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Sample records for salmon national fish

  1. Spring Chinook Salmon Production for Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Doulas, Speros

    2007-01-01

    This annual report covers the period from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2006. Work completed supports the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) effort to restore a locally-adapted stock of spring Chinook to the Umatilla River Basin. During the year, staff at the Little White Salmon/Willard National Fish Hatchery Complex have completed the rearing of 218,764 Brood Year 2004 spring Chinook salmon for release into the Umatilla River during spring 2006 and initiated production of approximately 220,000 Brood Year 2005 spring Chinook for transfer and release into the Umatilla River during spring 2007. All work under this contract is performed at the Little White Salmon and Willard National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), Cook, WA.

  2. Evaluation of partial water reuse systems used for Atlantic salmon smolt production at the White River National Fish Hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight of the existing 9.1 m (30 ft) diameter circular culture tanks at the White River National Fish Hatchery in Bethel, Vermont, were retrofitted and plumbed into two 8,000 L/min partial water reuse systems to help meet the region's need for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt production. The part...

  3. Modeling the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Pacific Salmon Culture Programs: An Example at Winthrop National Fish Hatchery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Kyle C.; Peterson, Douglas P.

    2014-09-01

    Hatcheries have long been used in an attempt to mitigate for declines in wild stocks of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), though the conservation benefit of hatcheries is a topic of ongoing debate. Irrespective of conservation benefits, a fundamental question is whether hatcheries will be able to function as they have in the past given anticipated future climate conditions. To begin to answer this question, we developed a deterministic modeling framework to evaluate how climate change may affect hatcheries that rear Pacific salmon. The framework considers the physiological tolerances for each species, incorporates a temperature-driven growth model, and uses two metrics commonly monitored by hatchery managers to determine the impacts of changes in water temperature and availability on hatchery rearing conditions. As a case study, we applied the model to the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. We projected that hatchery environmental conditions remained within the general physiological tolerances for Chinook salmon in the 2040s (assuming A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), but that warmer water temperatures in summer accelerated juvenile salmon growth. Increased growth during summer coincided with periods when water availability should also be lower, thus increasing the likelihood of physiological stress in juvenile salmon. The identification of these climate sensitivities led to a consideration of potential mitigation strategies such as chilling water, altering rations, or modifying rearing cycles. The framework can be refined with new information, but in its present form, it provides a consistent, repeatable method to assess the vulnerability of hatcheries to predicted climate change.

  4. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon culture programs: an example at Winthrop National Fish Hatchery.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kyle C; Peterson, Douglas P

    2014-09-01

    Hatcheries have long been used in an attempt to mitigate for declines in wild stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), though the conservation benefit of hatcheries is a topic of ongoing debate. Irrespective of conservation benefits, a fundamental question is whether hatcheries will be able to function as they have in the past given anticipated future climate conditions. To begin to answer this question, we developed a deterministic modeling framework to evaluate how climate change may affect hatcheries that rear Pacific salmon. The framework considers the physiological tolerances for each species, incorporates a temperature-driven growth model, and uses two metrics commonly monitored by hatchery managers to determine the impacts of changes in water temperature and availability on hatchery rearing conditions. As a case study, we applied the model to the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. We projected that hatchery environmental conditions remained within the general physiological tolerances for Chinook salmon in the 2040s (assuming A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), but that warmer water temperatures in summer accelerated juvenile salmon growth. Increased growth during summer coincided with periods when water availability should also be lower, thus increasing the likelihood of physiological stress in juvenile salmon. The identification of these climate sensitivities led to a consideration of potential mitigation strategies such as chilling water, altering rations, or modifying rearing cycles. The framework can be refined with new information, but in its present form, it provides a consistent, repeatable method to assess the vulnerability of hatcheries to predicted climate change. PMID:24993792

  5. SALMON AND NATIVE FISH HABITAT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research described in this project deals with the influence of human activities on aquatic and aquatic-dependent biota at landscape, watershed, and regional scales. Specifically, it will examine watershed and landscape scale habitat issues affecting salmon and native fishes i...

  6. The Sensor Fish - Making Dams More Salmon-Friendly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Keilman, Geogre

    2004-07-31

    This article describes the Sensor Fish, an instrument package that travels through hydroelectric dams collecting data on the hazardous conditions that migrating salmon smolt encounter. The Sensor Fish was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory with funding from DOE and the US Army Corps of Engineers and has been used at several federal and utility-run hydroelectric projects on the Snake and Columbia Rivers of the US Pacific Northwest. The article describes the evolution of the Sensor Fish design and provides examples of its use at McNary and Ice Harbor dams.

  7. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  8. THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

  9. Mineral resource appraisal of the Salmon National Forest, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Rick; Close, Terry; McHugh, Ed

    1998-01-01

    The Salmon National Forest administers 1,776,994 net acres of mountainous terrain located in east-central Idaho. Most of the Forest is in Lemhi County; only a small portion falls within Idaho and Valley Counties. Approximately 426,114 acres of the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness extends into the western part of the Forest and mineral entry is severely restricted. Because of its location within the Salmon River drainage, the Forest also is subject to numerous issues surrounding restoration of anadromous fish runs. Mineral production from the Salmon National Forest began during 1866 when placer gold was discovered in Leesburg Basin. Hardrock mining quickly spread throughout the Forest and many deposits containing a wide range of commodities were discovered and developed. Although early records are sketchy, production is estimated to include 940,000 ounces gold, 654,000 ounces silver, 61.9 million pounds copper, 8.9 million pounds lead, 13.9 million pounds cobalt, 208,000 pounds zinc, and 37,000 tons fluorite mill feed. Mineral resources are large, diverse, and occur in many deposit types including exhalative, stockwork, disseminated, vein, replacement, sedimentary, skarn, breccia pipe, porphyry, and placer. The largest cobalt resource in the United States occurs in the Blackbird Mining District. Other resources include gold, silver, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphate, manganese, iron, fluorite, uranium, thorium, rare earth oxides, and barite.

  10. Salmon fishing by bears and the dawn of cooperative predation.

    PubMed

    Stringham, Stephen F

    2012-11-01

    Although bears are an epitome of solitary predation, black (Ursus americanus) and brown bears (U. arctos) occasionally act in pairs to capture salmon (Onchorynchous spp.). I sought to identify conditions that promote pairing and how this relates to optimal foraging. This study on Alaskan black bears assessed whether each mode of fishing (solo vs. paired) occurs mainly where it is most efficient at harvesting salmon--that is, whether modal group size (1 vs. 2) is also optimal size. Not in this case. Pairing increased captures per attempt (benefit/cost ratio = profitability) by up to 47% and captures per minute by up to 5.2-fold. Yet, the ratio of paired versus solo fishing was significantly lower than either profitability or chance explains. Modal group size was 1, optimal size was 2. This discrepancy did not result from intervention by other current benefits and costs, but from unnecessary defensiveness toward any rapidly approaching conspecific, even though it was chasing salmon, not threatening. For bears to regularly hunt cooperatively, they would have to more readily habituate to agonistic-like predatory actions, communicate intentions from > 10 m apart, and assess situational variations in benefit/cost ratios for solo versus paired hunting. It would be revealing to discover how social carnivores overcame these challenges. PMID:23088647

  11. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho Department of Fish and Game Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-10-12

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to fund the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon Program (IDFG Program). The IDFG Program is a small-scale research and production initiative designed to increase numbers of three weak but recoverable populations of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Salmon River drainage. This would increase numbers of spring/summer chinook salmon within the Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), and reduce population fragmentation within the ESU. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1301) evaluating the proposed IDFG Program. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. Stream flow, salmon and beaver dams: roles in the structuring of stream fish communities within an anadromous salmon dominated stream.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sean C; Cunjak, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    The current paradigm of fish community distribution is one of a downstream increase in species richness by addition, but this concept is based on a small number of streams from the mid-west and southern United States, which are dominated by cyprinids. Further, the measure of species richness traditionally used, without including evenness, may not be providing an accurate reflection of the fish community. We hypothesize that in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids, fish community diversity will be affected by the presence of the anadromous species, and therefore be influenced by those factors affecting the salmonid population. Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick, Canada, provides a long-term data set to evaluate fish community diversity upstream and downstream of an obstruction (North American beaver Castor canadensis dam complex), which affects distribution of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The Shannon Weiner diversity index and community evenness were calculated for sample sites distributed throughout the brook and over 15 years. Fish community diversity was greatest upstream of the beaver dams and in the absence of Atlantic salmon. The salmon appear to depress the evenness of the community but do not affect species richness. The community upstream of the beaver dams changes due to replacement of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus by salmon, rather than addition, when access is provided. Within Catamaran Brook, location of beaver dams and autumn streamflow interact to govern adult Atlantic salmon spawner distribution, which then dictates juvenile production and effects on fish community. These communities in an anadromous Atlantic salmon dominated stream do not follow the species richness gradient pattern shown in cyprinid-dominated streams and an alternative model for stream fish community distribution in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids is presented. This alternative model suggests that community distribution may be a function of semipermeable obstructions

