was palatable and highly effective for control of sea lice on salmon.

Armstrong, R; MacPhee, D; Katz, T; Endris, R

2000-01-01

23

Reconciling economic and biological modeling of migratory fish stocks: Optimal management of the Atlantic salmon fishery in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper puts forward a model of the Atlantic salmon fishery in the Baltic Sea that integrates the salient biological and economic characteristics of migratory fish stocks. Designed to be compatible with the framework used for actual stock assessments, the model accounts for age-structured population dynamics, the seasonal harvest and competing harvesting by commercial and recreational fishermen. It is parameterized

Soile Kulmala; Marita Laukkanen; Catherine Michielsens

2008-01-01

24

Biomagnification of organohalogens in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from its main prey species in three areas of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Factors affecting the biomagnification of organohalogens in Baltic salmon from sprat, herring and three-spined stickleback were assessed in three feeding areas. Second sea-year salmon contained (in fresh weight of whole fish) 79-250ngg(-1) polychlorinated biphenyls (?PCB), 0.9-2.7pgg(-1) dibenzo-p-dioxins (?PCDD), 8-19pgg(-1) dibenzofurans (?PCDF), 96-246pgg(-1) coplanar PCBs, 2.4-3.6ngg(-1) polybrominated diphenylethers (?PBDE), and 39-136ngg(-1) ?(indicator) PCB6. The EU limits for WHO toxic equivalent concentrations in fish feed were already exceeded in one-year-old sprat and herring and were exceeded many-fold in older age groups. The differences in the biomagnification rates of organohalogens in salmon appeared to be related to the feeding area, principal prey species, and the fat content and growth rate of the prey species. PMID:22386234

Vuorinen, Pekka J; Keinänen, Marja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Kiljunen, Mikko; Myllylä, Timo; Pönni, Jukka; Peltonen, Heikki; Verta, Matti; Karjalainen, Juha

2012-03-03

25

Co-infection patterns of infectious salmon anaemia and sea lice in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in southern Chile (2007-2009).  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) caused a large epidemic in farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile in 2007-2009. Here, we assessed co-infection patterns of ISAV and sea lice (SL) based on surveillance data collected by the fish health authority. ISAV status and SL counts in all Atlantic salmon farms located in the 10th region of Chile were registered monthly from July 2007 through December 2009. Each farm was categorized monthly according to its ISAV and SL status. A multinomial time-space scan test using a circular window was applied to identify disease clusters, and a multivariate regression model was fitted to quantify the association between disease-clustering and farm-management factors. Most of the identified clusters (9/13) were associated with high SL burdens. There were significant associations (P < 0.05) between management factors and ISAV/SL status. Areas in which good management practices were associated with a reduced disease risk were identified. The findings of this study suggest that certain management practices can effectively reduce the risk of SL and ISAV in the face of an epidemic and will be helpful towards creating an effective disease control programme in Chile. PMID:23347268

Valdes-Donoso, P; Mardones, F O; Jarpa, M; Ulloa, M; Carpenter, T E; Perez, A M

2013-01-24

26

Diseases of north European wrasse (Labridae) and possible interactions with cohabited farmed salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

There have been several reported studies of wrasse health but none of these has shown transmission of wrasse diseases when stocked with farmed Atlantic salmon. Most of the studies have focussed on bacterial and parasite issues, including treatment of bacterial diseases with antibiotics and vaccination of wrasse. Classical and atypical furunculosis have been reported in wrasse following stress, and wrasse have been susceptible to vibrio infection. Further study is required on the vaccination of wrasse for furunculosis with latent carrier status to maximize survival. There are studies on viral diseases such as infectious pancreatic necrosis, infectious salmon anaemia and pancreas disease and although these did not give any undue concern for salmon health, there is also scope for further study in this area. Resident parasite communities of wrasse are largely host-specific and do not appear to be a threat to salmon. Given that wrasse have not, to date, been a vector of disease in salmon, attention should be placed on maintaining best practice in cohabiting wrasse with salmon. Other issues that should be addressed are good welfare of wrasse in pens and identifying measures of this, the identification of losses of wrasse in pens, being alert to potential emerging diseases through health screening of mortalities and assessing the risks associated with carrying forward wrasse from one salmon production cycle to the next. Issues of exploitation by fishing on wild wrasse stocks and improved biosecurity may be addressed by the increased movement by the industry to the stocking of farmed wrasse. PMID:22625226

Treasurer, J W

2012-05-24

27

Sea to sky: impacts of residual salmon-derived nutrients on estuarine breeding bird communities  

PubMed Central

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) returning to streams around the North Pacific Rim provide a nutrient subsidy to these ecosystems. While many species of animals feed directly on salmon carcasses each autumn, salmon-derived nutrients can also be stored in coastal habitats throughout the year. The effects of this storage legacy on vertebrates in other seasons are not well understood, especially in estuaries, which can receive a large portion of post-spawning salmon nutrients. We examine the effects of residual salmon-derived nutrients, forest habitats and landscape features on summer breeding birds in estuary forests. We compared models containing environmental variables and combined chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon biomass to test predictions concerning bird density and diversity. We discovered that total bird, insectivore, golden-crowned kinglet and Pacific wren densities and Shannon's diversity in the summer were strongly predicted by salmon biomass in the autumn. For most metrics, this relationship approaches an asymptote beyond 40 000 kg of salmon biomass. Foliage height diversity, watershed catchment area and estuary area were also important predictors of avian communities. Our study suggests that the legacy of salmon nutrients influences breeding bird density and diversity in estuaries that vary across a wide gradient of spawning salmon biomass.

Field, Rachel D.; Reynolds, John D.

2011-01-01

28

Influence of the White Sea on tides in adjacent marginal seas of the North European Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into the interaction of surface M 2 tides in the system of marginal seas of the North European Basin is carried out using the three-dimensional finite-element hydrostatic model QUODDY-4. Three numerical experiments are performed for this purpose. In the first (control), the model equations are solved in the system of the Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, and White seas; thereby the interaction of the tides in these seas is explicitly taken into account. In the second experiment, the White Sea is excluded from consideration and the no-flux condition is posed at the entrance to the sea. The third experiment uses an approach in which the observed tidal elevations that determine the existence of a finite horizontal transport of barotropic energy to the White Sea are specified at the open boundary of the White Sea. It is shown that changes in tidal dynamics represented by changes in the amplitudes and phases of tidal elevations and in the barotropic tidal velocity ellipse parameters are within the model noise in experiments 2 and 3 when compared with the control experiment. On the contrary, changes in energy characteristics (the horizontal wave transport, density, and dissipation rate of barotropic tidal energy) are equal to or greater (in order of magnitude) than the energy characteristics themselves.

Kagan, B. A.; Sofina, E. V.; Rashidi, E. H. A.

2013-01-01

29

Landlocked Atlantic salmon: movements to sea by a putative freshwa- ter life history form  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain populations of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) have become landlocked, and live their entire life history out in freshwater. On the Magaguadavic River, New Brunswick, Canada, hatchery and wild origin landlocked salmon were detected moving downstream towards the ocean, and subsequently back upstream in the river. High levels of strontium, indicative of ocean residence, were found in the scales

J. Carr; F. Whoriskey; D. Courtemanche

2004-01-01

30

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): The “Super-Chicken” of the Sea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the definition of sustainability is discussed, particularly in relation to the use of marine feed resources. The current review gives an overview of the development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture and how it has evolved due to changes in legal and management framework conditions. Atlantic salmon production is characterized with high utilization of nutrients, a high

Ole Torrissen; Rolf Erik Olsen; Reidar Toresen; Gro Ingunn Hemre; Albert G. J. Tacon; Frank Asche; Ronald W. Hardy; Santosh Lall

2011-01-01

31

[Ultrastructure of chloride cell of gill epithelium and body ionic composition of the fry of two species of Pacific salmon during migration to the sea].  

PubMed

Pacific salmon fry were collected in 2001-2002 in the rivers of Southern Sakhalin on the way of their migration to the sea. The comparison of the data on ionic content of chum salmon fry carcass, received in 2002, with those obtained in 2001, has shown that the dispersion of ion concentration values in 2002 samples was significantly smaller than in 2001. Similar results were obtained when the mass of smolts was compared. The significant decrease of Na+ concentration in chum salmon fry during migration to the sea supports the idea on an imperative stimulus formation by means of change of Na+ concentration in migrating fish. The analysis of gill chloride cell (CC) structure in chum salmon and masu salmon fry in fresh and salty water has shown, that in fishes from fresh water CC were located mainly in primary lamellae, at the basis of secondary lamellae. As a rule, CC are large, have a large nucleus with an active chromatin and a light cytoplasm with numerous elongated mitochondria containing dense matrix. Secondary lamellae are short, 1-3 cells thick and practically contain no CC. In some fishes secondary lamellae were more numerous and longer. Some part of secondary lamellae contained large CC; in this place their width was approximately 2 times greater. As a whole, CC number in these fishes was increased. Analyzing all the material received during 2 years, with respect to CC cell structure and functions, a conclusion was drawn that freshwater fry of two salmon species, both chum salmon and masu salmon, caught at the same time and practically in the same reservoirs, could be divided into 3 groups. Masu salmon underyearlings are characterized, as a rule, by a thickened secondary lamellae epithelium, which, however contained few CC. In the chum salmon smolts, on the contrary, epithelium was thin, but contained numerous CC, which demonstrate active structure in the beginning of migration to the sea. But as they approached the sea (and migration duration increased), CC activity fell, though their number remained unchanged. It was only after fish transition to the sea, that CC activity grew again, though their number remained the same. PMID:20593586

Maksimovich, A A

2010-01-01

32

Summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals in polar ecosystems: a comparison between the European Arctic seas and the Weddell Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals was quantitatively established both in Antarctica (Weddell Sea) and in the European Arctic: Greenland, Norwegian and Barents seas. Data can directly be compared, since the same transect counts were applied by the same team from the same icebreaking ship in both regions. The main conclusion is that densities of seabirds and

Claude R Joiris

2000-01-01

33

The European Sea Level Service (ESEAS): The Continuous GPS Coordinate Time Series Analysis Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Sea Level Service (ESEAS) was established in June 2001 and has the objective to provide sea-level and sea-level related information for the European waters to scientific and non-scientific users both from inside and outside Europe. The ESEAS-RI (Research Infrastructure) commenced its work in November 2002 for a three year period, included 25 institutions from 17 countries and aims

F. N. Teferle; S. D. Williams; H. P. Kierulf; R. M. Bingley; H. P. Plag

2004-01-01

34

Influence of dietary blends of menhaden oil and canola oil on growth, muscle lipid composition, and thyroidal status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various dietary blends of menhaden oil (MO) with canola oil (CO) on the growth performance, whole body proximate composition, flesh quality (muscle proximate and lipid composition) and thyroidal status of immature Atlantic salmon in sea water were studied.

B. S. Dosanjh; D. A. Higgs; D. J. McKenzie; D. J. Randall; J. G. Eales; N. Rowshandeli; M. Rowshandeli; G. Deacon

1998-01-01

35

Analysis of gene associated tandem repeat markers in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L. ) populations: implications for restoration and conservation in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among five wild and four hatchery populations of Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea were assessed based on eight assumedly neutral microsatellite loci and six gene-associated markers, including four expressed sequence tag (EST) linked and two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) linked tandem repeat markers (micro- and mini-satellites). The coalescent simulations based on the method

Anti Vasemägi; Riho Gross; Tiit Paaver; Marja-Liisa Koljonen; Marjatta Säisä; Jan Nilsson

2005-01-01

36

Magnitude and Trends in Abundance of Hatchery and Wild Pink Salmon, Chum Salmon, and Sockeye Salmon in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance estimates of wild and hatchery Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. are important for evaluation of stock status and density-dependent interactions at sea. We assembled available salmon catch and spawning abundance data for both Asia and North America and reconstructed total abundances of pink salmon O. gorbuscha, chum salmon O. keta, and sockeye salmon O. nerka during 1952–2005. Abundance trends were

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Randall M. Peterman; Brigitte Dorner; Katherine W. Myers

2010-01-01

37

Salmon lice--impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture.  

PubMed

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-13

38

Salmon lice - impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion.

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-01

39

Submarine discharge into the seas of the Arctic Ocean from the European Russia territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater formation conditions in the upper hydrodynamic zone of the northern coast of European Russia are considered. This\\u000a groundwater discharges directly into the Barents and White seas. The values of submarine discharge from European Russia into\\u000a arctic seas, bypassing river network, are estimated. Estimates of subsurface dissolved-solids discharge are given. Specific\\u000a and integral characteristics of submarine discharge are analyzed. The

I. S. Zektser; A. V. Dzyuba

2010-01-01

40

Fluctuations in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) recruitment resulting from environmental changes in the Sargasso Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

European eel decline is now widely observed and involves a large number of factors such as overfishing, pollution, habitat loss, dam construction, river obstruction, parasitism and environmental changes. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of envi- ronmental conditions in the Sargasso Sea and Atlantic ocean circulation on European glass eel recruitment success. Over a recent 11-yr period, we

SYLVAIN BONHOMMEAU; EMMANUEL CHASSOT; ETIENNE RIVOT

2008-01-01

41

The European regional seas ecosystem model, a complex marine ecosystem model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the concept, structure and implementation of the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The model dynamically simulates the biogeochemical seasonal cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon in the pelagic and benthic food webs of the North Sea, and is forced by irradiance, temperature and transport processes.The model has a coarse spatial resolution into

J. W. Baretta; W Ebenhoeh; P. Ruardij

1995-01-01

42

[Parasite fauna of young landlocked salmon (Salmo salar m. Sebago girard) in the Pista River (the White Sea Basin)].  

PubMed

A native population of landlocked salmon of the Pista River was investigated in 2000-2002. Adult salmon in Pista River has smallest size among other populations of landlocked salmon in Karelia. Data on the biology and parasite fauna of young salmon are presented. The presence of local salmon populations in lakes of the river system is apparently one of the mechanisms keeping the magnitude of population. The presence of Gyrodactylus salaris, a harmful parasite of the young landlocked salmon, is established in this territory for the first time. This monogenean species is believed to have been introduced into the Pista River via stocking from Finland. PMID:17460940

Shul'man, B S; Shchurov, I L; Shirokov, V A; Ga?da, R V

43

Genetic diversity of north Okhotsk Sea chum salmon populations with natural and artificial reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of 32 enzyme loci was studied in chum salmon populations with different types of reproduction—natural, mixed,\\u000a and artificial—in some Magadan Region rivers. Among the populations studied, the values of mean heterozygosity and allele\\u000a number per locus did not differ significantly. We found evidence of definite temporal stability of the populations, and also\\u000a found that their genetic variability was

E. A. Salmenkova; V. T. Omelchenko; D. V. Politov; K. I. Afanasiev; G. A. Rubtzova

2007-01-01

44

Efficacy of emamectin benzoate against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: evaluation in the absence of an untreated contemporary control.  

PubMed

The efficacy of emamectin benzoate (SLICE) against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., is typically assessed using untreated fish, or fish treated with alternative therapeutants, as controls. The State of Maine, USA, is currently under active management for the OIE-notifiable pathogen, infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV); consequently, neither control group is feasible in this region. Untreated salmon risk extensive damage from the ectoparasites, and threaten to increase vector-borne exposure or susceptibility of farms to ISAV; and the only treatment presently available in Maine is SLICE. However, because sea lice infestations are unlikely to resolve spontaneously, and response to treatment occurs within weeks, use of a pretreatment baseline is a reasonable alternative for confirmatory studies. We evaluated SLICE efficacy on Atlantic salmon farms in Cobscook Bay 2002-2005, in the absence of untreated controls, using pretreatment lice loads as a reference for calculation. Maximum efficacy ranged from 68% to 100% reduction from initial levels. Time-to-maximum efficacy ranged from 1 to 8 weeks after treatment initiation. Efficacy duration, measured between first reduction and first progressive rise in counts, ranged from 4 to 16 weeks. PMID:17026671

Gustafson, L; Ellis, S; Robinson, T; Marenghi, F; Endris, R

2006-10-01

45

Stock Origins of Chinook Salmon in the Area of the Japanese Mothership Salmon Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The record catch of 704,000 chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by the Japanese mothership salmon fishery in 1980 intensified concern about the effect of high seas interceptions of salmon reared in North America. The goal of this study was to update and refine estimates of the relative proportions of Asian and North American chinook salmon stocks in the mothership fishery area

Katherine W. Myers; Colin K. Harris; Curtis M. Knudsen; Robert V. Walker; Nancy D. Davis; Donald E. Rogers

1987-01-01

46

Amphidinium glabrum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) from the North German Wadden Sea and European Arctic sea ice: morphology, distribution and ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study Amphidinium glabrum sp. nov., a new dinoflagellate species from tidal sand flats in the North German Wadden Sea and from the surface water and the lowermost layer of first-year ice in the European Arctic. Cells are strongly flattened dorso-ventrally, with nearly parallel sides in ventral view. The distal region of

Mona Hoppenrath; Yuri Okolodkov

2000-01-01

47

Original article Lipid and protein changes in chilled sea salmon (Pseudopercis semifasciata): effect of previous rosemary extract (Rossmarinus officinalis L.) application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of rosemary extract application (200 and 500 ppm) on lipid oxidation, colour and protein modifications during the chilled storage (1.0 ± 0.7 ? C) of sea salmon (Pseudopercis semifasciata). Lipid oxidation and x3-22:6 fatty acid content modification were prevented by the addition of rosemary extract. Analysis of interaction between

Valeria Tironi; Mabel Tomas; Marõ ´ aA non

2009-01-01

48

National Geographic News: Sea Trout Loss Linked to Salmon Farm Parasite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is an article from National Geographic News, which describes the link between "the explosion of sea lice in farmed fish populations and the decline of Scottish sea trout." In addition to the article, visitors can view a dynamic map of Shieldaig in western Scotland.

Owen, James.

2002-01-01

49

Genotyping of two populations of Southern Baltic Sea trout Salmo trutta m. trutta using an Atlantic salmon derived SNP-array.  

PubMed

The sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is an anadromous, teleost fish species characterized by homing behaviour. The sea trout has considerable ecological and economic significance. It reproduces naturally in rivers flowing into, and is common in, the Baltic Sea. In Poland spawning aggregations occur in the Vistula River and the rivers of Pomerania. Two populations from the Vistula River (TW) and a Pomeranian river, the S?upia (TP) were mixed in the past by stocking. The main purpose of this study was an assessment of the applicability of the Atlantic salmon custom design Illumina iSelect SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) array containing 15,225 markers for identification of genetic diversity between sea trout populations. A diagnostic panel of 39 SNPs with a mean FST=0.1298 was selected from a pool of 15,225. At each locus, minor allele frequency was higher than 0.01 and mean expected heterozygosity for TW and TP populations were 0.343 and 0.271 respectively. Individuals tested were clustered in one of two groups which corresponded to their origins where the TW population was genetically more homogenous (membership coefficients ranked from 88.8% to 98.6%) while the TP population was more diverse (membership coefficients ranked from 53.8% to 98.5%). The results demonstrated the applicability of the Salmon 15K SNP-chip for determining the differences between Southern Baltic populations of the sea trout, a closely related salmonid species. PMID:23137524

Drywa, Agata; Po?wierz-Kotus, Anita; W?s, Anna; Dobosz, Stefan; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; Berna?, Rafa?; Wenne, Roman

2012-11-06

50

[Long-term changes in the epizootic of juvenile salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Keret River (White Sea basin) depending on the invasion of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957].  

PubMed

Results of long-term investigations on the population dynamics of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Keret' river (White Sea drainage basin) depending on the invading of Gyrodactylus salaris (Malmberg, 1957) and mass infestation of salmon with this parasite are presented. Gyrodactylus salaris was for the first time recorded in the Keret' river in 1992. During the period lesser than five years the parasite spread along the river. The rise in the infestation of salmon parr with G. salaris caused death of the fish host. As the abundance of juveniles decreased, adult salmon stocks dropped more than 25 times. It was shown, that after the decreasing in number of salmon juveniles following acute epizootic, infestation parameters dropped, and in some years G. salaris was not even found at all. PMID:19198173

Ieshko, E P; Shul'man, B S; Shchurov, I L; Barskaia, Iu Iu

51

GLOBALISATION IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS: THE STORY OF NON-INDIGENOUS MARINE SPECIES ACROSS EUROPEAN SEAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) across the major European seas is a dynamic non-stop process. Up to September 2004, 851 NIS (the majority being zoobenthic organ- isms) have been reported in European marine and brackish waters, the majority during the 1960s and 1970s. The Mediterranean is by far the major recipient of exotic species with an average of one

NIKOS STREFTARIS; ARGYRO ZENETOS; EVANGELOS PAPATHANASSIOU

2005-01-01

52

Growth of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) under hypoxic and oscillating oxygen conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of moderate hypoxia and oscillating oxygen conditions on growth of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were investigated. Groups of four to six sea bass (initial weights 40–90 g) were exposed to one of three oxygen regimes (40% air saturation; oscillations between 40–86% with a period of 770 min; 86% as a control) at 22°C and a salinity of

Helmut Thetmeyer; Uwe Waller; Kenneth D Black; Stefan Inselmann; Harald Rosenthal

1999-01-01

53

Atlantic salmon fisheries in the White and Barents Sea basins: Dynamic of catches in the 17–18th Century and comparison with 19–20th Century data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catches of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, recorded in historical documents from the 17–18th Centuries have been analysed in four locations in the basins of the White and Barents Seas. Atlantic salmon was one of the most valuable products of the local economy in the 17–18th Centuries in the northern Russia. Therefore, catches were well recorded in the account books of

Dmitry L. Lajus; Zoya V. Dmitrieva; Alexei V. Kraikovski; Julia A. Lajus; Daniel A. Alexandrov

2007-01-01

54

[Peculiarities of the biology and parasite fauna of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Pista River (White Sea Basin), according to the Gyrodactylus salaris infestation].  

PubMed

Juvenile salmon Salmo salar m. sebago Girard from the Pista River system (the White Sea Basin) was investigated. The data on species composition and occurrence peculiarities of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 are given. This monogenean is the alien species for the river system and it is recorded for the first time. It is shown that the distribution of the parasite abundance is can be described as the negative binomial distribution; variations of its parameters (k and p) were also characterized. Parasitological data obtained, as well as the data describing the characteristics of growth and age structure of juvenile salmon population, suggest the potential influence of G. salaris infection on the degree of survival of fishes in the lake-river system examined. PMID:23285741

Ieshko, E P; Shchurov, I L; Shul'man, B S; Barskaia, Iu Iu; Lebedeva, D I; Shirokov, V A

55

Long term monitoring of oil spills in European seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental pollution at sea can be reduced but never completely eliminated; however, deliberate illegal discharges from ships can indeed be reduced by the strict enforcement of existing regulations and the control, monitoring and surveillance of maritime traffic. Despite this, operational oil discharges are common and represent the main source of marine pollution from ships. To analyse this problem, the Joint

G. Ferraro; S. Meyer-Roux; O. Muellenhoff; M. Pavliha; J. Svetak; D. Tarchi; K. Topouzelis

2009-01-01

56

Amplification of European Little Ice Age by sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~950-1250 AD) to the Little Ice Age (~1400-1700 AD) is believed to have been driven by an interplay of external forcing and climate system-internal variability. While the hemispheric signal seems to have been dominated by solar irradiance and volcanic eruptions, the understanding of mechanisms shaping the climate on continental scale is less robust. Examining an ensemble of transient model simulations as well as a new type of sensitivity experiments with artificial sea ice growth, we identify a sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism that amplifies the Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic-European region and produces the temperature pattern expected from reconstructions. Initiated by increasing negative forcing, the Arctic sea ice substantially expands at the beginning of the Little Ice Age. The excess of sea ice is exported to the subpolar North Atlantic, where it melts, thereby weakening convection of the ocean. As a consequence, northward ocean heat transport is reduced, reinforcing the expansion of the sea ice and the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere. In the Nordic Seas, sea surface height anomalies cause the oceanic recirculation to strengthen at the expense of the warm Barents Sea inflow, thereby further reinforcing sea ice growth in the Barents Sea. The absent ocean-atmosphere heat flux in the Barents Sea results in an amplified cooling over Northern Europe. The positive nature of this feedback mechanism enables sea ice to remain in an expanded state for decades to centuries and explain sustained cold periods over Europe such as the Little Ice Age. Support for the feedback mechanism comes from recent proxy reconstructions around the Nordic Seas.

Lehner, Flavio; Born, Andreas; Raible, Christoph C.; Stocker, Thomas F.

2013-04-01

57

Influence of temperature, oxygen and salinity on the metabolism of the European sea bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard (SMR) and routine (RMR) metabolic rates of groups (4 to 5 individuals) of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were measured at combinations of the following factors: temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C), oxygenation level (air saturation to 1.5 mg dm?3) and salinity (30, 20, 10 and 5‰). The influence of these environmental conditions on fish metabolic demand was then

G. Claireaux; J.-P. Lagardère

1999-01-01

58

Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs for a network of ocean observing systems cross many applied and research areas of earth and marine science. Many of the science areas that can be examined using such systems have direct impacts on societal health and well being and our understanding of ocean function in a shifting climate. The European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET) Network of Excellence

H. Ruhl; L. Géli; J. Karstensen; A. Colaço; R. Lampitt; J. Greinert; O. Phannkuche; Y. Auffret

2009-01-01

59

New perspectives on sea use management: initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning.  

PubMed

Increased development pressures on the marine environment and the potential for multiple use conflicts, arising as a result of the current expansion of offshore wind energy, fishing and aquaculture, dredging, mineral extraction, shipping, and the need to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation, have led to increased interest in sea use planning with particular emphasis on marine spatial planning. Several European countries, on their own initiative or driven by the European Union's Marine Strategy and Maritime Policy, the Bergen Declaration of the North Sea Conference, and the EU Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, have taken global leadership in implementing marine spatial planning. Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany in the North Sea, and the United Kingdom in the Irish Sea, have already completed preliminary sea use plans and zoning proposals for marine areas within their national jurisdictions. This paper discusses the nature and context of marine spatial planning, the international legal and policy framework, and the increasing need for marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, the authors review briefly three marine spatial planning initiatives in the North Sea and conclude with some initial lessons learned from these experiences. PMID:18786758

Douvere, Fanny; Ehler, Charles N

2008-09-10

60

Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf sea. Well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain give exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf). Prevailing westerly winds further north drive exchange O(1 m2/s). Poleward flow along most of the upper slope has associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s), meanders and eddies. Eddies are shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay, and local exchanges occur at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s). Tidal transports are larger, but their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s). These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2-3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf. A numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5 x 106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea 'pump' (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean). However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse, giving scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

Huthnance, John M.; Holt, Jason T.; Wakelin, Sarah L.

2010-05-01

61

Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf seas. Well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain give exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf). Prevailing westerly winds further north drive exchange O(1 m2/s). Poleward flow along most of the upper slope has associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s), meanders and eddies. Eddies are shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay, and local exchanges occur at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s). Tidal transports are larger, but their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s). These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2-3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf. A numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5×106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea "pump" (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean). However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse, giving scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

Huthnance, J. M.; Holt, J. T.; Wakelin, S. L.

2009-12-01

62

Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf sea. Mechanisms include: well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain giving exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf); prevailing westerly winds further north driving exchange O(1 m2/s); poleward flow along most of the upper slope with associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s); meanders and eddies in this poleward flow; eddies shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay; local exchanges at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s). Tidal transports are larger; their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s). These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2-3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf; a numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5×106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea "pump" (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean). However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse; there is scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

Huthnance, J. M.; Holt, J. T.; Wakelin, S. L.

2009-06-01

63

Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium molnari in Spanish Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) and European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Cultures: from Hatchery to Market Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term epidemiological study of Cryptosporidium molnari in aquacultured European sea bass (ESB) and gilthead sea bream (GSB) was performed in different types of facilities on the Atlantic, Cantabric, and Mediterranean coasts. Four types of studies were carried out. In study A, fish raised from juveniles to marketable size (ongrowing stage) were periodically sampled in three different types of cultures.

A. Sitja-Bobadilla; F. Padros; C. Aguilera; P. Alvarez-Pellitero

2005-01-01

64

Comparative efficacy of clove oil and 2-phenoxyethanol as anesthetics in the aquaculture of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata) at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of clove oil as an anesthetic was evaluated in juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and was compared to the commonly used 2-phenoxyethanol through a series of experiments simulating aquaculture activities. Firstly, using as a criterion the acquisition of complete anesthesia (stage A5) in <3 min and recovery (stage R5) in <10

Constantinos C. Mylonas; Gloriana Cardinaletti; Irini Sigelaki; Alberta Polzonetti-Magni

2005-01-01

65

Invasive alien plants in marine protected areas: the Spartina anglica affair in the European Wadden Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cord-grass Spartina anglica, a fertile hybrid of S. maritima and S. alterniflora, was planted in the European Wadden Sea extensively during the late 1920s and 1930s to promote sediment accretion. After\\u000a establishment, it colonised as a pioneer plant in the upper tidal zone, where it occurs frequently in coherent swards at the\\u000a seaward front of saltmarshes and in patches on

Stefan Nehring; Karl-Jürgen Hesse

2008-01-01

66

Heritability of cortisol response to confinement stress in European sea bass dicentrarchus labrax  

PubMed Central

Background In fish, the most studied production traits in terms of heritability are body weight or growth, stress or disease resistance, while heritability of cortisol levels, widely used as a measure of response to stress, is less studied. In this study, we have estimated heritabilities of two growth traits (body weight and length) and of cortisol response to confinement stress in the European sea bass. Findings The F1 progeny analysed (n?=?922) belonged to a small effective breeding population with contributions from an unbalanced family structure of just 10 males and 2 females. Heritability values ranged from 0.54 (±0.21) for body weight to 0.65 (±0.22) for standard body length and were low for cortisol response i.e. 0.08 (±0.06). Genetic correlations were positive (0.94) between standard body length and body weight and negative between cortisol and body weight and between cortisol and standard body length (?0.60 and ?0.55, respectively). Conclusion This study confirms that in European sea bass, heritability of growth-related traits is high and that selection on such traits has potential. However, heritability of cortisol response to stress is low in European sea bass and since it is known to vary greatly among species, further studies are necessary to understand the reasons for these differences.

2012-01-01

67

Response to domestication and selection for growth in the European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) in separate and mixed tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective breeding of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) receives a growing interest, as the estimated heritability of growth is medium to high. In this study, we compared the offspring of four groups of sea bass sires, mated with the same wild dams: wild (W), first generation of domestication (D), first generation of mass selection for length (M), first generation of

Marc Vandeputte; Mathilde Dupont-Nivet; Pierrick Haffray; Hervé Chavanne; Silvia Cenadelli; Katia Parati; Marie-Odile Vidal; Alain Vergnet; Béatrice Chatain

2009-01-01

68

Total volatile base nitrogen and its use to assess freshness in European sea bass stored in ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study on shelf life, different parameters were analyzed. For this reason, one group of farm raised European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from Canary Islands (Spain) sea waters were stored in melting ice for a period of 21 days from the time of harvest. The samples were assessed for their total volatile basic nitrogen contents (TVBN) at regular intervals

Pedro Castro; Juan Carlos Penedo Padrón; Ma José Caballero Cansino; Esther Sanjuán Velázquez; Rafael Millán De Larriva

2006-01-01

69

Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management  

PubMed Central

The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000–2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity.

Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2013-01-01

70

Occurrence and virulence of Pseudoalteromonas spp. in cultured gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata L.) and European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Molecular and phenotypic characterisation of P. undina strain U58  

Microsoft Academic Search

During two long-term bacteriological surveys in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) culture facilities on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, four different species of Pseudoalteromonas were found in the internal organs of animals. Pseudoalteromonas undina, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. espejiana and Pseudoalteromonas sp. were isolated from 9% out of 177 European sea bass and 11.7%

María Jesús Pujalte; Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla; María Carmen Macián; Pilar Álvarez-Pellitero; Esperanza Garay

2007-01-01

71

Influence of the sea surface temperature conditions in the Pacific subarctic frontal zone on the pink salmon's winter survival ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to other high-latitude ocean basins, the subarctic Pacific exhibits strong seasonal and inter-annual variations in the abiotic factors of the environment, which, in turn, strongly influence biological objects. One of the principal factors of this kind is the temperature regime. For our research, we chose pink salmon because more than 90% of its natural mortality occurs precisely during the wintering period. The lifetime of pink salmon is only one year, and the conditions of their populations reflect the thermal regime of the given year. The main wintering area of Asian pink salmon is the part of the subarctic frontal zone located south of the Aleutian Islands (43° 46°N). This region features sufficiently high wintertime concentrations of chlorophyll a and temperature conditions favorable for pink salmon wintering. The interannual temperature variability in the frontal zone is close to zero, and the width of the frontal zone may significantly change depending on the winter severity. In “milder” winters, the area of wintering extends, while, in “severe” winters, it is rather narrow, the forage base for fish decreases, they become more accessible for predators, and their survival rates sharply drop.

Tananaeva, Yu. N.

2008-06-01

72

Cormorant impact on trout (Salmo trutta) and salmon (Salmo salar) migrating from the river Dalälven emerging in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) population increases and the resulting predation, can lead to severe effects on fish stocks. In the Dalälven River in Sweden, it was observed that the number of trout and salmon returning to spawn decreased, while the number of cormorants along the coast had increased simultaneously. This study estimated the predatory impact that cormorants had on stocked

Maria Kristina Boström; Sven-Gunnar Lunneryd; Lars Karlsson; Bjarne Ragnarsson

2009-01-01

73

Application of the CARLIT index along a biogeographical gradient in the Alboran Sea (European Coast).  

PubMed

An index, based on littoral communities assemblages (CARLIT), was applied to assess the ecological status of Northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters, following the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive. The biogeographical particularities of the Alboran Sea suggested a reassessment of this index, and that was the main objective of this work. Due to these biogeographical particularities, two regions were proposed in the studied region, with new reference conditions for each region. Subsequently, by means of a multivariate analysis, littoral community abundances and the CARLIT index were compared with factors related to geomorphology, biogeography and anthropogenic pressures. Overall, the biogeographical component determined the distribution of littoral communities. In contrast, the ecological status yielded by the index only was significantly related to anthropogenic pressures. The results pointed out that the reassessment of the CARLIT index was suitable to evaluate the ecological status of the Alboran Sea. PMID:23673205

Bermejo, Ricardo; de la Fuente, Gina; Vergara, Juan J; Hernández, Ignacio

2013-05-11

74

Expression and Characterization of European Sea Bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) Somatolactin: Assessment of In Vivo Metabolic Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a The complementary DNA coding for European sea bass somatolactin was expressed in the pET-3a bacteria expression vector. The\\u000a recombinant somatolactin (rbSL) was purified by size exclusion chromatography, and 95% of the protein remained in the oxidized\\u000a form with negligible aggregation over prolonged cold storage. The identity of the recombinant protein was demonstrated by\\u000a Western blotting with a rabbit polyclonal

Vega-Rubín S. de Celis; Vega-Rubín P. Gómez; Vega-Rubín J. A. Calduch-Giner; Vega-Rubín F. Médale; Vega-Rubín J. Pérez-Sánchez

2003-01-01

75

Tides, sea-level rise and tidal power extraction on the European shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An established numerical tidal model has been used to investigate the impact of various sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios, as well as SLR in combination with large-scale tidal power plants on European shelf tidal dynamics. Even moderate and realistic levels of future SLR are shown to have significant impacts on the tidal dynamics of the area. These changes are further enhanced when SLR and tidal power plants are considered in combination, resulting in changes to tidal amplitudes, currents and associated tidal dissipation and bed shear stresses. Sea-level rise is the dominant influence on any far-field impacts, whereas tidal power plants are shown to have the prevailing influence over any changes close to the point of energy extraction. The spatial extent of the impacts of energy extraction is shown to be affected by the sea level when more than one tidal power plant in the Irish Sea was considered. Different ways to implement SLR in the model are also discussed and shown to be of great significance for the response of the tides.

Ward, Sophie L.; Green, J. A. Mattias; Pelling, Holly E.

2012-08-01

76

Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages. PMID:23347188

Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

2013-01-24

77

Physiological pathways involved in nutritional muscle dystrophy and healing in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.  

PubMed

The potential muscle regeneration after nutritional dystrophy caused by high dietary DHA contents in fish and the physiological pathways involved are still unknown. To better understand this process, an experiment was conducted for 3 weeks in 14 day-old European sea bass larvae using different DHA ratios (1 or 5%). After this period, part of the larvae fed 5% DHA diet was switched to 1% DHA diet ("wash-out") for another 2 weeks. Larvae fed 5% DHA diet showed altered oxidative status as indicated by the highest TBARS values, antioxidant enzymes (AOE) expression and incidence of muscular lesions. Accordingly, "washed-out" larvae showed lower dry weight and ?-TOH content. IGF-I gene expression was elevated in 5% DHA larvae at 35 dph, suggesting increased muscle mitogenesis that was corroborated by the increase in myosin heavy chain expression. It can be concluded that high dietary DHA contents alter the oxidative status and cause muscular lesions in European sea bass larvae, with morphological and molecular aspects of mammalians muscular degenerative disease. PMID:23202658

Betancor, Mónica B; Izquierdo, Marisol; Terova, Genciana; Preziosa, Elena; Saleh, Reda; Montero, Daniel; Hernández-Cruz, Carmen María; Caballero, María José

2012-11-29

78

THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

79

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine

G. Maudire; C. Maillard; M. Fichaut; G. Manzella; D. M. A. Schaap

2009-01-01

80

The European Sea Level Service (ESEAS) and the ESEAS Research Infrastructure (ESEAS-RI) project: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This abstract describes work carried out by the ESEAS and ESEAS-RI teams (to be found at http:\\/\\/www.eseas.org). The ESEAS started its work in June 2001 and has the major objective to provide sea-level and sea-level related information for the European waters to scientific and non-scientific users both from inside and outside Europe. The ESEAS aims to achieve this goal in

H.-P. Plag

2003-01-01

81

The impact of future sea-level rise on the European Shelf tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the effect of future sea-level rise (SLR) on the tides of the northwest European Continental Shelf. The European shelf tide is dominated by semidiurnal constituents. This study therefore focuses primarily on the changes in the M2 tidal constituent and the spring and neap tidal conditions. The validated operational Dutch Continental Shelf Model is run for the present day sea-level as well as 2 and 10 m SLR scenarios.The M2 tidal amplitude responds to SLR in a spatially non-uniform manner, with substantial amplitude increases and decreases in both scenarios. The M2 tidal response is non-linear between 2 and 10 m with respect to SLR, particularly in the North Sea. Under the 2 m SLR scenario the M2 constituent is particularly responsive in the resonant areas of the Bristol Channel and Gulf of St. Malo (with large amplitude decreases) and in the southeastern German Bight and Dutch Wadden Sea (with large amplitude increases). Changes in the spring tide are generally greater still than those in the M2 or neap tides. With 2 m SLR the spring tidal range increases up to 35 cm at Cuxhaven and decreases up to -49 cm at St. Malo. Additionally the changes in the shallow water tides are larger than expected. With SLR the depth, wave speed and wave length (tidal resonance characteristics) are increased causing changes in near resonant areas. In expansive shallow areas SLR causes reduced energy dissipation by bottom friction. Combined these mechanisms result in the migration of the amphidromes and complex patterns of non-linear change in the tide with SLR.Despite the significant uncertainty associated with the rate of SLR over the next century, substantial alterations to tidal characteristics can be expected under a high end SLR scenario. Contrary to existing studies this paper highlights the importance of considering the modification of the tides by future SLR. These substantial future changes in the tides could have wide reaching implications; including for example, correctly calculating design level requirements for flood defences, the availability of tidal renewable energy and dredging requirements.

Pickering, M. D.; Wells, N. C.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Green, J. A. M.

2012-03-01

82

Effect of dietary lipid content on circadian rhythm of feeding activity in European sea bass.  

PubMed

In fish, dietary digestible energy (DE) content is a major factor controlling feed intake. It was therefore of interest to determine how circadian rhythm of feeding activity is influenced by the dietary DE levels. To that end, groups of European sea bass were fed on demand by means of self feeders, under light-dark and constant light conditions, with a fixed or an unlimited amount of feed with variable lipid contents. Daily total feed intake, but not the feeding rhythm, was adjusted in relation to the DE content of the diet regardless of the lighting conditions. We conclude that a satiation mechanism was likely responsible for the regulation of feed intake in relation to the dietary fat content but was not acting in itself on the mechanisms that drive the free-running rhythms of feeding activity. These results are giving additional evidence that a true endogenous clock is driving feeding activity rhythms in fish. PMID:10764898

Boujard, T; Gélineau, A; Corraze, G; Kaushik, S; Gasset, E; Coves, D; Dutto, G

2000-03-01

83

The disappearance of the European eel from the western Wadden Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cohort model for the European eel is presented, which enables the interpretation of observed catches of yellow eel and silver eel in the western Wadden Sea in terms of recruitment data of glasseel. The model builds on various assumptions on length-dependent mortality and silvering rates and on the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model which predicts length growth. DEB parameter values are estimated on the basis of literature data. The model predictions are generally in good agreement with the data, though the final decline in numbers in the 1980s occurs earlier than predicted. This suggests that the decrease in eel stock is not just a consequence of lower glasseel immigration but that local conditions must have impoverished, a phenomenon earlier observed in fresh water.

van der Meer, Jaap; van der Veer, Henk W.; Witte, Johannes Ij.

2011-11-01

84

Some Aspects of the Life History and Ecology of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Northwest Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the numbers of North American multi-sea-winter and one-sea-winter salmon have been steadily declining with multi-sea-winter salmon declining at a faster rate than one-sea-winter salmon (Fig. 1). Although the source of the mortality and its potential cause(s) remain largely unknown, sea survival rates have declined substantially even with the almost complete closure of commercial fisheries at sea which

Dave G. Reddin

2002-01-01

85

Why farm salmon outcompete fishery salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past quarter century, the salmon aquaculture industry has grown rapidly. Price declines caused by the resulting worldwide increase in salmon production have severely impacted the salmon fishing industry, particularly in Alaska. In this paper, we examine the reasons behind the success of farm salmon. In addition to its inherent market advantages, farm salmon has benefitted from a legal

Josh Eagle; Rosamond Naylor; Whitney Smith

2004-01-01

86

A polygenic hypothesis for sex determination in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

Polygenic sex determination, although suspected in several species, is thought to be evolutionarily unstable and has been proven in very few cases. In the European sea bass, temperature is known to influence the sex ratio. We set up a factorial mating, producing 5.893 individuals from 253 full-sib families, all reared in a single batch to avoid any between-families environmental effects. The proportion of females in the offspring was 18.3%, with a large variation between families. Interpreting sex as a threshold trait, the heritability estimate was 0.62 +/- 0.12. The observed distribution of family sex ratios was in accordance with a polygenic model or with a four-sex-factors system with environmental variance and could not be explained by any genetic model without environmental variance. We showed that there was a positive genetic correlation between weight and sex (r(A) = 0.50 +/- 0.09), apart from the phenotypic sex dimorphism in favor of females. This supports the hypothesis that a minimum size is required for sea bass juveniles to differentiate as females. An evolution of sex ratio by frequency-dependent selection is expected during the domestication process of Dicentrarchus labrax populations, raising concern about the release of such fish in the wild. PMID:17435246

Vandeputte, Marc; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Chavanne, Hervé; Chatain, Béatrice

2007-04-15

87

Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon  

PubMed Central

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkosek, Martin

2013-01-01

88

Fish farms, parasites, and predators: implications for salmon population dynamics.  

PubMed

For some salmon populations, the individual and population effects of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transmission from sea cage salmon farms is probably mediated by predation, which is a primary natural source of mortality of juvenile salmon. We examined how sea lice infestation affects predation risk and mortality of juvenile pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon, and developed a mathematical model to assess the implications for population dynamics and conservation. A risk-taking experiment indicated that infected juvenile pink salmon accept a higher predation risk in order to obtain foraging opportunities. In a schooling experiment with juvenile chum salmon, infected individuals had increased nearest-neighbor distances and occupied peripheral positions in the school. Prey selection experiments with cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) predators indicated that infection reduces the ability of juvenile pink salmon to evade a predatory strike. Group predation experiments with coho salmon (O. kisutch) feeding on juvenile pink or chum salmon indicated that predators selectively consume infected prey. The experimental results indicate that lice may increase the rate of prey capture but not the handling time of a predator. Based on this result, we developed a mathematical model of sea lice and salmon population dynamics in which parasitism affects the attack rate in a type II functional response. Analysis of the model indicates that: (1) the estimated mortality of wild juvenile salmon due to sea lice infestation is probably higher than previously thought; (2) predation can cause a simultaneous decline in sea louse abundance on wild fish and salmon productivity that could mislead managers and regulators; and (3) compensatory mortality occurs in the saturation region of the type II functional response where prey are abundant because predators increase mortality of parasites but not overall predation rates. These findings indicate that predation is an important component of salmon-louse dynamics and has implications for estimating mortality, reducing infection, and developing conservation policy. PMID:21639053

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M; Ford, Helen; Peacock, Stephanie; Mages, Paul; Ford, Jennifer S; Morton, Alexandra; Volpe, John P; Hilborn, Ray; Dill, Lawrence M; Lewis, Mark A

2011-04-01

89

Diva software, a tool for European regional seas and Ocean climatologies production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diva (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) is a software based on a method designed to perform data-gridding (or analysis) tasks, with the assets of taking into account the intrinsic nature of oceanographic data, i.e., the uncertainty on the in situ measurements and the anisotropy due to advection and irregular coastlines and topography. The Variational Inverse Method (VIM, Brasseur et al., 1996) implemented in Diva consists in minimizing a variational principle which accounts for the differences between the observations and the reconstructed field, the influence of the gradients and variability of the reconstructed field. The resolution of the numerical problem is based on finite-element method, which allows a great numerical efficiency and the consideration of complicated contours. Along with the analysis, Diva provides also error fields (Brankart and Brasseur, 1998; Rixen et al., 2000) based on the data coverage and noise. Diva is used for the production of climatologies in the pan-European network SeaDataNet. SeaDataNet is connecting the existing marine data centres of more than 30 countries and set up a data management infrastructure consisting of a standardized distributed system. The consortium has elaborated integrated products, using common procedures and methods. Among these, it uses the Diva software as reference tool for climatologies computation for various European regional seas, the Atlantic and the global ocean. During the first phase of the SeaDataNet project, a number of additional tools were developed to make easier the climatologies production for the users. Among these tools: the advection constraint during the field reconstruction through the specification of a velocity field on a regular grid, forcing the analysis to align with the velocity vectors; the Generalized Cross Validation for the determination of analysis parameters (signal-to-noise ratio); the creation of contours at selected depths; the detection of possible outliers; the hydrostatic constraint for eliminating the potential hydrostatic instabilities arisen from the combined analysis of temperature and salinity data in several horizontal planes independently; the specification of a variable correlation length over the domain, allowing one to consider different scales of interest according to the location; the computation of the error field based on the real correlation function of the considered data; the generation of semi-normed reference fields. Collaboration with Diva users (marine data centres) permitted the identification of a variety of problems that can occur in the Diva analysis due to numerical computations and/or data types (i.e. negative concentrations for certain data sets of bio-chemical and nutrient data). To solve these problems, new options were designed and implemented additional for Diva computation algorithms. Among these new options the user has the possibility to: avoid negative values performing analyses based on transformed data (i.e. anamorphosis transformation), avoid unrealistic and/or negative concentrations due to small number of data using semi-normed reference field generated with data sets from other layers, to perform a layer analysis, filter vertically the background (mean data) or reference fields for vertical field coherence. Diva analysis tools and options, as well as Climatologies validation tools will be presented, with a demonstration of efficiency of the new Diva options using bio-chemical and physical data, through samples of climatologies for different regions of the Mediterranean sea.

Ouberdous, M.; Troupin, C.; Barth, A.; Alvera-Azcàrate, A.; Beckers, J.-M.

2012-04-01

90

Population genetic differentiation of sea lice ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis ) parasitic on Atlantic and Pacific salmonids: analyses of microsatellite DNA variation among wild and farmed hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis is ectoparasitic on Atlantic and Pacific wild salmonids. It is a major pest to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture and may be implicated in recent declines of certain European wild salmonid stocks. Variation at six microsatellite loci was assessed among L. salmonis from wild and farmed salmonids in Scotland, wild sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) in

C. D. Todd; A. M. Walker; M. G. Ritchie; J. A. Graves; A. F. Walker

2004-01-01

91

Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two levels of inclusion of mannan oligosaccharides derived from the outer cell wall of a select strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bio-Mos, Alltech Inc, USA) on growth, feed utilization, immune status and disease resistance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Specimens of 35 g at initial density of 3 kg/m3 were fed during 67 days at 0 per thousand, 2 per thousand and 4 per thousand dietary MOS level of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet. Food conversion rate, specific growth rate, whole body biochemical composition, phagocyctic index of head kidney macrophages, NBT index, lysozyme and alternative complement pathway (ACP) activities as well as gut and liver histological structure were evaluated. Growth significantly increased at both MOS dietary inclusion levels. Histological features of the liver showed lower lipid vacuolization and regular-shaped morphology of hepatocytes around the sinusoidal spaces denoting a better utilization of dietary nutrients. No differences were found on gut histological evaluation. Statistical differences (P<0.05) on the phagocytic index were denoted with the inclusion of 4 per thousand Bio-Mos group. A positive correlation was found between the levels of lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activities in blood and the level of inclusion of MOS in diets. After the feeding trial, a cohabitation challenge test and direct gut inoculation were also performed with the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in a ratio 3:1. Twenty-one days post-challenge the number of cohabitant fish infected in the control group reached 33% comparing with none on the 0.4 per thousand MOS group. Finally, new fish were infected with V. alginolyticus by gut canalisation. After 24h post-infection no significant difference was denoted between groups and 48 h post-infection total infected fish in the control group was twice that of the 2 per thousand and 4 per thousand MOS groups. PMID:17766145

Torrecillas, S; Makol, A; Caballero, M J; Montero, D; Robaina, L; Real, F; Sweetman, J; Tort, L; Izquierdo, M S

2007-03-24

92

Biological responses of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to contaminated sediments.  

PubMed

Multiple anthropogenic activities present along coastal environments may affect the health status of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, specimens of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed for 30 days to highly contaminated sediment collected from the industrial area between Augusta and Priolo (Syracuse, Italy), defined as the most mercury polluted site in the Mediterranean. The aim was to evaluate the responses of juvenile D. labrax to highly contaminated sediments, particularly enriched in Hg, in order to enhance the scarce knowledge on the potential compensatory mechanisms developed by organisms under severe stress conditions. Apoptotic and proliferative activities [cell turnover: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and FAS Ligand (FasL)], onset of hypoxic condition [hypoxia: Hypoxia Inducibile Factor-1? (HIF-1?)], and changes in the neuroendocrine control mechanisms [neurotransmission: Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 (5-HT3)] were investigated in sea bass gill tissues. In the specimens exposed to the polluted sediment, the occurrence of altered cell turnover may result in impaired gas exchange that leads to a condition of "functional hypoxia". Changes in neurotransmission pathways were also observed, suggesting a remodeling process as an adaptive response to increase the O2-carrying capacity and restore the normal physiological conditions of the gills. Overall, these findings demonstrated that although chronic exposure to heavy metal polluted sediments alters the functioning of both the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as plasticity of the gill epithelium, fish are able to trigger a series of physiological adjustments or adaptations interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms that enable their long-term survival. PMID:23953925

De Domenico, Elena; Mauceri, Angela; Giordano, Daniela; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Natalotto, Antonino; D'Agata, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Fasulo, Salvatore

2013-08-14

93

The Relationship between Phytoplankton Distribution and Water Column Characteristics in North West European Shelf Sea Waters  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the “Ellett Line” cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN?DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN?DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of growth at most stations and depths.

Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J. S.; Brand, Tim D.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2012-01-01

94

The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei) is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690) were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish.

2010-01-01

95

Expression of kisspeptins in the brain and pituitary of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

Kisspeptins are now considered key players in the neuroendocrine control of puberty and reproduction, at least in mammals. Most teleosts have two kiss genes, kiss1 and kiss2, but their sites of expression are still poorly documented. As a first step in investigating the role of kisspeptins in the European sea bass, a perciform fish, we studied the distribution of kiss1 and kiss2-expressing cells in the brain of males and females undergoing their first sexual maturation. Animals were examined at early and late in the reproductive season. We also examined the putative expression of estrogen receptors in kiss-expressing cells and, finally, we investigated whether kisspeptins are expressed in the pituitary gland. We show that kiss1-expressing cells were consistently detected in the habenula and, in mature males and females, in the rostral mediobasal hypothalamus. In both sexes, kiss2-expressing cells were consistently detected at the level of the preoptic area, but the main kiss2 mRNA-positive population was observed in the dorsal hypothalamus, above and under the lateral recess. No obvious sexual differences in kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression were detected. Additional studies based on confocal imaging clearly showed that most kiss1 mRNA-containing cells of the mediobasal hypothalamus strongly express ER? and slightly express ER?2. At the pituitary level, both sexes exhibited kiss1 mRNA expression in most FSH?-positive cells and never in LH?-positive cells. PMID:22886357

Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Kah, Olivier; Servili, Arianna

2013-03-01

96

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania

Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

2009-04-01

97

Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites.  

PubMed

The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. PMID:23734489

Peacock, Stephanie J; Krkosek, Martin; Proboszcz, Stan; Orr, Craig; Lewis, Mark A

2013-04-01

98

Carbon Flux to the Deep in three open sites of the Southern European Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate the functioning of the biological pump in the Southern European Seas (SES). In order to constrain the rates of carbon production and export to depth, we combine estimations of satellite primary production data, algorithm-generated fluxes out of the euphotic layer and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes, as measured by sediment traps at the mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers in three sites located in the Western Mediterranean (WMED), the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED), and the Black Sea (BS). POC fluxes were monitored during one year period (Sept 2007 - Sept 2008) in the frame of SESAME project. Annual primary production by satellite estimations yielded values of 396 mg C m-2d-1 (EMED), 563 mg C m-2d-1 (WMED) and 617 mg C m-2d-1 (BS) (SeaWiFS; http://emis.jrc.ec.europa.eu). At the scale of the whole Mediterranean and the Black Sea basins, spatiotemporal variability of Chl-a concentrations during the time of our experiments revealed significant differences in the seasonal cycles. While the WMED site showed increased biomass centred around spring (March-April 2008), the EMED site showed higher values in mid-winter (January 2008), even thought almost one order of magnitude lower than those recorded in the western site. In contrast, the BS site showed increased Chl-a concentration in autumn (Nov 2007) and a lower increase in early spring (March 2008). Overall, the observed Chl-a seasonal patterns for the WMED and EMED sites match quite well the typical seasonal patterns ascribed to their hosting areas, corresponding to "blooming" and "non-blooming" biogeographic regions, respectively, as proposed by D'Ortenzio and Ribera d'Alcala (D'Ortenzio and Ribera d'Alcala, 2009). Moreover, based on the timing of the bloom (late fall) the seasonal pattern of the BS site is quite similar to that observed in Mediterranean regions having a "coastal" regime. Thus, specific physical and biogeochemical settings in the three contrasting sites affect the seasonality of the POC production and export to depth. The fraction of primary production that is exported out of the euphotic zone ranges from 7 to 15%, while the fraction of primary production exported below 2000 m depth was 0.61%, 0.34% and 0.97% in the WMED, EMED and BS, respectively. Export rates at the BS and WMED sites found to be slightly higher, while this at the EMED site to be comparable to the global ocean average of 0.31% at 2500 m depth (Lutz et al., 2007). POC export to depth are driven by meso-scale current activity, vertical mixing events, riverine discharges and atmospheric deposition. Understanding the processes driving carbon cycle in the SES is important for assessing the impacts of the predicted climate change in this region, with an ultimate goal to be included in the global ocean carbon models. *Authors AG and AS-V contributed equally to this work

Gogou*, A.; Sanchez-Vidal*, A.; Stavrakakis, S.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Calafat, A. M.; Stabholz, M.; Psarra, S.; Canals, M.; Heussner, S.; Stavrakaki, I.; Papathanassiou, E.

2012-04-01

99

Dispersion and toxicity to non-target aquatic organisms of pesticides used to treat sea lice on salmon in net pen enclosures.  

PubMed

Pesticides are used extensively in the finfish aquaculture industry to control sea lice infestations on farmed salmon. The most prevalent method of use is to enclose a net pen with an impervious tarpaulin and mix a pesticide solution within that enclosure. After treatment for short periods (1 h) the pesticide solution is released to the environment. Concerns have been raised that there is a potential risk to non-target aquatic organisms from those releases. The fate of dispersing pesticide solutions was measured after six simulated treatments in the Lower Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick. Three simulated treatments were done with azamethiphos and three with cypermethrin. Rhodamine dye was added to all pesticide solutions in order to facilitate tracking of the dispersing plume through real-time measurements of dye concentrations by a flow-through fluorometer coupled with a differential global positioning system (DGPS). Water samples were obtained from within the plumes at various times after release and analysed for pesticide content and toxicity to a benthic amphipod Eohaustorius estuaris. Dye concentrations were detectable for time periods after release which varied from 2 to 5.5 h. Distances travelled by the dye patches ranged from 900 to 3000 m and the dye concentrations at the final sampling period were generally 1/200-1/3000 the pre-release concentrations and cypermethrin concentrations were generally 1/1000-1/2000 the pre-release concentrations. Cypermethrin concentrations in water samples were closely correlated with dye concentrations, indicating that dye analyses were an accurate surrogate for cypermethrin concentrations. Most samples taken after the releases of azamethiphos were not toxic to test organisms in 48 h exposures and none were beyond 20 min post-release. By contrast, almost all samples taken after the release of cypermethrin, even up to 5-h post-release, were toxic. Data indicate the potential to cause toxic effects over areas of hectares from a single release of cypermethrin. PMID:11468921

Ernst, W; Jackman, P; Doe, K; Page, F; Julien, G; Mackay, K; Sutherland, T

2001-06-01

100

The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European Contribution to the Investigation of the Energy and Water Cycle over a Large Drainage Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide

E. Raschke; J. Meywerk; K. Warrach; U. Andrea; S. Bergström; F. Beyrich; F. Bosveld; K. Bumke; C. Fortelius; L. P. Graham; S.-E. Gryning; S. Halldin; L. Hasse; M. Heikinheimo; H.-J. Isemer; D. Jacob; I. Jauja; K.-G. Karlsson; S. Keevallik; J. Koistinen; A. van Lammeren; U. Lass; J. Launianen; A. Lehmann; B. Liljebladh; M. Lobmeyr; W. Matthäus; T. Mengelkamp; D. B. Michelson; J. Napiórkowski; A. Omstedt; J. Piechura; B. Rockel; F. Rubel; E. Ruprecht; A.-S. Smedman; A. Stigebrandt

2001-01-01

101

Sea lice monitoring on Atlantic salmon farms in New Brunswick, Canada: comparing audit and farm staff counts.  

PubMed

Sea lice audits were performed by the Atlantic Veterinary College on commercial aquaculture sites in New Brunswick, Canada, in 2011. Although the primary objective was to verify that farms were reporting similar lice counts to third-party counts, more detailed comparisons were made to identify when lice counts were more likely to differ between the audit team and farm employees. A total of 28 sea lice audits were conducted on 16 sites between June and December 2011. During each audit, 10 cages were evaluated per site where possible, with ten fish per cage being evaluated by an audit technician and a further ten by a farm employee. Data analysis included descriptive statistics of lice counts by stage and limits of agreement plots. A random effects negative binomial model that accounted for clustering of cages within sites was applied to assess the effect of counter type and season on lice counts by stage. The results indicate that farms counts were generally in agreement with audit counts. However, when the average counts for chalimus and preadult (male and female) and adult male lice stages were high, farm counters were more likely to report a lower value. Higher lice counts were observed during autumn compared to summer especially for the adult female stage. Finally, there was a significant clustering effect for site and cage, with most of the variation attributable to site. PMID:23311676

Elmoslemany, A; Whyte, S K; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

2013-01-13

102

Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for a network of ocean observing systems cross many applied and research areas of earth and marine science. Many of the science areas that can be examined using such systems have direct impacts on societal health and well being and our understanding of ocean function in a shifting climate. The European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET) Network of Excellence has been evaluating ocean observatory design requirements, data management needs, standardization and interoperability concerns, social implications, outreach and education, as well as financial and legal aspects of developing such a system. ESONET has great potential to address a growing set of Earth science questions that require a broad and integrated network of ocean and seafloor observations. ESONET activities are also importantly integrating researchers in the European Community, as well as internationally. There is now wide recognition that research addressing science questions of international priority, such as understanding the potential impacts of climate change or geohazards like earthquakes and tsunamis should be conducted in a framework that can address questions across adequate temporal and spatial scales. We will present the relevant science priorities in the four interconnected fields of geoscience, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and marine ecology, and some of the practical ways in which these questions can be addressed using ESONET. Several key questions persist that will require comprehensive interdisciplinary approaches including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, fluid pore chemistry and pressure, improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? To what extent do seabed processes influence ocean physics, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems? How are physical and biogeochemical processes that occur at differing scales related? What aspects of physical oceanography and biogeochemical cycling will be most sensitive to climate change? What will the important feedbacks of potential ecological change be on biogeochemical cycles? What are the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine life and what will the influence of anthropogenic change be? We will outline a set of science objectives and observation parameters to be collected at all ESONET sites, as well as a set of rather specific objectives and thus parameters that might only be measured at some sites. We will also present the preliminary module specifications now being considered by ESONET. In a practical sense the observatory design has been divided into those that will be included in a so called ‘generic' module and those that will be part of science-specific modules. Outlining preliminary module specifications is required to move forward with studies of observatory design and operation. These specifications are importantly provisional and can be updated as science needs and feasibility change. A functional cleavage not only comes between aspects that are considered generic or specific, but also the settings in which those systems will be used. For example, some modules will be on the seabed and some will be moored in the water column. In order to address many of the questions posed above ESONET users will require other supporting data from other programs from local to international levels. Examples of these other data sources include satellite oceanographic data, climatic data, air-sea interface data, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna. Thus the connection of ESONET to other programs is integral to its success. The development of ESONET provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Furthermore, ESONET and several other developing ocean observatory programs are integrating into larger science frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programs. It is only in a greater integrated framework that the full potential of the component systems will be realized.

Ruhl, H.; Géli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colaço, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

2009-04-01

103

Osmoregulatory response to low salinities in the European sea bass embryos: a multi-site approach.  

PubMed

Embryonic osmoregulation effected by embryonic ionocytes in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax has been studied at several sites, including the yolk sac membrane, the first gill slits and the gut ionocytes. D. labrax embryos, spawned in seawater (SW) (39 ‰), were exposed to dilute seawater (DSW) (5 ‰) during 48 h, from stage 10 pairs of somites (10S) to hatching time (HT). Control embryos originating from the same spawn were maintained in SW. Both SW and DSW embryos were examined after 24- and 48-h exposure. Nanoosmometric measurements of the embryonic fluids osmolality suggest that late embryos are confronted with the variations in external salinity and that they were able to slightly regulate their osmolality. Immunolocalization of Na?/K? ATPase, NKCC and CFTR has shown that DSW-exposed embryos can limit ion losses due to compensatory physiological mechanisms. CFTR and NKCC were not observed in DSW embryos in the yolk sac ionocytes and in the tegumentary ionocytes of the gill slits. The quantification of mRNA indicated that NKA, NKCC1 and CFTR transcript levels increased from stage 10S to stage HT. At stage HT, following 48 h of DSW- or SW-exposure, different responses were observed according to salinity. These results, when compared to those obtained in D. labrax juveniles and adults long-term exposed to fresh water (FW), show that in embryos the physiological response following a short-term DSW exposure is different. The mechanisms of hyper-osmoregulation observed in D. labrax embryos, although not fully efficient, allow their survival for several days in DSW. PMID:22752053

Sucré, Elliott; Bossus, Maryline; Bodinier, Charlotte; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier, Guy; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Cucchi, Patricia

2012-07-01

104

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This is known as the Common Data Index (CDI) V0 system Version 1: harmonisation and upgrading of the metadatabases through adoption of the ISO 19115 metadata standard and provision of transparent data access and download services from all partner data centres through upgrading the Common Data Index and deployment of a data object delivery service. Version 2: adding data product services and OGC compliant viewing services and further virtualisation of data access. SeaDataNet Version 0: The SeaDataNet portal has been set up at http://www.seadatanet.org and it provides a platform for all SeaDataNet services and standards as well as background information about the project and its partners. It includes discovery services via the following catalogues: CSR - Cruise Summary Reports of research vessels; EDIOS - Locations and details of monitoring stations and networks / programmes; EDMED - High level inventory of Marine Environmental Data sets collected and managed by research institutes and organisations; EDMERP - Marine Environmental Research Projects ; EDMO - Marine Organisations. These catalogues are interrelated, where possible, to facilitate cross searching and context searching. These catalogues connect to the Common Data Index (CDI). Common Data Index (CDI) The CDI gives detailed insight in available datasets at partners databases and paves the way to direct online data access or direct online requests for data access / data delivery. The CDI V0 metadatabase contains more than 340.000 individual data entries from 36 CDI partners from 29 countries across Europe, covering a broad scope and range of data, held by these organisations. For purposes of standardisation and international exchange the ISO19115 metadata standard has been adopted. The CDI format is defined as a dedicated subset of this standard. A CDI XML format supports the exchange between CDI-partners and the central CDI manager, and ensures interoperability with other systems and networks. CDI XML entries are generated by participating data centres, directly from their databases. CDI-partners can make use

Schaap, D. M. A.; Maudire, G.