  13. Anadronous Fish Habitat Enhancement for the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, John

    1990-01-01

    The wild and natural salmon and steelhead populations in the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River are at a critical low. Habitat enhancement through decreasing sediment loads, increasing vegetative cover, removing passage barriers, and providing habitat diversity is imperative to the survival of these specially adapted fish, until passage problems over the Columbia River dams are solved. Personnel from the Boise and Sawtooth National Forests completed all construction work planned for 1988. In Bear Valley, 1573 feet of juniper revetment was constructed at eleven sites, cattle were excluded from 1291 feet of streambanks to prevent bank breakdown, and a small ephemeral gully was filled with juniper trees. Work in the Upper Salmon Drainage consisted of constructing nine rock sills/weirs, two rock deflectors, placing riprap along forty feet of streambank, construction of 2.1 miles of fence on private lands, and opening up the original Valley Creek channel to provide spring chinook passage to the upper watershed. A detailed stream survey of anadromous fish habitat covering 72.0 miles of streams in the Middle Fork Sub-basin was completed.

  14. Changes in Habitat and Populations of Steelhead Trout, Coho Salmon, and Chinook Salmon in Fish Creek, Oregon; Habitat Improvement, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everest, Fred H.; Hohler, David B.; Cain, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, began in 1982 as a cooperative venture between the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1987) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Benefit-cost analysis of habitat improvements.

  15. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume I of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-08-01

    Individual operational plans for 1993 are provided for the Abernathy Salmon Culture Technology Center, Carson National Fish Hatchery, Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Eagle Creek National Fish Hatchery, Entiat National Fish Hatchery, Hagerman National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Willard National Fish Hatchery, and the Winthrop National Fish Hatchery.

  16. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Duane D.

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for Statement

  17. Benzocaine as a fish anesthetic: efficacy and safety for spawning-phase salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The anesthetic benzocaine was tested for efficacy and safety for spawning-phase chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at federal fish hatcheries. Tests were conducted in the existing hatchery water supplies (soft water; temperatures, 10–13 °C. Crystalline benzocaine was dissolved in ethanol (1 g/30 mL), and aliquots of that stock solution were added to the water in test tanks. Benzocaine concentrations of 25–30 mg/L anesthetized most fish in less than 3.5 min, and most fish recovered in less than 10 min after 15 min of exposure. Safety margins were narrow; both species tolerated 30 mg/L for about 20 min, but 25 min of exposure caused deaths. For 15 min exposures, concentrations of 35 mg/L for chinook salmon and 40 mg/L for Atlantic salmon were lethal.

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 77 FR 13072 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, Butte, Custer and Lemhi Counties, ID, Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Forest Service Salmon-Challis National Forest, Butte, Custer and Lemhi Counties, ID, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement to the 2009 Salmon- Challis National Forest Travel Planning and OHV Route... environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Salmon-Challis National Forest announces its intent to prepare...

  20. 76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ..., NMFS published proposed regulations in the Federal Register (76 FR 29707) to implement the program... Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... industry fee system to repay a $23,476,500 loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon...

  1. 76 FR 29707 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... an industry fee system to repay a $23.5 million loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon... Mail: Paul Marx, Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine...

  2. Salmon farms as a source of organohalogenated contaminants in wild fish.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Lie, Elisabeth; Herzke, Dorte; Dempster, Tim; Bjørn, Pål Arne; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2010-11-15

    Organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs), including organochlorines (OCs; PCB, and OC-pesticides), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDE], hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured in livers of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens) caught in the vicinity of salmon farms (n = 75) and control sites (n = 80) in three regions (59°-70°N) in Norway. Forty-five percent of the farm-associated (FA) fish (60% of the saithe and 30% of the cod) and none of the control fish had salmon feed (aquaculture food pellets) in their digestive tracts. Concentrations of OCs and BFRs were about 50% higher and dominated more by persistent compounds in Atlantic cod compared to saithe. After controlling for a set of confounding variables (location, sex, size, weight, gonads size, hepatosomatic index, and % lipids in the liver), the concentrations of ∑OC and ∑BDE were 50% higher in FA cod compared to control fish, whereas they were 20% higher in FA saithe than control fish. Hence, salmon farms are a source of lipid-soluble OHCs to wild marine fish, but variation in life-history and habitat use seems to affect the levels of OHCs in the different fish species. In contrast to the lipid-soluble OHCs, control fish had 67% higher PFOS levels than FA fish, which suggests that natural food contains higher loads of this compound than the commercial feed used in salmon farms. Some OHCs are known to act as endocrine disruptors, thus further work is required to determine if OHCs negatively affect reproductive processes of wild fish associated with salmon farms. PMID:20977203

  3. [Residues of tetracycline and quinolones in wild fish living around a salmon aquaculture center in Chile].

    PubMed

    Fortt Z, Antonia; Cabello C, Felipe; Buschmann R, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    The presence of residues of tetracycline, quinolones and antiparasitic drugs was investigated in wild fish captured around salmon aquaculture pens in Cochamó, Region X, Chile. Residues of both antibiotics were found in the meta [corrected] of two species of wild fish that are consumed by humans, robalo (Elginops maclovinus) and cabrilla (Sebastes capensis) [corrected] These findings suggest that the antibiotic usage in salmon aquaculture in Chile has nvironmental implications that may affect human and animal health. More studies are needed in Chile to determine the relevance of these findings for human and animal health and the environment to regulate this use of antibiotics. PMID:17369965

  4. Host tropism of infectious salmon anaemia virus in marine and freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Aamelfot, M; Dale, O B; McBeath, A; Falk, K

    2015-08-01

    The aquatic orthomyxovirus infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) causes a severe disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Although some ISA outbreaks are caused by horizontal transmission of virus between farms, the source and reservoir of the virus is largely unknown and a wild host has been hypothesized. Atlantic salmon are farmed in open net-pens, allowing transmission of pathogens from wild fish and the surrounding environment to the farmed fish. In this study, a large number of fish species were investigated for ISAV host potential. For orthomyxoviruses, a specific receptor binding is the first requirement for infection; thus, the fish species were investigated for the presence of the ISAV receptor. The receptor was found to be widely distributed across the fish species. All salmonids expressed the receptor. However, only some of the cod-like and perch-like fish did, and all flat fish were negative. In the majority of the positive species, the receptor was found on endothelial cells and/or on red blood cells. The study forms a basis for further investigations and opens up the possibility for screening species to determine whether a wild host of ISAV exists. PMID:25048819

  5. A comparison of Oregon pellet and fish-meat diets for administration of sulfamethazine to Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1967-01-01

    The absorption of sulfamethazine by yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was compared when administered in the Oregon Pellet and a fish-meat diet. The pelleted diet delivered the drug to the fish approximately twice as efficiently as the fish-meat diet. Dosage levels are recommended for both diets, and the efficacy of administering drugs in fish feed is discussed.

  6. Performance Characterization of Influent and Effluent Treatment Systems: A Case Study at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterizes the performance of influent and effluent disinfection systems at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) restoration facility in East Orland, ME. Influent treatment of the hatchery’s water supply limits fish ...

  7. Potential of thraustochytrids to partially replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon feeds.

    PubMed

    Carter, C G; Bransden, M P; Lewis, T E; Nichols, P D

    2003-01-01

    The replacement of fish oil with a dried product made from thraustochytrid culture, a marine microorganism, in canola-oil-based diets for Atlantic salmon was investigated. Salmon (37 g) were fed for 51 days on diets containing only canola oil, canola oil and fish oil, or canola oil and the thraustochytrid. There were no significant differences in final weight (106.1 +/- 1.1 g), weight gain (69.6 +/- 1.1 g), feed consumption (16.5 +/- 0.2 mg dry matter g(-1) d(-1)), feed efficiency ratio (1.15 +/- 0.03 g (g-1)), or productive protein value (51.2% +/- 1.7%) between the diets. Nor were there any significant differences in whole-body chemical composition, organ somatic indices, or measures of immune function. However, following transfer to seawater and 2 challenges with Vibrio anguillarum, cumulative mortality was significantly lower in fish fed some fish oil than in those fed the 2 diets containing no fish oil. In conclusion, the thraustochytrid had no detrimental effects on the performance of salmon but, at the current inclusion of 10%, failed to confer the same effect as fish oil under challenging conditions. PMID:14730431

  8. Does the use of salmon frames as bait for lobster/crab creel fishing significantly increase the risk of disease in farmed salmon in Scotland?