2009-04-01

105

75 FR 32378 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 0648-XW73 Fisheries of the Exclusive...Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...Sea pollock trawl fishery who are knowledgeable...avoiding Chinook salmon bycatch. DATES...avoidance of Chinook salmon bycatch. NMFS invites...operators of American Fisheries Act (AFA)...

2010-06-08

106

Pituitary Levels of Three Forms of GnRH in the Male European Sea Bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) during Sex Differentiation and First Spawning Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, levels of three GnRH forms [seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), and salmon GnRH (sGnRH)] were analyzed in the pituitary of male sea bass during sex differentiation and the first spawning season. Plasma levels of gonadotropin (GTH-2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were determined during the same periods. All GnRH forms were present in the pituitary.

L. Rodr??guez; M. Carrillo; L. A. Sorbera; M. A. Soubrier; E. Mañanós; M. C. H. Holland; Y. Zohar; S. Zanuy

2000-01-01

107

The pineal complex of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): I. histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR study.  

PubMed

The pineal organ of fish is a photosensory and neuroendocrine epithalamic structure that plays a key role in the temporal organisation of physiological and behavioural processes. In this study performed in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, we provided an in-depth description of the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the pineal organ and identified the presence of photoreceptor and presumed melatonin-producing cells using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, we analysed in the pineal the day-night expression (using quantitative real-time PCR) of two key enzymes in the melatonin-synthesising pathway; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). The pineal complex of sea bass consisted of a narrow and short pineal stalk that adopts a vertical disposition, a small-sized pineal end vesicle firmly attached to the skull by connective tissue, a parapineal organ and a convoluted dorsal sac. Immunohistochemical study showed the presence of abundant serotonin-positive cells. Cone opsin-like and rod opsin-like photoreceptor cells were also evidenced in the pineal stalk and vesicle. Both Aanat2 and Hiomt were expressed in sea bass pineal organ. Aanat2 exhibited higher nocturnal transcript levels, while no significant day-night differences were found for Hiomt. These results, together with ongoing studies analysing neural and neurohormonal outputs from the pineal organ of sea bass, provide the basic framework to understand the transduction integration of light stimulus in this relevant species for marine aquaculture. PMID:21310229

Herrera-Pérez, P; Servili, A; Rendón, M C; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Falcón, J; Muñoz-Cueto, J A

2011-02-16

108

Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

Devaney, Laurel

109

Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

Devaney, Laurel

110

Development of an oligo DNA microarray for the European sea bass and its application to expression profiling of jaw deformity  

PubMed Central

Background The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a marine fish of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture. Functional genomics offers the possibility to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying productive traits in farmed fish, and a step towards the application of marker assisted selection methods in this species. To this end, we report here on the development of an oligo DNA microarray for D. labrax. Results A database consisting of 19,048 unique transcripts was constructed, of which 12,008 (63%) could be annotated by similarity and 4,692 received a GO functional annotation. Two non-overlapping 60mer probes were designed for each unique transcript and in-situ synthesized on glass slides using Agilent SurePrint™ technology. Probe design was positively completed for 19,035 target clusters; the oligo microarray was then applied to profile gene expression in mandibles and whole-heads of fish affected by prognathism, a skeletal malformation that strongly affects sea bass production. Statistical analysis identified 242 transcripts that are significantly down-regulated in deformed individuals compared to normal fish, with a significant enrichment in genes related to nervous system development and functioning. A set of genes spanning a wide dynamic range in gene expression level were selected for quantitative RT-PCR validation. Fold change correlation between microarray and qPCR data was always significant. Conclusions The microarray platform developed for the European sea bass has a high level of flexibility, reliability, and reproducibility. Despite the well known limitations in achieving a proper functional annotation in non-model species, sufficient information was obtained to identify biological processes that are significantly enriched among differentially expressed genes. New insights were obtained on putative mechanisms involved on mandibular prognathism, suggesting that bone/nervous system development might play a role in this phenomenon.

2010-01-01

111

Rapid Carbon Turnover During Growth of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts in Sea Water, and Evidence for Reduced Food Consumption by Growth-Stunts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild Atlantic salmon smolts were captured during spring out-migration in the Northwest Miramichi River, New Brunswick, Canada, and placed on an isotopically distinct hatchery diet to determine the relative contributions of growth and metabolic turnover to isotopic change. As expected for an ectothermic species, growth explained a large amount of isotopic variation in changing stable carbon ratios of muscle tissue

Timothy D. Jardine; Deborah L. MacLatchy; Wayne L. Fairchild; Richard A. Cunjak; Scott B. Brown

2004-01-01

112

A comparison of 2D storm surge models applied to three shallow European seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different two-dimensional storm surge models have been applied to the North Sea, the Aegean and the Adriatic, using common bathymetry, boundary conditions and meteorological forcing.In the North Sea, differences between models are less than 10 cm. Storm surges, however, are underestimated by up to 50 cm. This indicates that improvement has to be found in the common features, e.g.

Hans de Vries; Marguerite Breton; Tom de Mulder; Yannis Krestenitis; Jose´ Ozer; Roger Proctor; Kevin Ruddick; Jean Claude Salomon; Aart Voorrips

1995-01-01

113

Salmon Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.

114

Deep-Sea Fishing in the European Mesolithic: Fact or Fantasy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some previous authors have argued for the practice of offshore, deep-water fishing in the European Mesolithic. In this article, various lines of evidence are brought to bear on this question: the kinds of fishing gear employed, the evidence relating to the use of boats and navigation, site location, ethnographic data, and fish biology and behaviour. It is concluded that the

Catriona Pickard; Clive Bonsall

2004-01-01

115

Haematophagous feeding of newly metamorphosed European sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus on strictly freshwater species.  

PubMed

Approximately 6% of the freshwater living northern straight-mouth nase Pseudochondrostoma duriense in two Spanish rivers had attached post-metamorphic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Minimum prey size was 16·1?cm fork length and 56·3?g mass. The condition factor of attacked P. duriense was 16% lower than that of unattacked conspecifics. PMID:23639169

Silva, S; Servia, M J; Vieira-Lanero, R; Nachón, D J; Cobo, F

2013-04-05

116

Computation of the storm surge of 1 to 6 April 1973 using numerical models of the North West European continental shelf and the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storm surge period 1 to 6 April 1973 is computed using two numerical models. One of coarser resolution covers the whole North West European continental shelf, the other has a finer resolution and covers the North Sea only, including the Skagerrak and Kattegat.

A. M. Davies; R. A. Flather

1977-01-01

117

Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: The case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH) has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW) due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic

Michael M Hansen; Dylan J Fraser; Thomas D Als; Karen-Lise D Mensberg

2008-01-01

118

The role of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the incorporation of neutral lipids into the oocytes of the European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax  L.) during gonadal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned the cDNA encoding LPL and studied its mRNA expression and enzyme activity in the ovary of European sea bass in order to investigate a possible role of this enzyme in the incorporation of neutral lipids into the oocytes. The results suggest that LPL is likely to play an important role in this process.

A. J. Ibáñez; J. Peinado-Onsurbe; E. Sánchez; F. Prat

2003-01-01

119

Intake of high levels of vitamin A and polyunsaturated fatty acids during different developmental periods modifies the expression of morphogenesis genes in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the feeding period on larval development was investigated in European sea bass larvae by considering the expression level of some genes involved in morphogenesis. Larvae were fed a control diet except during three different periods (period A: from 8 to 13 d post-hatching (dph); period B: from 13 to 18 dph; period C: from 18 to 23

Laure A. N. Villeneuve; Enric Gisbert; Jacques Moriceau; Chantal L. Cahu; José L. Zambonino Infante

2006-01-01

120

Levels of hexabromocyclododecane in harbor porpoises and common dolphins from Western European seas, with evidence for stereoisomer-specific biotransformation by cytochrome P450  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production-volume flame-retardant applied in polystyrene foams. It contains three stereoisomers, of which gamma-HBCD always dominates. Here we report on the levels of HBCD in blubber of harbor porpoise and common dolphin from different European seas. The highest total (\\

Bart N. Zegers; Anchelique Mets; Ronald van Bommel; Chris Minkenberg; Timo Hamers; Jorke H. Kamstra; Graham J. Pierce; Jan P. Boon

2005-01-01

121

In vivo effects of the soluble fraction of light cycle oil on immune functions in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linné)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbons are major contaminants that may affect biota at various trophic levels in estuaries and coastal ecosystems. The effects of accidental pollution by light cycle oil (LCO), a refined product of heavy fuel oil, on bioaccumulation, depuration processes and immune-related parameters in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were investigated in the laboratory after 7 days of exposure and a

Anne Bado-Nilles; Claire Quentel; David Mazurais; José Luis Zambonino-Infante; Michel Auffret; Hélène Thomas-Guyon; Stéphane Le Floch

2011-01-01

122

Developmental expression of DAX1 in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: lack of evidence for sexual dimorphism during sex differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: DAX1 (NR0B1), a member of the nuclear receptors super family, has been shown to be involved in the genetic sex determination and in gonadal differentiation in several vertebrate species. In the aquaculture fish European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and in the generality of fish species, the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation have not been elucidated. The present study

Rute ST Martins; Laurence AM Deloffre; Constantinos C Mylonas; Deborah M Power; Adelino VM Canário

2007-01-01

123

Seasonal screening of AChE, GSH and gonad histology, in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. reared in three different fish farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to do a preliminary seasonal screening of ecotoxicological biomarkers in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax in three different fish farms, to know if the different location and typology can discriminate them. A set of selected biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, Glutathione (GSH) and gonad morphology were investigated seasonally in male

Maria Vittoria Cangialosi; Ilaria Corsi; Stefano Bonacci; Cristiana Sensini; Nicola Cicero; Silvano Focardi; Antonio Mazzola

2012-01-01

124

Effect of two sulfur-containing amino acids, taurine and hypotaurine in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sperm cryopreservation.  

PubMed

In the present work, taurine and hypotaurine were evaluated as potential additives to improve European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sperm quality after cryopreservation. For cryopreservation, three different extenders were used: control extender (NAM), supplemented with 1mM taurine or supplemented with 1mM hypotaurine, all of them containing 10% Me?SO as cryoprotectant. To evaluate sperm quality of fresh and thawed sperm, motility (CASA: computer assisted sperm analysis), viability (SYBR Green/propidium iodide), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level), protein oxidation (carbonyl content), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities and DNA fragmentation (comet assay) were quantified. The result demonstrated that 1 mM hypotaurine supplemented extender increased total motility (30.1 ± 3.2%), and that 1 mM taurine extender produced higher velocity (18.1 ± 2.6 ?m/s) and linearity (46.0 ± 4.8%) than the control extender (21.8 ± 3.2%, 15.5 ± 1.3 ?m/s, 41.8 ± 2.4%, respectively). Cell viability, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were not statistically different between treatments. Similar results were obtained for glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Only glutathione reductase showed differential activity before and after freezing, increasing its activity in thawed sperm. Regarding the comet assay results, taurine and hypotaurine significantly reduced DNA fragmentation (52.8 ± 0.9% and 51.8 ± 0.9%, respectively) in comparison to the control (55.7 ± 0.8%). In conclusion, for European sea bass sperm cryopreservation, extenders supplemented with 1 mM taurine and 1 mM hypotaurine improved some parameters of sperm quality after thawing, resulting in better motility and lower DNA damage than the control, two very important factors related to fertilization success. PMID:23583301

Martínez-Páramo, S; Diogo, P; Dinis, M T; Soares, F; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E

2013-04-09

125

Salmon Passage through Culverts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this study was to assess the problems associated with salmon passage through hydraulic structures, primarily corrugated culverts, on steep gradient streams in Alaska. The problem is that considerable habitat for juvenile salmon an...

C. E. Behlke D. L. Kane

1994-01-01

126

SALMON 2100 PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty eight salmon scientists and policy experts have joined forces in an innovative project to identify ways that, if adopted, likely would restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. ...

127

Infectious salmon anaemia virus in wild fish from Scotland.  

PubMed

Following the outbreak of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) at salmon farms in Scotland, UK, a survey was established to determine the extent of infection in wild fish. All fish tested were free from the clinical symptoms of ISA. Isolations of ISAV were made from 5 sea trout within areas where ISA affected salmon farms were located. Evidence for ISAV in other sea trout was provided by ISA RT-PCR diagnostic tests. Results from ISA RT-PCR tests reveal evidence for ISAV being present in salmon parr, adult salmon and juvenile brown trout in rivers distant from salmon farms and indicate that, at the time of the survey (1998-1999), ISAV may have been widely distributed. Nucleotide sequence analysis of segments 2 and 8 showed that for most sequences from wild fish there was 100% homology with ISAV isolated from clinically affected farmed fish although evidence is presented which indicates variability in ISAV sequences from wild fish. Modelling the RT-PCR findings indicates that ISAV among salmonid fish was spatially non-random. Brown trout, sea trout and salmon (adult and parr) show a pattern of occasionally large numbers of positive samples against a background of very low numbers. PMID:11678233

Raynard, R S; Murray, A G; Gregory, A

2001-09-12

128

Swimming ability and ecological performance of cultured and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in coastal tidal ponds.  

PubMed

Locomotor performance is commonly used to predict ecological performance of animals and is often considered a proxy for Darwinian fitness. In fish, swimming performance is often measured in the laboratory, but its contribution to individual success in the field is rarely evaluated. We assessed maximal swimming velocity of wild and cultured juvenile Dicentrarchus labrax (European sea bass) in a sprint performance chamber and found substantial variation among individuals within a cohort and differences between wild and cultured fish. Moreover, individual sprint swimming performance was found to be repeatable on a daily basis, making this test potentially useful for studies of individual fitness. Some animals were also tested for endurance performance with a modified critical swimming speed (U(crit)) test that we had previously reported to be variable among individuals and significantly repeatable over 6 mo. To test whether these different swimming abilities might contribute to differential ecological success in sea bass, cultured juveniles of known sprint and endurance performance were released into experimental estuaries, where they foraged on natural prey under high densities without predation. A second experiment exposed both cultured and wild juveniles of known sprinting ability to natural forage but this time with reduced densities and natural avian predation. Ecological performance was assessed as survival and growth rate. Neither swimming performance was a direct predictor of ecological performance for cultured fish at high densities. Survival under these conditions was significantly predicted by prior growth rate and condition factor. When exposed to natural avian predators, the better-sprinting wild fish outperformed cultured fish (35% vs. 0% survival), and there was some evidence for sprinting ability contributing to survival within wild fish. Measuring sprint performance in mesocosm survivors revealed a significant inverse relationship between rapid growth and sprinting ability of cultured juvenile sea bass. PMID:20345243

Handelsman, Corey; Claireaux, Guy; Nelson, Jay A

129

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

130

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

131

Isolation and identification of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) from Coho salmon in Chile.  

PubMed

The isolation of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) from asymptomatic wild fish species including wild salmon, sea trout and eel established that wild fish can be a reservoir of ISAV for farmed Atlantic salmon. This report characterizes the biological properties of ISAV isolated from a disease outbreak in farmed Coho salmon in Chile and compares it with ISAV isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon in Canada and Europe. The virus that was isolated from Coho salmon tissues was initially detected with ISAV-specific RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). The ability of the virus to grow in cell culture was poor, as cytopathology was not always conspicuous and isolation required passage in the presence of trypsin. Virus replication in cell culture was detected by RT-PCR and IFAT (indirect fluorescent antibody test), and the virus morphology was confirmed by positive staining electron microscopy. Further analysis of the Chilean virus revealed similarities to Canadian ISAV isolates in their ability to grow in the CHSE-214 cell line and in viral protein profile. Sequence analysis of genome segment 2, which encodes the viral RNA polymerase PB1, and segment 8, which encodes the nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2, showed the Chilean virus to be very similar to Canadian strains of ISAV. This high sequence similarity of ISAV strains of geographically distinct origins illustrates the highly conserved nature of ISAV proteins PB1, NS1 and NS2 of ISAV. It is noteworthy that ISAV was associated with disease outbreaks in farmed Coho salmon in Chile without corresponding clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. This outbreak, which produced high mortality in Coho salmon due to ISAV, is unique and may represent the introduction of the virus to a native wild fish population or a new strain of ISAV. PMID:11411649

Kibenge, F S; Gárate, O N; Johnson, G; Arriagada, R; Kibenge, M J; Wadowska, D

2001-05-01

132

Patterns of gastric evacuation, digesta characteristics and pH changes along the gastrointestinal tract of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).  

PubMed

A comparative study of gastric evacuation rates (GERs) and digesta content, moisture and pH values along the gastrointestinal tract was performed between gilthead sea bream and European sea bass. In order to distinguish species-specific differences from diet-elicited effects, all parameters were determined under either a fishmeal diet or a carob seed germ meal diet that contained high levels of total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides. GERs were significantly different between species and they were not affected by diet. Similarly, species-specific patterns were revealed in the distribution of digesta and water content along the gastrointestinal tract. In sea bream, stomach digesta and water content decreased with time, whereas in sea bass stomach retained the highest digesta and water content throughout the sampling period. The anterior and distal intestine exhibited the lowest accommodating capacities of digesta and water in either species. Overall, sea bream performed stomach digestion at lower hydration levels and higher pH compared with sea bass. Diet affected stomach moisture in both species and pH of stomach digesta in sea bass and of all intestinal sections in sea bream. The results obtained indicated that water and inorganic ion exchanges through the gut may differentiate between the species and warrant further investigation. PMID:21130892

Nikolopoulou, D; Moutou, K A; Fountoulaki, E; Venou, B; Adamidou, S; Alexis, M N

2010-12-03

133

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products. Version 1 of its infrastructure upgrade was launched in April 2008 and is now well underway to include all 40 data centres at V1 level. It comprises the network of 40 interconnected data centres (NODCs) and a central SeaDataNet portal. V1 provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, that are managed at these data centres. The SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure comprises the following middleware services: • Discovery services = Metadata directories and User interfaces • Vocabulary services = Common vocabularies and Governance • Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting • Delivery services = Requesting and Downloading of data sets • Viewing services = Mapping of metadata • Monitoring services = Statistics on system usage and performance and Registration of data requests and transactions • Maintenance services = Entry and updating of metadata by data centres Also good progress is being made with extending the SeaDataNet infrastructure with V2 services: • Viewing services = Quick views and Visualisation of data and data products • Product services = Generic and standard products • Exchange services = transformation of SeaDataNet portal CDI output to INSPIRE compliance As a basis for the V1 services, common standards have been defined for metadata and data formats, common vocabularies, quality flags, and quality control methods, based on international standards, such as ISO 19115, OGC, NetCDF (CF), ODV, best practices from IOC and ICES, and following INSPIRE developments. An important objective of the SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 metadata service provides the link between discovery and delivery of data sets. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

2010-05-01

134

The Influence of Decomposing Salmon on Water Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical dynamics of sea food waste decomposition and of salmon decomposition in a marine system were studied. A drastic increase in NH4(+)-N and decrease in O2 occurred in the marine bay (Iliuliuk Bay, Unalaska Island, Alaska) receiving sea food proc...

D. C. Brickell J. J. Goering

1971-01-01

135

Sea lice infections of salmonids farmed in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lice cause significant issues in the mariculture of salmonids. However, there have been no reports about sea lice from salmonid farming in Australia. Here, we investigated the presence of sea lice on salmonids in Australian mariculture. Caligus longirostris was present on Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (archival samples only) farmed in Tasmania. C. longirostris was found on salmon only

B. F. Nowak; C. J. Hayward; L. González; N. J. Bott; R. J. G. Lester

2011-01-01

136

Bioconcentration and immunotoxicity of an experimental oil spill in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).  

PubMed

The effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) resulting from a water soluble fraction (WSF) of an Arabian crude oil were tested in vivo on the bioconcentration in muscles and on immune parameters in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. After 15 days of acclimation, fish were acutely exposed (48 h) to the WSF of 25 g of oil, and then returned to clean sea water for a 15 day recovery period. PAH concentration in the WSF at the beginning of the exposure was estimated to 773±187 ng L?¹ similar to that observed in the marine environment after an oil spill. The WSF in the experimental system was composed by lightest PAH compounds and did not remain constant during the two days of exposure. Just after exposure to the WSF, a total mean concentration of 148±46 ?g kg?¹ of PAHs was found in contaminated fish muscle, composed of parent and alkylated naphthalene compounds (86.5%), benzo[a]pyrene (10.1%) and benzo[b+k]fluoranthene (3.4%). In addition, a decrease of leucocytes counts due to a lymphopenia and granulopenia and an increase of the haemolytic activity of the alternative pathway (ACH??) were noted. After a 15 day recovery period, haematocrit was decreased whereas effects on the blood granulocytes of fish seemed to be reversible, contrary to the specific immune system and quality of flesh. In fact, contaminated fish had still less lymphocyte cells compared to controls fish and their flesh were still contaminated by naphthalene and benzo[a]pyrene creating a risk for human consumers. PMID:21835465

Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lamour, François; Guyomarch, Julien; Quentel, Claire

2011-08-10

137

Dietary levels of all-trans retinol affect retinoid nuclear receptor expression and skeletal development in European sea bass larvae.  

PubMed

European sea bass larvae were fed different dietary vitamin A levels. Growth, skeletal development and the expression of genes involved in larval morphogenesis were evaluated. From 7 to 42 d post-hatching, larvae were fed five isoproteic and isolipidic compound diets with graded levels of retinyl acetate (RA; RA0, RA10, RA50, RA250 and RA1000, containing 0, 10, 50, 250 and 1000 mg RA/kg DM, respectively), resulting in an incorporation of 12, 13, 31, 62 and 196 mg all-trans retinol/kg DM. Larvae fed extreme levels of RA had weights 19 % and 27 % lower than those of the RA50 group. The RA1000 diet induced a fall in growth with an increase of circulating and storage retinol forms in larvae, revealing hypervitaminosis. High levels of RA affected maturation of the pancreas and intestine. These data indicated that the optimal RA level was close to 31 mg/kg DM. Inappropriate levels of dietary RA resulted in an alteration of head organisation characterised by the abnormal development of the splanchnocranium and neurocranium, and scoliotic fish. Of the larvae fed RA1000, 78.8 % exhibited skeletal abnormalities, whereas the RA50 group presented with 25 % malformations. A linear correlation between vitamin A level and malformation percentage was observed and mainly associated with an upregulation of retinoic acid receptor-gamma expression in the RA1000 group during the 2 first weeks after hatching. The expression of retinoid X receptor-alpha decreased during normal larval development when that of the retinoic acid receptors increased. This work highlights the involvement of retinoid pathways in the appearance of dietary-induced skeletal malformations during post-hatching development in sea bass. PMID:16022748

Villeneuve, Laure; Gisbert, Enric; Le Delliou, Hervé; Cahu, Chantal L; Zambonino-Infante, Jose L

2005-06-01

138

Relationships among Traits of Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Performance in Individual European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax  

PubMed Central

Teleost fishes exhibit wide and temporally stable inter-individual variation in a suite of aerobic and anaerobic locomotor traits. One mechanism that could allow such variation to persist within populations is the presence of tradeoffs between aerobic and anaerobic performance, such that individuals with a high capacity for one type of performance have a reduced capacity for the other. We investigated this possibility in European seabass Dicentrarchuslabrax, each measured for a battery of indicators of maximum locomotor performance. Aerobic traits comprised active metabolic rate, aerobic scope for activity, maximum aerobic swimming speed, and stride length, using a constant acceleration test. Anaerobic traits comprised maximum speed during an escape response, maximum sprint speed, and maximum anaerobic burst speed during constant acceleration. The data provided evidence of significant variation in performance among individuals, but there was no evidence of any trade-offs among any traits of aerobic versus anaerobic swimming performance. Furthermore, the anaerobic traits were not correlated significantly among each other, despite relying on the same muscular structures. Thus, the variation observed may reflect trade-offs with other morphological, physiological or behavioural traits.

Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S.; Domenici, Paolo; Claireaux, Guy; McKenzie, David J.

2013-01-01

139

Absence of seasonal changes in reproductive function of cultured Atlantic salmon migrating into a Canadian river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured Atlantic salmon (Salvo s&r) that escaped from sea cages and migrated into the Magaguadavic River, New Brunswick, often showed no external signs of sexual maturation over the period 1992-1996. The sequential changes in plasma testosterone (T), 1 I-ketotestosterone (1 I-KT), and 17l.Gestradiol (E2) were determined in escaped cultured salmon in 19941996 and in wild Atlantic salmon in 1996 to

G. L. Lacroix; B. J. Galloway; D. Knox; D. MacLatchy

1997-01-01

140

Chemical residues and biochemical responses in wild and cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)  

SciTech Connect

Cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Arade Estuary were sampled in summer and winter and the degree of exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) assessed, together with some biochemical responses against those and other pollutants. The highest levels of copper (up to 997 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and cadmium (up to 4.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) were detected in the liver and kidney of cultured specimens, whereas the highest exposure to PAHs was observed in wild fish. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were detected and associated to pollutant exposure. Thus, metallothionein concentrations were higher in the tissues of cultured fish and positively correlated with metal residues. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 28 pmol/min/mg protein in cultured fish to 83 pmol/min/mg protein in wild fish collected near a marina area. Cultured fish and wild fish from the marina area had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue and a parasitic infection in the gonads. The obtained results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in both wild and cultured fish.

Fernandes, Denise [C.I.M.A., University of Algarve, F.C.M.A., Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139-Faro (Portugal); Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es; Bebianno, Maria Joao [C.I.M.A., University of Algarve, F.C.M.A., Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139-Faro (Portugal)

2007-02-15

141

Convergent dynamics of the juvenile European sea bass gut microbiota induced by poly-?-hydroxybutyrate.  

PubMed

Poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial energy and carbon storage compound which exhibits a controlling effect on the gastrointestinal microbiota. Its beneficial activities for aquaculture have already been shown in terms of increased disease resistance and growth performance in a number of studies. However, the action of PHB on the intestinal microbial community in the treated animals has not yet been studied in depth. In this research, the effects of PHB on the microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of juvenile sea bass were examined. It was found that fish cohabiting in the same tank were on average 87% similar regarding the intestinal microbiota. When subjected to the same treatment and environmental conditions but reared in different tanks, the compositions of the enteric communities diverged. The provision of PHB overruled this tank effect by sustaining a microbial core community in the gut that represented 60% of the total bacterial diversity at the highest PHB level of 10%. The microbial community compositions converged between replicate tanks upon supplementation of PHB and were characterized by high dynamics and increased evenness. The results are discussed in the framework of hypotheses that try to relate the intestinal microbial community composition to the health status of the host organisms. PMID:21244598

De Schryver, Peter; Dierckens, Kristof; Thi, Quyen Quyen Bahn; Amalia, Rezki; Marzorati, Massimo; Bossier, Peter; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

2011-01-18

142

Poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) increases growth performance and intestinal bacterial range-weighted richness in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial storage polymer poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has the potential to be used as an alternative anti-infective strategy\\u000a for aquaculture rearing. In this research, the effects of (partially) replacing the feed of European sea bass juveniles with\\u000a PHB were investigated. During a 6-week trial period, the PHB showed the ability to act as an energy source for the fish. This\\u000a indicated

Peter De Schryver; Amit Kumar Sinha; Prabesh Singh Kunwar; Kartik Baruah; Willy Verstraete; Nico Boon; Gudrun De Boeck; Peter Bossier

2010-01-01

143

@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

144

Genetic structure of the star sea squirt, Botryllus schlosseri, introduced in southern European harbours.  

PubMed

The introduction of new genetic variants or species is often caused by maritime transport between harbours. Botryllus schlosseri is a cosmopolitan ascidian species that is found in both harbours and open shore habitats. In order to determine the influence of ship traffic on the genetic structure and phylogeography of B. schlosseri in southern Europe, we analyzed the variability of a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). We sampled seven Atlanto-Mediterranean harbour populations and three open-shore populations. In addition, we sequenced some colonies from the US-Atlantic coast and from other Mediterranean localities to perform phylogenetic analyses. Although the number of polymorphic sites recorded (25.8%) was within the range observed in other population studies based on ascidian COI sequences, the haplotypic diversity (16 haplotypes out of 181 sequences) was much lower. Moreover, a lack of intermediate haplotypes was observed. This pattern of high nucleotide diversity and low haplotype diversity was consistent with introduction events of a few divergent haplotypes. We found a strong genetic structure in the study populations. Gene flow was only appreciable between some harbour populations. Harbour- and open-shore populations were well differentiated, although there was no evidence for isolation by distance. A nested clade analysis pointed to long-distance colonization, possibly coupled with subsequent fragmentation, as the underlying process. Our results suggest that B. schlosseri entered the study area via harbour-hopping, possibly through recurrent introduction events. The haplotypes from North America and most of the European ones were grouped in the same phylogenetic clade. This suggests occasional gene flow between both continents, probably through ship transport. PMID:17054496

López-Legentil, Susanna; Turon, Xavier; Planes, Serge

2006-11-01

145

Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan), we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641) belonging to the ANME-3 group and one ?-Proteobacteria (HQ588562) were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

2013-05-01

146

Salmon Population Depleted  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon populations face several serious threats, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. In this publication, the reason for the downward spiral of salmon populations is discussed. This video segment features Elders discussing the decline in the local population of salmon, which are at the heart of the cultural identity of the Native American Lummi Nation of Washington State. Fish were very abundant a few decades ago, but now even the fishermen have to buy fish. The background essay explains the many threats that the salmon population faces. There is also a brief description of the salmon lifecycle. The four discussion questions asks the reasons why the salmon population is depleting, and what people can do to help. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

147

Effects of early experience on the reproductive performance of Atlantic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the link between early experience and subsequent reproductive performance, we experimentally manipulated the early experience of Atlantic salmon (Sabno sola). Salmon of a common genetic background were reared as juveniles either naturally in the river or artificially in a hatchery (sea ranched), depriving them of river experience, and then allowed to grow to maturity naturally in the ocean.

Ian A. Fleming; Anders Lamberg; Bror Jonsson

1997-01-01

148

Evolution of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) populations in New Zealand: pattern, rate, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of

Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin

2001-01-01

149

MECHANISTIC BASIS OF INDIVIDUAL MORTALITY IN PACIFIC SALMON DURING SPAWNING MIGRATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive-based migration is a challenging period for many animals, but particularly for Pacific salmonids, which must navigate from the high seas to freshwater natal streams. For the first time, we attempt to answer the question as to why some migratory adult Pacific salmon die en route to spawning grounds. Summer-run sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were used as a model, and

Steven J. Cooke; Scott G. Hinch; Glenn T. Crossin; David A. Patterson; Karl K. English; Michael C. Healey; J. Mark Shrimpton; Glen Van Der Kraak; Anthony P. Farrell

2006-01-01

150

Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.  

PubMed

Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (P<0.05) in the very first stages after the dietary shift, but the difference in TGC between diets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, P<0.05). This work identified moderate heritabilities (0.18 to 0.46) for BW with both diets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most efficient way to increase growth on plant-based diets, meaning that, in this case, indirect selection should be more efficient than direct selection. PMID:23100583

Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

2012-10-16

151

GEO-MOTION: A fresh approach to land, water and sea level changes in a European habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state and behaviour of the Shallow Earth System is a consequence of processes on a wide range of time scales. These include the long term tectonic effects on uplift, subsidence and river systems, residual effects of the ice ages on crustal movement and geochemistry, natural climate to environmental changes over recent millennia and up to the present, and the powerful anthropogenic impacts of the last century. If we are to understand the present state of the system, to predict its future and to engineer our use of it, this spectrum of processes, operating concurrently but on different time scales, needs to be better understood. The challenge to the Geosciences is to describe the state of the system, to monitor its changes, to forecast its evolution and, in collaboration with others, to evaluate modes of sustainable use by human society. Land, water and sea level changes can seriously affect the sustainability of ecological and human habitats in Europe. When sea water or surface water levels rise, or land subsides, the risk of flooding increases, directly inflicting on local ecosystems and human habitats. The effects on society are widely known as many of the affected areas in Europe are densely populated and the financial loss foreseen is tremendous. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of desertification. These changes are caused by both natural processes and human activities, but the absolute and relative contributions of each of these processes are still little understood. Only very recently, the impact of processes located in the underlying subsurface of intraplate areas has been recognized in the coastal realm, leading to the newly coined term ‘Environmental Earth System Dynamics’. The members of the Geo-Motion consortium have joined forces in order to create a fully integrated pan-European research infrastructure (a virtual scientific centre) on a hitherto not existing scale. It runs monitoring programs including satellite, surface and borehole monitoring instruments. It integrates large scale and excellent geo-mechanical, geo-chemical and geo-biological laboratory facilities. Based on existing structures and data sets it develops a new geo data infrastructure containing historical data on global and regional changes in combination with the vulnerability of natural and human habitats. Most significant milestones are a large scale and excellent know-how base on geo-motion modelling and simulation, as well as on risk and impact assessment. The development of a foresight and assessment competency represents a long-term strategic scientific objective for the consortium. It is vital that it is also promoted in education, which will be done through the development of a European School for Predictive Geoscience, in which parallel masters programmes will be offered by the university partners based on their pooled expertise. The national geoscience surveys play a key role in delivering the outputs of research into the public, policy and industrial domains.

Cloetingh, S.; Geo-Motion Consortium, T.; GEO-MOTION Consortium

2003-04-01

152

Stress responses in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) smolts during commercial well boat transports, and effects on survival after transfer to sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease costs the Norwegian aquaculture industry approximately NOK 1 billion ($ 150000000) every year, and NOK 250000000 ($36000000) is spent on vaccines each year by the industry. Many of the disease outbreaks take place during the first months of transfer to the sea sites. Thus, the aim of this project was to monitor physiological stress parameters as plasma cortisol, glucose

Martin Iversen; Bengt Finstad; Robert S. McKinley; Robert A. Eliassen; Kristian Tuff Carlsen; Tore Evjen

2005-01-01

153

Protandry in Pacific salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protandry, the earlier arrival of males to the spawning grounds than females, has been reported in several studies of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, the reasons for protandry in salmon are poorly understood and little is known about how protandry varies among and within populations. In this study, protandry was quantified in a total of 105 years using gender-specific timing

Yolanda Morbey

2000-01-01

154

Saving the Salmon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public…

Sprangers, Donald

2004-01-01

155

Salmon's Atlantic struggle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of acid rain and overexploitation is seriously reducing the population numbers of Atlantic salmon. Efforts have been made to restore salmon populations in tributaries of the ocean. These programs have been successful, but more work is needed to ensure that catches satisfy global demands. Acid rain must be controlled at its source, primarily industrial emissions of sulfur dioxide,

Deis

1981-01-01

156

Historical growth of Bristol Bay and Yukon River, Alaska chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in relation to climate and inter- and intraspecific competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined Bristol Bay and Yukon River adult chum salmon scales to determine whether climate variability, such as changes in sea surface temperature and climate indices, and high pink and Asian chum salmon abundance reduced chum salmon growth. Annual marine growth increments for 1965-2006 were estimated from scale growth measurements and were modeled as a function of potential explanatory variables using a generalized least squares regression approach. First-year growth of salmon originating from Bristol Bay and the Yukon River showed increased growth in association with higher regional ocean temperatures and was negatively affected by wind mixing and ice cover. Third-year growth was lower when Asian chum salmon were more abundant. Contrary to our hypothesis, warmer large-scale sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska were also associated with reduced third-year growth. Negative effects of high abundances of Russian pink salmon on third-year growth provided some evidence for interspecific interactions, but the effects were smaller than the effects of Asian chum salmon abundance and Gulf of Alaska sea surface temperature. Although the relative effects of Asian chum salmon and sea surface temperature on the growth of Yukon and Bristol Bay chum salmon were difficult to untangle, we found consistent evidence that high abundances of Asian chum salmon contributed to a reduction in the growth of western Alaska chum salmon.

Agler, Beverly A.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Wilson, Lorna I.; Mueter, Franz J.

2013-10-01

157

Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Grilse Proportion of Atlantic Salmon in Norwegian Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the sea age at maturity of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar was studied in 158 Norwegian rivers over large spatial (58–71°N; 5–30°E) and temporal (1983–2000) scales. Age at sexual maturity was expressed as the proportion of grilse (fish with one sea winter) in the nominal salmon catch. No general temporal trend was found in the proportion of grilse in

J. H. LAbée-Lund; L. A. Vøllestad; S. Beldring

2004-01-01

158

Production and characterization of recombinantly derived peptides and antibodies for accurate determinations of somatolactin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) growth hormone (GH) was developed and validated. For this purpose, a stable source of GH was produced by means of recombinant DNA technology in a bacteria system. The identity of the purified protein (ion exchange chromatography) was demonstrated by Western blot and a specific GH antiserum was raised in rabbit. In Western blot and RIA system, this antiserum recognized specifically native and recombinant GH, and it did not cross-react with fish prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL). In a similar way, a specific polyclonal antiserum against the now available recombinant European sea bass SL was raised and used in the RIA system to a sensitivity of 0.3 ng/ml (90% of binding of tracer). Further, European sea bass insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was cloned and sequenced, and its high degree of identity with IGF-I peptides of barramundi, tuna, and sparid fish allowed the use of a commercial IGF-I RIA based on barramundi IGF-I antiserum. These assay tools assisted for the first time accurate determinations of SL and GH-IGF-I axis activity in a fish species of the Moronidae family. Data values were compared to those found with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), which is currently used as a Mediterranean fish model for growth endocrinology studies. As a characteristic feature, the average concentration year round of circulating GH in growing mature males of European sea bass was higher than in gilthead sea bream. By contrast, the average concentration of circulating SL was lower. Concerning to circulating concentration of IGF-I, the measured plasma values for a given growth rate were also lower in European sea bass. These findings are discussed on the basis of a different energy status that might allowed a reduced but more continuous growth in European sea bass. PMID:15560873

de Celis, S Vega-Rubín; Gómez-Requeni, P; Pérez-Sánchez, J

2004-12-01

159

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea

D. M. A. Schaap; G. Maudire

2009-01-01

160

Pituitary levels of three forms of GnRH in the male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) during sex differentiation and first spawning season.  

PubMed

In the present study, levels of three GnRH forms [seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), and salmon GnRH (sGnRH)] were analyzed in the pituitary of male sea bass during sex differentiation and the first spawning season. Plasma levels of gonadotropin (GTH-2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were determined during the same periods. All GnRH forms were present in the pituitary. sbGnRH levels were 9-fold higher than cGnRH-II and 17-fold higher than sGnRH levels. The highest GnRHs levels were detected in November 1995, when fish were 9 months old and when the gonads started to differentiate. Levels of the three forms decreased and remained low during the first spawning season, with the exception of sbGnRH, which showed a significant increase in November 1996. Plasma GTH-2 levels were lowest in November 1995, later increasing 2.5 times during the next months. During the first spawning season, plasma GTH-2 levels peaked in December 1996, 1 month after the peak of sbGnRH. During sex differentiation, plasma T levels were high in November 1995 but decreased over the next months, while levels of 11-KT remained low and unchanged. During the first spawning season, both steroids peaked in January 1997. These results suggest a possible role for all three GnRH forms in achieving gonadal differentiation, while sbGnRH may be the most relevant form in the regulation of the first spawning season in male sea bass. Moreover, GTH-2 and 11-KT may play important roles in gonadal maturation, since plasma GTH-2 and 11-KT levels were high throughout the period of spermiation. PMID:11042012

Rodríguez, L; Carrillo, M; Sorbera, L A; Soubrier, M A; Mañanós, E; Holland, M C; Zohar, Y; Zanuy, S

2000-10-01

161

A second look at mitochondrial DNA variability in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus): assessing models of population structure and the Black Sea isolation hypothesis.  

PubMed

Genetic architectures of marine fishes are generally shallow because of the large potential for gene flow in the sea. European anchovy, however, are unusual among small pelagic fishes in showing large differences among sub-basins and in harbouring two mtDNA phylogroups ('A' & 'B'), representing 1.1-1.85 million years of separation. Here the mtDNA RFLP dataset of Magoulas et al. [1996, Mol. Biol. Evol. 13: 178-190] is re-examined to assess population models accounting for this subdivided population structure and to evaluate the zoogeographical origins of the two major phylogroups. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities are highest in the Ionian Sea and lowest in the Aegean and Black seas. However, this gradient is absent when 'A' and 'B' haplotypes are examined separately. Neither the self-sustaining nor the basin population models adequately describe anchovy population behaviour. Tests for neutrality, mismatch and nested clade analyses are concordant in depicting recent expansions of both phylogroups. Unimodel mismatch distributions and haplotype coalescences dating to the last (Eemian) interglacial ('B') and the Weichselian pleniglacial period ('A') indicate separate colonizations of the Mediterranean Basin. Phylogroup 'A' is unlikely to have arisen through continuous long-term isolation in the Black Sea because of climate extremes from displaced subpolar weather systems during the ice ages. Ancestors of both groups appear to have colonized the Mediterranean from the Atlantic in the late Pleistocene. Hence, zoogeographic models of anchovy in the Mediterranean must also include the eastern (and possibly southern) Atlantic. PMID:16247701

Grant, W Stewart

2005-11-01

162

Velocity model of the crust and upper mantle at the southern margin of the East European Craton (Azov Sea-Crimea-Black Sea area), DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern part of the eastern European continental landmass consists mainly of a thick platform of Vendian and younger sediments overlying Precambrian basement, part of the East European Craton (EEC). The Scythian Platform (SP) lies between the EEC and the (mainly Alpine) deformed belt running from Dobrudja (Romania) to Crimea (Ukraine) and the Greater Caucasus (Russia), along the northern margin of the Black Sea. Hard constraints on the Palaeozoic history on the SP are very sparse and little is known of its crustal structure in this area. The poster presents the seismic results of a multidisciplinary project that fills some of this gap. The project is called DOBRE-2 (as it forms a prolongation of the successful DOBRE project executed in 1999-2001). The main objectives of DOBRE-2 were to elucidate the deep-seated structure of the lithosphere and geodynamic setting of the shelf zones of the Azov and Black seas and the Crimean peninsula and to study the deep controls on the structure of basement and sedimentary cover. DOBRE-2 traverses a number of major faults and suture zones separating the EEC from the SP, the Crimean Mountains, and the Black Sea depression. Significant hydrocarbon reserves occur in the basins traversed by DOBRE-2. Deep seismic reflection profiling (30 second, Vibroseis) has been completed on a 100-km segment of the profile on the Azov massif (part of the Ukrainian Shield) as well as a 47-km segment in Crimea. These are complemented by refraction profiling on the shelf zones of the Azov (~53 km) and Black (~160 km) seas and coincident near-vertical (CDP) in the Black Sea, using a combination of onshore seismograph stations, ocean-bottom seismometers, onshore explosive energy sources (6 shot points), as well as ship-borne seismic acquisition. We present a 2-D seismic velocity model (Vp in the crust, depth to the Moho and depth to the intracrustal reflectors) along (~780 km) the DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect. Our model extends the model published for the DOBRE'99 profile (The DOBREfraction'99 Working Group, 2003) to the southwest. The Moho dips in this direction, from a depth of 40 km below the Azov Sea to ~47 km, below Crimea. A short segment of a reflector interpreted to represent Moho was detected at a depth of ~37 km in the Black Sea part of the profile. We also present a comparison of the DOBRE-2 velocity model with an interpretation of a coincident CDP profile.

Starostenko, Vitaly; Janik, Tomasz; Stephenson, Randell; Gryn, Dmytro; Tolkunov, Anatoliy; Czuba, Wojciech; ?roda, Piotr; Sydorenko, Grigoriy; Lysynchuk, Dmytro; Omelchenko, Victor; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Kolomiyets, Katerina; Thybo, Hans; Dannowski, Anke; Fl?h, Ernst R.; Legostaeva, Olga

2013-04-01

163

Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the thyroid function of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Aegean sea, is it an endocrine disruption?  

PubMed

We evaluated the alterations of organochlorinated compounds such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on the thyroid in wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) at environmental concentrations. These compounds influence the endocrine system of many fish species and are qualified as endocrine disruptors. The thyroid seems to be a target organ. Two alteration endpoints: the thyroid histology and the muscular thyroid hormone concentrations, were used simultaneously. High concentrations in PCBs and DDT were detected in muscles, supporting the idea that the Mediterranean fauna could be more polluted than the Atlantic fauna. The high abundance of DDE indicates a progressive degradation of remnant DDT load and the absence of new inputs in this area. Aquaculture sea bass shows a significant higher amount of pollutants on fresh weight basis (especially PCBs) in their muscles compared to the wild sea bass. Those differences may be related mainly to the contaminations of diet. Thyroid parameters vary between wild and aquaculture sea bass, wild sea bass were characterized by higher follicle diameters, epithelial cell heights and muscular T(4) concentrations. A significant relationship between persistent organic pollutants (muscular PCBs and DDT concentration) and the different thyroid parameters (diameters of follicles, epithelial cell heights and muscular T(4) levels) could be observed, which support the hypothesis that these compounds have an adverse impact on thyroid morphometry and function. PMID:18692207

Schnitzler, Joseph G; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Siebert, Ursula; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Das, Krishna

2008-08-08

164

Recent biotelemetry research on lacustrine salmon homing migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most interesting aspects of the salmon's life history and the most challenging to study is the homing migration during which the fish return from their oceanic feeding grounds to the natal river to spawn. However, because of the difficulties encountered in studying the movements of fish, particularly in the sea, there is still very little information regarding

Hiroshi Ueda

165

Salmon's Atlantic struggle  

SciTech Connect

The combination of acid rain and overexploitation is seriously reducing the population numbers of Atlantic salmon. Efforts have been made to restore salmon populations in tributaries of the ocean. These programs have been successful, but more work is needed to ensure that catches satisfy global demands. Acid rain must be controlled at its source, primarily industrial emissions of sulfur dioxide, and fishing quotas should be implemented. (13 photos)

Deis, R.

1981-02-01

166

Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 µg/g body mass) in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day-night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a), which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day-night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass. PMID:23567273

Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Pérez, Patricia; Del Carmen Rendón, María; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio

2013-04-08

167

Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax  

PubMed Central

Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 ?g/g body mass) in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day–night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a), which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day–night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass.

Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Perez, Patricia; del Carmen Rendon, Maria; Munoz-Cueto, Jose Antonio

2013-01-01

168

Validation of a PCR-RFLP based method for the identification of salmon species in food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a PCR-RFLP based method for the identification of salmon species in food products was investigated. The reliability and practicality of the method was tested by a collaborative study in which five European laboratories participated. Two unknown samples (a commercial product of known species composition and a mix of two salmon species) required identification by comparison with authentic

G. L. Hold; Valerie J. Russell; Susan E. Pryde; Hartmut Rehbein; Javier Quinteiro; Manuel Rey-Mendez; Carmen G. Sotelo; Ricardo I. Pérez-Martin; Ana T. Santos; Carla Rosa

2001-01-01

169

Alternative male life-history tactics as potential vehicles for speeding introgression of farm salmon traits into wild populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Releases of cultured organisms, such as farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), threaten native biodiversity and the integrity of natural communities. Salmon escaping from sea farms, however, have relatively poor reproductive success, suggesting that the rate of spread of domesticated traits may be reduced. We now compare the relative reproductive success of males that mature precociously in freshwater (parr) and

Dany Garant; Ian A. Fleming; Sigurd Einum; Louis Bernatchez

2003-01-01

170

PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

171

Comparison of bio-physical marine products from SeaWiFS, MODIS and a bio-optical model with in situ measurements from Northern European waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we compare bio-physical marine products from SeaWiFS, MODIS and a novel bio-optical absorption model with in situ measurements of chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentrations, total suspended material (TSM) concentrations, normalized water-leaving radiances (nLw) and absorption coefficients of coloured dissolved organic matter (aCDOM), total particulate (atotal) and phytoplankton (aphy) for 26 satellite match-ups in three Northern European seas. Cruises were undertaken in 2002 and 2003 in phytoplankton dominated open ocean waters of the Celtic Sea and optically complex waters of the Western English Channel (WEC) and North Sea. For all environments, Chla concentrations varied from 0.4 to 7.8 mg m-3, TSM from 0.2 to 6.0 mg l-1 and aCDOM at 440 nm from 0.02 to 0.30 m-1. SeaWiFS OC4v4, with the Remote Sensing Data Analysis Service (RSDAS) atmospheric correction for turbid waters, showed the most accurate retrieval of in situ Chla (RMS = 0.24; n = 26), followed by MODIS chlor_a_3 (RMS = 0.40; n = 26). This suggested that improving the atmospheric correction over optically complex waters results in more accurate Chla concentrations compared to those obtained using more complicated Chla algorithms. We found that the SeaWiFS OC4v4 and the MODIS chlor_a_2 switching band ratio algorithms, which mainly use longer wavebands than 443 nm, were less affected by CDOM. They were both more accurate than chlor_MODIS in the higher CDOM waters of the North Sea. Compared to MODIS the absorption model was better at retrieving atotal (RMS = 0.39; n = 78) and aCDOM (RMS = 0.79; n = 12) in all study areas and TSM in the WEC (RMS = 0.04; n = 10) but it underestimated Chla concentrations (RMS = 0.45; n = 26). The results are discussed in terms of atmospheric correction, sensor characteristics and the functioning and performance of Chla algorithms. This paper was presented at the Institute of Physics Meeting on Underwater Optics held during Photonex 03 at Warwick, UK, in October 2003. Four companion papers from this conference were published in Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, volume 6, issue 7 (July 2004), on pages 684, 690, 698 and 703.

Blondeau-Patissier, D.; Tilstone, G. H.; Martinez-Vicente, V.; Moore, G. F.

2004-09-01

172

First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line, characteristics which make it distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates from Europe and North America. Conclusion In conclusion, the present work constitutes the first report of a case of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. The clinical signs and lesions are consistent with the classical descriptions of the disease in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. The outbreak was caused by ISAV of European genotype (or Genotype I) of HPR 7b but distinct from common European Genotype ISAV isolates.

Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendano, Fernando; Imilan, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB

2008-01-01

173

Selective Breeding of Chinook Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective breeding of plants and animals has been carried on for hundreds of years. Few attempts, however, have been made to breed salmon that have characteristics which would better fit the fish for the needs of modern salmon management. Experiments started in 1949 at the University of Washington to develop a selected stock of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have shown

Lauren R. Donaldson; Deb Menasveta

1961-01-01

174

Palinspastic reconstruction of the opening of the NE Atlantic: differential sea-floor spreading and resulting deformation of the NW European Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NE Atlantic Ocean opened progressively between Greenland and NW Europe during the Cenozoic. Sea-floor spreading occurred along three ridge systems: the Reykjanes Ridge south of Iceland, the Mohns Ridge north of the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone (JMFZ), and the Aegir and Kolbeinsey ridges between Iceland and the JMFZ. At the same time, compressional structures developed along the continental margin of NW Europe, but apparently not on the East Greenland Margin. We therefore investigate how compressional deformation of the NW European Margin may have resulted from variations in the amount and direction of sea-floor spreading along the various ridges. One of the main assumptions of the theory of plate tectonics is that all lithospheric plates are rigid. However, reconstructions of the opening of the NE Atlantic Ocean, on the basis of two rigid plates (Eurasia and Greenland), lead to gaps and overlaps between the plates. Furthermore, the oceanic Jan Mayen Segment, between Iceland and the JMFZ, had a complex spreading history, including progressive separation of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMMC) and a ridge jump from the Aegir Ridge to the Kolbeinsey Ridge. A subdivision of the NE Atlantic Ocean into micro-plates improves the fits, yet it remains difficult to reconstruct a simple spreading history for the Jan Mayen Segment using Euler rotation poles alone. In order to reconstruct the complex spreading history of the NE Atlantic and to study the evolution of the European Margin during sea-floor spreading, we have developed a method for palinspastic reconstruction of the opening of an ocean, using magnetic anomalies and fracture zones. We first subdivide the oceanic domain into a finite number of blocks, lying between magnetic anomalies and fracture zones. Our iterative least-squares method then minimizes the gaps and overlaps between the blocks. This yields the rigid translations and rotations of the blocks. Thus the method provides a full pattern of displacement for all material points, allowing us to calculate the spreading rates of the ridges and strike-slip displacements along the main oceanic fracture zones. Our model ensures a good fit of the magnetic anomalies for the complex Jan Mayen Segment and predicts differences in direction and rate of spreading between the Reykjanes, Kolbeinsey/Aegir and Mohns ridges. This differential sea-floor spreading generated relative rotations and displacements between the oceanic segments. We have determined two main periods of left-lateral strike-slip deformation along the main oceanic fracture zones: (1) from Early Eocene to Late Oligocene, along the Faeroe Fracture Zone; and (2) from Late Eocene to Early Oligocene, as well as during the Miocene, along the JMFZ. Such left-lateral motion and the relative rotation between the oceanic segments are compatible with the development of inversion structures on the NW European Margin at these times. The driving forces may have come from the Iceland Mantle Plume, which appears to have been in a position to generate differential sea-floor spreading along the NE Atlantic and resulting deformation of the NW European margin.

Le Breton, E.; Cobbold, P. R.; Dauteuil, O.

2012-04-01

175

Marine Ecology of Gulf of Maine Atlantic Salmon. Summary Document from a 2008-2010 Series of Workshops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within Maine, NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries) primarily focuses on Atlantic salmon life stages in the estuarine and marine environments, while both the Maine Department of Marine Resources Bureau of Sea-Run Fisheries and Habitat an...

2012-01-01

176

Potential impact of tidal power plants and future sea-level rise on the dynamics of the European Shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal power is a potential renewable energy source internationally, although financial and technical limitations to tidal power have been addressed. There is also a dynamical aspect of the extraction of tidal energy from shallow shelf seas: what will happen with the tidal dynamics on the shelf if energy is extracted at point sources? The tidal currents and the dissipation of

Mattias Green; Holly Pelling

2010-01-01

177

Biochemical Responses of European Sea Bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) to the Stress Induced by Off Shore Experimental Seismic Prospecting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the results of an experimental seismic survey in the open sea by an air gun, carried out to evaluate the effects of air gun acoustic waves on marine animals. Air gun blast exposition was found to have a marked influence on confined Dicentrarchus labrax. Our data, in fact, demonstrated a biochemical response to acoustic stress induced by

A Santulli; A Modica; C Messina; L Ceffa; A Curatolo; G Rivas; G Fabi; V D’Amelio

1999-01-01

178

A comparative review on European-farmed finfish RNA viruses and their vaccines.  

PubMed

The diseases causing the highest ecological and socio-economical impacts in European farmed finfish are produced by RNA viruses. Salmon, trout, sea bream, sea bass, carp and turbot, suffer viral nervous necrosis produced by betanodaviruses (VNNV), infectious pancreatic necrosis produced by aquabirnaviruses (IPNV), viral haemorrhagic septicemia (VHSV) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHNV) produced by novirhabdoviruses, spring viremia of carp produced by vesicular-like rhabdoviruses (SVCV), salmon pancreas disease and trout sleeping disease produced by alphaviruses (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia produced by isaviruses (ISAV). There are not yet any effective treatments other than destroying all fish in infected farms, avoiding fish movements to and from infected areas and, in some particular cases, vaccination. The comparative study of the molecular characteristics of those RNA viruses and the state of knowledge of their vaccines, point to the development of new DNA vaccines for some RNA viruses, design of new mass delivery methods, maternal transfer of immunity, more extensive crossprotection studies between genotypes, use of safer all-fish plasmid control elements and study of DNA plasmid distribution after vaccination, as some of the major gaps that need urgent filling. In addition, to obtain similar protection levels to those produced by viral infections in survivors, live attenuated and/or some oil-adjuvanted inactivated virus vaccines, molecular adjuvants and/or other viral components (dsRNA or viral proteins interfering with fish defences), might have to be included in new DNA vaccine formulations. Furthermore, to be approved by the corresponding European authorities, fish viral DNA vaccines would also require the study of the persistence in fish of the introduced DNA, their possible impact to the aquatic environment and the acceptance of potential consumers. PMID:21320546

Gomez-Casado, E; Estepa, A; Coll, J M

2011-02-12

179

Atmospheric-induced variability of hydrological and biogeochemical signatures in the NW Alboran Sea. Consequences for the spawning and nursery habitats of European anchovy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The north-western Alboran Sea is a highly dynamic region in which the hydrological processes are mainly controlled by the entrance of the Atlantic Jet (AJ) through the Strait of Gibraltar. The biological patterns of the area are also related to this variability in which atmospheric pressure distributions and wind intensity and direction play major roles. In this work, we studied how changes in atmospheric forcing (from high atmospheric pressure over the Mediterranean to low atmospheric pressure) induced alterations in the physical and biogeochemical environment by re-activating coastal upwelling on the Spanish shore. The nursery area of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) in the NW Alboran Sea, confirmed to be the very coastal band around Malaga Bay, did not show any drastic change in its biogeochemical characteristics, indicating that this coastal region is somewhat isolated from the rest of the basin. Our data also suggests that anchovy distribution is tightly coupled to the presence of microzooplankton rather than mesozooplankton. Finally, we use detailed physical and biological information to evaluate a hydrological-biogeochemical coupled model with a specific hydrological configuration to represent the Alboran basin. This model is able to reproduce the general circulation patterns in the region forced by the AJ movements only including two variable external forcings; atmospheric pressure over the western Mediterranean and realistic wind fields.

Macías, D.; Catalán, I. A.; Solé, J.; Morales-Nin, B.; Ruiz, J.

2011-12-01

180

Molecular identification and population dynamic of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae Dujardin, 1845) isolated from the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Adriatic Sea.  

PubMed

Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (L.) is a coastal pelagic and euryhaline species that represents the only European species of the family Engraulidae, with a widespread distribution. In Croatia, it is marketed fresh, frozen, salted or marinated and mainly exported to Italy and Spain, however Anisakis sp. larval infection is frequently the reason for border rejection. Since it is known that the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infection varies with fish species, fishing area and season, the aim of our study was to identify Anisakis sp. parasitizing European anchovy and infer its population dynamic through a 2.5-year period. Larvae were found coiled and encysted on the external wall of intestine (94%) and reproductive organs (6%), rarely in fillets. Prevalence was 76.1% (95% confidence limits 74.51-77.56%), mean abundance 6.59 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits 5.81-7.26) and mean intensity 8.67 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits 7.82-9.35). The partial CO2 mitochondrial DNA sequence of the isolated anisakids confirmed clustering of the anchovy parasite within A. pegreffii sister group. Parasite population structure showed plasticity inferred by fishing ground, sampling year and fish gender and size. Compared to anisakid prevalence/abundance in other fish, the European anchovy in the Adriatic Sea represents a moderately high-infected paratenic host, although in the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters, anchovies have shown strikingly lesser values of prevalence. Since this host represents one of the most attractive Mediterranean fisheries products traditionally consumed without thermal preparation that in any case would not disrupt larval antigenicity and prevent human allergies, and given the high prevalence of the anisakid within the host, it is necessary to include anchovy into more firm risk assessment frames in order to develop measures that will support the safe alimentary production and consumption of seafood. PMID:22647674

Mladineo, Ivona; Simat, Vida; Mileti?, Jelena; Beck, Relja; Poljak, Vedran

2012-05-14

181

Evolution of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) populations in New Zealand: Pattern, rate, and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Sacramento River, California, USA were introduced to New Zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their\\u000a present-day range within about 10 years. The New Zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate\\u000a salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of

Thomas P. Quinn; Michael T. Kinnison; Martin J. Unwin

182

Metomidate anaesthesia in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, prevents plasma cortisol increase during stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic salmon parr (58 g) in fresh water at 5.0 °C and adult salmon (1130g) in sea water at 7.7 °C were exposed to water containing different concentrations of metomidate in the range 1 to 10 mg 1?1. Metomidate was efficacious in inducing anaesthesia (hypnosis), and efficacy increased with concentration over the interval tested. The anaesthetic was more potent in

Yngvar A. Olsen; Ingibjørg E. Einarsdottir; Kjell J. Nilssen

1995-01-01

183

First report on toxicity assessment of the Lessepsian migrant pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) from European waters (Aegean Sea, Greece).  

PubMed

According to the current European Union legislative requirements (Regulation 853/2004/EC; Regulation 854/2004/EC, poisonous fish of the family Tetraodontidae and products derived from them must not be placed on the European markets. Following the increased publicity regarding the presence of the pufferfish species Lagocephalus sceleratus in Greek waters, this study was undertaken in order to confirm its toxicity and assess the risk of poisoning in case of accidental consumption. Acidic extracts from tissues of L. sceleratus specimens of different sizes were examined by means of the official mouse bioassay for tetrodotoxin, while some of the extracts were also tested for the presence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins with a commercial ELISA kit. Toxicity in mice, with symptomatology indicative of tetrodotoxin, was confirmed in a number of samples and indicated a correlation with fish size. Toxicity of certain tissues (liver, gonads, gastrointestinal tract) in larger individuals, expressed as microg/g tetrodotoxin equivalents, was largely above levels required to cause death in human adults. On the other hand, all tested extracts provided a positive reaction in the ELISA test for PSP toxins. This constitutes the first report for presence of toxicity in L. sceleratus caught in European coastal waters. PMID:19303896

Katikou, Panagiota; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Sinouris, Nikolaos; Petsi, Anastasia; Fotaras, Theodoros

2009-03-19

184

Variations climate of East-European Plain and Caspian sea level during last 20000 years (on the basis of numercial simulations within the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper results of climate simulation in East-European Plain (EEP) by coupled climate models (which take part in project PMIP II (Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project)) are tested for different climatic periods (pre-industrial, mid-Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)). The main parameters for comparison were: temperature, precipitation, evaporation and the Volga runoff. As a result, the model CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Meteorologie, France) was chosen as the best for this territory for pre-industrial climate. Its results were used to calculate runoff of the Volga river during the LGM and modern climate. "Climatic" component of the Volga runoff was calculated as the difference between precipitation and evaporation in the watershed. The "climatic" part of the Volga runoff 21 kyr decreased by 60% compared with the modern (according to model CNRM). The main reason for the low values of "climatic" runoff was the reduction of precipitation on the territory of Volga watershed. The decrease of evaporation could not compensate the deficit of precipitation. However, according to paleoreconstructions and the results of PMIP II simulation, a significant change to the hydrological regime of the Volga River (21 kyr BP) could be due to the contribution of meltwater (about 384 km3/year). This means that within the territory of Volga watershed to "climatic" component of runoff (about 78 km3/year), one has to add volume of the meltwater of the Scandinavian ice sheet (PMIP provides information about the configuration of the ice sheet in the LGM). For the first time the contribution of melted glacier in the river runoff has been taken into account. The results were used to assess the level of the Caspian Sea during this period (changes in the Caspian sea level compared with modern was about 48 meters). Also, level of the Caspian Sea was calculated after the complete degradation of Scandinavian ice sheet.

Morozova, P.

2012-04-01

185

Pink and Chum Salmon Prediction Studies, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue consists of the following reports: Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Chum Salmon forecast for 1972, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, juvenile abusdance te...

R. C. Johnson D. W. Heiser R. J. Gerke S. B. Mathews

1972-01-01

186

Infestations of wild adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by the ectoparasitic copepod sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer: prevalence, intensity and the spatial distribution of males and [2pt] females on the host fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer is a specific ectoparasite of North Atlantic and Pacific salmonids in their marine phases. We compared infestations of L. salmonis on wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) captured in estuarine (Firth of Tay, east Scotland; 1995, 1996) and marine coastal waters (Strathy Point, north Scotland; 1998, 1999). Host fish from the Tay were caught by sweep

Christopher D. Todd; Alan M. Walker; Jane E. Hoyle; Sally J. Northcott; Andrew F. Walker; Michael G. Ritchie

2000-01-01

187

Cultivation of Salmon Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HOPE we may assume, from the paragraph which appears among the ``Notes'' in your issue of last Thursday (p. 129), that the Fishery Board for Scotland is about to take some active course towards the removal of obstructions to the ascent of salmon up Scottish rivers. When you say the Board ``is specially desirous to introduce as soon as

Mark Heron

1884-01-01

188

Saving Coho Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.

Kqed

2012-08-08

189

Ocean Salmon Fishery Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

California ocean salmon fisheries are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) under the federal Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. This chapter describes the ocean fisheries impacting California Central Valley (CV) chinook stocks, the federal regulatory process that is followed in managing these ocean fisheries, and discusses alternative management mea- sures for protecting valuable natural resources. The CV

L. B. Boydstun

190

Effect of chronic exposure to ammonia on growth, food utilisation and metabolism of the European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic effects of exposing sea bass (average initial weight 100 g) to ammonia in water at 22 °C were first evaluated over a 61-day period (period 1, P1) during which nine different groups were submitted to nine ambient ammonia levels ranging from 0.014 to 0.493 mg l–1 NH3-N (0.53–16.11 mg l–1 total ammonia nitrogen (TA-N)) and fed using self-feeders. At the end of P1,

Antoine Dosdat; Jeanine Person-Le Ruyet; Denis Covès; Gilbert Dutto; Eric Gasset; Annick Le Roux; Gilles Lemarié

2003-01-01

191

Historical biogeography in a linear system: genetic variation of sea rocket (Cakile maritima) and sea holly (Eryngium maritimum) along European coasts.  