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G

    2015-07-01

    Salmon farming is an important economic activity, and employer, particularly for remoter areas of Scotland; crustacean fisheries are also significant small businesses in these areas. Salmon frames (the head and spine that remain after evisceration and filleting) are sometimes used to bait the creel pots used to catch lobsters and crabs. These frames may contain pathogens that could potentially be spread to salmon farms in the vicinity of creel fisheries. Therefore, an analysis has been carried out for key pathogens of farmed salmon to assess the risks associated with this process. Infection of farms via creel bait requires that: (1) pathogens are present in salmon at harvest; (2) they are not removed from the salmon that used for bait during processing; (3) they transmit from creel pot baits to salmon farms. This last step is critical and leads to most of the uncertainty in results. Risk were assessed for 7 viruses, 3 bacteria, and 3 eukaryotic parasites of importance to salmon farming. A potentially significant risk was identified in association with disease control programmes if fish were filleted at a secondary processor; such a situation should arise only rarely. A very low risk, per event, was identified from imports, however, because of large numbers of Norwegian imports processed in the UK this risk is always present. Risks were at worst of low (disease control) or very low (imports) probability and are significant only because of the magnitude of consequences. PMID:25980750

  9. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Sockeye salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, G.B.; Risher, R.; Thomas, G.L. . Cooperative Fishery Research Unit)

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. Sockeye salmon always spawn in a lake associated with a river or in the outlet river. The young fish use the lakes for rearing. The brilliant red flesh is highly prized by commercial and sport fishermen. Washington State and the Columbia River are the southern limit of reproducing populations of sockeye salmon. Sockeye salmon are primarily plankton feeders. They appear to thrive best at temperatures of 10--15{degree}C. Ocean distribution does not appear to be limited by salinity. Adults require gravel with adequate water circulation for successful spawning and egg hatching. 100 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. British Columbia's fish health regulatory framework's contribution to sustainability goals related to salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Craig; Dicicco, Emiliano; Munk, Brandon

    2008-12-01

    Salmon farming is a significant contribution to the global seafood market to which the goal of sustainability is often applied. Diseases related to farms are perhaps the most contentious issues associated with sustainable salmon farming. We reviewed literature and policies in British Columbia, Canada, as well as interviewed key informants to examine how fish health regulations do or could support sustainability goals. We found four main obstacles to the development and application of a sustainability-based health management system. First, salmon farming faced the same challenges as other industries when trying to establish an operational definition of sustainability that captures all stakeholders' interests. Second, there was no program responsible for integrating the various regulations, responsible departments, and monitoring efforts to develop a comprehensive view of sustainability. Third, there was inadequate research base and social consensus on the criteria that should be used to track health outcomes for sustainability purposes. Fourth, the regulatory and management paradigm for salmon farming has been focused on diseases and pathogens as opposed to embracing a more inclusive health promotion model that includes biotic, abiotic, and social determinants of health. A transparent and inclusive participatory process that effectively links expert views with community and industry concerns should serve as the foundation for the next generation of health management regulations for salmon farming. PMID:19296177

  11. Limnology and fish ecology of sockeye salmon nursery lakes of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Wilbur L.; Burgner, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    Many important, recently glaciated oligotrophic lakes that lie in coastal regions around the northern rim of the Pacific Ocean produce anadromous populations of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. This paper describes the limnology and fish ecology of two such lakes in British Columbia, five in Alaska, and one in Kamchatka. Then we discuss the following general topics: the biogenic eutrophication of nursery lakes from the nutrients released from salmon carcasses wherein during years of highest numbers of spawners, lake phosphate balances in Lakes Babine, Iliamna, and Dalnee are significantly affected; the use of nursery lakes by young sockeye that reveals five patterns related to size and configuration of lake basins and the distribution of spawning areas; the interactions between various life history stages of sockeye salmon and such resident predators, competitors, and prey as Arctic char, lake trout, Dolly Varden, cutthroat trout, lake whitefish, pygmy whitefish, pond smelt, sticklebacks, and sculpins; the self-regulation of sockeye salmon abundance in these nursery lakes as controlled by density-dependent processes; the interrelations between young sockeye salmon biomass and growth rates, and zooplankton abundance in Babine Lake; and finally, the diel, vertical, pelagial migratory behavior of young sockeye in Babine Lake and the new hypothesis dealing with bioenergetic conservation.

  12. Optimal reproduction in salmon spawning substrates linked to grain size and fish length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, Clifford S.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Overstreet, Brandon T.; Wooster, John K.

    2014-02-01

    Millions of dollars are spent annually on revitalizing salmon spawning in riverbeds where redd building by female salmon is inhibited by sediment that is too big for fish to move. Yet the conditions necessary for productive spawning remain unclear. There is no gauge for quantifying how grain size influences the reproductive potential of coarse-bedded rivers. Hence, managers lack a quantitative basis for optimizing spawning habitat restoration for reproductive value. To overcome this limitation, we studied spawning by Chinook, sockeye, and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, O. nerka, and O. gorbuscha) in creeks and rivers of California and the Pacific Northwest. Our analysis shows that coarse substrates have been substantially undervalued as spawning habitat in previous work. We present a field-calibrated approach for estimating the number of redds and eggs a substrate can accommodate from measurements of grain size and fish length. Bigger fish can move larger sediment and thus use more riverbed area for spawning. They also tend to have higher fecundity, and so can deposit more eggs per redd. However, because redd area increases with fish length, the number of eggs a substrate can accommodate is maximized for moderate-sized fish. This previously unrecognized tradeoff raises the possibility that differences in grain size help regulate river-to-river differences in salmon size. Thus, population diversity and species resilience may be linked to lithologic, geomorphic, and climatic factors that determine grain size in rivers. Our approach provides a tool for managing grain-size distributions in support of optimal reproductive potential and species resilience.

  13. 76 FR 29721 - Lost River and Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon-Challis National Forest; ID; Lost...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... National Forest System lands managed by the Salmon-Challis National Forest. This project has been cancelled... Forest Service Lost River and Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon- Challis National Forest; ID... National Forest, 1206 S. Challis St., Salmon, ID 83467. Dated: May 6, 2011. Frank V. Guzman,......

  14. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    PubMed

    Norambuena, Fernando; Hermon, Karen; Skrzypczyk, Vanessa; Emery, James A; Sharon, Yoni; Beard, Alastair; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-01-01

    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet) of algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed. PMID:25875839

  15. Algae in Fish Feed: Performances and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Norambuena, Fernando; Hermon, Karen; Skrzypczyk, Vanessa; Emery, James A.; Sharon, Yoni; Beard, Alastair; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet) of algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed. PMID:25875839

  16. Salmon jumping: behavior, kinematics and optimal conditions, with possible implications for fish passageway design.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, D V; Hertel, F S; Jordan, L K; Gordon, M S

    2010-09-01

    Behavioral and kinematic properties and capacities of wild migratory salmonid fishes swimming upstream and jumping up waterfalls generally have played only minor roles in the design and construction of passageways intended to help these fishes get past dams and other human-made obstacles blocking their movements. This paper reports the results of an experimental study of relevant behavioral and kinematic properties of adult kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) jumping up waterfalls as they migrate upstream. We used a portable, adjustable apparatus to study in the field fish responding to artificial waterfalls under a range of flow conditions. We observed fish under conditions of varying water flow rates, pool depths, fall heights and fall angles. We analyzed digital video recordings of their behaviors. Kokanee salmon spontaneously jump up waterfalls within a relatively narrow range of conditions, including low flow speeds, near vertical angles and pool depth to fall height ratios near 1.0. Preferred values for each parameter are, to some extent, dependent on other parameters. In contrast to previous misconceptions, jumping behavior is initiated by running S-start accelerations from beneath the boils formed in the plunge pools below waterfalls, as opposed to C-start standing jumps from the surface. S-starts are immediately followed by burst swimming to the point of takeoff at the surface. These results can contribute to an improved basis for developing designs of fish passageways that may ultimately make them more effective and efficient. PMID:20729570

  17. 77 FR 19004 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... on May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29707), and final program regulations on October 6, 2011 (76 FR 61986), to implement the reduction program. NMFS published the list of eligible voters in on March 1, 2012 (77 FR 12568... Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  18. Reproductive Potential of Salmon Spawning Substrates Inferred from Grain Size and Fish Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, C. S.; Sklar, L. S.; Overstreet, B. T.; Wooster, J. K.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The river restoration industry spends millions of dollars every year on improving salmon spawning in riverbeds where sediment is too big for fish to move and thus use during redd building. However, few studies have addressed the question of how big is too big in salmon spawning substrates. Hence managers have had little quantitative basis for gauging the amount of spawning habitat in coarse-bedded rivers. Moreover, the scientific framework has remained weak for restoration projects that seek to improve spawning conditions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a physically based, field-calibrated model for the fraction of the bed that is fine-grained enough to support spawning by fish of a given size. Model inputs are fish length and easy-to-measure indices of bed-surface grain size. Model outputs include the number of redds and eggs the substrate can accommodate when flow depth, temperature, and other environmental factors are not limiting. The mechanistic framework of the model captures the biophysical limits on sediment movement and the space limitations on redd building and egg deposition in riverbeds. We explored the parameter space of the model and found a previously unrecognized tradeoff in salmon size: bigger fish can move larger sediment and thus use more riverbed area for spawning; they also tend to have higher fecundity, and so can deposit more eggs per redd; however, because redd area increases with fish length, the number of eggs a substrate can accommodate is highest for moderate-sized fish. One implication of this tradeoff is that differences in grain size may help regulate river-to-river differences in salmon size. Thus, our model suggests that population diversity and, by extension, species resilience are linked to lithologic, geomorphic, and climatic factors that determine grain size in rivers. We cast the model into easy-to-use look-up tables, charts, and computer applications, including a JavaScript app that works on tablets and mobile

  19. Persistent infections of fish cell lines by paramyxovirus isolates from Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lannan, C.N.

    1989-01-01

    We have reported the isolation of a paramyxovirus from stocks of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to coastal rivers of Oregon, USA (Winton et al 1985). The isolates were obtained from kidney and spleen tissues using the chinook salmon embryo cell line, CHSE-214. Initial cytopathic effect (CPE) was slow to develop, requiring 28 days incubation at 18°C. The virus replicated in CHSE-214, chum heart (CHH-1), kokanee ovary (K0-6), coho salmon embryo (CSE-119), and fathead minnow (FHM) cell lines where it produced a lytic type of CPE.The virus was stable at pH 3-11 and iodo-deoxyuridine did not inhibit wiral replication. Infectivity was lost after treatment with chloroform indicating the presence of essential lipids. The density of virions in CsCl was 1.2 g/ml. The virus hemagglutinated cells of 11 of 14 species of birds, mammals, and fish tested. Electron microscopy of infected cells revealed enveloped particles 125-250 nm in dia. containing coiled nucleocapsids and examination of freon-treated virions showed the nucleocapsid was a helix approximately 18 nm in dia. and > 1000 nm in length (Winton et al 1985).In addition to causing hemagglutination, members of the Paramyxoviridae are known for the ability to establish persistent infections of cell lines (Choppin and Compans 1975). The purpose of this study was to determine if the paramyxovirus isolates from salmon were able to establish persistent infections in fish cell lines and to study the nature of the infection.

  20. A "virus" disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Epizootics among chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery have occurred periodically since 1941. A virus or virus-like filterable agent has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of this disease.

  1. Post-release behavior and movement patterns of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after capture using alternative commercial fish gear, lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, WDFW conducted post-release mortality studies of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) that were captured using beach or purse seines. These studies were comprised of two groups of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags): (1) treatment fish that were captured by one of the gear types 9–25 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of Bonneville Dam (rkm 234); and (2) control fish that were captured at the Adult Fish Facility near the Washington shore fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, and then transported and released 8 rkm downstream of the Bonneville Dam. Fish were confirmed to have survived if they moved upstream and were detected on PIT-tag antennas at or upstream of Bonneville Dam, were recovered at hatcheries or at the dam, or were captured by commercial or sport fishers. Post-release survival estimates were higher for steelhead (89–98 percent) than for Chinook salmon and coho salmon (50–90 percent; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpub. data, 2014). However, some Chinook salmon and coho salmon return to hatcheries, or spawn in the mainstem Columbia River and in tributaries downstream of Bonneville Dam. The proportion of Chinook salmon and coho salmon in the treatment group that were destined for areas downstream of Bonneville Dam likely was higher than in the control group because the control fish were collected as they were attempting to pass the dam. If this assertion was true, mortality would have been overestimated in these studies, so WDFW developed a study plan to determine the post-release movements and intended location of Chinook salmon and coho salmon collected with beach and purse seines in the lower Columbia River.

  2. Mercury Concentrations in Fish Jerky Snack Food: Marlin, Ahi, and Salmon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dried meat and fish have served as an important durable nutrition source for humans for centuries. Because omega 3 fatty acids in fish are recognized as having antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties found to be beneficial for good health, many consumers are looking to fish as their main source of protein. Unfortunately, contaminants such as methylmercury can accumulate in some species of fish. The purpose of this research is to test commercially available fish jerky snack foods for mercury contamination. Methods Fifteen bags of marlin jerky, three bags of ahi jerky, and three bags of salmon jerky were purchased from large retail stores in Hawaii and California, and directly from the proprietors' Internet websites. Five individual strips of jerky per bag were analyzed for a total of one hundred and five tests. Results From the seventy-five marlin jerky samples, mercury concentration ranged from 0.052-28.17 μg/g, with an average of 5.53 μg/g, median 4.1 μg/g. Fifty-six (75%) marlin samples had mercury concentrations that exceeded the FDA's current mercury action level of 1.0 μg/g, while six samples had greater than 10 μg/g. Fifteen samples of ahi had mercury concentrations ranging from 0.09-0.55 μg/g, while mercury concentrations in fifteen salmon samples ranged from 0.030-0.17 μg/g. Conclusions This study found that mercury concentrations in some fish jerky can often exceed the FDA's allowable mercury limit and could be a significant source of mercury exposure. PMID:21988746

  3. Effects of environmental fluctuations on fish metabolism: Atlantic salmon Salmo salar as a case study.

    PubMed

    Enders, E C; Boisclair, D

    2016-01-01

    Using Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr as study species, recent findings are summarized on how (1) diurnal variations in water temperature affects standard metabolic rate, (2) shelter may reduce routine metabolic rate and (3) fluctuations of water speed affect the costs of activity. The results suggest that the accuracy of bioenergetics models can be hampered if the effects of environmental fluctuations are omitted. Incorporating environmental fluctuations into estimates and models of fish metabolism will not only improve the accuracy of energy budget calculations, but also have crucial management implications for conservation and improve the capacity to predict effects of climate change. PMID:26577543

  4. Alaskan Salmon and Gen R: hunting, fishing to cultivate ecological mindfulness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2015-03-01

    Can mining and fisheries co-exist in Bristol Bay, Alaska? To delve into this interesting tension, I expand on Clay Pierce's (this special issue) thoughtful analysis of genetically modified salmon and AquaBounty Technologies, where he explores actor-network theory in relation to scientific literacy and schooling. Further, my essay explores the idea of embodied knowledge as paramount to the next generation of youth engaged with scientific literacy. I demonstrate the problems associated with using hegemonic science to normalize biocapitalism and the subjugated knowledges in relation. Ultimately, I provide justifications for strengthening an ecologically mindful scientific literacy, working towards what might be called "Neptunian democracy" in science education, including salmon and other nonhuman actors as integral for youth wrestling with ecojustice issues. To do this, I highlight the significance of renewing fishing, hunting, and salmon eating. These things ought to become an intimate characteristic of the imagined literacy of the next generation of youth (what I've been calling Generation R for responsibility).