PubMed

The exclusively coastal Cakile maritima and Eryngium maritimum represent a linear biogeographical system. Genetic variation among 25 individuals of C. maritima and 16 individuals of E. maritimum, from the coasts of Europe, North Africa and the Canary Islands, was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Genetic distances (Dice) were calculated and used to investigate the correlation between genetic and geographical distances, to construct Neighbour Joining (NJ) trees, and to compare mean genetic distances between areas within and across species. Genetic distances and geographical distances measured along the coast are well correlated in Cakile and Eryngium. This implies that dispersal in both species is largely along the coast. The NJ analyses resulted in the recognition of Atlantic and Mediterranean clusters in both Cakile and Eryngium. The genetic distance between these two clusters is much larger in Eryngium (0. 285) than in Cakile (0.037). Mean genetic distances are substantially higher in the Mediterranean than in the Atlantic clusters in both species, and higher in Cakile than in Eryngium particularly in the Atlantic cluster. It is argued that all similarities and differences between the two species can be explained with the presumed distribution of the two species in the Würm glacial as reconstructed from their extant temperature requirements, the distribution of ice cover, permafrost, and sea surface temperatures in that period, and indirect fossil evidence. PMID:11091318

Clausing, G; Vickers, K; Kadereit, J W

2000-11-01

192

Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: The case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.)  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH) has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW) due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic status is controversial. We analysed microsatellite DNA polymorphism in nine populations from the Jutland Peninsula and the Baltic Sea, representing NSH (three populations, two of which are reintroduced) and ELW (six populations). The objectives were to: 1) analyse postglacial recolonization of whitefish in the region; 2) assess the evolutionary distinctiveness of NSH, and 3) apply several approaches for defining conservation units towards setting conservation priorities for NSH. Results Bayesian cluster analyses of genetic differentiation identified four major groups, corresponding to NSH and three groups of ELW (Western Jutland, Central Jutland, Baltic Sea). Estimates of historical migration rates indicated recolonization in a north-eastern direction, suggesting that all except the Baltic Sea population predominantly represent postglacial recolonization via the ancient Elbe River. Contemporary gene flow has not occurred between NSH and ELW, with a divergence time within the last 4,000 years suggested from coalescence methods. NSH showed interbreeding with ELW when brought into contact by stocking. Thus, reproductive isolation of NSH was not absolute, although possible interbreeding beyond the F1 level could not be resolved. Conclusion Fishes of the C. lavaretus complex in the Jutland Peninsula originate from the same recolonization event. NSH has evolved recently and its species status may be questioned due to incomplete reproductive isolation from ELW, but it was shown to merit consideration as an independent conservation unit. Yet, application of several approaches for defining conservation units generated mixed outcomes regarding its conservation priority. Within the total species complex, it remains one among many recently evolved unique forms. Its uniqueness and high conservation priority is more evident at a local geographical scale, where conservation efforts will also benefit populations of a number of other endangered species.

2008-01-01

193

Comparative genomic analysis of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, from Europe and North America  

PubMed Central

Background Several lines of evidence including allozyme analysis, restriction digest patterns and sequencing of mtDNA as well as mini- and micro-satellite allele frequencies indicate that Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from North America and Europe are genetically distinct. These observations are supported by karyotype analysis, which revealed that North American Atlantic salmon have 27 pairs of chromosomes whereas European salmon have 29 pairs. We set out to construct a linkage map for a North American Atlantic salmon family and to compare this map with the well developed map for European Atlantic salmon. Results We used microsatellite markers, which had previously been mapped in the two Atlantic salmon SALMAP mapping families from the River Tay, Scotland, to carry out linkage analysis in an Atlantic salmon family (NB1) whose parents were derived from the Saint John River stock in New Brunswick, Canada. As large differences in recombination rates between female and male Atlantic salmon have been noted, separate genetic maps were constructed for each sex. The female linkage map comprises 218 markers in 37 linkage groups while the male map has 226 markers in 28 linkage groups. We combined 280 markers from the female and male maps into 27 composite linkage groups, which correspond to the haploid number of chromosomes in Atlantic salmon from the Western Atlantic. Conclusions A comparison of the composite NB1 and SALMAP linkage maps revealed the reason for the difference in the chromosome numbers between European and North American Atlantic salmon: Linkage groups AS-4 and AS-32 in the Scottish salmon, which correspond to chromosomes Ssa-6 and Ssa-22, are combined into a single NB1 linkage group as are linkage groups AS-21 and AS-33 (corresponding to chromosomes Ssa-26 and Ssa-28). The comparison of the linkage maps also suggested some additional chromosomal rearrangements, but it will require finer mapping, potentially using SNPs, to test these predictions. Our results provide the first comparison of the genomic architecture of Atlantic salmon from North America and Europe with respect to chromosome organization.

2010-01-01

194

The Fight Over Pacific Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

195

The Mediterranean Sea Regime Shift at the End of the 1980s, and Intriguing Parallelisms with Other European Basins  

PubMed Central

Background Regime shifts are abrupt changes encompassing a multitude of physical properties and ecosystem variables, which lead to new regime conditions. Recent investigations focus on the changes in ecosystem diversity and functioning associated to such shifts. Of particular interest, because of the implication on climate drivers, are shifts that occur synchronously in separated basins. Principal Findings In this work we analyze and review long-term records of Mediterranean ecological and hydro-climate variables and find that all point to a synchronous change in the late 1980s. A quantitative synthesis of the literature (including observed oceanic data, models and satellite analyses) shows that these years mark a major change in Mediterranean hydrographic properties, surface circulation, and deep water convection (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient). We provide novel analyses that link local, regional and basin scale hydrological properties with two major indicators of large scale climate, the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Northern Hemisphere Temperature index, suggesting that the Mediterranean shift is part of a large scale change in the Northern Hemisphere. We provide a simplified scheme of the different effects of climate vs. temperature on pelagic ecosystems. Conclusions Our results show that the Mediterranean Sea underwent a major change at the end of the 1980s that encompassed atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological systems, for which it can be considered a regime shift. We further provide evidence that the local hydrography is linked to the larger scale, northern hemisphere climate. These results suggest that the shifts that affected the North, Baltic, Black and Mediterranean (this work) Seas at the end of the 1980s, that have been so far only partly associated, are likely linked as part a northern hemisphere change. These findings bear wide implications for the development of climate change scenarios, as synchronous shifts may provide the key for distinguishing local (i.e., basin) anthropogenic drivers, such as eutrophication or fishing, from larger scale (hemispheric) climate drivers.

Conversi, Alessandra; Fonda Umani, Serena; Peluso, Tiziana; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Santojanni, Alberto; Edwards, Martin

2010-01-01

196

Maastrichtian-aged lithostratigraphic patterns in the European tethys: Implications for sea level change and end-Cretaceous extinction patterns  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen Maastrichtian-aged stratigraphic sections from a variety of sites spanning the ancient Tethys ocean in Western and Eastern Europe and Northern Africa have been measured in this study. The similarity in lithologies between even geographically separated localities allows refined lithostratigraphic correlation; individual members first defined from Bay of Biscay sections can now be recognized through all sections. The sections are found in the Bay of Biscay and Basque region of France and Spain (Sopelana, Zumaya, Hendaye, Bidart, Tercis, Pamplona;) southern Spain (Caravaca, Agost); northern Africa (El Kef); and Eastern Europe (Georgia). All of the sections are dominated by limestones in the Lower Maastrichtian, and marls or limestone-marl rhythmites in the Upper Maastrichtian. A conspicuous, massive limestone, usually 10 to 15 m thick, is found in all sections at the top of the Lower Maastrichtian; it is invariably overlain by a thicker unit composed entirely of marl. The thick limestone contains the last body fossils of the genus Inoceramus, and occurs just beneath the first occurrence of foraminifera diagnostic of the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone of Late Maastrichtian age. The dramatic shift in lithology lies at or just beneath the boundary between the Lower and Upper Maastrichtian, and may have been caused by one of the most rapid and profound sea level changes of the Cretaceous Period. The sea-level change may be a causal factor in the mid-Maastrichtian extinction which affected the Inoceramidae and other mollusks, such as the rudistid bivalves and ammonites, and certainly is one of the dominant factors in forming the sequence of lithologies found in the Maastrichtian Stage of Tethys.

Ward, P.; Macleod, K.G. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

197

Effects of rapid transfer from sea water to fresh water on respiratory variables, blood acid-base status and O 2 affinity of haemoglobin in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption, gill ventilation, blood acid-base\\/ionic status and haemoglobin oxygen affinity were studied in seawater-adapted adult salmon (Salmo salar) during five weeks after transfer into fresh water. Freshwater exposure induced the following changes: Standard oxygen consumption (\\u000a$$\\\\dot M_{O_{ 2} } $$\\u000a) and ventilatory flow (\\u000a$$\\\\dot V_w $$\\u000a) decreased markedly during the first days after transfer, then

Valérie Maxime; Marguerite Peyraud-Waitzenergger; Guy Claireaux; Claude Peyraud

1990-01-01

198

Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aquaculture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored. PMID:14575369

Rolland, J B; Winton, J R

2003-09-01

199

SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

200

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

201

Surveillance for infectious salmon anaemia virus HPR0 in marine Atlantic salmon farms across Scotland.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a serious and commercially important pathogen of Atlantic salmon. Multiple viruses have been defined based on a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein encoded by genomic segment 6. The viruses causing disease outbreaks in farms to date all have deletions in this region with respect to a putative ancestral variant with a longer HPR (HPR0). The presence of HPR0 nucleic acid has been detected in many countries including Scotland, where it has mostly been associated with healthy wild and farmed fish. Pathogenic ISAVs appear to have been derived from HPR0 ancestors on multiple independent occasions, which suggests that the presence of HPR0 could represent a risk factor in the re-emergence of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) disease. In order to better understand this potential risk factor, anonymous samples of gill and heart tissues from marine Atlantic salmon farms throughout Scotland were collected and screened for the presence of ISAV RNA. Since it has not been possible to isolate HPR0 in conventional ISA-permissive cell cultures, a sensitive real-time RT-PCR method was employed for the detection of viral RNA. DNA sequencing was carried out on the positive samples to determine their HPR sequence. ISAV RNA was detected in 6 samples originating from 4 different locations and sequence analysis indicated the viruses were of the HPR0 type. Full length segment 6 sequence analysis of 1 positive sample indicated that it was most similar to a European genotype sequence previously obtained from North America. PMID:20099410

McBeath, Alastair J A; Bain, Nicola; Snow, Michael

2009-12-01

202

The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields back to 1750  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local to regional climate anomalies are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) variations in former times is therefore crucial when addressing past climate changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP reconstructions lack data from the ocean, particularly in the pre-1850 period. Here we present a new statistically-derived 5° × 5° resolved gridded seasonal SLP dataset covering the eastern North Atlantic, Europe and the Mediterranean area (40°W-50°E; 20°N-70°N) back to 1750 using terrestrial instrumental pressure series and marine wind information from ship logbooks. For the period 1750-1850, the new SLP reconstruction provides a more accurate representation of the strength of the winter westerlies as well as the location and variability of the Azores High than currently available multiproxy pressure field reconstructions. These findings strongly support the potential of ship logbooks as an important source to determine past circulation variations especially for the pre-1850 period. This new dataset can be further used for dynamical studies relating large-scale atmospheric circulation to temperature and precipitation variability over the Mediterranean and Eurasia, for the comparison with outputs from GCMs as well as for detection and attribution studies.

Küttel, M.; Xoplaki, E.; Gallego, D.; Luterbacher, J.; García-Herrera, R.; Allan, R.; Barriendos, M.; Jones, P. D.; Wheeler, D.; Wanner, H.

2010-06-01

203

Role of insulin and IGF-I on the regulation of glucose metabolism in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed with different dietary carbohydrate levels.  

PubMed

The roles of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the regulation of glucose metabolism were assessed in European sea bass juveniles fed with distinct dietary carbohydrate levels. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 10% (10%PGS) or 30% (30%PGS) pregelatinized starch or no starch (control). The highest plasma glucose and insulin levels were observed 6h after feeding in fish receiving the 30%PGS diet. Although plasma IGF-I was higher at 6h than at 24h after feeding, no effect of dietary carbohydrate level was noticed within each sampling time. Increasing dietary carbohydrate level resulted in an increase of liver but not of muscle glycogen content. Hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities increased with the dietary carbohydrate content, whereas pyruvate kinase (PK) activity was higher in fish fed the carbohydrate containing diets than the carbohydrate-free diet. GK activity was higher 6h than 24h after feeding, whereas the opposite was observed for G6PD activity. Data suggest that under the nutritional conditions assayed plasma glucose is an insulin secretagogue. Furthermore, insulin appears to have a more important role than IGF-I in stimulating hepatic glucose uptake, thus enhancing GK activity and leading to an increase in liver glycogen content to maintain glucose homeostasis. PMID:20696267

Enes, P; Sanchez-Gurmaches, J; Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Oliva-Teles, A

2010-08-07

204

Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) increases growth performance and intestinal bacterial range-weighted richness in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

The bacterial storage polymer poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has the potential to be used as an alternative anti-infective strategy for aquaculture rearing. In this research, the effects of (partially) replacing the feed of European sea bass juveniles with PHB were investigated. During a 6-week trial period, the PHB showed the ability to act as an energy source for the fish. This indicated that PHB was degraded and used during gastrointestinal passage. The gut pH decreased from 7.7 to 7.2 suggesting that the presence of PHB in the gut led to the increased production of (short-chain fatty) acids. The diets supplemented with 2% and 5% PHB (w/w) induced a gain of the initial fish weight with a factor 2.4 and 2.7, respectively, relative to a factor 2.2 in the normal feed treatment. Simultaneously, these treatments showed the highest bacterial range-weighted richness in the fish intestine. Based on molecular analysis, higher dietary PHB levels induced larger changes in the bacterial community composition. From our results, it seems that PHB can have a beneficial effect on fish growth performance and that the intestinal bacterial community structure may be closely related to this phenomenon. PMID:20094715

De Schryver, Peter; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kunwar, Prabesh Singh; Baruah, Kartik; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico; De Boeck, Gudrun; Bossier, Peter

2010-01-22

205

Induction of a Protective Immune Response against Viral Nervous Necrosis in the European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax by Using Betanodavirus Virus-Like Particles  

PubMed Central

Betanodaviruses are causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus particles contain a single type of coat protein that spontaneously assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed in a baculovirus expression system. In the present study, the immunogenicity of betanodavirus VLPs and the protection they confer against VNN in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and seroneutralization tests performed on plasma from fish vaccinated intramuscularly with doses as low as 0.1 ?g of VLPs indicated that the VLPs elicited the synthesis of specific antibetanodavirus antibodies with neutralizing activity. Moreover, fish vaccinated with VLPs were protected from challenge with live virus. Both the immune response and the protective effect against viral challenge were dose dependent. Reverse transcription-PCR data indicated that higher doses of vaccine also reduced the number of fish containing detectable quantities of betanodavirus RNA on day 30 after challenge. Taken together these data strongly support the hypothesis that VLPs obtained in the baculovirus expression system may represent an effective vaccine against VNN.

Thiery, R.; Cozien, J.; Cabon, J.; Lamour, F.; Baud, M.; Schneemann, A.

2006-01-01

206

Augmentation of protein synthesis and degradation by poor dietary amino acid balance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

Sea bass fry were fed a fixed ration of one of six isonitrogenous diets differing in essential amino acid balance or physical and chemical state of the protein source (Hydrolysate vs. intact protein) to induce different growth rates. The reference diet was based on fish meal, whereas the other diets contained fish protein hydrolysate, greaves meal (i.e., defatted collagen meal) or hydrolyzed feather meal added at 30 or 50% of crude protein at the expense of fish meal protein. Digestibility as well as fractional rate of whole-body protein synthesis was assessed. Whole-body protein synthesis was determined for each group of fish using a single injection of flooding dose of tritiated phenylalanine. Protein digestibility of the diets varied only by 5.5%. Specific growth rate and fractional protein specific growth rate, i.e., fractional protein accretion, were higher in fish fed the reference diet than in those fed the diets in which 50% of fish meal protein had been replaced by greaves or hydrolyzed feather meal protein. Compared with the reference group, whole-body protein synthesis was higher in fish fed these latter diets as well as in those fed the diet containing 30% greaves meal protein. The fractional protein accretion to fractional protein synthesis ratio, i.e., the efficiency of protein deposition, was lower in fish fed poorer dietary amino acid balance than in the reference group. The substitution of fish protein hydrolysate for intact fish protein led to a similar, though less pronounced phenomenon: nonsignificant increase in protein synthesis accompanied by significant increase in protein degradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8410368

Langar, H; Guillaume, J; Metailler, R; Fauconneau, B

1993-10-01

207

Emergence and maintenance of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Europe: a new hypothesis.  

PubMed

The present study describes the use of molecular methods in studying infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), an important pathogen of farmed salmon in Norway, Scotland, the Faeroe Islands, Canada, USA and Chile. The nucleotide sequences of the haemagglutinin gene (HA) from 70 ISAV isolates have been analysed for phylogenetic relationship and the average mutation rate of nucleotide substitutions calculated. The isolates constitute 2 major groups, 1 European and 1 North American group. The isolate from Chile is closely related to the North American isolates. The European isolates can be further divided into 3 separate groups reflecting geographical distribution, time of collection, and transmission connected with farming activity. Based on existing information about infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and new information emerging from the present study, it is hypothesised that: (1) ISAV is maintained in wild populations of trout and salmon in Europe; (2) it is transmitted between wild hosts mainly during their freshwater spawning phase in rivers; (3) wild salmonids, mainly trout, possibly carry benign wild-type ISAV isolates; (4) a change (mutation) in virulence probably results from deletions of amino acid segments from the highly polymorphic region (HPR) of benign wild-type isolates; (5) ISA emerges in farmed Atlantic salmon when mutated isolates are transmitted from wild salmonids or, following mutation of benign isolates, in farmed salmon after transmission from wild salmonids; (6) farming activity is an important factor in transmission of ISAV between farming sites in addition to transmission of ISAV from wild salmonids to farmed salmon; (7) transmission of ISAV from farmed to wild salmonids probably occurs less frequently than transmission from wild to farmed fish due to lower frequency of susceptible wild individuals; (8) the frequency of new outbreaks of ISA in farmed salmon probably reflects natural variation in the prevalence of ISAV in wild populations of salmonids. PMID:14524497

Nylund, A; Devold, M; Plarre, H; Isdal, E; Aarseth, M

2003-08-15

208

Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostaglandins on oocyte maturation in a marine teleost, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

The effects of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and prostaglandins (PGs) on oocyte maturation were investigated in a marine teleost, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Follicle-enclosed postvitellogenic, preovulatory oocytes were cultured in vitro and maturation was verified by assessing volume increase, lipid droplet coalescence, yolk clarification, and germinal vesicle migration and breakdown. Human chorionic gonadotropin was administered as the maturation-inducing gonadotropin (GTH) and was capable of inducing maturation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Free AA induced maturation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and enhanced GTH-induced maturation, while EPA, DHA, and oleic acid were ineffective. Maturation induced by GTH was significantly suppressed by a phospholipase A(2) blocker, suggesting that mobilization of AA was involved in GTH-induced maturation. Moreover, EPA and DHA exhibited a significant, dose-dependent attenuation of GTH-induced maturation. Maturation induced by GTH was inhibited in the presence of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, and this inhibition was reversed by addition of AA, PGE(2), or PGF(2alpha). PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) alone were both effective stimulators of maturation, while PGE(1) and PGE(3) were ineffective. The effect of PUFAs on oocyte maturation in vitro were corroborated with studies in vivo. Oocytes were obtained from females fed a commercial, PUFA-enriched diet (RD) and maturational behavior was compared with oocytes from females fed a natural diet (ND) with a higher EPA content and n-3:n-6 ratio. Although no significant difference was observed in the rate of spontaneous oocyte maturation, a higher percentage of GTH-induced maturation and lower percentage of atresia were observed in RD oocytes. Moreover, while basal PGE production from oocytes from both groups was the same, RD oocytes produced significantly higher levels of PGE in the presence of hCG. The results from this study provide evidence for the participation of AA metabolism in GTH-induced oocyte maturation, and suggest that other PUFAs and PGs may play important roles in the induction of maturation in a marine teleost. PMID:11133697

Sorbera, L A; Asturiano, J F; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

2001-01-01

209

Risk-Based Consumption Advice for Farmed Atlantic and Wild Pacific Salmon Contaminated with Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds  

PubMed Central

We reported recently that several organic contaminants occurred at elevated concentrations in farmed Atlantic salmon compared with concentrations of the same contaminants in wild Pacific salmon [Hites et al. Science 303:226–229 (2004)]. We also found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, dieldrin, dioxins, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers occurred at higher concentrations in European farm-raised salmon than in farmed salmon from North and South America. Health risks (based on a quantitative cancer risk assessment) associated with consumption of farmed salmon contaminated with PCBs, toxaphene, and dieldrin were higher than risks associated with exposure to the same contaminants in wild salmon. Here we present information on cancer and noncancer health risks of exposure to dioxins in farmed and wild salmon. The analysis is based on a tolerable intake level for dioxin-like compounds established by the World Health Organization and on risk estimates for human exposure to dioxins developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Consumption of farmed salmon at relatively low frequencies results in elevated exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds with commensurate elevation in estimates of health risk.

Foran, Jeffery A.; Carpenter, David O.; Hamilton, M. Coreen; Knuth, Barbara A.; Schwager, Steven J.

2005-01-01

210

SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

211

Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon  

PubMed Central

The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet.

Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

2009-01-01

212

Diphyllobothriasis associated with eating raw pacific salmon.  

PubMed

The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet. PMID:19523283

Arizono, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

2009-06-01

213

Infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a commercially important orthomyxovirus causing disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. The cumulative mortality in a net pen during an outbreak may vary from insignificant to more than 90%. The infection is spread by management activity such as well-boat traffic, but possibly also through contact with wild fish. In many of its aspects, including the structure of the virus particle and replication strategy, the ISAV is similar to the influenza viruses. Variations between ISAV and the influenza viruses can mostly be related to differences in the temperature at which replication occurs and the immune response of their respective host animals. ISAV shows both haemagglutinating and receptor-destroying activity. The variability of the ISAV haemagglutinin molecule is concentrated around a small domain close to the transmembrane region. The function of this variable region is unknown, but it may be related to a recent or ongoing crossing of a species barrier. Alignment studies based on genetic data indicate that the phylogenetic relationship to the influenza viruses is distant, and that ISAV therefore could possibly warrant a new genus within Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:12076262

Rimstad, Espen; Mjaaland, Siri

2002-04-01

214

Effects of photoperiod on pituitary levels of three forms of GnRH and reproductive hormones in the male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) during testicular differentiation and first testicular recrudescence.  

PubMed

Photoperiod is one of the main external cues in the control of different stages of fish development. In the present work, the effect of several photoperiods, known to delay spawning in adult fish, was investigated in juvenile male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during testicular differentiation and first testicular recrudescence. Fish were exposed to constant long (LO), expanded (EX), constant short photoperiod with long photoperiod in October (SLoct) and constant short photoperiod with long photoperiod in December (SLdec) during two consecutive years. Pituitary levels of three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) [sea bream GnRH (sbGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), and salmon GnRH (sGnRH)] were analysed and plasma levels of gonadotropin (LH), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were determined in the same periods. During both periods, pituitary levels of sbGnRH were higher than cGnRH-II and sGnRH in all groups. The three GnRHs had significantly lower values in November 1995 in groups exposed to artificial photoperiods during the testicular differentiation and growth period compared to the control group. In addition, a significant effect of LO, EX, and SLoct photoperiods was observed in the LH plasma profile, showing a significant delay in the peak of LH compared to the control group. However, no significant effect of the artificial photoperiods on the pituitary content of the three GnRHs has been observed during the first testicular recrudescence. Deeper studies are needed to understand the effect of artificial photoperiods on the endocrine events occurring during both histological testicular differentiation and growth and first testicular maturation in the sea bass. PMID:14980795

Rodríguez, Lucinda; Carrillo, Manuel; Sorbera, Lisa A; Zohar, Yoni; Zanuy, Silvia

2004-03-01

215

DNA Methylation of the Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a) Promoter Is Involved in Temperature-Dependent Sex Ratio Shifts in the European Sea Bass  

PubMed Central

Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive. We show in the European sea bass (sb), a fish in which temperature effects on sex ratios are maximal before the gonads form, that juvenile males have double the DNA methylation levels of females in the promoter of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a), the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens. Exposure to high temperature increased the cyp19a promoter methylation levels of females, indicating that induced-masculinization involves DNA methylation-mediated control of aromatase gene expression, with an observed inverse relationship between methylation levels and expression. Although different CpGs within the sb cyp19a promoter exhibited different sensitivity to temperature, we show that the increased methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter, which occurs in the gonads but not in the brain, is not a generalized effect of temperature. Importantly, these effects were also observed in sexually undifferentiated fish and were not altered by estrogen treatment. Thus, methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter is the cause of the lower expression of cyp19a in temperature-masculinized fish. In vitro, induced methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter suppressed the ability of SF-1 and Foxl2 to stimulate transcription. Finally, a CpG differentially methylated by temperature and adjacent to a Sox transcription factor binding site is conserved across species. Thus, DNA methylation of the aromatase promoter may be an essential component of the long-sought-after mechanism connecting environmental temperature and sex ratios in vertebrate species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

Navarro-Martin, Laia; Vinas, Jordi; Ribas, Laia; Diaz, Noelia; Gutierrez, Arantxa; Di Croce, Luciano; Piferrer, Francesc

2011-01-01

216

Expression of kisspeptins and kiss receptors suggests a large range of functions for kisspeptin systems in the brain of the European sea bass.  

PubMed

This study, conducted in the brain of a perciform fish, the European sea bass, aimed at raising antibodies against the precursor of the kisspeptins in order to map the kiss systems and to correlate the expression of kisspeptins, kiss1 and kiss2, with that of kisspeptin receptors (kiss-R1 and kiss-R2). Specific antibodies could be raised against the preprokiss2, but not the preoprokiss1. The data indicate that kiss2 neurons are mainly located in the hypothalamus and project widely to the subpallium and pallium, the preoptic region, the thalamus, the pretectal area, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mediobasal medial and caudal hypothalamus, and the neurohypophysis. These results were compared to the expression of kiss-R1 and kiss-R2 messengers, indicating a very good correlation between the wide distribution of Kiss2-positive fibers and that of kiss-R2 expressing cells. The expression of kiss-R1 messengers was more limited to the habenula, the ventral telencephalon and the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. Attempts to characterize the phenotype of the numerous cells expressing kiss-R2 showed that neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase are targets for kisspeptins, while GnRH1 neurons did not appear to express kiss-R1 or kiss-R2 messengers. In addition, a striking result was that all somatostatin-positive neurons expressed-kissR2. These data show that kisspeptins are likely to regulate a wide range of neuronal systems in the brain of teleosts. PMID:23894610

Escobar, Sebastián; Servili, Arianna; Espigares, Felipe; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Brocal, Isabel; Felip, Alicia; Gómez, Ana; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier

2013-07-23

217

Genetic variation losses in Atlantic salmon stocks created for supportive breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of genetic variability is of priority for hatchery stocks employed to supplement natural populations. Supportive breeding of Atlantic salmon is carried out in order to enhance wild populations at the south of the European distribution (northern Spain). In this study we demonstrated that adult breeders chosen for creating hatchery stocks by artificial spawning preserved all genetic variants present in

Gonzalo Machado-Schiaffino; Eduardo Dopico; Eva Garcia-Vazquez

2007-01-01

218

Examining the loss of genetic variation in Atlantic salmon stocks created for supportive breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of genetic variability is of priority for hatchery stocks employed to supplement natural populations. Supportive breeding of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to enhance wild populations is particularly important at the south of the European distribution (northern Spain). In this region, wild adults are caught every year from local rivers and artificially crossed. The offspring are hatchery reared until juvenile

Jose L. Horreo; Gonzalo Machado-Schiaffino; Andrew Griffiths; Dylan Bright; Jamie Stevens; Eva Garcia-Vazquez

219

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

Wgbh; Domain, Teachers'

220

Hybrid origin of Baltic salmon-specific parasite Gyrodactylus salaris: a model for speciation by host switch for hemiclonal organisms.  

PubMed

Host switching explains the high species number of ectoparasitic, viviparous, mainly parthenogenetic but potentially hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Gyrodactylus. The starlike mitochondrial phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salaris suggested parallel divergence of several clades on grayling (also named as Gyrodactylus thymalli) and an embedded sister clade on Baltic salmon. The hypothesis that the parasite switched from grayling to salmon during the glacial diaspora was tested using a 493-bp nuclear DNA marker ADNAM1. The parasites on salmon in lakes Onega and Ladoga were heterozygous for divergent ADNAM1 alleles WS1 and BS1, found as nearly fixed in grayling parasites in the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins, respectively. In the Baltic salmon-specific mtDNA clade, the WS/BS heterozygosity was maintained in 23 out of the 24 local clones. The permanently heterozygous clade was endemic in the Baltic Sea basin, and it had accumulated variation in mtDNA (31 variable sites on 1600 bp) and in the alleles of the nuclear locus (two point mutations and three nucleotide conversions along 493 bp). Mendelian shuffling of the nuclear alleles between the local clones indicated rare sex within the clade, but the WS/BS heterozygosity was lost in only one salmon hatchery clone, which was heterozygous WS1/WS3. The Baltic salmon-specific G. salaris lineage was monophyletic, descending from a single historical hybridization and consequential host switch, frozen by permanent heterozygosity. A possible time for the hybridization of grayling parasite strains from the White Sea and Baltic Sea basins was during the Eemian interglacial 132 000 years bp. Strains having a separate divergent mtDNA observed on farmed rainbow trout, and on salmon in Russian lake Kuito were suggested to be clones derived from secondary and tertiary recombination events. PMID:17971088

Kuusela, Jussi; Zietara, Marek S; Lumme, J

2007-10-30

221

Outbreeding Depression after Two Generations of Hybridizing Southeast Alaska Coho Salmon Populations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

No fitness loss was detected in second-generation hybrids, relative to parental controls, between three pairs of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch populations from Southeast Alaska, in which groups were cultured in a common freshwater environment, released to sea together, and recovered together as adults. Divergence among the populations as measured by neutral molecular markers was significant. Marine survival did not differ

Tyler H. Dann; William W. Smoker; Jeffrey J. Hard; Anthony J. Gharrett

2010-01-01

222

Maine's Diadromous Fish Community: Past, Present, and Implications for Atlantic Salmon Recovery FEATURE: ENDANGERED SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-evolved diadromous fishes may play important roles in key life history events of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in northeastern U.S. riverine ecosys- tems. We reviewed available information on the historic and current abundance of alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), American shad (Alosa sapidissima), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) for several rivers in Maine. Historically,

Rory Saunders; Michael A. Hachey; Clem W. Fay

2006-01-01

223

Sustainable salmon aquaculture and tidal flushing in a macrotidal ecosystem: Cobscook Bay, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobscook Bay, Maine is located at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. Cobscook Bay supports an unusually productive and diverse ecosystem including scallops, clams, mussels, sea urchins and macroalgae, all of which are commercially valuable. Salmon aquaculture has been introduced in Cobscook Bay and the adjoining Passamaquoddy Bay, and aquaculture has become an important contributor to the economy on

David A. Brooks; Michael W. Baca; Yao-Tsai Lo

1998-01-01

224

Pacific Salmon at the Crossroads: Stocks at Risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Fisheries Society herein provides a list of depleted Pacific salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat stocks from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, to accompany the list of rare inland fishes reported by Williams et al. (1989). The list includes 214 native naturally-spawning stocks: 101 at high risk of extinction, 58 at moderate risk of extinction, 54 of special concern,

Jack E. Williams; Willa Nehlsen; James A. Lichatowich

1991-01-01

225

Sablefish Predation on Juvenile Pacific Salmon in the Coastal Marine Waters of Southeast Alaska in 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

At-sea observations of predation by age-1 and older (age-1+) sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria on juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. were combined with laboratory studies to determine gastric evacuation rates and were used to estimate summer predation impact in the northern region of Southeast Alaska. In June and July 1999, up to 63% of sablefish examined from trawl catches in strait habitat

M. V. Sturdevant; M. F. Sigler; J. A. Orsi

2009-01-01

226

Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built

Aoife Guiry; Denis Flynn; Sophie Hubert; Allan M O'Keeffe; Olivier LeProvost; Samantha L White; Patrick F Forde; Pamela Davoren; Benoit Houeix; Terry J Smith; Deirdre Cotter; Noel P Wilkins; Michael T Cairns

2010-01-01

227

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages.  

PubMed

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dalvin, Sussie T; Bron, James E; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-09-12

228

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages  

PubMed Central

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite.