  5. Glochidiosis of salmonid fishes. IV. Humoral and tissue responses of coho and chinook salmon to experimental infection with Margaritefera Margaritifera (L. ) (Pelecypoda: Margaritanidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, T.R.; Millemann, R.E.; Fustish, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are more resistant than chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) to experimental infection with the glochidia of the freshwater mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Histological sections of gills from coho salmon 16 hr postinfection (p.i.) showed that parasite encystment either did not occur or had progressed incompletely, which accounted for the loss of many glochidia from the gills. The remaining encysted glochidia were sloughed within 2 days (p.i.) by a well-developed hyperplasia. On chinook salmon, the parasites developed normally with no sloughing or hyperplasia. Analysis of blood samples taken from coho salmon at intervals during the infection showed significant increases in hematocrit, hemoglobin, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and leukocyte numbers when compared with control fish. In infected chinook salmon only the hematocrit, erythrocyte numbers, and MCV increased while the MCHC decreased. Total plasma protein increased in coho salmon but decreased in chinook salmon during infection. Glochidial antibodies were demonstrated in the blood plasma of coho and chinook salmon 8 to 12 wk p.i. Fewer glochidia attached to the excised gills of coho salmon than to the gills of chinook salmon. Also, the in vitro survival time of parasites in mucus and plasma from coho salmon was less than in the same chinook salmon fluids.

  6. Fish pre-acclimation temperature only modestly affects cadmium toxicity in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Søfteland, Liv; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Rasinger, Josef D; Waagbø, Rune

    2016-04-01

    An emerging focus in environmental toxicology is how climate change will alter bioavailability and uptake of contaminants in organisms. Ectothermic animals unable to adjust their temperature by local migration, such as farmed fish kept in net pens, may become more vulnerable to contaminants in warmer seas. The aim of this work was to study cadmium (Cd) toxicity in cells obtained from fish acclimated to sub-optimal growth temperature. Atlantic salmon hepatocytes, harvested from fish pre-acclimated either at 15°C (optimal growth temperature) or 20°C (heat-stressed), were exposed in vitro to two concentrations of Cd (control, 1 and 100µM Cd) for 48h. Cd-induced cytotoxicity, determined with the xCELLigence system, was more pronounced in cells from fish pre-acclimated to a high temperature than in cells from fish grown at optimal temperature. A feed spiked with antioxidants could not ameliorate the Cd-induced cytotoxicity in cells from temperature-stressed fish. At the transcriptional level, Cd exposure affected 11 out of 20 examined genes, of which most are linked to oxidative stress. The transcriptional levels of a majority of the altered genes were changed in cells harvested from fish grown at sub-optimal temperature. Interaction effects between Cd exposure and fish pre-acclimation temperature were seen for four transcripts, hmox1, mapk1, fth1 and mmp13. Overall, this study shows that cells from temperature-stressed fish are modestly more vulnerable to Cd stress, and indicate that mechanisms linked to oxidative stress may be differentially affected in temperature-stressed cells. PMID:27033036

  7. Effects of Habitat Enhancement on Steelhead Trout and Coho Salmon Smolt Production, Habitat Utilization, and Habitat Availability in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everest, Fred H.; Reeves, Gordon H.; Hohler, David B.

    1987-06-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, was continued in fiscal year 1986 by the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The study began in 1982 when PNW entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to evaluate fish habitat improvements in the Fish Creek basin on the Estacada Ranger District. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1986) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station (see Appendix 2). The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat

  8. Potential Effects of Dams on Migratory Fish in the Mekong River: Lessons from Salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, John W.; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  9. Potential effects of dams on migratory fish in the Mekong River: lessons from salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, John W; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region. PMID:20924582

  10. Movement and Injury Rates for Three Life Stages of Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha : A Comparison of Submerged Orifices and an Overflow Weir for Fish Bypass in a Modular Rotary Drum Fish Screen : Annual Report 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C. Scott; Neitzel, Duane A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated the effectiveness of 6-in. and 2-in. submerged orifices, and an overflow weir for fish bypass at a rotary drum fish screening facility. A modular drum screen built by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) was installed at PNNL`s Aquatic Ecology research laboratory in Richland, Washington. Fry, subyearlings, and smolts of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyacha) were introduced into the test system, and their movement and injury rates were monitored. A total of 33 tests (100 fish per test) that lasted from 24 to 48 hr were completed from 1994 through 1995. Passage rate depended on both fish size and bypass configuration. For fry/fingerling spring chinook salmon, there was no difference in passage rate through the three bypass configurations (2-in. orifice, 6-in. orifice, or overflow weir). Subyearlings moved sooner when the 6-in. orifice was used, with more than 50% exiting through the fish bypass in the first 8 hr. Smolts exited quickly and preferred the 6-in. orifice, with over 90% of the smolts exiting through the bypass in less than 2 hr. Passage was slightly slower when a weir was used, with 90% of the smolts exiting in about 4 hr. When the 2-in. orifice was used in the bypass, 90% of the smolts did not exit until after 8 hr. In addition, about 7% of the smolts failed to migrate from the forebay within 24 hr, indicating that smolts were significantly delayed when the 2-in. orifice was used. Few significant injuries were detected for any of the life stages. However, light descaling occurred on about 15% of chinook salmon smolts passing through the 2-in. orifice. Although a single passage through the orifice did not appear to cause significant scale loss or other damage, passing through several screening facilities with 2-in. orifices could cause cumulative injuries.

  11. Spawning salmon and the fitness of stream-dwelling fishes: Marine-derived nutrients show saturating effects on growth and energy storage in juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and d15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg•m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and d15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of d15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  12. Composition and Relative Abundance of Fish Species in the Lower White Salmon River, Washington, Prior to the Removal of Condit Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the composition and relative abundance of fish species was collected by a rotary screw trap and backpack electrofishing in the lower White Salmon River, Washington. The information was collected downstream of Condit Dam, which is at river kilometer (rkm) 5.2, and is proposed for removal in October 2011. A rotary screw trap was installed in the White Salmon River at rkm 1.5 and operated from March through June during 2006-09. All captured fish were identified to species and enumerated. Daily subsets of fish were weighed, measured, and fin clipped for a genetic analysis by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. *Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were captured in the highest numbers (n=18, 640), and were composed of two stocks: tule and upriver bright. Almost all captured fall Chinook salmon were age-0, with only 16 (0.09 percent) being age-1 or older. *Tule fall Chinook salmon, the native stock, generally out-migrated from mid-March through early April. The tule stock was the more abundant fall Chinook salmon subspecies, comprising 85 percent of those captured in the trap. *Upriver bright fall Chinook salmon comprised 15 percent of the Chinook salmon catch and generally out-migrated from late May to early June. *Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) were captured by the rotary screw trap in all years. Coho salmon were caught in low numbers (n=661) and 69 percent were age-0 fish. Steelhead were slightly more abundant (n=679) than coho salmon and 84 percent were age-1 or older fish. Trap efficiency estimates varied widely (range, 0-10 percent) by species, fish size, and time of year. However, if we use only the estimates from efficiency tests where more than 300 wild age-0 Chinook salmon were released, there was a mean trapping efficiency of 1.4 percent (n=4, median, 1.3 percent, range, 0.3-2.4 percent) during the tule out-migration period, and a mean trapping efficiency of 0.8 percent (n=2, range, 0.3-1.2 percent) during

  13. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  14. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  15. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  16. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  17. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  18. Fish vs. power: Remaking salmon, science and society on the Fraser River, 1900--1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenden, Matthew Dominic

    Overlapping resource demands made the Fraser River a contested site of development politics in twentieth century British Columbia. Since the turn of the century, power interests surveyed the river's flow, sited dams and promoted development schemes. Fisheries interests, on the other hand, sought to maintain the river as salmon spawning habitat. They questioned the necessity of dams, supported fisheries research and rehabilitation and organized anti-development coalitions. Before the mid-1950s a number of dam projects proceeded on Fraser tributaries and major landslides at Hells Gate modeled the dangers of main stem development. Because of the concerted political lobbying of fisheries groups, the skeptical appraisal of fisheries scientists to development proposals and the legal and political authority of the federal Department of Fisheries and the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, major dam projects were defeated on the Fraser in the late 1950s. Delayed development on the Fraser helped to spur hydroelectric projects on other rivers in the province; the fish-power problem on the Fraser altered the province's spatial economy of power. Once development began on the Columbia and Peace Rivers, the Fraser was protected by implication. The study combines approaches from environmental history, the history of science and political economy to demonstrate the intersections and interactions between nature, knowledge and society. Research was conducted at eleven archives in Canada and the United States in the papers of organizations, corporations, government departments, politicians, scientists and individuals.

  19. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  20. Abundance, Behavior, and Habitat Utilization by Coho Salmon and Steelhead Trout in Fish Creek, Oregon, as Influenced by Habitat Enhancement, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, John; Everest, Fred H.; Heller, David A.