Dalvin, Sussie T.; Bron, James E.; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

229

Epidemiology of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea) in the River Tornionjoki, a Baltic wild salmon river.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Gyrodactylus salaris in the River Tornionjoki was investigated in 2000-2004. Infection of salmon parr, Salmo salar, was common in the uppermost reach of the river system but decreased downstream and was rare in the lowermost reach. This pattern was consistent across the study period regardless of varying water temperatures. The oldest age groups of parr were more often infected than younger ones throughout the river system, irrespective of their origin (wild or stocked). Parasite-free hatchery-reared 1-year-old parr became infected during their first summer in the wild. Downmigrating salmon smolts had a high prevalence of infection, but their role in the distribution of infection seemed unimportant. On grayling, Thymallus thymallus, we observed only the grayling-specific clade of Gyrodactylus. We found no indication of grayling participating in the epidemiology of infection on salmon. The salmon parr and smolt population in the Tornionjoki has been at its height during the late 1990s and 2000s. Our results indicate that G. salaris infection in this Baltic river has no devastating effects on the salmon population as it has had in salmon rivers flowing into the North Atlantic and White Sea. PMID:18355178

Anttila, P; Romakkaniemi, A; Kuusela, J; Koski, P

2008-03-19

230

Organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in four geographically separated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar) populations from four locations, two from isolated Swedish lake systems, one of the Baltic Sea and one of the North Atlantic, were analyzed to determine the concentrations and spatial variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines (DDT, PCB and HCH). Levels in both liver and muscle were in the same range as previously reported in Atlantic salmon, except for elevated concentrations found per lipid weight (lw) in the muscle samples of salmon from the North Atlantic ( summation PBDE 263 ng g(-1) lw, summation PCB 3262 ng g(-1) lw, summation DDT 4063 ng g(-1) lw summation HCH 131 ng g(-1)). In general, elevated concentrations in the muscles compared to the liver were observed, especially in lipid depleted migrating salmon, possibly caused by a faster lipid depletion compared with the redistribution of PBDEs, PCBs and DDTs. These findings indicated that the life stage and thereby the lipid dynamics of the fish must be considered prior to comparison based on lipid weight, especially as Atlantic salmon experience large variations in lipid content during periods of migration. The dominating PBDE congener was BDE-47, representing more than 25% in all fish. The PBDE pattern changed between locations, with a significant separation of the fish from the freshwater and marine environment when analyzed using principal component analysis. PMID:17968448

Svendsen, Tore Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rønsholdt, Bent; Frier, Jens-Ole

2007-08-14

231

Evidence for geomagnetic imprinting as a homing mechanism in Pacific salmon.  

PubMed

In the final phase of their spawning migration, Pacific salmon use chemical cues to identify their home river, but how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic. To test the hypothesis that salmon imprint on the magnetic field that exists where they first enter the sea and later seek the same field upon return, we analyzed a 56-year fisheries data set on Fraser River sockeye salmon, which must detour around Vancouver Island to approach the river through either a northern or southern passageway. We found that the proportion of salmon using each route was predicted by geomagnetic field drift: the more the field at a passage entrance diverged from the field at the river mouth, the fewer fish used the passage. We also found that more fish used the northern passage in years with warmer sea surface temperature (presumably because fish were constrained to more northern latitudes). Field drift accounted for 16% of the variation in migratory route used, temperature 22%, and the interaction between these variables 28%. These results provide the first empirical evidence of geomagnetic imprinting in any species and imply that forecasting salmon movements is possible using geomagnetic models. PMID:23394828

Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Emily M; Quinn, Thomas P; Klimley, A Peter; Noakes, David L G

2013-02-07

232

Potential for Salmon Aquaculture in Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference on salmon aquaculture and the Alaskan fishing community addresses a broad spectrum of technical and social issues which relate to artificial recruitment of salmon and ocean ranching. This report discusses the number of spawners required for...

W. J. McNeil

1976-01-01

233

Transmission of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in farmed populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

In the present study, 24 smolt production sites were screened for the presence of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) with the help of a specific real-time RT PCR assay, and 22 of these sites had smolts that were positive. If these smolt production sites are representative for the prevalence of ISAV in Norwegian smolts, then most marine production sites must be considered to be positive for ISAV. In addition, 92 European ISAV isolates have been genotyped based on the hemagglutinin-esterase gene (HE), and their distribution pattern was analysed. This pattern has been coupled to information about the origin of smolt, eggs, and broodfish in those cases where it has been possible to obtain such information, and with information about ISAV in neighbouring farms. The pattern suggests that an important transmission route for the ISAV could be that the salmon farming industry in Norway is circulating some of the isolates in the production cycle, i.e. some sort of vertical or transgenerational transmission may occur. It has also been shown that avirluent ISAV isolates are fairly common in Norwegian farmed salmon. Based on this, it is hypothesized that the change from avirulent to virulent ISAV isolates is a stochastic event that is dependent on the replication frequency of the virus and the time available for changes in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the HE gene to occur. This, and the possibility that only avirluent ISAV isolates are vertically transmitted, may explain why ISA most often occurs at marine sites and why no more than about 15 farms get ISA every year in Norway. PMID:16941061

Nylund, A; Plarre, H; Karlsen, M; Fridell, F; Ottem, K F; Bratland, A; Saether, P A

2006-08-28

234

Japan's Salmon Supply, 1974-83.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan's salmon supply has more than doubled during the decade from 1974 to 1983, and hatchery-produced salmon are contributing an increasingly larger portion of the salmon consumed in Japan. The Japan Fisheries Agency estimated that hatchery-produced salm...

A. G. Herrfurth

1984-01-01

235

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

US DOE

1999-01-01

236

Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

US DOE

1999-01-01

237

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

238

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

239

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

USDOE NV

1999-01-01

240

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

US DOE

1999-01-01

241

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

US DOE

1999-01-01

242

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

243

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

244

Molecular characterisation of growth differentiation factor 9 (gdf9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15) and their patterns of gene expression during the ovarian reproductive cycle in the European sea bass.  

PubMed

Members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), have crucial roles in primary follicle growth in mammals. To initiate investigations into their significance in teleost oogenesis, we set out to clone and characterise the cDNAs of gdf9 and bmp15 and analysed their patterns of gene expression during the ovarian reproductive cycle in the European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax). Sea bass gdf9 and bmp15 cDNAs were 2200 and 2049 bp long, coding for 438 and 459 amino acids (aas), respectively, and were most similar to zebrafish gdf9 and bmp15 (64.4 and 56.1%, respectively). By Northern analysis, sea bass gdf9 and bmp15 mRNA transcripts were detected in the ovary only of the tissues analysed and their sizes were 2.2 and 2.1 kb, respectively. Dot-blot analysis revealed high levels of gdf9 and bmp15 expression in the ovary during primary oocyte growth and previtellogenesis (July to October), with a significant decline at the onset of vitellogenesis (November) and remaining low until the beginning of new oocyte growth (April/May). There was a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.939) between gdf9 and bmp15 gene expression in individual samples. The high levels of gdf9 and bmp15 mRNA transcripts in the ovary, especially during the previtellogenic growth period suggest an important role for these factors in early primary oocyte growth in the European sea bass. PMID:18423979

Halm, S; Ibañez, A J; Tyler, C R; Prat, F

2008-03-16

245

Comparison of organotin accumulation in the masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou accompanying migratory histories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the accumulation pattern of organotin compounds (OTs) accompanying the migration pattern in diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds and their derivatives were determined in the liver, muscle, gill, and ovary tissues of both sea-run and freshwater-resident masu salmon, which are of the same species, Oncorhynchus masou. Their migratory histories were estimated using strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) analysis in the otolith. A significant difference in the mean Sr:Ca ratio from the core to the edge of the otolith was found between sea-run and freshwater-resident masu salmon. The TBT concentration in the liver was significantly higher than that in the other tissues in both sea-run and freshwater-resident fishes. In sea-run masu salmon, the TBT concentrations in all tissues except for the ovary were significantly higher than in those of freshwater-resident individuals. In the sea-run type, the percentage of TBT was higher than that of the freshwater-resident type. The TPT concentration in the liver of the sea-run type was also significantly higher than that in the other tissues, while that in the gill of the freshwater-resident type was significantly higher than that in the other tissues except for the ovary. The TPT concentrations found in the liver and muscle of the sea-run type were significantly higher than those in the freshwater-resident type, whereas the values of the gill in the sea-run type were significantly lower than those in the freshwater-resident fish examined. The percentage of TPT in the sea-run type was higher than that of the freshwater-resident type. These results suggest that the sea-run O. masou has a higher ecological risk of TBT and TPT exposure than the freshwater-residents during their life history.

Ohji, Madoka; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

2007-05-01

246

Review of Potential Impacts of Atlantic Salmon Culture on Puget Sound Chinook Salmon and Hood Canal Summer-Run Chum Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document examines the potential of Atlantic salmon farming in Puget Sound to impose adverse impacts on the Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Hood Canal summer-run chum salmon (O. keta) evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), ...

2002-01-01

247

Ocean Carrying Capacity : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 6 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival of coho salmon appears to be determined in the first month at sea while the fish are still in local marine areas in the upwelling zone. There is stronger evidence that upwelling might influence vulnerability to predation. A broader ecosystem view which considers salmon as a member of a complex marine community offers additional insight and raises new questions regarding the marine mortality of salmon. The pelagic fish community in the upwelling zone has undergone dramatic change in the last 50 years. That change is consistent with the historical record, however, the system has not completed a full cycle of change (as it has in the past) since the stocks have been subjected to intense commercial and sport exploitation. Salmon seem to be responding to shifts in productivity in the coastal upwelling zone.

Lichatowich, Jim

1993-06-01

248

Deoxyribonuclease from Salmon Testes  

PubMed Central

A procedure is described for the purification of salmon testis deoxyribonuclease II by means of acid extraction, fractional precipitation with ammonium sulfate, heat denaturation of extraneous proteins, and ethanol fractionation. This process separates the deoxyribonuclease activity from that of ribonuclease, phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, and protease. Over 50 per cent of the activity is retained with an over-all enrichment of 20,000-fold. The enzyme degrades both native and heat-denatured DNA, but the rate of degradation of the latter is only one-tenth that of the former. It does not hydrolyze apurinic acid. The enzyme is most stable in the pH range 4 to 5. Electrolytes are essential for the expression of its activity: monovalent ions satisfy the requirement, but divalent ones are much more effective. Above a certain optimum concentration, each electrolyte is inhibitory. The pH of maximal activity, under conditions of optimal ionic strength, is 4.8; the temperature optimum is near to 55°C.

McDonald, Margaret R.

1962-01-01

249

Spawning Habitat Segregation of Sympatric Sockeye and Pink Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatiotemporal distributions and microhabitat use of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka were studied in Lake Creek, southeast Alaska, during three spawning seasons. Sockeye salmon migrated approximately 1 week earlier than pink salmon and spawned 250–350 m upstream from pink salmon. Habitat overlap measured with proportional similarity index monotonically increased with increasing spawner densities. Multidimensional niche spaces

Michio Fukushima; William W. Smoker

1998-01-01

250

Comparison of genetic diversity in the recently founded Connecticut River Atlantic salmon population to that of its primary donor stock, Maine's Penobscot River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to the Connecticut River (CR) from 1996 to 1999 were assayed for variability at nine microsatellite DNA loci. Heterozygosity and allele frequencies were compared to the anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to Maine's Penobscot River from 1998 to 2000. The Penobscot River was the primary source of the salmon used to found the previously extirpated population in the Connecticut River. While there were no significant differences in heterozygosity between the source population and the Connecticut River sea-run spawners, microsatellite allele frequencies were significantly different between the populations. Two techniques of estimating effective population size (Ne) suggested a healthy level of genetic variation in the Connecticut River population of anadromous Atlantic salmon. This is significant because the sea-run population is maintained almost entirely through hatchery production. Healthy ratios of Ne to N indicate that hatchery production has not resulted in excessive inbreeding to date. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Spidle, A. P.; King, T. L.; Letcher, B. H.

2004-01-01

251

Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differ

Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

2009-03-09

252

The effect of hyperoxygenation and reduced flow in fresh water and subsequent infectious pancreatic necrosis virus challenge in sea water, on the intestinal barrier integrity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

In high intensive fish production systems, hyperoxygenation and reduced flow are often used to save water and increase the holding capacity. This commonly used husbandry practice has been shown to be stressful to fish and increase mortality after infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) challenge, but the cause and effect relationship is not known. Salmonids are particularly sensitive to stress during smoltification and the first weeks after seawater (SW) transfer. This work aimed at investigating the impact of hyperoxygenation combined with reduced flow in fresh water (FW), on the intestinal barrier in FW as well as during later life stages in SW. It further aims at investigating the role of the intestinal barrier during IPNV challenge and possible secondary infections. Hyperoxygenation in FW acted as a stressor as shown by significantly elevated plasma cortisol levels. This stressful husbandry condition tended to increase paracellular permeability (P(app)) as well as translocation of Aeromonas salmonicida in the posterior intestine of Atlantic salmon. After transfer to SW and subsequent IPNV challenge, intestinal permeability, as shown by P(app), and translocation rate of A. salmonicida increased in the anterior intestine, concomitant with further elevation in plasma cortisol levels. In the anterior intestine, four of five fish displayed alterations in intestinal appearance. In two of five fish, IPNV caused massive necrosis with significant loss of cell material and in a further two fish, IPNV caused increased infiltration of lymphocytes into the epithelium and granulocytes in the lamina propria. Hyperoxygenation and reduced flow in the FW stage may serve as stressors with impact mainly during later stages of development. Fish with an early history of hyperoxygenation showed a higher stress response concomitant with a disturbed intestinal barrier function, which may be a cause for the increased susceptibility to IPNV infection and increased susceptibility to secondary infections. PMID:19500205

Sundh, H; Olsen, R-E; Fridell, F; Gadan, K; Evensen, Ø; Glette, J; Taranger, G-L; Myklebust, R; Sundell, K

2009-06-04

253

Contemporary Pacific Salmon Fisheries Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful salmon fisheries management requires effective data systems, advance planning, well-supported spawning escapement objectives, dependable population-size determinations and recognition of practical differences between recreational and commercial fisheries. Ocean fisheries must be managed to ensure an escapement from the ocean that will support viable inside fisheries as well as meet spawning requirements, while the key to commercial net fisheries management inside

Sam Wright

1981-01-01

254

PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

255

WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

256

Persistent Reproductive Isolation between Sympatric Lineages of Fall Chinook Salmon in White Salmon River, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River are divided among two evolutionarily significant units: lower Columbia River fall Chinook salmon (or “tules”) in the lower portion of the river and upriver “brights” (URBs) in the upper portion. The two lineages migrate together through portions of the lower Columbia River but spawn allopatrically. Little White Salmon National

Christian T. Smith; Rod Engle

2011-01-01

257

THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

258

Multidecadal North Atlantic climate variability and its effect on North American salmon abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability is now known to play a key role in the abundance of marine fisheries, and must be accounted for to implement sustainable management strategies. We show that North American Atlantic salmon abundance has fluctuated in parallel with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO); a basin-wide, low frequency climate mode producing cold-warm-cold sea surface temperatures over the last century. During the AMO warm (cool) phase salmon abundance is lower (higher). Changes in sea surface temperature associated with the AMO are most pronounced in the winter season near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, a known overwintering area for salmon and an important time for determining survival. A moratorium on salmon fishing was established in 1992, but has so far contributed few signs of improvement in stock size. This may be explained by a shift in the AMO to a positive phase, producing persistently warm temperatures in the marine environment. Our findings show that a continued warming near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland will have a detrimental impact on this already depleted stock despite the reduction in commercial fishing.

Condron, Alan; DeConto, Robert; Bradley, Raymond S.; Juanes, Francis

2005-12-01

259

Influence of Reduced Feed Ration on Lepeophtheirus salmonis Infestation and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Juvenile Pink Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of reduced feed ration on infestation levels with the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and gene expression in juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha was tested in three laboratory trials. Body weight was significantly lower among fish on the reduced ration for 27, 34, or 65 d than fish on the full ration. Neither the prevalence nor the abundance of

Simon R. M. Jones; Mark D. Fast; Stewart C. Johnson

2008-01-01

260

The toxigenic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense as the probable cause of mortality of caged salmon in Nova Scotia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) are potent neurotoxins produced by natural populations of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. In early June 2000, a massive bloom (>7×105 cellsl?1) of this dinoflagellate coincided with an unusually high mortality of farmed salmon in sea cages in southeastern Nova Scotia. Conditions in the water column in the harbour were characterised by

A. D Cembella; M. A Quilliam; N. I Lewis; A. G Bauder; C Dell’Aversano; K Thomas; J Jellett; R. R Cusack

2002-01-01

261

Pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes, for the first time, clinical signs and pathological findings of pancreas disease (PD) in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Wal- baum), in sea water in Norway. Similarities and differences with reports of PD from Ireland and Scotland are discussed. Samples of 68 rainbow trout from disease outbreaks on 14 farms

T Taksdal; A B Olsen; I Bjerkås; M J Hjortaas; B H Dannevig; D A Graham; M F McLoughlin

2007-01-01

262

Modelling the migration opportunities of diadromous fish species along a gradient of dissolved oxygen concentration in a European tidal watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between poor water quality and migration opportunities for fish remains poorly documented, although it is an essential research step in implementing EU water legislation. In this paper, we model the environmental constraints that control the movements of anadromous and catadromous fish populations that migrate through the tidal watershed of River Scheldt, a heavily impacted river basin in Western Europe. Local populations of sturgeon, sea lamprey, sea trout, Atlantic salmon, houting and allis shad were essentially extirpated around 1900. For remaining populations (flounder, three-spined stickleback, twaite shad, thinlip mullet, European eel and European smelt), a data driven logistic model was parameterized. The presence or absence of fish species in samples taken between 1995 and 2004 was modelled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, river flow and season. Probabilities to catch individuals from all diadromous species but three-spined stickleback increased as a function of the interaction between temperature and dissolved oxygen. The hypoxic zone situated in the freshwater tidal part of the estuary was an effective barrier for upstream migrating anadromous spawners since it blocked the entrance to historical spawning sites upstream. Similarly, habitat availability for catadromous fish was greatly reduced and restricted to lower brackish water parts of the estuary. The model was applied to infer preliminary dissolved oxygen criteria for diadromous fish, to make qualitative predictions about future changes in fish distribution given anticipated changes in water quality and to suggest necessary measures with respect to watershed management.

Maes, J.; Stevens, M.; Breine, J.

2007-10-01

263

EAAE and Astronomy for European schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) is to promote astronomy education in schools and to stimulate the interest of pupils and students for astronomy. European projects for students and teachers such as Catch a Star, Sea and Space Life in the Universe, Physics on Stage and EAAE-Summer Schools show the different EAAE activities. Science on Stage 2005 and the European Astronomy Day 2007, two joint European projects with EAAE involvement are presented.

Wagner, F.

2005-11-01

264

Persistent organic pollutants in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters.  

PubMed

We measured persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in order to characterize dietary exposure in the highly contaminated, salmon-eating northeastern Pacific resident killer whales. We estimate that 97 to 99% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in returning adult chinook were acquired during their time at sea. Highest POP concentrations (including PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and DDT) and lowest lipids were observed in the more southerly chinook sampled. While feeding by salmon as they enter some more POP-contaminated near-shore environments inevitably contribute to their contamination, relationships observed between POP patterns and both lipid content and delta13C also suggest a migration-related metabolism and loss of the less-chlorinated PCB congeners. This has implications for killer whales, with the more PCB-contaminated salmon stocks in the south partly explaining the 4.0 to 6.6 times higher estimated daily intake for sigmaPCBs in southern resident killer whales compared to northern residents. We hypothesize that the lower lipid content of southerly chinook stocks may cause southern resident killer whales to increase their salmon consumption by as much as 50%, which would further increase their exposure to POPs. PMID:18702563

Cullon, Donna L; Yunker, Mark B; Alleyne, Carl; Dangerfield, Neil J; O'Neill, Sandra; Whiticar, Michael J; Ross, Peter S

2009-01-01

265

The Impact of Atmospheric Deposition of Non-Acidifying Substances on the Quality of European Forest Soils and the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pilot study ESQUAD the impact of atmospheric deposition of three heavy metals (cadmium, copper and lead) and two persistent organic pollutants (benzo(a)-pyrene and lindane) on the quality of European soils and seawater has been calculated. Calculations have been made of atmospheric transport and deposition using a detailed emissions database for Europe. This enabled deposition maps to be produced

K. D. Van den Hout; D. J. Bakker; J. J. M. Berdowski; J. A. Van Jaarsveld; G. J. Reinds; J. Bril; A. Breeuwsma; J. E. Groenenberg; W. De Vries; J. A. Van Pagee; M. Villars; C. J. Sliggers

1999-01-01

266

Partial replacement of dietary fish oil with blends of vegetable oils (rapeseed, linseed and palm oils) in diets for European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) over a long term growth study: Effects on muscle and liver fatty acid composition and effectiveness of a fish oil finishing diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triplicate groups of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), of initial mass 5 g, were fed one of three practical type diets for 64 weeks. The three diets differed only in the added oil and were 100% fish oil (FO; diet A), 40% FO\\/60% vegetable oil blend (VO; diet B) where the VO blend was rapeseed oil, linseed oil and palm oil

G. Mourente; J. G. Bell

2006-01-01

267

Evolution of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISA virus).  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus, ISA virus (genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae), emerged in Norwegian salmon culture in the mid-80s. The genome consists of eight segments coding for at least 10 proteins. ISA viruses show many of similarities to influenza A viruses but differ in many important aspects such as the number of hosts, the host population structure and the route of transmission. The only known hosts and reservoirs for ISA viruses are salmonids found in countries surrounding the North Atlantic. In this study, four different segments of the genome of about 100 ISA viruses have been sequenced in an attempt to understand the evolution of ISA viruses and how these viruses are maintained in and transmitted between populations of farmed Atlantic salmon. The four gene segments code for the nucleoprotein (NP), the putative acid polymerase (PA), the fusion protein (F) and the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE). Analysis of these four genes showed that the substitution rates of the internal proteins (NP and PA) are lower than those of the two surface proteins (F and HE). All four segments are evolving at a lower rate than similar genes in influenza A viruses. The ISA virus populations consist of avirulent viruses and pathogenic strains with variable virulence in Atlantic salmon. Recombination resulting in inserts close to the proteolytic-cleavage site of the precursor F0 protein and deletions in the stalk region of the HE protein seem to be responsible for the transition from avirulent ISA viruses to pathogenic strains. It is also shown that reassortment is a frequent event among the dominating ISA viruses in farmed Atlantic salmon. The pattern that is obtained after phylogenetic analysis of the four gene segments from ISA viruses suggests that the variation is limited to a few distinct clades and that no major changes have occurred in the ISA virus population in Norway since the first viruses were isolated. Calculation of the time of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) suggests that the Norwegian ISA viruses separated from the European subtype found in North America between 1932 and 1959. The TMRCA data also suggest that the ISA viruses in Chile were transmitted from Norway in the period from 1995 to 2007, depending on which of the four genes were used in the analysis. PMID:22886279

Plarre, Heidrun; Nylund, Are; Karlsen, Marius; Brevik, Øyvind; Sæther, Per Anton; Vike, Siri

2012-08-12

268

The European coastal zone: characterization and first assessment of ecosystem metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geomorphic, oceanographic, terrestrial and anthropogenic attributes of the European coastal zone are described and published data on ecosystem function (primary production and respiration) are reviewed. Four regions are considered: the Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the European Atlantic coast including the North Sea. The metabolic database (194 papers) suffers from a non-homogeneous geographical coverage with no usable

Frédéric Gazeau; Stephen V. Smithsupcs; Bernard Gentili; Michel Frankignoulle; Jean-Pierre Gattuso

2004-01-01

269

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is highly expressed and active in the ovary of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.), during gonadal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oocytes of many fish species accumulate high amounts of neutral lipids as a caloric reserve for embryonic and larval development. We propose that lipoprotein lipase (LPL, EC 3.1.1.34) plays an important role in supplying the oocytes with fatty acids and we have cloned its cDNA from the ovary of sea bass, and determined the patterns of LPL activity and

Antonio José Ibáñez; Julia Peinado-Onsurbe; Elisa Sánchez; José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter; Francisco Prat

2008-01-01

270

Effects of different dietary levels of fish protein hydrolysates on growth, digestive enzymes, gut microbiota, and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) were incorporated into four diets prepared for start-feeding sea bass larvae, at two different levels (10% and 19% of total ingredients): a commercial FPH, CPSP, in which the molecular mass of the main fraction of soluble peptides (51%) was between 500–2500 Da, and an experimental FPH obtained by acidic silage of sardine offal, SH, with a

Y. P. Kotzamanis; E. Gisbert; F. J. Gatesoupe; J. Zambonino Infante; C. Cahu

2007-01-01

271

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

272

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

273

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

274

Effective Size of Fluctuating Salmon Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon are semelparous but have overlapping year classes, which presents special challenges for the application of standard population genetics theory to these species. This article examines the relation- ship between the effective number of breeders per year (Nb) and single-generation and multigeneration effective population size (Ne) in salmon populations that fluctuate in size. A simple analytical model is developed

Robin S. Waples

275

Salmon River Restoration Monitoring and Education Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salmon River Restoration Council (SRRC) met its goals under this contract and established itself as a technological leader in the Klamath Basin. SRRC has been a major contributor to KRIS and has recently totally reworked the Salmon River Subbasin segm...

2001-01-01

276

Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

277

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

278

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

279

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

280

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

281

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

282

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

283

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

284

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

285

Efficacy of the treatments used for the control of Caligus rogercresseyi infecting Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in a new fish-farming location in Region XI, Chile.  

PubMed

Caligus rogercresseyi is the most important parasite affecting Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout farming in sea water in Chile. After the outbreaks of the infectious salmon anaemia recorded in Region X from 2007, the salmon industry has expanded southwards to Region XI, where 60% of Atlantic salmon in Chile is now produced. In parallel with the relocation of salmon production, sea lice infestation has also spread to Region XI, and today C. rogercresseyi is the most serious threat to the salmon-farming industry in this region. The results obtained through a year of monitoring between September 2007 and August 2008 on a farm located in the 'Las Guaitecas Archipelago' in Region XI (44°S; 74°W) showed that treatments with emamectin benzoate and deltamethrin did not give the expected control of Caligus. Failures of the treatments were associated with the loss of sensitivity recorded for C. rogercresseyi to emamectin benzoate in Region X. In addition, a major influence was the lack of delousing coordination measures with the neighbouring farms sharing the same area in that period. PMID:23347203

Bravo, S; Nuñez, M; Silva, M T

2013-01-24

286

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. ...Resources, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, or at the National...

2009-10-01

287

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. ...Resources, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, or at the National...

2010-10-01

288

Long-term environmental exposure to metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) activates the immune cell stress response in the common European sea star (Asterias rubens).  

PubMed

The common sea star Asterias rubens represents a key-species of the North-Eastern Atlantic macro benthic community. The cells of their immune system, known as coelomocytes, are the first line of defence against environmental hazards. Here, we report the results of investigations on the immune cells response of sea stars exposed to marine environmental pollution for long periods. We show that levels of the heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) in coelomocytes from A. rubens, which were collected during a field study in the S?rfjord (North Sea, SW coast of Norway) along a contamination gradient, are directly associated with the long-term accumulation of Cd, Cu heavy metals exclusively in the tegument. Conversely, Pb and Zn accumulation in the tegument did not relate to HSC70 levels and none of the metals were found accumulated in the pyloric coeca. In addition the coelomocytes from A. rubens, collected in high and low metal impacted stations were examined by a proteomic approach using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). By comparison of the proteomic maps, we observed that 31 protein spots differed in their relative abundance, indicating a gene expression response to the metal mixture exposure. All together, our results confirm that the echinoderm immune cells are a suitable model for the assessment of long-term exposure to environmental pollution, moreover that the increased level of HSC70 can be considered a signal of an acquired tolerance within a large spectrum of protein profile changes occurring in response to metal contamination. PMID:22000270

Matranga, V; Pinsino, A; Randazzo, D; Giallongo, A; Dubois, P

2011-09-28

289

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

290

Return of salmon-derived nutrients from the riparian zone to the ...  

Treesearch

Description: Spawning salmon deliver nutrients (salmon-derived nutrients, SDN) ... can be incorporated into terrestrial and aquatic food webs, potentially increasing ... salmon, salmon-derived nutrients, riparian zone, dissolved organic matter, ...

291

Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

Norrgren, L. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, T. (Univ. of Goteborg, (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. (Univ. of Umea, (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden))

1993-11-01

292

Nutrient fluxes and the recent collapse of coastal California salmon populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Migratory salmon move nutrients both in and out of fresh waters during the different parts of their life cycle. We used a mass-balance approach to quantify recent changes in phosphorus (P) fluxes in six coastal California, USA, watersheds that have recently experienced dramatic decreases in salmon populations. As adults, semelparous Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon imported 8.3 and 10.4 times more P from the ocean, respectively, than they exported as smolts, while iteroparous steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) imported only 1.6 times more than they exported as kelts and smolts. Semelparous species whose life histories led them to import more nutrients were also the species whose populations decreased the most dramatically in California in recent years. In addition, the relationship between import and export was nonlinear, with export being proportionally more important at lower levels of import. This pattern was driven by two density-dependent processes — smolts were larger and disproportionately more abundant at lower spawner abundances. In fact, in four of our six streams we found evidence that salmon can drive net export of P at low abundance, evidence for the reversal of the "conveyor belt" of nutrients.

Moore, Jonathan W.; Hayes, Sean A.; Duffy, Walter; Gallagher, Sean; Michel, Cyril J.; Wright, David

2011-01-01

293

Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.  

PubMed

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-11

294

Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns  

PubMed Central

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-01

295

Behavioral and Genetic Interactions Between Escaped Farm Salmon and Wild Atlantic Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) dwarfs the wild salmon fishery by two orders of magnitude. Throughout the North Atlantic region, large numbers of aquacultured\\u000a (farm) fish escape and invade rivers that contain native salmon. This causes considerable concern, because interactions between\\u000a escaped farm fish and native fish can cause a decline in the fitness and productivity of the

Kjetil Hindar; IAN A. FLEMING

296

Wild chinook salmon survive better than hatchery salmon in a period of poor production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Cowichan River on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada are used by the Pacific Salmon Commission as an index\\u000a of the general state of chinook salmon coast wide. In recent years the production declined to very low levels despite the\\u000a use of a hatchery that was intended to increase production by

R. J. Beamish; R. M. Sweeting; C. M. Neville; K. L. Lange; T. D. Beacham; D. Preikshot

297

Patterns of Chinook salmon migration and residency in the Salmon River estuary (Oregon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined variations in the juvenile life history of fall-spawning Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, for evidence of change in estuarine residency and migration patterns following the removal of dikes from 145 ha of former salt-marsh habitat in the Salmon River estuary (Oregon). Mark-recapture studies and abundance patterns in the estuary during 2000–2002 describe the following life-history types among Chinook salmon:

Daniel L. Bottom; Kim K. Jones; Trevan J. Cornwell; Ayesha Gray; Charles A. Simenstad

2005-01-01

298

Masculinization of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by treatment with an androgen or aromatase inhibitor involves different gene expression and has distinct lasting effects on maturation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the role of sex steroids in fish sex differentiation and male maturation. Sexually undifferentiated sea bass were administered 17alpha-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT), estradiol-17beta (E(2)), fadrozole (Fz), cyproterone acetate (CPA) or tamoxifen (Tx). MDHT produced 100% males whereas E(2) and Tx resulted in 100% females. Fz produced 95% males while CPA did not alter sex ratios. E(2) treatment did not affect gonadal aromatase (cyp19a) expression levels, supporting the possibility that the feminizing effect of exogenous E(2) are not directly related to cyp19a regulation. Both MDHT and Fz decreased cyp19a expression. Moreover, androgen receptor (ar) expression levels increased during development in all but the MDHT group, suggesting that early exposure to an androgen down-regulates subsequent ar expression in males and that Fz does not interact with the androgen receptor. Together, these observations indicate that although MDHT and Fz result in a similar phenotype, the molecular pathways involved are likely different, and show that Fz masculinization is the consequence of inhibited ovarian differentiation rather than of a direct androgenic effect. Further, since CPA did not alter sex ratios when administered during the period of highest androgen sensitivity, we suggest that androgens are not required for initial testicular differentiation in the sea bass. MDHT and Fz did not alter the number of precocious males but reduced and increased, respectively, their gonadosomatic index (GSI). In addition, Fz had lasting effects on the GSI of precocious and non-precocious males, probably due to alterations of estrogen function in the testis. PMID:18983844

Navarro-Martín, Laia; Blázquez, Mercedes; Piferrer, Francesc

2008-10-18

299

Genomic characterization of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax reveals the presence of a novel uncoupling protein (UCP) gene family member in the teleost fish lineage  

PubMed Central

Background Uncoupling proteins (UCP) are evolutionary conserved mitochondrial carriers that control energy metabolism and therefore play important roles in several physiological processes such as thermogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), growth control, lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin secretion. Despite their importance in various physiological processes, their molecular function remains controversial. The evolution and phylogenetic distribution may assist to identify their general biological function and structure-function relationships. The exact number of uncoupling protein genes in the fish genome and their evolution is unresolved. Results Here we report the first characterisation of UCP gene family members in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and then retrace the evolution of the protein family in vertebrates. Four UCP genes that are shared by five other fish species were identified in sea bass genome. Phylogenetic reconstitution among vertebrate species and synteny analysis revealed that UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 evolved from duplication events that occurred in the common ancestor of vertebrates, whereas the novel fourth UCP originated specifically in the teleost lineage. Functional divergence analysis among teleost species revealed specific amino acid positions that have been subjected to altered functional constraints after duplications. Conclusions This work provides the first unambiguous evidence for the presence of a fourth UCP gene in teleost fish genome and brings new insights into the evolutionary history of the gene family. Our results suggest functional divergence among paralogues which might result from long-term and differential selective pressures, and therefore, provide the indication that UCP genes may have diverse physiological functions in teleost fishes. Further experimental analysis of the critical amino acids identified here may provide valuable information on the physiological functions of UCP genes.