    1986-09-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, was continued in fiscal year 1985 by the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The study began in 1982 when PNW entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to evaluate fish habitat improvements in the Fish Creek basin on the Estacada Ranger District. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (19824986) to be financed by Forest Service funds. Several factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin were identified during the first year of the study, and the scope of the habitat improvement effort was subsequently enlarged. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to provide additional funding for work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is designed to increase the annual number of chinook and coho salmon, and steelhead trout smolt outmigrants. The primary objectives of the evaluation include the: (1) Evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat Improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of habitat improvements developed with BPA and Forest Service funds on Fish Creek. Several prototype enhancement projects were constructed and tested during the first three years of the study. The Intention was to identify successful techniques that could then be broadly applied within the bash. This stepwise procedure has been largely successful in identifying the most promising enhancement techniques for the Fish Creek

  1. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation,more » and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.« less

  2. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation, and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  3. Uncoupling EPA and DHA in Fish Nutrition: Dietary Demand is Limited in Atlantic Salmon and Effectively Met by DHA Alone.

    PubMed

    Emery, James A; Norambuena, Fernando; Trushenski, Jesse; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2016-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of marine fish oil resources, the aquaculture industry is developing more efficient strategies for the utilization of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). A better understanding of how fish utilize EPA and DHA, typically provided by fish oil, is needed. However, EPA and DHA have different physiological functions, may be metabolized and incorporated into tissues differently, and may vary in terms of their importance in meeting the fatty acid requirements of fish. To address these questions, Atlantic salmon were fed experimental diets containing, as the sole added dietary lipid source, fish oil (positive control), tallow (negative control), or tallow supplemented with EPA, DHA, or both fatty acids to ~50 or 100 % of their respective levels in the positive control diet. Following 14 weeks of feeding, the negative control diet yielded optimum growth performance. Though surprising, these results support the notion that Atlantic salmon requirements for n-3 LC-PUFA are quite low. EPA was largely β-oxidized and inefficiently deposited in tissues, and increasing dietary levels were associated with potential negative effects on growth. Conversely, DHA was completely spared from catabolism and very efficiently deposited into flesh. EPA bioconversion to DHA was largely influenced by substrate availability, with the presence of preformed DHA having little inhibitory effect. These results clearly indicate EPA and DHA are metabolized differently by Atlantic salmon, and suggest that the n-3 LC-PUFA dietary requirements of Atlantic salmon may be lower than reported and different, if originating primarily from EPA or DHA. PMID:26965251

  4. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  5. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Carlson, T J; Li, H; Xiao, J; Myjak, M J; Lu, J; Martinez, J J; Woodley, C M; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

  6. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

  7. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intestinal health in Atlantic salmon fed with different vegetable oils as partial substitutes of fish oil in the diet. A feed trial lasting for 28 weeks included one reference diet containing fish oil as the sole lipid source and three diets where 80% of the fish oil was replaced by a plant oil blend with either olive oil, rapeseed oil or soybean oil as the main lipid source. These plant oils have intermediate or low n-3/n-6-ratios compared to fish oil having a high n-3/n-6-ratio. The protein and carbohydrate fractions were identical in all the feeds. Results Morphometric measurements showed significantly shorter folds in the mid intestine in all groups fed vegetable oils compared to the group fed fish oil. In the distal intestine, the complex folds were significantly shorter in the fish fed soybean oil compared to the fish fed rapeseed oil. Histological and immunohistochemical examination did not show clear difference in the degree of inflammation or proliferation of epithelial cells related to dietary groups, which was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR which revealed only moderate alterations in the mRNA transcript levels of selected immune-related genes. Conclusions Shortened intestinal folds might be associated with reduced intestinal surface and

  8. Fishmeal-free Atlantic salmon feed formulation shows promise - Joint research between TCFFI, USDA and EWOS uses new diet for post-smolt to food-size fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2 MT/week of Atlantic salmon that The Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute provided to market in March and April of 2016 were fed a custom diet during nearly 90% of their growth that met the following sustainability criteria: - Fishmeal free - GMO free - Zero wild fish in: fish out according t...

  9. Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the Causative Agent of Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmonid Fish, from Pen-Cultured Coho Salmon.

    PubMed

    Sakai, M; Kobayashi, M

    1992-03-01

    The detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum antigen from pen-cultured coho salmon was attempted. Flounder (Limanda herzensteini) (n = 24), greenling (Hexagrammos otakii) (n = 5), Japanese sculpin (Cottus japonicus) (n = 1), and flathead (Platycephalus indicus) (n = 22) captured by fishing around coho salmon net pens were examined for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigen by an indirect dot blot assay and by an indirect fluorescent-antibody technique using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. R. salmoninarum antigen was detected from kidney samples of one greenling and six flathead. Moreover, 86 scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) were hung from the edge of the net pen for 50 days, and R. salmoninarum antigen was demonstrated in 31 samples by the indirect dot blot assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. PMID:16348666

  10. Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the Causative Agent of Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmonid Fish, from Pen-Cultured Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Masanori

    1992-01-01

    The detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum antigen from pen-cultured coho salmon was attempted. Flounder (Limanda herzensteini) (n = 24), greenling (Hexagrammos otakii) (n = 5), Japanese sculpin (Cottus japonicus) (n = 1), and flathead (Platycephalus indicus) (n = 22) captured by fishing around coho salmon net pens were examined for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigen by an indirect dot blot assay and by an indirect fluorescent-antibody technique using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. R. salmoninarum antigen was detected from kidney samples of one greenling and six flathead. Moreover, 86 scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) were hung from the edge of the net pen for 50 days, and R. salmoninarum antigen was demonstrated in 31 samples by the indirect dot blot assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. PMID:16348666

  11. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  12. Indirect Effects of Impoundment on Migrating Fish: Temperature Gradients in Fish Ladders Slow Dam Passage by Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Christopher C.; Keefer, Matthew L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Naughton, George P.; Burke, Brian J.; Peery, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  13. 9000 years of salmon fishing on the Columbia River, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, V.L.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    A large assemblage of salmon bones excavated 50 yr ago from an ???10,000-yr-old archaeological site near The Dalles, Oregon, USA, has been the primary evidence that early native people along the Columbia River subsisted on salmon. Recent debate about the human role in creating the deposit prompted excavation of additional deposits and analysis of archaeologic, geologic, and hydrologic conditions at the site. Results indicate an anthropogenic source for most of the salmonid remains, which have associated radiocarbon dates indicating that the site was occupied as long ago as 9300 cal yr B.P. The abundance of salmon bone indicates that salmon was a major food item and suggests that migratory salmonids had well-established spawning populations in some parts of the Columbia Basin by 9300-8200 yr ago. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of fish movements and the spread of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in Chile, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Mardones, F O; Martinez-Lopez, B; Valdes-Donoso, P; Carpenter, T E; Perez, A M

    2014-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infection is a constant major threat to farmed and wild Atlantic salmon worldwide. Many epidemics have recently been reported in the most important salmon farming regions of the world, including Chile (2007-2009), where ISAV generated the most important disease and economic crisis in history of the salmon industry of the country. The spread of ISAV within a region is most likely by local or neighborhood spread from an infected farm; however, there is evidence that anthropogenic activities, such as movement of live or harvested fish or their byproduct, may have played a more important role than environmental or passive transmission in the 2007-2009 outbreak. Atlantic salmon farms (n=421) were retrospectively followed from stocking to harvesting in southern Chile at the time of the ISAV epidemic (2007-2009). The effect of husbandry and spatial risk factors, in addition to contact-network risk factors, which were obtained from the social network analyses, on time to first ISAV infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Five variables were retained in the final fitted model: co-existing multiple generations on a farm (hazard ratio [HR]=2.585), mean smolt weight at stocking greater than 120g (HR=1.165), farm area (perkm(2)) (HR=1.005), and increased number of shipments entering a farm, i.e. the farm input degree (HR=1.876) were associated with reduced time to infection; whereas time-to-infection was longer for farms located farther from an ongoing ISAV outbreak (HR=0.943). It was demonstrated that movements of latently infected fish resulted in approximately 7 outbreaks, and potentially explain about 6% of the total number of cases during the epidemic. Results from this study provide new information about the mechanisms of spread of ISAV in one the largest documented ISAV epidemics in the world. Findings may be used to support the design and implementation of risk-based surveillance and control