2012-01-01

300

Genetic differentiation of Alaska Chinook salmon: the missing link for migratory studies.  

PubMed

Most information about Chinook salmon genetic diversity and life history originates from studies from the West Coast USA, western Canada and southeast Alaska; less is known about Chinook salmon from western and southcentral Alaska drainages. Populations in this large area are genetically distinct from populations to the south and represent an evolutionary legacy of unique genetic, phenotypic and life history diversity. More genetic information is necessary to advance mixed stock analysis applications for studies involving these populations. We assembled a comprehensive, open-access baseline of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 172 populations ranging from Russia to California. We compare SNP data from representative populations throughout the range with particular emphasis on western and southcentral Alaska. We grouped populations into major lineages based upon genetic and geographic characteristics, evaluated the resolution for identifying the composition of admixtures and performed mixed stock analysis on Chinook salmon caught incidentally in the walleye pollock fishery in the Bering Sea. SNP data reveal complex genetic structure within Alaska and can be used in applications to address not only regional issues, but also migration pathways, bycatch studies on the high seas, and potential changes in the range of the species in response to climate change. PMID:21429177

Templin, William D; Seeb, James E; Jasper, James R; Barclay, Andrew W; Seeb, Lisa W

2011-03-01

301

Setting biological reference points for Atlantic salmon stocks: transfer of information from data-rich to sparse-data situations by Bayesian hierarchical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an application of Bayesian hierarchical modelling of stockerecruitment (SR) relationships aiming at estimating Biological Reference Points (BRP) for European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks. The structure of the hierarchical SR model developed distinguishes two nested levels of randomness, within-river and between rivers. It is an extension of the classical Ricker model, where the parameters of the Ricker function

Etienne Prevost; Eric Parent; Walter Crozier; Ian Davidson; Jacques Dumas; Gudni Gudbergsson; Kjetil Hindar; Phil McGinnity; Julian MacLean; Leif M. Sættem

2003-01-01

302

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

303

Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be intensively monitored. Planners recommended that a combination of natural and hatchery production

Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-06-12

304

Immunocytochemistry of somatotrophs, gonadotrophs, prolactin and adrenocorticotropin cells in larval sea bream ( Sparus auratus ) pituitaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronological appearance of endocrine cells in the pituitary of sea-bream (Sparus auratus) larvae was studied using antisera against salmon prolactin, trout growth hormone, salmon gonadotropin and N-terminal human adrenocorticotropin. The larval pituitary (1–12 days after hatching) was oval in shape and was composed of a dense mass of cells with few neurohypophysial fibres. By 60 days after hatching it

D. M. Power; A. V. M. Canario

1992-01-01

305

Sea Grant Extension Crucial Link to Coastal Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|University of California Sea Grant Extension Program provides training and technical assistance to fishers, farmers, planners, and conservationists on projects such as coastal ecosystem health, marine environmental protection, fisheries management, aquaculture, salmon habitat restoration, and controlling nonpoint-source pollution; supports…

Stumbos, John

1997-01-01

306

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

Rowe, Mike

1991-12-01

307

Optimisation of gene expression analysis in Atlantic salmon lenses by refining sampling strategy and tissue storage.  

PubMed

Analysis of gene expression in the lens is one of the analytical tools employed to investigate cataract formation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). High quality RNA preparations are an essential prerequisite for gene expression analysis. The first aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of two methods of tissue preservation on the quality of RNA extracted from Atlantic salmon lenses. RNA was extracted from lenses either stored in RNAlater or flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Both tissue preservation methods yielded RNA of similarly high quality. The second aim was to examine if stress related to fish handling and the choice of anaesthesia during the sampling procedure affected gene expression in the lens. Six sampling procedures were tested on groups of sea water adapted Atlantic salmon smolt. Fish were either killed instantaneously (control group) or sampled after 30 min anaesthetised with isoeugenol, after 30 min without anaesthesia, after 120 min anaesthetised with isoeugenol, after 120 min with 15 min anaesthesia with metacaine or after 120 min without anaesthesia. The expression levels of specific genes, of special interest in the study of molecular mechanisms of cataractogenesis, were analysed in lenses by real-time RT-PCR. Fish not anaesthetised had significantly increased levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA after 30 min compared to the control group. Glutathione reductase (GR) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) were expressed at significantly lower levels in groups of Atlantic salmon sampled after 120 min anaesthetised with isoeugenol or metacaine, and anaesthetised with isoeugenol, metacaine or without anaesthesia, respectively. The same expression patterns were found in corresponding gill tissues for these two antioxidant genes. In conclusion, preservation in liquid nitrogen instead of RNAlater is recommended due to practical conditions in RNA extraction. A quick sampling protocol with the use of anaesthetics and not exceeding 30 min should be preferred to avoid effects of the sampling procedure on lens gene expression in Atlantic salmon. PMID:20473564

Trösse, Christiane; Waagbø, Rune; Breck, Olav; Olsvik, Pål A

2010-05-15

308

Geomorphology and the Restoration Ecology of Salmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and anthropogenic influences on watershed processes affect the distribution and abundance of salmon across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from differences in species use and density between individual pools and riffles to regional patterns of threatened, endangered, and extinct runs. The specific impacts of human activities (e.g., mining, logging, and urbanization) vary among regions and watersheds, as well as between different channel reaches in the same watershed. Understanding of both disturbance history and key biophysical processes are important for diagnosing the nature and causes of differences between historical and contemporary fluvial and watershed conditions based on evaluation of both historical and spatial contexts. In order to be most effective, the contribution of geomorphologic insight to salmon recovery efforts requires both assessment protocols commensurate with providing adequate knowledge of historical and spatial context, and experienced practitioners well versed in adapting general theory to local settings. The historical record of salmon management in Europe, New England and the Pacific Northwest indicates that there is substantial need to incorporate geomorphic insights on the effects of changes in watershed processes on salmon habitat and salmon abundance into salmon recovery efforts.

Montgomery, D. R.

2005-05-01

309

Infectious salmon anaemia virus infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, infects and causes disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Previous studies have shown Atlantic salmon endothelial cells to be the primary targets of ISAV infection. However, it is not known if cells other than endothelial cells play a role in ISAV tropism. To further assess cell tropism, we examined ISAV infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ISAV infection. On comparison of primary gill epithelial cell cultures with ISAV permissive fish cell cultures, we found the virus yield in primary gill epithelial cells to be comparable with that of salmon head kidney (SHK)-1 cells, but lower than TO or Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK)-II cells. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the primary gill cells possessed characteristics consistent with epithelial cells. Virus histochemistry showed that gill epithelial cells expressed 4-O-acetylated sialic acid which is recognized as the ISAV receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ISAV infection in Atlantic salmon primary gill epithelial cells. This study thus broadens our understanding of cell tropism and transmission of ISAV in Atlantic salmon. PMID:23282149

Weli, Simon Chioma; Aamelfot, Maria; Dale, Ole Bendik; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Falk, Knut

2013-01-02

310

Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon

Schreiber, Dorothee

2003-01-01

311

Infectious salmon anaemia virus infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, infects and causes disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Previous studies have shown Atlantic salmon endothelial cells to be the primary targets of ISAV infection. However, it is not known if cells other than endothelial cells play a role in ISAV tropism. To further assess cell tropism, we examined ISAV infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ISAV infection. On comparison of primary gill epithelial cell cultures with ISAV permissive fish cell cultures, we found the virus yield in primary gill epithelial cells to be comparable with that of salmon head kidney (SHK)-1 cells, but lower than TO or Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK)-II cells. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the primary gill cells possessed characteristics consistent with epithelial cells. Virus histochemistry showed that gill epithelial cells expressed 4-O-acetylated sialic acid which is recognized as the ISAV receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ISAV infection in Atlantic salmon primary gill epithelial cells. This study thus broadens our understanding of cell tropism and transmission of ISAV in Atlantic salmon.

2013-01-01

312

Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

2004-12-01

313

On the decline of Pacific salmon and speculative links to salmon farming in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon abundance along the West Coast of Canada has been in sharp decline since the early 1990s. Declines have been most severe for coho and chinook salmon despite large additions of hatchery-reared fry and smolts. There is particular concern for populations of wild coho because, in addition to low abundance, up to 80% of the juvenile coho in the

Donald J. Noakes; Richard J. Beamish; Michael L. Kent

2000-01-01

314

Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The White Sea, the only Russian inland sea, is located on the north of outlying districts of the European part of Russia, belongs to Arctic Ocean. Area of water of sea occupies about 90 tousend square kilometers. The sea can be divided into some general parts: neck, funnel, basin and 4 Bays: Dvina Bay, Kandalaksha Bay, Mezen Bay and Onega

Olga Gamza; Vladimir Shevchenko; Aleksandr Novigatsky

2010-01-01

315

Susceptibility and immune responses following experimental infection of MHC compatible Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with different infectious salmon anaemia virus isolates.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an aquatic orthomyxovirus causing a multisystemic disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) where disease development, clinical signs, and histopathology vary to a large extent. Here, an experimental trial was designed to determine the effect of variation in viral genes on virus-host interactions, as measured by disease susceptibility and immune responses. The fish were infected using cohabitant transmission, representing a natural route of infection. Variation caused by host factors was minimized using MHC compatible A. salmon half-siblings as experimental fish. Virus isolates were selected according to HE genotype, as European ISAV isolates can be genotyped according to deletion patterns in their hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) surface glycoprotein, and the course of disease they typically induce, classified as acute versus protracted. The different ISAV isolates induced large variations in death prevalence, ranging from 0-47% in the test-group and 3-75% in the cohabitant fish. The use of MHC compatible experimental fish made it possible to determine the relative contribution of humoral versus cellular response in protection against ISA. Ability to induce a strong proliferative response correlated with survival and virus clearance, while induction of a humoral response was less protective. PMID:16012784

Mjaaland, S; Markussen, T; Sindre, H; Kjøglum, S; Dannevig, B H; Larsen, S; Grimholt, U

2005-07-14

316

Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

Rajasingh, Hannah; ?yehaug, Leiv; Vage, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

2006-01-01

317

[The variation in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) mitochondrial DNA and its connection with the paleogeographic events in the Northwest Pacific].  

PubMed

The results of examining mtDNA variation in populations of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from the rivers of the basins of the seas of Japan and Okhotsk and in the chum salmon seasonal races of the Amur River are presented. A significant level of polymorphism between the majority of the populations studied was detected. The groups of chum salmon from the Japan and Okhotsk Seas displayed the most pronounced differences. Analysis of genetic variation demonstrated that periodic paleontologic and climatic changes in the past of this region were the most probable factor that caused the divergence of these populations. The advances and retreats of glaciers and the accompanying regressions and transgressions of the ocean level caused isolation of chum salmon in the refugia belonging hypothetically to the paleo-Suifun and paleo-Amur regions. These population groups diverged presumably 350-450 thousand years ago. Differences between the seasonal races of the Amur chum salmon are insignificant, and their emergence dates back to the period of the last Wisconsin glaciation. Probably, the main isolation factor now is the genetically determined time of spawning. PMID:17152708

Poliakova, N E; Semina, A V; Brykov, V A

2006-10-01

318

Arcata Integrated Wastewater Treatment, Reclamation, and Salmon Ranching Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pacific salmon smolts have been reared in saline ponds fertilized with domestic wastewaters. An artificial homestream is to be created from the discharge of a marsh-lake system to be developed with reclaimed wastewater. This proposed salmon ranching metho...

G. H. Allen R. A. Gearheart

1978-01-01

319

Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska  

Treesearch

Title: Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska ... fishing, sport fishing, hunting, and nonconsumptive wildlife viewing and tourism. ... million estimated direct economic impact associated with wild salmon ecosystem services.

320

Salmon 2100: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

321

Lactate Dehydrogenase Polymorphism of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of sockeye salmon from the Naknek River system, Alaska, exhibited marked heterogeneity in LDH phenotype. Similar, though less marked, heterogeneity is apparent in sockeye salmon samples from other Bristol Bay area rivers. The B allele was almost e...

H. O. Hodgins F. M. Utter

1971-01-01

322

Endocrine effects of growth hormone overexpression in transgenic coho salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-transgenic (wild-type) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), growth hormone (GH) transgenic salmon (with highly elevated growth rates), and GH transgenic salmon pair fed a non-transgenic ration level (and thus growing at the non-transgenic rate) were examined for plasma hormone concentrations, and liver, muscle, hypothalamus, telencephalon, and pituitary mRNA levels. GH transgenic salmon exhibited increased plasma GH levels, and enhanced liver, muscle

P. A. Raven; M. Uh; D. Sakhrani; B. R. Beckman; K. Cooper; J. Pinter; E. H. Leder; J. Silverstein; R. H. Devlin

2008-01-01

323

Stocking may increase mitochondrial DNA diversity but fails to halt the decline of endangered Atlantic salmon populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 50 years, Spanish Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations have been in decline. In order to bolster these populations, rivers were stocked with fish of northern European\\u000a origin during the period 1974–1996, probably also introducing the furunculosis-inducing pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida. Here we assess the relative importance of processes influencing mitochondrial (mt)DNA variability in these populations from\\u000a 1948 to 2002.

K. L. Ciborowski; S. Consuegra; C. García de Leániz; J. Wang; M. A. Beaumont; W. C. Jordan

2007-01-01

324

Muscle pH, rigor mortis and blood variables in Atlantic salmon transported in two types of well-boat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two systems for transporting live salmon (Salmo salar) were compared in terms of their effects on blood variables, muscle pH and rigor index: an 'open system' well-boat with recirculated sea water at 13.5°C and a stocking density of 107 kg\\/m3 during an eight-hour journey, and a 'closed system' well-boat with water chilled from 16.7 to 2.1°C and a stocking density

M. C. Gatica; G. E. Monti; T. G. Knowles; C. B. Gallo

2010-01-01

325

Effects of continuous light and short-day photoperiod on smolting, seawater survival and growth in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplicate groups of 1-year-old Atlantic salmon were exposed to 5–7 weeks of short days (LD 8.15:15.45) with artificial light, followed by a period of continuous light (LL) for 3 months (A), 2 months (B) or 1 month (C) before transfer to sea cages. Duplicate groups were also exposed to a 2-week period of LD 8.15:15.45, followed by a period of

Trygve Sigholt; Magne Staurnes; Hans J. Jakobsen; Torbjørn Åsgård

1995-01-01

326

Effects of organic effluents from a salmon farm on a fjord system. I. Vertical export and dispersal processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical flux of organic waste from a Norwegian salmon farm (which produced 2910 tonnes of fish in 19 months) located in 230-m-deep water was measured nine times in the course of 2 years by sediment traps along a transect stretching from the farm and 3 km out towards the sea. The chemical composition of the trapped material and the sediment below the

Tina Kutti; Arne Ervik; Pia Kupka Hansen

2007-01-01

327

Inheritance of smolting phenotypes in backcrosses of hybrid stream-type × ocean-type chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are ecologically and geographically differentiated into two life history types: “ocean-type,” which enter estuaries as fry\\u000a or fingerlings in the first year of life and rear there for up to 6 wk before migrating to sea, and “stream-type,” which migrate\\u000a seaward as smolts after one or more years in fresh water and are only transient residents

W. Craig Clarke; Ruth E. Withler; John E. Shelbourn

1994-01-01

328

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

329

Fisheries Management Costs: The Case of Baltic Salmon Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to examine the costs of managing the Baltic salmon fishery. To achieve we first review the theoretical framework about the costs of managing fisheries. Second, we describe the management system governing the Baltic salmon fishery. Finally, we estimate the costs of managing the Baltic salmon fishery based on the available data.

Aleksandar Shivarov; Soile Kulmala; Marko Lindroos

2005-01-01

330

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

331

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

332

Sea Education Association (SEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sea Education Association (SEA) in Woods Hole, MA provides undergraduates with an opportunity to participate in an academic study-abroad program called the SEA Semester. The program combines intensive research in the areas of oceanography, maritime studies, and nautical science with hands-on experience aboard a traditional sailing ship. Piloting, celestial navigation, and practical seamanship are learned together with oceanographic sampling techniques and marine laboratory procedures. Critical thinking, problem-solving, team-building and leadership skills are emphasized throughout the program. SEA Semester is appropriate for students in marine biology, geology and physical science, environmental studies, American studies, and most other areas within the liberal arts and sciences. Academic credit for SEA Semester is obtained through Boston University.

333

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2007-11-24

334

Red vent syndrome in wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Scotland is associated with Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (Nematoda: Anisakidae).  

PubMed

Simultaneous reports were received between June and July 2007 of wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with red, swollen, bloody vents returning to geographically diverse rivers in Scotland. By the end of September the condition, colloquially known as 'red vent syndrome' (RVS), was reported from >50 rivers across Scotland. Fish were generally in good overall condition but the vent area showed mild to severe lesions. External characteristics of the syndrome included a swollen, raised, haemorrhagic vent and surrounding tissues, with erosion of the skin, scale loss and moderate to severe bleeding in more advanced cases. Predominantly, the fish affected were 1-sea-winter grilse; however, RVS was also recorded in 2-sea-winter salmon and sea trout S. trutta. High numbers of the nematode Anisakis Type I larvae were found infesting the discrete region of the vent, a localisation that is reported as novel for the parasite. The hypothesis that this is a different species than that commonly found in the body cavity and viscera was investigated through molecular studies. These studies failed to show evidence that the parasites infesting the vent were different from those in the body cavity, i.e. all were identified as A. simplex sensu stricto. No other disease agent was found associated with the lesions or was isolated systemically, and no mortality or prevention of spawning was recorded during the 2007 season. Possible causes, including warming environments in the North Atlantic, are hypothesised as playing a role in the development of RVS in Atlantic salmon. PMID:20099413

Noguera, Patricia; Collins, Catherine; Bruno, David; Pert, Campbell; Turnbull, Anna; McIntosh, Alison; Lester, Katherine; Bricknell, Ian; Wallace, Stuart; Cook, Paul

2009-12-01

335

Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishm

Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

2004-10-01

336

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2007-10-01

337

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2006-10-01

338

Toxicokinetic model assessment on the dechlorination of dietary toxaphene CHB-62 into CHB-44 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).  

PubMed

European Union legislation on the upper limits of toxaphene in feed and food include the congeners CHB-26, CHB-62 and CHB-50 and is set at 50 µg kg(-1) feed for the sum of these three congeners. However, due to their elevated presence in fish, the congeners CHB-40 and CHB-41, CHB-44, and CHB-42 should also be included according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2005. Earlier trials with model zebra fish have shown in vivo dechlorination of dietary CHB-62 to CHB-44 and, to a lesser degree, of CHB-50 to CHB-40. Biomagnification patterns of Atlantic salmon, fed with technical toxaphene-enriched feeds, indicated that Atlantic salmon have a similar dechlorination. In the present study, a serial one-compartment physiological kinetic model, which includes differentiated growth of body components, is used to quantify the contribution of dechlorination to the congener-specific fillet accumulation of a mixture of dietary toxaphene congeners in Atlantic salmon. The model is assessed from experimental uptake and elimination kinetics of Atlantic salmon smolt fed with technical toxaphene for 122 days followed by a depuration period of 75 days in which the fish were fed toxaphene-free control feed. The serial one-compartment model shows that about 31% of CHB-44 that accumulated in the fillet originated from dietary CHB-62. In contrast, dechlorination of CHB-50 into CHB-40 is not significant. The results show that previously demonstrated in vivo dechlorination of CHB-62 into CHB-44 in zebra fish also occurs in the farmed fish species Atlantic salmon. This dechlorination can at least partly explain the relatively elevated CHB-44 observed in toxaphene fish surveys. PMID:23859873

Berntssen, M H G; Lock, E J; Zeilmaker, M J; Van Eijkeren, J C H

2013-07-16

339

HEALTHY STOCKS OF NW SALMON FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Geographic distribution of eight species/races of Pacific salmon and steelhead (spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, summer steelhead and winter steelhead. The data are based upon the Oregon Trout report Healthy Native Stock...

340

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs)

Janna Koistinen; J. P. Giesy; J. Koivusaari; I. Nuuja; P. J. Vuorinen; J. Paasivirta

1997-01-01

341

Experimentally induced marine flexibacteriosis in Atlantic salmon smolts Salmo salar. II. Pathology.  

PubMed

The fish disease marine flexibacteriosis is characterised by necrotic lesions on the body, head, fins, and occasionally gills, with erosive lesions on the external surface as the prominent clinical sign. In Australia, the main species affected are Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in sea-cage culture in Tasmania. Using a dose-dependent trial to determine pathology, 2 forms of the disease were noted in Atlantic salmon. The acute form occurs within 2 to 3 d after inoculation at high doses (1 x 10(8) cells ml(-1)) and is characterised by the disintegration of the epithelium. The chronic form of the disease began as small superficial blisters of the epidermis, which develop into ulcerative lesions that leave musculature exposed. The predominant lesion sites were the dorsum and pectoral fins. Jaws were commonly affected, and gill necrosis was also noted. Behaviour of Atlantic salmon as well as the conditions under which they were kept contribute to the size and distribution of lesions observed. Lack of an inflammatory response in pathology and rapid and destructive mortalities observed in higher inoculum doses suggested a role of toxins in the pathogenesis of Tenacibaculum maritimum. This is the first study to examine the development of marine flexibacteriosis lesions and to utilise immunohistochemistry to verify that the bacteria observed in histology was T. maritimum. PMID:21848120

van Gelderen, Rebecca; Carson, Jeremy; Nowak, Barbara

2011-06-16

342

Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1983-1984 Progress (Annual) Report.  

SciTech Connect

Hydroelectric development coupled with numerous other encroachments on the supply and quality of water has reduced the natural habitat for the spawning and rearing of salmon in the Columbia river system. Artificial production in hatcheries has become a critical link in the restoration of natural stocks of salmon. Released hatchery salmon must survive predation, be able to acquire sustainable nutrients under natural conditions, possess the vitality to surmount man-made impediments to seaward migration and adapt to a sea water environment. Survival of hatchery salmonids is dependent upon a number of factors. Time of release, natural food abundance, fish size and the health and/or quality of smolts all play synergistic roles. The nutritional and physical characteristics of ration regimes for hatchery fish plays a major role in determining the effectiveness of hatchery production and the health and/or quality of smolts.Ration regimes containing high quality components in uniform and fine-free pellet forms produce efficient growth response and minimize loss of nutrients maintaining the quality of hatchery water supply. Under such feed regimes, fish are less susceptible to disease and more uniform and desirable fish sizes can be achieved at release time. High quality smolts would help to optimize out-migration survival and successful adaptation to salt water.

Crawford, David L.

1985-04-01

343

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.  

SciTech Connect

The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.

Harrell, Lee W.

1985-02-01

344

In vitro cultured Neoparamoeba perurans causes amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon and fulfils Koch's postulates.  

PubMed

Amoebic gill disease (AGD) in marine farmed Atlantic salmon is of growing concern worldwide and remains a significant health issue for salmon growers in Australia. Until now the aetiological agent, Neoparamoeba perurans, has not been amenable to in vitro culture and therefore Koch's postulates could not be fulfilled. The inability to culture the amoeba has been a limiting factor in the progression of research into AGD and required the maintenance of an on-going laboratory-based infection to supply infective material. Culture methods using malt yeast agar with sea water overlaid and subculturing every 3-4 days have resulted in the establishment of a clonal culture of N. perurans, designated clone 4. Identity of the amoeba was confirmed by PCR. After 70 days in culture clone 4 infected Atlantic salmon, causing AGD, and was re-isolated from the infected fish. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology and the infectious agent identified by PCR and in situ hybridisation using oligonucleotide primers and probes previously developed and specific to N. perurans. This study has fulfilled Koch's postulates for N. perurans as a causative agent of AGD and illustrates its free-living and parasitic nature. PMID:22549025

Crosbie, P B B; Bridle, A R; Cadoret, K; Nowak, B F

2012-04-24

345

Salmon for New England Fisheries, Part III: Developing a Coastal Fishery for Pacific Salmon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past year the staff of the National Marine Fisheries Service's Division of Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies at the Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, has considered the problem of increasing the yield of salmon from New England. Despite the...

C. Mahnken T. Joyner

1973-01-01

346

North European Transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland image a collage of older continental fragments and intervening basins that have been welded together in Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogenies. The Lapland-Kola orogen record the collision of Baltica and Laurentia during the compilation of the Columbia supercontinent. The collisional structures were overprinted by extension associated with the dispersal of Columbia. The Russian Arctic line 1-AR focuses on the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover of the Barents Sea Basin. The line images the transition from Paleoproterozoic Baltica to Neoproterozoic Barentsia. As part of the Rodinia supercontinent formation, Baltica collided with Barentsia resulting in Timanide orogeny. During the break-up of Rodinia an aborted rift was formed within the Barentsia. Later peripheral tectonic events modified the interior parts of Barentsia that acted first as a back arc basin and later as a foreland basin to the Uralian and Caledonian orogen during the formation of the Pangea supercontinent.

Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

2010-05-01

347

Linkages between coastal and open-ocean habitats and dynamics of Japanese stocks of chum salmon and Japanese sardine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal-ocean-open-ocean migrations, prey-predator relations and long-term population dynamics of chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) and Japanese sardine ( Sardinops melanostictus), associated with large-scale climate and oceanographic conditions, are reviewed. After early marine life in coastal waters in northern Japan, chum salmon of Japanese origin spend their first summer in the Okhotsk Sea, then move to the Western Subarctic Gyre for the first winter at sea. Thereafter, they migrate between summer feeding grounds in the Bering Sea and wintering grounds in the Alaskan Gyre for a period of usually up to four years, and finally return to their natal rivers to spawn. Carrying capacity ( K) for chum salmon at an unfished equilibrium level was estimated from a Ricker spawner-recruitment curve, and the residual carrying capacity ( RCC=(K-abundance)K-1). was positively correlated with body size at age 4, and negatively correlated with age at maturity. Marine survival of Hokkaido chum populations was affected by body size at release, but neither by Aleutian low pressure activity nor sea-surface temperature (SST) around coastal Hokkaido in spring, although there is some correlation between survival rate and coastal SST. Juveniles of the Pacific stock of Japanese sardine become broadly distributed in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) as far east as 180° longitude during spring. Adults disperse as far as the central Pacific and the southern areas of the Okhotsk Sea and Western Subarctic Gyre in years of high abundance. Somatic growth and age at maturation of sardine are density-dependent. We used catch, biomass and residuals of observed recruitment numbers from a Ricker curve (LNRR) as a measure of sardine population dynamics. LNRR was highly correlated with SST of KE in winter, which shifted in 1970 and 1988. Recent biomass and catch remain at extremely low levels due to a combination of adverse environmental conditions and intensive fishing. We suggest that Japanese populations of chum salmon and Japanese sardine have a broader geographic range than North American populations, perhaps because of differences between western and eastern boundary current systems, and associated larval drift (sardine) or avoidance of intra-species competition (chum salmon).

Yatsu, Akihiko; Kaeriyama, Masahide

2005-03-01

348

Linkages between coastal and open-ocean habitats and dynamics of Japanese stocks of chum salmon and Japanese sardine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal-ocean open-ocean migrations, prey predator relations and long-term population dynamics of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus), associated with large-scale climate and oceanographic conditions, are reviewed. After early marine life in coastal waters in northern Japan, chum salmon of Japanese origin spend their first summer in the Okhotsk Sea, then move to the Western Subarctic Gyre for the first winter at sea. Thereafter, they migrate between summer feeding grounds in the Bering Sea and wintering grounds in the Alaskan Gyre for a period of usually up to four years, and finally return to their natal rivers to spawn. Carrying capacity (K) for chum salmon at an unfished equilibrium level was estimated from a Ricker spawner recruitment curve, and the residual carrying capacity (RCC=(K-abundance)K). was positively correlated with body size at age 4, and negatively correlated with age at maturity. Marine survival of Hokkaido chum populations was affected by body size at release, but neither by Aleutian low pressure activity nor sea-surface temperature (SST) around coastal Hokkaido in spring, although there is some correlation between survival rate and coastal SST. Juveniles of the Pacific stock of Japanese sardine become broadly distributed in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) as far east as 180° longitude during spring. Adults disperse as far as the central Pacific and the southern areas of the Okhotsk Sea and Western Subarctic Gyre in years of high abundance. Somatic growth and age at maturation of sardine are density-dependent. We used catch, biomass and residuals of observed recruitment numbers from a Ricker curve (LNRR) as a measure of sardine population dynamics. LNRR was highly correlated with SST of KE in winter, which shifted in 1970 and 1988. Recent biomass and catch remain at extremely low levels due to a combination of adverse environmental conditions and intensive fishing. We suggest that Japanese populations of chum salmon and Japanese sardine have a broader geographic range than North American populations, perhaps because of differences between western and eastern boundary current systems, and associated larval drift (sardine) or avoidance of intra-species competition (chum salmon).

Yatsu, Akihiko; Kaeriyama, Masahide

2005-03-01

349

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

350

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

351

Genome wide response to dietary tetradecylthioacetic acid supplementation in the heart of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L)  

PubMed Central

Background Under-dimensioned hearts causing functional problems are associated with higher mortality rates in intensive Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Previous studies have indicated that tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) induces cardiac growth and also stimulates transcription of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) ?and ?in the Atlantic salmon heart. Since cardiac and transcriptional responses to feed are of high interest in aquaculture, the objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptional mechanisms induced by TTA in the heart of Atlantic salmon. Results Atlantic salmon were kept at sea for 17 weeks. During the first 8 weeks the fish received a TTA supplemented diet. Using microarrays, profound transcriptional effects were observed in the heart at the end of the experiment, 9 weeks after the feeding of TTA stopped. Approximately 90% of the significant genes were expressed higher in the TTA group. Hypergeometric testing revealed the over-representation of 35 gene ontology terms in the TTA fed group. The GO terms were generally categorized into cardiac performance, lipid catabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle. Conclusions Our results indicate that TTA has profound effects on cardiac performance based on results from microarray and qRT-PCR analysis. The gene expression profile favors a scenario of ”physiological”lright hypertrophy recognized by increased oxidative fatty acid metabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle activity as well as cardiac growth and contractility in the heart ventricle. Increased cardiac efficiency may offer significant benefits in the demanding Aquaculture situations.

2012-01-01

352

Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon’s plastic life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered

Nadia Aubin-Horth; Benjamin H. Letcher; Hans A. Hofmann

2009-01-01

353

Patterns of Chinook salmon migration and residency in the Salmon River estuary (Oregon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined variations in the juvenile life history of fall-spawning Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, for evidence of change in estuarine residency and migration patterns following the removal of dikes from 145 ha of former salt-marsh habitat in the Salmon River estuary (Oregon). Mark-recapture studies and abundance patterns in the estuary during 2000 2002 describe the following life-history types among Chinook

Daniel L. Bottom; Kim K. Jones; Trevan J. Cornwell; Ayesha Gray; Charles A. Simenstad

2005-01-01

354

A Comparison of Atlantic Salmon Embryo and Fry Stocking in the Salmon River, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the feasibility of restoring an extirpated species, it is crucial to identify the method of reintroduction that optimizes juvenile survival and growth so that adequate adult populations may be established. Because Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry are relatively expensive to rear, we compared the efficacies of two embryo-stocking methods and one fry-stocking method in producing age-0 Atlantic salmon

Stephen M. Coghlan Jr; Neil H. Ringler

2004-01-01

355

Dietary Calcein Marking of Brook Trout, Atlantic Salmon, Yellow Perch, and Coho Salmon Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7–10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93–98% in Atlantic

Dale C. Honeyfield; Christian S. Ostrowski; John W. Fletcher; Jerre W. Mohler

2006-01-01

356

Demonstration of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) endocytosis in erythrocytes of Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. It possesses the major functional characteristics of the virus family including haemagglutinating, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), and fusion activities associated with the virion surface proteins. It is generally accepted that ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and that the ISAV RDE activity dissolves this haemagglutination reaction except for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) erythrocytes. We used electron microscopy to examine the physical interaction between ISAV and erythrocytes from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during haemagglutination. We present evidence that ISAV enters into Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Atlantic salmon erythrocytes incubated with ISAV for 4 hours showed endocytosis of the virus particles, which is consistent with virus infection. These observations suggest that the lack of dissolution of ISAV-induced haemagglutination of Atlantic salmon erythrocytes favours virus infection of the erythrocytes. Moreover, such a haemagglutination-infection phenotype is fundamentally different from haemagglutination by avian and mammalian orthomyxoviruses, and is indicative of a different pathogenesis for the fish orthomyxovirus.