  15. Production of resident fish benefits from experimental salmon subsidies via direct and indirect pathways across stream-riparian boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Scott F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial additions of nutrients of differing forms such as salmon carcasses and analog pellets (i.e. pasteurized fishmeal) have been proposed as a means of stimulating aquatic productivity and enhancing populations of anadromous and resident fishes. Nutrient mitigation to enhance fish production in stream ecosystems assumes that the central pathway by which effects occur is bottom-up, through aquatic primary and secondary production, with little consideration of reciprocal aquatic-terrestrial pathways. The net outcome (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down) of adding salmon-derived materials to streams depend on whether or not these subsidies indirectly intensify predation on in situ prey via increases in a shared predator or alleviate such predation pressure. We conducted a 3-year experiment across nine tributaries of the N. Fork Boise River, Idaho, USA, consisting of 500-m stream reaches treated with salmon carcasses (n = 3), salmon carcass analog (n = 3), and untreated control reaches (n = 3). We observed 2–8 fold increases in streambed biofilms in the 2–6 weeks following additions of both salmon subsidy treatments in years 1 and 2 and a 1.5-fold increase in standing crop biomass of aquatic invertebrates to carcass additions in the second year of our experiment. The consumption of benthic invertebrates by stream fishes increased 110–140% and 44–66% in carcass and analog streams in the same time frame, which may have masked invertebrate standing crop responses in years 3 and 4. Resident trout directly consumed 10.0–24.0 g·m−2·yr−1 of salmon carcass and <1–11.0 g·m−2·yr−1 of analog material, which resulted in 1.2–2.9 g·m−2·yr−1 and 0.03–1.4 g·m−2·yr−1 of tissue produced. In addition, a feedback flux of terrestrial maggots to streams contributed 0.0–2.0 g·m−2·yr−1 to trout production. Overall, treatments increased annual trout production by 2–3 fold, though density and biomass were unaffected. Our results

  16. Serological evidence of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection in farmed fishes, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Kibenge, Molly T; Opazo, Beatriz; Rojas, Alejandro H; Kibenge, Frederick S B

    2002-08-15

    Antibody detection tests are rarely used for diagnostic purposes in fish diseases. Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) caused by ISA virus (ISAV) is an emerging disease of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The virus has also been isolated from diseased coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Chile. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that should facilitate serodiagnosis of ISAV infection, the study of epidemiology, and the control of ISA in farmed fishes has been developed using purified ISAV as the coating antigen, and monoclonal antibodies that detect fish immunoglobulins bound to the antigen on the plate. Application of the test to a random sample of farmed Atlantic salmon from the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, positively identified 5 of the 7 ISAV RT-PCR-positive fish, and all 10 RT-PCR-negative fish were also negative in the ELISA. Some RT-PCR-negative fish had an elevated non-specific antibody reactivity suggestive of chronic infection or resistance to ISAV. This test was also able to detect 11 of the 14 coho salmon pooled serum samples from a clinically affected farm in Chile that were positive by the virus neutralization (VN) test, and 2 of the 4 VN-negative samples. We conclude that this ELISA would be suitable as a routine test for ISAV infection or for assessing ISAV vaccine efficacy before placing smolts in sea cages, and for testing fishes in sea cages to detect level of resistance to ISA. The assay enables vaccination in combination with depopulation control methods. PMID:12240966

  17. A Modelling Framework for Assessing the Risk of Emerging Diseases Associated with the Use of Cleaner Fish to Control Parasitic Sea Lice on Salmon Farms.

    PubMed

    Murray, A G

    2016-04-01

    Sea lice are the most damaging parasite of marine salmonids, both economically and in terms of potential impacts on wild fish. An increasingly widely applied control is the use of cleaner fish (CF) such as wrasse that eat lice. However, such CF can carry pathogens that may cause disease in salmon, including the potential emergence of new diseases. This is not just a theoretical risk, as demonstrated by a recent outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse held on salmon farms in Shetland. A modelling framework is developed to identify conditions in which emergence might occur, and, from this, means of reducing risk. Diseases that might emerge easily in farmed salmon would be likely to have already done so by other routes of exposure, and if risks are very low, they would need to be greatly enhanced to become significant relative to costs of lice control. CF may most enhance risks from disease with moderate probability of emerging. Risks of emergence can be reduced by replacing wild-caught with hatchery-reared CF, minimizing mixing of CF from different sources, surveillance for clinical disease in the CF and ensuring strategic biosecurity (area management with synchronized fallowing). Reuse of CF for a second salmon production cycle may reduce costs and even probability of infection (especially from wild-caught CF), but should only be considered as part of a rigorous area management programme because the practice presents opportunities for pathogens to adapt to salmon by weakening fallowing. PMID:25208602

  18. Contamination of stream fishes with chlorinated hydrocarbons from eggs of Great Lakes salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Merna, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been stocked in the Great Lakes where they accumulate body burdens of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The transport of these contaminants to resident communities in spawning streams was studied in two tributaries of Lake Michigan accessible to anadromous spawners and one control tributary blocked to them. No polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, or dieldrin were detected in the sediments or biota of the control stream, or in sediments of the test streams. However, trout Salmo spp. and, to a lesser extent, sculpins Cottus spp. accumulated PCBs and DDT as a result of eating contaminated salmon eggs. Eggs constituted as much as 87% (by weight) of the total stomach contents of trout collected during the salmon spawning season early October to early January. Salmon eggs contained 0.46-9.50 mg PCBs/kg,. and 0.14-1.80 mg DDT/kg. Consumption of eggs varied greatly among individual trout, and there was a strong correlation between numbers of eggs in the stomachs and PCB and DDT concentrations in the fillets.

  19. Alaskan Salmon and Gen R: Hunting, Fishing to Cultivate Ecological Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Can mining and fisheries co-exist in Bristol Bay, Alaska? To delve into this interesting tension, I expand on Clay Pierce's (this special issue) thoughtful analysis of genetically modified salmon and AquaBounty Technologies, where he explores actor-network theory in relation to scientific literacy and schooling. Further, my essay explores the…

  20. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzycki, James R.; Wilson, Wayne H.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest populations of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the entire Columbia River basin. Spring chinook salmon in this basin are therefore, used as an important index stock to measure the effects of future management actions on other salmon stocks in the Columbia basin. To meet the data requirements as an index stock, we estimated annual spawner escapement, age-structure, and smolt-to-adult survival. This information will allow us to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. To estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates, 1,852 chinook smolts were tagged with PIT tags from 3 March to 5 May, 2000. Length of captured smolts varied, ranging from 80 to 147 mm fork length (mean = 113 mm). These fish will be monitored for PIT tags as returning adults at dams and during future spawning ground surveys. During spawning ground surveys, a total of 351.3 km of stream were surveyed resulting in the observation of 478 redds. When expanded, we estimated total number of redds at 481 and total number of spawners at 1,583 fish in the John Day River basin. We estimated that 13% of the redds were in the mainstem John Day, 27% in the Middle Fork, 34% in the North Fork, and 26% were in the Granite Creek basin. Sampled carcasses had a sex ratio comprised of 53% females and 47% males with an age structure comprised of 0.5% age-2, 6.3% age-3, 88.7% age-4, and 4.5% age-5 fish. Five of the 405 carcasses examined had fin clips suggesting they were of hatchery origin. The 1999 index redd count total for the North Fork, Mainstem, and Granite Creek was lower than the 1999 average (535) but well within the range of annual redd counts during this period. The index redd count for the Middle Fork was higher than the 1990's average (92) but considerably lower than the average from 1978-1985 (401). Although quite variable over the past 40 years, the number of redds in the John Day River basin during 1999 was well within the

  1. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    PubMed

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  2. Juvenile Salmon Usage of the Skeena River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Moore, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2–8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations

  3. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Rimbach, Gerald; Menoyo, David

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG. PMID:26184234

  4. A fish of many scales: extrapolating sublethal pesticide exposures to the productivity of wild salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David H; Spromberg, Julann A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2009-12-01

    For more than a decade, numerous pesticides have been detected in river systems of the western United States that support anadromous species of Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over the same interval, several declining wild salmon populations have been listed as either threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because pesticides occur in surface waters that provide critical habitat for ESA-listed stocks, they are an ongoing concern for salmon conservation and recovery throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. Because pesticide exposures are typically sublethal, a key question is whether toxicological effects at (or below) the scale of the individual animal ultimately reduce the productivity and recovery potential of wild populations. In this study we evaluate how the sublethal impacts of pesticides on physiology and behavior can reduce the somatic growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and, by extension, subsequent size-dependent survival when animals migrate to the ocean and overwinter in their first year. Our analyses focused on the organophosphate and carbamate classes of insecticides. These neurotoxic chemicals have been widely detected in aquatic environments. They inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme in the salmon nervous system that regulates neurotransmitter-mediated signaling at synapses. Based on empirical data, we developed a model that explicitly links sublethal reductions in acetylcholinesterase activity to reductions in feeding behavior, food ration, growth, and size at migration. Individual size was then used to estimate size-dependent survival during migration and transition to the sea. Individual survival estimates were then integrated into a life-history population projection matrix and used to calculate population productivity and growth rate. Our results indicate that short-term (i.e., four-day) exposures that are representative of seasonal pesticide use may be sufficient to reduce the

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  6. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Connor, William P.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

  7. Physiological Assessment and Behavioral Interaction of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : The Relationship of Fish Size and Growth to Smoltification in Spring Chinook Salmon.