Workenhe, Samuel T; Wadowska, Dorota W; Wright, Glenda M; Kibenge, Molly JT; Kibenge, Frederick SB

2007-01-01

357

Demonstration of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) endocytosis in erythrocytes of Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. It possesses the major functional characteristics of the virus family including haemagglutinating, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), and fusion activities associated with the virion surface proteins. It is generally accepted that ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and that the ISAV RDE activity dissolves this haemagglutination reaction except for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) erythrocytes. We used electron microscopy to examine the physical interaction between ISAV and erythrocytes from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during haemagglutination. We present evidence that ISAV enters into Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Atlantic salmon erythrocytes incubated with ISAV for 4 hours showed endocytosis of the virus particles, which is consistent with virus infection. These observations suggest that the lack of dissolution of ISAV-induced haemagglutination of Atlantic salmon erythrocytes favours virus infection of the erythrocytes. Moreover, such a haemagglutination-infection phenotype is fundamentally different from haemagglutination by avian and mammalian orthomyxoviruses, and is indicative of a different pathogenesis for the fish orthomyxovirus. PMID:17254352

Workenhe, Samuel T; Wadowska, Dorota W; Wright, Glenda M; Kibenge, Molly J T; Kibenge, Frederick S B

2007-01-25

358

Basis of acoustic discrimination of Chinook salmon from other salmons by echolocating Orcinus orca.  

PubMed

The "resident" ecotype of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the waters of British Columbia and Washington State have a strong preference for Chinook salmon even in months when Chinook comprise less than about 10% of the salmon population. The foraging behavior of killer whales suggests that they depend on echolocation to detect and recognize their prey. In order to determine possible cues in echoes from salmon species, a series of backscatter measurements were made at the Applied Physics Laboratory (Univ. of Wash.) Facility on Lake Union, on three different salmon species using simulated killer whale echolocation signals. The fish were attached to a monofilament net panel and rotated while echoes were collected, digitized and stored on a laptop computer. Three transducer depths were used; same depth, 22° and 45° above the horizontal plane of the fish. Echoes were collected from five Chinook, three coho and one sockeye salmon. Radiograph images of all specimens were obtained to examine the swimbladder shape and orientation. The results show that echo structure from similar length but different species of salmon were different and probably recognizable by foraging killer whales. PMID:20968392

Au, Whitlow W L; Horne, John K; Jones, Christopher

2010-10-01

359

Survival of Migrating Salmon Smolts in Large Rivers With and Without Dams  

PubMed Central

The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R. Scott; Schreck, Carl

2008-01-01

360

Wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify salmon recovery options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project doe...

361

76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal...of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider all comments...of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia, contact Dr. William G. Smith,...

2011-07-21

362

76 FR 329 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Reporting Requirements for the Ocean Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reporting Requirements for the Ocean Salmon Fishery Off the Coasts of Washington...areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington...manner. The requirements to land salmon within specific time frames...

2011-01-04

363

SALMON RECOVERY: CATEGORIZING AGENTS, DRIVERS, AND DELUSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the downward trajectory for wild sal...

364

Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

365

Animal navigation: salmon track magnetic variation.  

PubMed

How animals navigate long distances to specific targets remains enigmatic. For Pacific salmon, new evidence suggests fish imprint on the magnetic coordinates of their home river and use this information to guide their return from distant open-ocean feeding areas. PMID:23428320

Hays, Graeme C

2013-02-18

366

Prioritizing Pacific Salmon Stocks for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 300 native stocks of Pacific salmon, steelhead, and coastal cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus spp.) are at risk of extinction in the Pacific Northwest. With only limited resources available for conservation and recovery, prioritization of these stocks may become necessary if meaningful measures are to be imple- mented. We propose criteria by which prioritization may be guided. First, we rank

FRED W. ALLENDORF; DAVID BAYLES; DANIEL L. BOTTOM; KENNETH P. CURRENS; CHRISTOPHER A. FRISSELL; DAVID HANKIN; JAMES A. LICHATOWICH; WILLA NEHLSEN; PATRICK C. TROTTER; THOMAS H. WILLIAMS

1997-01-01

367

Effective size of fluctuating salmon populations.  

PubMed

Pacific salmon are semelparous but have overlapping year classes, which presents special challenges for the application of standard population genetics theory to these species. This article examines the relationship between the effective number of breeders per year (N(b)) and single-generation and multigeneration effective population size (N(e)) in salmon populations that fluctuate in size. A simple analytical model is developed that allows calculation of N(e) on the basis of the number of spawners in individual years and their reproductive contribution (productivity) to the next generation. Application of the model to a 36-year time series of data for a threatened population of Snake River chinook salmon suggests that variation in population dynamic processes across years reduced the multigeneration N(e) by approximately 40-60%, and reductions may have been substantially greater within some generations. These reductions are comparable in magnitude to, and in addition to, reductions in N(b) within a year due to unequal sex ratio and nonrandom variation in reproductive success. Computer simulations suggest that the effects of variable population dynamics on N(e) observed in this dataset are not unexpected for species with a salmon life history, as random variation in productivity can lead to similar results. PMID:12072473

Waples, Robin S

2002-06-01

368

SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

369

Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

370

Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

371

Reduced fitness of Atlantic salmon released in the wild after one generation of captive breeding  

PubMed Central

Salmonids rank among the most socioeconomically valuable fishes and the most targeted species by stocking with hatchery-reared individuals. Here, we used molecular parentage analysis to assess the reproductive success of wild- and hatchery-born Atlantic salmon over three consecutive years in a small river in Québec. Yearly restocking in this river follows a single generation of captive breeding. Among the adults returning to the river to spawn, between 11% and 41% each year were born in hatchery. Their relative reproductive success (RRS) was nearly half that of wild-born fish (0.55). RRS varied with life stage, being 0.71 for fish released at the fry stage and 0.42 for fish released as smolt. The lower reproductive success of salmon released as smolt was partly mediated by the modification of the proportion of single-sea-winter/multi-sea-winter fish. Overall, our results suggest that modifications in survival and growth rates alter the life-history strategies of these fish at the cost of their reproductive success. Our results underline the potential fitness decrease, warn on long-term evolutionary consequences for the population of repeated stocking and support the adoption of more natural rearing conditions for captive juveniles and their release at a younger stage, such as unfed fry.

Milot, Emmanuel; Perrier, Charles; Papillon, Lucie; Dodson, Julian J; Bernatchez, Louis

2013-01-01

372

European Scientific Notes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Biological Sciences--Calories--more or less, Herring come, Herring go, Salmon migration, Sixth International Conference on Medical, Electronics and Biological Engineering; Material Sciences--Inorganic chemistry at the University of Nottingham, C...

1966-01-01

373

Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins ( Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea

G. J. Pierce; M. B. Santos; S. Murphy; J. A. Learmonth; A. F. Zuur; E. Rogan; P. Bustamante; F. Caurant; V. Lahaye; V. Ridoux; B. N. Zegers; A. Mets; M. Addink; C. Smeenk; T. Jauniaux; R. J. Law; W. Dabin; A. López; J. M. Alonso Farré; A. F. González; A. Guerra; M. García-Hartmann; R. J. Reid; C. F. Moffat; C. Lockyer; J. P. Boon

2008-01-01

374

Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

Waythomas, C. F.

1994-01-01

375

Inorganic Pyrophosphatase: A New Polymorphic Allozyme Locus in Pacific Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic polymorphism of inorganic pyrophosphatase was investigated in 2799 individuals in four species of Pacific salmon: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), kokanee (O. nerka), and steelhead(O. mykiss), using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. This enzyme system appears to be an isolocus system with electrophoretically indistinguishable allozymes encoded by two loci (PP-1,2*) expressed in retinal tissue. Mendelian inheritance was

David R. Kuligowski; Gary A. Winans

2002-01-01

376

Does increased intake of salmon increase markers of oxidative stress in pregnant women? The salmon in pregnancy study.  

PubMed

The Salmon in Pregnancy Study provided two meals of salmon per week to pregnant women from week 20 of gestation; the control group maintained their habitual diet low in oily fish. Salmon is a rich source of marine n-3 fatty acids. Since marine n-3 fatty acids may increase oxidative stress, we investigated whether increased salmon consumption could affect markers of oxidative stress in mid and late pregnancy. Urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2?), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and plasma lipid peroxide concentrations did not change from week 20 to 38 of pregnancy and were not altered by increased consumption of salmon. Thus, increased intake of salmon during pregnancy does not increase oxidative stress, as judged by the markers of oxidative damage to lipids and DNA measured herein. PMID:21689025

García-Rodríguez, Cruz E; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Mesa, María Dolores; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gil, Angel; Basu, Samar

2011-07-22

377

Effect of inclusion of salmon roe on characteristics of salmon baby food products.  

PubMed

Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree + chunks, puree + pink row, puree + pink row + chunks, puree + red row, puree + red roe + chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristics were determined. Samples containing roe were lighter and less red (by approximately 3 to 4 a* units) than formulations without roe regardless of the type of roe added. Visual pink color followed the same trend. Formulations with roe, both pink and sockeye, were almost twice as fibrous as formulations without roe. Salmon flavor was stronger in samples containing roe from sockeye salmon. In the 2nd study, retort processed samples were stored at room temperature for 6 mo. Sweaty odor decreased over storage time. Visual cream-brown color correlated with L*, a*, b*, and chroma values (r =-0.80, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively). TBARS values of all samples were < 0.35 mg MDA/kg and declined after month 0 indicating that these products were oxidatively stable. Overall, adding roe to these products lightened them and increased fibrous texture. Samples containing sockeye salmon roe had stronger salmon flavor. Once retort processed, these products were quite stable in terms of color, odor, and TBARS. Potential nutrient contributions of this type of product to the infant diet warrant additional research. PMID:20546426

DeSantos, F A; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

2010-05-01

378

Rapid liquid chromatographic method to distinguish wild salmon from aquacultured salmon fed synthetic astaxanthin.  

PubMed

Analytical methods are needed to determine the presence of color additives in fish. We report a liquid chromatographic (LC) method developed to identify the synthetic form of the color additive astaxanthin in salmon, based on differences in the relative ratios of the configurational isomers of astaxanthin. The distributions of configurational isomers of astaxanthin in the flesh of wild Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon are similar, but significantly different from that in aquacultured salmon. Astaxanthin is extracted from the flesh of salmon, passed through a silica gel Sep-Pak cartridge, and analyzed directly by LC on a Pirkle covalent L-leucine column. No derivatization of the astaxanthin is required-an important advantage of our approach, which is a modification of our previously described method. This method can be used to distinguish between aquacultured and wild salmon. The method has general applicability and can also be used to identify astaxanthins derived from other sources such as Phaffia yeast and Haematococcus pluvialis algae. PMID:9170658

Turujman, S A; Wamer, W G; Wei, R R; Albert, R H

379

Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish. Captive Lemhi River females produced smaller and fewer eggs than the Rapid River females; however, relative fecundity was higher than that of the Rapid River fish. Female coho salmon that ceased or slowed oocyte development in the spring had lower body growth from the previous August onward compared with females that continued oocyte growth. This indicates that growth during the late summer and fall, one year prior to spawning, can determine the decision to mature the following spring. Therefore it is important to maintain the growth of broodstock during the summer/fall period to ensure the continuation of ovary development in the subsequent spring. A combined whole cell vaccine of Renogen with killed R. salmoninarum strain MT239 may be effective in reducing the occurrence of BKD during the period immediately after seawater transfer, but not in yearling seawater-adapted chinook salmon. Control of BKD is likely to require an integrated disease management plan, utilizing three components, namely broodstock segregation, antibiotics, and vaccination. Vaccine results incorporated with antibiotic treatment will be used to work toward an integrated disease management plan to help to reduce the cycle of BKD transmission in the captive stocks to increase survival safely. Patterns of estimated survival in one chinook salmon stock (Grovers Creek)were generally consistent with inbreeding depression: progeny of fish that were full siblings (approximate increment in F of 0.25) survived to return at much lower rates than did progeny of fish that were half siblings (F {approx} 0.125) or unrelated individuals (F {approx} 0). Growth at sea of Grovers Creek Hatchery stock study fish was lower than that of UWH stock fish. Among the inbreeding groups alone, no clear differences in growth were detectable. However, preliminary results suggest the general pattern of growth was opposite that expected if inbreeding depression reduced growth: the highest growth was in progeny of related parents.

Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

2004-01-01

380

Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interbreeding between artificially-selected and wild organisms can have negative fitness consequences for the latter. In the Northwest Atlantic, farmed Atlantic salmon recurrently escape into the wild and enter rivers where small, declining populations of wild salmon breed. Most farmed salmon in the region derive from an ancestral source population that occupies a nonacidified river (pH 6.0-6.5). Yet many wild populations

Dylan J. Fraser; Adam M. Cook; James D. Eddington; Paul Bentzen; Jeffrey A. Hutchings

2008-01-01

381

An overview of Calanus helgolandicus ecology in European waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review current knowledge and understanding of the biology and ecology of the calanoid copepod Calanus helgolandicus in European waters, as well as provide a collaborative synthesis of data from 18 laboratories and 26 sampling stations in areas distributed from the northern North Sea to the Aegean and Levantine Seas. This network of zooplankton time-series stations has enabled us to

Delphine Bonnet; Anthony Richardson; Roger Harris; Andrew Hirst; Gregory Beaugrand; Martin Edwards; Sara Ceballos; Rabea Diekman; Angel López-Urrutia; Luis Valdes; François Carlotti; Juan Carlos Molinero; Horst Weikert; Wulf Greve; Davor Lucic; Aitor Albaina; Nejib Daly Yahia; Serena Fonda Umani; Ana Miranda; Antonina dos Santos; Kathryn Cook; Susan Robinson; Marie Luz Fernandez de Puelles

2005-01-01

382

Chinook salmon invade southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document the invasion of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to southern South America providing historical, current and future perspectives. We conducted field sampling, angler surveys,\\u000a and analyzed all written records, and found evidence of reproductive populations in more than ten Andean (and many more coastal)\\u000a watersheds draining mainly to the Pacific Ocean in Chile (39°–53° S), but also to the Atlantic

Cristián Correa; Mart R. Gross

2008-01-01

383

Changes in gene expression for GH\\/PRL\\/SL family hormones in the pituitaries of homing chum salmon during ocean migration through upstream migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene expression for growth hormone (GH)\\/prolactin (PRL)\\/somatolactin (SL) family hormones in the pituitaries of homing chum salmon were examined, because gene expression for these hormones during ocean-migrating phases remains unclear. Fish were collected in the winter Gulf of Alaska, the summer Bering Sea and along homing pathway in the Ishikari River–Ishikari Bay water system in Hokkaido, Japan in autumn. The

Takeshi A. Onuma; Masatoshi Ban; Keita Makino; Hiroshi Katsumata; WeiWei Hu; Hironori Ando; Masa-aki Fukuwaka; Tomonori Azumaya; Akihisa Urano

2010-01-01

384

Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies of Baltic salmon yolk-sac fry with an experimental thiamine deficiency: relations to the M74 syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-run Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) populations are suffering from the M74 syndrome, a reproduction disorder affecting both broodfish and their progeny. The syndrome is usually manifested during the middle part of the yolk-sac fry stage and has been shown to be associated with a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Development of the disease is reversible by thiamine treatments of broodfish or

Patric Amcoff; Gun Åkerman; Ulla Tjärnlund; Hans Börjeson; Leif Norrgren; Lennart Balk

2002-01-01

385

Sea urchin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sea urchin is a type of echinoderm. It is a consumer because it cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms to get energy. Sea urchins are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and other animals to gain energy. Sea urchins have been known to eat algae, mussels, and sponges.

N/A N/A (NOAA;Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary)

2004-12-23

386

Evidence of a Lunar Gravitation Cue on Timing of Estuarine Entry by Pacific Salmon Smolts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a 4-year tagging study of the migration behavior of Pacific salmon smolts indicate an effect of lunar gravitation on the time of saltwater entry at an artificial tidal barrier. We used passive integrated transponders to tag several populations of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, coho salmon O. kisutch, and sockeye salmon O. nerka, including hatchery and wild Chinook

Paul DeVries; Fred Goetz; Kurt Fresh; David Seiler

2004-01-01

387

WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR LOCAL COHO SALMON ENHANCEMENT IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmon restoration and enhancement are dominant environmental policy issues in Oregon and Washington. In response to salmon species listings under the Endangered Species Act, salmon protection and recovery actions are being implemented throughout the Pacific Northwest at substantial opportunity costs. In this paper, we examine the willingness to pay (WTP) of coastal residents for local coho salmon enhancement programs. A

Rebecca L. Johnson; Daniel D. Huppert; Kathleen P. Bell

2003-01-01

388

Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

1999-09-01

389

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE NV

1999-09-01

390

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE /NV

1999-09-01

391

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 1  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE /NV

1999-09-01

392

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 3  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE /NV

1999-09-01

393

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 4  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE /NV

1999-09-01

394

EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War \\

Montani Guido

2011-01-01

395

Pathogenesis of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis in Atlantic Salmon ('Salmo salar').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry and yearling were found to undergo an active but subclinical infection following exposure to infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus. Eight-week-old Atlantic salmon fry were fed live virus and the mortality and virus c...

R. N. Swanson J. H. Gillespie

1979-01-01

396

Scour of Chinook Salmon Redds on Suction Dredge Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured scour of the redds of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on dredge tailings and natural substrates in three tributaries of the Klamath River, California. We measured maximum scour with scour chains and net scour by surveying before and after high winter flows. Scour of chinook salmon redds lo- cated on dredge tailings exceeded scour of redds on natural substrates,

Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

1999-01-01

397

Pacific Northwest Salmon: Forecasting Their Status in 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a “population”) have declined and some have disappeared. Substantial efforts have been made to restore some runs of wild salmon, but few have shown much success. Society's failure to

Robert T. Lackey

2003-01-01

398

Evaluating Benchmarks of Population Status for Pacific Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is developing an indicator approach for assessing the biological status of conservation units of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. under its Wild Salmon Policy that is based, in part, on the abundance of adult fish. Two benchmarks will be used to place populations in one of three abundance categories. The lower benchmark is proposed to be at a level that

Carrie A. Holt; Michael J. Bradford

2011-01-01

399

Reproductive Performance of Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive performances of growth-enhanced transgenic, hatchery, and cultured nontransgenic coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were examined to investigate the consequences of reproductive interaction between growth hormone (GH)–transgenic fish and wild fish that may occur if transgenic salmon escaped into the natural environment. We examined adult morphological phenotypes, gamete quantity and quality, in vitro offspring production, courtship and spawning behavior, male

Cindy Bessey; Robert H. Devlin; N. Robin Liley; Carlo A. Biagi

2004-01-01

400

ESTIMATING THE SIZE OF HISTORICAL COASTAL OREGON SALMON RUNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasing the abundance of salmon in Oregon's rivers and streams is a high priority public policy objective. Salmon runs have been reduced from pre-development conditions (typically defined as prior to the 1850s), but it is unclear by how much. Considerable public and private ...

401

UTILIZATION OF SALMON BY-PRODUCTS IN RURAL ALASKA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marine fishing operations in Alaska may be discarding up to 60% of their landed weight as processing waste. Solutions to this problem may be found by examining traditional Alaskan methods for utilizing salmon by-products. This preliminary Salmon By-Product survey was conducted at the 2005 Yukon 800 ...

402

Salmon spawning migration: Metabolic shifts and environmental triggers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale functional genomics study revealed shifting metabolic processes in white muscle during the final 1300 km migration of wild sockeye salmon to their spawning grounds in the Fraser River, British Columbia. In 2006, Lower Adams stock sockeye salmon ceased feeding after passing the Queen Charlotte Islands, 850 km from the Fraser River. Enhanced protein turnover and reduced transcription of actin, muscle

Kristina M. Miller; Angela D. Schulze; Norma Ginther; Shaorong Li; David A. Patterson; Anthony P. Farrell; Scott G. Hinch

2009-01-01

403

Impaired health of juvenile Pacific salmon migrating through contaminated estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and other chemical contaminants in tissues, fluids and stomach contents while utilizing contaminated estuaries of Puget Sound during their out-migration from fresh water to open ocean. Field studies show that they have impaired health (reduced immunocompetence, increased mortality after disease challenge, reduced growth) resulting

T. Collier; M. Arkoosh; E. Casillas; M. Myers; C. Stehr; J. Meador; J. Stein

2000-01-01

404

RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

405

Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Juvenile and adult chum salmon were monitored in fiscal year 2001 to continue evaluating factors limiting production. Total adult salmon caught (in weirs or by carcass surveys) in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs in 2000 was 25 and 130 fish, respectively....

T. A. Hoffman

2001-01-01

406

Antimicrobial multiresistance in bacteria isolated from freshwater Chilean salmon farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive use of antimicrobial agents, mainly oxytetracycline, to prevent and control bacterial pathologies in Chilean salmon culture is a frequent practice. A total of 103 Gram-negative oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria recovered from various sources of 4 Chilean freshwater salmon farms were identified and investigated for their susceptibility patterns to various antibacterial agents, by using an agar disk diffusion method. Antibacterial resistance

Claudio D Miranda; Raul Zemelman

2002-01-01

407

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions

Jennifer S Ford; Ransom A Myers

2008-01-01

408

PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: IN SEARCH OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds...

409

PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: THE MOST LIKELY FUTURE AND SOME ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of...

410

SALMON AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: TROUBLESOME QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the Pacific Northwest and California, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. In response to requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, the Canadian Species at Risk Act, and ...

411

21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following optional ingredients may be added to the food: (i) Salt. (ii) Edible salmon oil comparable in color, viscosity, and flavor to the oil which would occur naturally in the species of salmon canned. (5)(i) The name of the food...

2013-04-01

412

Spawning salmon and the phenology of emergence in stream insects  

PubMed Central

Phenological dynamics are controlled by environmental factors, disturbance regimes and species interactions that alter growth or mortality risk. Ecosystem engineers can be a key source of disturbance, yet their effects on the phenologies of co-occurring organisms are virtually unexplored. We investigated how the abundance of a dominant ecosystem engineer, spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), alters the emergence phenology of stream insects. In streams with high densities of salmon, peak insect emergence occurred in early July, immediately prior to salmon spawning. By contrast, peak insect emergence in streams with low densities of salmon was weeks later and more protracted. The emergence of specific taxa was also significantly related to salmon density. A common rearing experiment revealed that differences in emergence timing are maintained in the absence of spawning salmon. We hypothesize that these patterns are probably driven by predictable and severe disturbance from nest-digging salmon driving local adaptation and being a trait filter of insect emergence. Thus, salmon regulate the timing and duration of aquatic insect emergence, a cross-ecosystem flux from streams to riparian systems.

Moore, Jonathan W.; Schindler, Daniel E.

2010-01-01

413

Listen to Our Salmon: Forests, Rivers and Oceans are Connected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A university-based researcher and a grade seven teacher collaborated to plan a science curriculum that would help elementary school students discover the world of salmon and understand its life cycle. Describes key components of the salmon-enhancement program and river-health project. A student's record of hatching chum fry in the classroom is…

Mueller, Andrea; Brown, Rod

1998-01-01

414

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

415

Coronary arteriosclerosis in salmon: growing old or growing fast?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of what we know and what we suspect regarding the formation of coronary arteriosclerotic lesions in salmonids. Coronary lesions are a fact of life for both Atlantic and Pacific species of migrating salmon. Severe forms of lesions, usually restricted to the main coronary artery, are typically found in the majority of a salmon population when they

A. P. Farrell

2002-01-01

416

Characterization of bone from red salmon and Pacific cod frames  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2008 estimated harvests of Pacific cod and all salmon species from Alaska waters was 207,000 mt and 322,000 mt, respectively. If all the harvest would be processed to boneless fillets it is estimated the amounts of frames produced would be 37,000 mt from cod and 58,000 mt from salmon. There is ...

417

Serological evidence of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection in farmed fishes, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).  

PubMed

Antibody detection tests are rarely used for diagnostic purposes in fish diseases. Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) caused by ISA virus (ISAV) is an emerging disease of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The virus has also been isolated from diseased coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Chile. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that should facilitate serodiagnosis of ISAV infection, the study of epidemiology, and the control of ISA in farmed fishes has been developed using purified ISAV as the coating antigen, and monoclonal antibodies that detect fish immunoglobulins bound to the antigen on the plate. Application of the test to a random sample of farmed Atlantic salmon from the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, positively identified 5 of the 7 ISAV RT-PCR-positive fish, and all 10 RT-PCR-negative fish were also negative in the ELISA. Some RT-PCR-negative fish had an elevated non-specific antibody reactivity suggestive of chronic infection or resistance to ISAV. This test was also able to detect 11 of the 14 coho salmon pooled serum samples from a clinically affected farm in Chile that were positive by the virus neutralization (VN) test, and 2 of the 4 VN-negative samples. We conclude that this ELISA would be suitable as a routine test for ISAV infection or for assessing ISAV vaccine efficacy before placing smolts in sea cages, and for testing fishes in sea cages to detect level of resistance to ISA. The assay enables vaccination in combination with depopulation control methods. PMID:12240966

Kibenge, Molly T; Opazo, Beatriz; Rojas, Alejandro H; Kibenge, Frederick S B

2002-08-15

418

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) isolates induce distinct gene expression responses in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) macrophage/dendritic-like cell line TO, assessed using genomic techniques.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a marine orthomyxovirus of significant interest not only as a cause of a fatal disease of farmed Atlantic salmon resulting in severe economic losses to the aquaculture industry, but also as the only poikilothermic orthomyxovirus. ISAV targets vascular endothelial cells and macrophages, and is known to influence the expression of both innate and adaptive immune response relevant genes. ISAV isolates from different geographic regions have been shown to vary considerably in their pathogenicity for Atlantic salmon. This study aimed to characterize the Atlantic salmon TO macrophage/dendritic-like cell responses to infection with a selection of ISAV isolates of different genotypes and pathogenicity phenotypes. The first TO infection trial used ISAV isolates NBISA01 and RPC/NB-04-085-1 of high and low pathogenicity, respectively, and global gene expression analyses were carried out using approximately 16,000 gene (16K) salmonid cDNA microarrays to compare RNA samples extracted from TO cells harvested 24 and 72h post-infection versus time-matched uninfected controls. Overall, the microarray experiment showed that RPC/NB-04-085-1-infected cells had a higher total number of reproducibly dysregulated genes (88 genes: the sum of genes greater than 2-fold up- or down-regulated in all four replicate microarrays of a given comparison) than the NBISA01-infected cells (10 genes) for the combined sampling points (i.e. 24 and 72h). This microarray experiment identified several salmon genes that were differentially regulated by NBISA01 and RPC/NB-04-085-1, and which may be useful as molecular biomarkers of ISAV infection. An initial quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) study involving 25 microarray-identified genes confirmed the differences in the level of dysregulation of host transcripts between the two ISAV isolates (i.e. NBISA01 and RPC/NB-04-085-1). A second TO infection trial was run using a selection of four clinical ISAV isolates (Norway-810/9/99, a high pathogenicity isolate of European genotype; RPC/NB-04-085-1, a low pathogenicity isolate of European genotype; NBISA01, a high pathogenicity isolate of North American genotype; and RPC/NB-01-0593-1, an intermediate pathogenicity isolate of North American genotype), and UV-inactivated RPC/NB-04-085-1, with sampling at 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120h post-infection. The microarray-identified, QRT-PCR validated suite of 24 molecular biomarkers of response to ISAV were used in a second QRT-PCR experiment to assess the TO cell gene expression responses to the four ISAV isolates at all six time points in the infection. The QRT-PCR data showed that RPC/NB-04-085-1 caused the highest fold changes of most immune-relevant genes [such as interferon-inducible protein Gig1, Mx1 protein, interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5, Radical S-adenosyl methionine domain-containing protein (viperin), and several genes involved in the ISGylation pathway], followed by Norway-810/9/99. NBISA01 and RPC/NB-01-0593-01 (both of North American genotype) showed low fold up-regulation of transcripts that were highly induced by RPC/NB-04-085-1 isolate. These findings show that ISAV isolates have strain-specific variations in their ability to induce immune response genes. PMID:19616850

Workenhe, Samuel T; Hori, Tiago S; Rise, Matthew L; Kibenge, Molly J T; Kibenge, Frederick S B

2009-07-18

419

Trouble Brewing in the Bering Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier this week, just after the conclusion of the "Year Of The Ocean" (1998), scientists sounded an alarm about the health of an entire ocean ecosystem -- the Bering Sea. Located between Alaska and Russia in the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea provides nearly half of the fish and shellfish caught in the US. However, unusual atmospheric and oceanic conditions during the summers of 1997 and 1998 (including El Nino) gave rise to warmer ocean temperatures, changes in ocean currents and atmospheric conditions, several typically-rare algal blooms, extensive seabird die-offs, and unprecedented low salmon runs. While alarming, some of these changes are not new to the Bering Sea. Over the past three decades, scientists have documented 50 to 90 percent declines in Steller sea lions and harbor seals in some areas, and populations of seabirds (common and thick-billed murres, red-legged and black-legged kittiwakes) have also fared poorly. Given the potential significance of these changes, increased attention is being paid to the processes, linkages, and organisms in the Bering Sea ecosystem. This week's In The News focuses on recent changes in the Bering Sea ecosystem. The eleven resources discussed offer background information, current research, and commentary.

Payne, Laura X.

1999-01-01

420

Spiny Dogfish Predation on Chinook and Coho Salmon and the Potential Effects on Hatchery-Produced Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias moved into the area near the mouth of the Big Qualicum River, British Columbia, at the time hatchery-reared smolts of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon O. kisutch were leaving the river in 1988 and 1989. A small percentage of the spiny dogfish preyed on the smolts, but the resulting smolt mortality

RICHARD J. BEAMISH; BARBARA L. THOMSON; GORDON A. MCFARLANE

1992-01-01

421

Relation of Water Temperature to Bacterial Cold-Water Disease in Coho Salmon, Chinook Salmon, and Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water temperature on the progress of experimentally induced Cytophaga psychrophila infection was investigated in juveniles of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, and rainbow trout O. mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri). A virulent strain of C. psychrophila was administered to fish by subcutaneous injection. Infected fish were held in tanks containing pathogen-free well water at temperatures

R. A. Holt; A. Amandi; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer

1989-01-01

422

Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

423

THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT: OPTIONS TO PROTECT, RESTORE, ANE ENHANCE SALMON ALONG THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

424

Using Phylogenetic Analysis to Detect Market Substitution of Atlantic Salmon for Pacific Salmon: An Introductory Biology Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe a laboratory exercise developed for the cell and molecular biology quarter of a year-long majors' undergraduate introductory biology sequence. In an analysis of salmon samples collected by students in their local stores and restaurants, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to detect market substitution of Atlantic salmon

Cline, Erica; Gogarten, Jennifer

2012-01-01

425

Natural Climate Insurance for Pacific Northwest Salmon and Salmon Fisheries: Finding Our Way through the Entangled Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay focuses on the linkages between climate (variability and change) and sustainable salmon management policies. We show the importance of climate in its effects on salmon production as well as how unpredictable these effects are. Our assessment leads us to conclude that the treatment of environmental uncertainty poses a fundamental conflict between the kind of policies that have been

NATHAN MANTUA; ROBERT C. FRANCIS

2004-01-01

426

Differentiation of the rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) from Atlantic salmon ( Salmon salar ) by the AFLP-derived SCAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A species-specific SCAR marker for rainbow trout, which was used to detect adulteration and fraudulent labeling in Atlantic salmon products, has been developed based on the AFLP analysis and evaluated in this study. The SCAR marker could be amplified and visualized in 1% agarose gel in all tested rainbow trout samples and absent in all salmon samples. Using DNA admixtures,

Junbin Zhang; Zeping Cai

2006-01-01

427

2004 Arctic Yukon Kuskokwim Sustainable Salmon Initiative Project Final Report. Genetic Variation in Norton Sound Chum Salmon Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The genetic health of Norton Sound chum salmon populations may have been impacted by the regional-level decline in chum salmon abundance that began in the mid 1990s. However, limited genetic data exist with which to evaluate these populations. In this stu...