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, Brian R.; Larsen, Donald A.; Lee-Pawlak, Beeda; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1996-10-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative influence of size and growth rate on downstream migratory disposition and physiology in yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) smolts. A group of juvenile chinook salmon was size graded into small and large categories with half the fish in each group reared at an elevated temperature, resulting in four distinct treatment groups: Large Warm (LW), Large Cool (LC), Small Warm (SW), and Small Cool (SC). Fish from warm-water treatment groups displayed significantly higher growth rates than cool-water groups. Fish were tagged and released into a natural creek where downstream movement was monitored. For each of the two releases, fish that migrated past a weir within the first 5 days postrelease had significantly higher spring growth rates than fish that did not migrate within that period. Significant differences in length for the same fish were only found in the second release. Also for the second release, fish from the warm water treatment groups were recovered in higher proportions than fish from cool water groups. The results indicate that increased growth rate in the spring has a positive relation to downstream migratory disposition. Furthermore, there is a relation between smolt size and migration; however, this relation is weaker than that found between growth rate and migration.

  8. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  9. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  10. Residence times and diel passage distributions of radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in a gatewell and fish collection channel of a Columbia River Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The amount of time radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss spent within a gatewell and the juvenile collection channel at McNary Dam, Columbia River, USA, was measured to determine the diel passage behavior and residence times within these portions of the juvenile bypass system. The median gatewell residence times were 8.9 h for juvenile chinook salmon and 3.2 h for steelhead. Juvenile spring chinook salmon spent 83% of their time in the 18-m-deep gatewell at depths of 9 m or less, and juvenile steelhead spent 96% of their time in the upper 11 m. Fish released during midday and those released in the evening generally exited the gatewell in the evening, indicating that fish entering the gatewell during daylight will have prolonged residence times. Median collection-channel residence times of juvenile chinook salmon were much shorter (2.3 min) than those of steelhead (28.0 min), most likely because of the greater size of the steelhead and the high water velocities within the channel (2.1 m/s). This and other studies indicate most juvenile salmonids enter gatewells of several Columbia and Snake river dams in the evening and pass into the collection channels quickly. However, this is not consistent with the natural in-river migration patterns of these species and represents a delay in dam passage.

  11. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in western U.S. National Park fish: concentrations and consumption guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Luke K; Schwindt, Adam R; Simonich, Staci L Massey; Koch, Dan C; Blett, Tamara F; Schreck, Carl B; Kent, Michael L; Landers, Dixon H

    2008-04-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit--18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1% relative standard deviation (RSD)), and accurate (7% deviation from standard reference material (SRM)) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs, and chlordanes in western U.S. fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western U.S. fish were 1-6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, lake average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded subsistence fishing cancer thresholds in 8 of 14 lakes and wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous birds in 1 of 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. PMID:18504962

  12. Atmospherically Deposited PBDEs, Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in Western US National Park Fish: Concentrations and Consumption Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Luke K.; Schwindt, Adam R.; Simonich, Staci L.; Koch, Dan C.; Blett, Tamara F.; Schreck, Carl B.; Kent, Michael L.; Landers, Dixon H.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western US National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit −18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1 %RSD), and accurate (7 % deviation from SRM) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs and chlordanes in western US fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western US fish were 1–6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, contaminant concentrations exceeded subsistence fishing cancer screening values in 8 of 14 lakes. Average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous mammals in 5 lakes, and piscivorous birds in all 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. PMID:18504962

  13. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in western U.S. National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, L.K.; Schwindt, A.R.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Koch, D.C.; Blett, T.F.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.; Landers, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit, -18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1% relative standard deviation (RSD)), and accurate (7% deviation from standard reference material (SRM)) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs, and chlordanes in western U.S. fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western U.S. fish were 1-6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, lake average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded subsistence fishing cancer thresholds in 8 of 14 lakes and wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous birds in 1of 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  14. Mercury and Selenium Concentrations in Biofilm, Macroinvertebrates, and Fish Collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and Their Potential Effects on Fish Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, Darren T.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 μg/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 μg Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 μg Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 μg Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 μg Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species.

  15. Mercury and selenium concentrations in biofilm, macroinvertebrates, and fish collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and their potential effects on fish health.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Darren T; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G

    2013-01-01

    The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 μg/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 μg Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 μg Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 μg Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 μg Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species. PMID:23080409

  16. NATIONAL LISTING OF FISH AND WILDLIFE ADVISORIES (NLFWA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Beginning in 1993, EPA?s Fish Contamination Program began publishing The National Listing of Fish and Wildlife Advisories (NLFWA). This database includes all available information describing state-, tribal-, and federally issued fish consumption advisori...

  17. Full substitution of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil, with partial substitution of fish meal with camelina meal, in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and its effect on tissue lipids and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2014-08-15

    Camelina oil (CO) and meal (CM) are potential replacements of fish meal (FM) and oil (FO) in aquaculture feeds. CO is high in α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3, ALA) (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio >1. This study tested diets with 100% CO, solvent extracted FM (SEFM) and partially substituted FM with 10% CM, in a 16 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon (initial weight 240 g fish(-1)). Final weight (529-691 g fish(-1)) was not affected by using 100% CO; however it was lower in groups fed SEFM and 10% CM diets. Total lipid in salmon flesh fed a diet with CO, SEFM and CM (22% ww(-1)) was significantly higher than FO flesh (14% ww(-1)). There was no difference in the sensory quality of salmon fillets that were fed either FO or 100% CO diets. This was the first study to use CO as a complete FO replacement in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:24679751

  18. First Nations, Consultation, and the Rule of Law: Salmon Farming and Colonialism in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2006-01-01

    Many coastal First Nations communities, particularly in British Columbia, see consultation as a positive way of getting around the firmly entrenched position of both provincial and federal governments on fish farming. Even those Native groups such as the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council (MTTC) and the Homalco First Nation, who are adamantly…

  19. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  20. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Albaladejo, Victor D.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1999-12-01

    The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest naturally-produced populations of spring chinook in the mid-Columbia River basin. The study of life history and natural escapement conducted from 1978 to 1985 (Lindsay et al. 1986) provided valuable information on production and productivity of the John Day River spring chinook. With the exception of two years since completion of the study in 1985 (1989 and 1995), spring chinook spawning surveys were conducted in index areas only and have not provided adequate information to assess age composition, progeny-to-parent production values, and estimate natural spawning escapement. The PATH project (Marmorek and Peters 1996) has identified the John Day basin spring chinook as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin. To meet the data needs as an index stock, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age composition, and smolt-to-adult survival are essential. There is need to determine the annual spawner escapement and age composition for the John Day basin spring chinook to provide us the ability to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. This need can be met by expanding the annual chinook spawning surveys, estimating the annual escapement, and determining age composition by scale pattern analyses. This project provides information as directed under two measures of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 4.3C specifies that the key indicator populations should be monitored to provide detailed stock status information. In addition, measure 7.1C identifies the need for collection of population status, life history, and other data on wild and naturally spawning populations. This project was developed in direct response to recommendations and needs of the PATH project, the Fish and Wildlife Program, and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Multi-Year Implementation Plan.

  1. The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?

    PubMed

    Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2011-09-01

    Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

  2. RESEARCH PLAN: LANDSCAPE AND WATERSHED INFLUENCES ON WILD SALMON AND FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN OREGON COASTAL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a Research Plan. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW), many populations of wild anadromous salmonids are in serious decline. Landscape change, water pollution, introduced predators, fishing, hydropower development, hatcheries, disadvantageous ocean conditions, and ot...

  3. Users' guide to system dynamics model describing Coho salmon survival in Olema Creek, Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Torregrosa, Alicia; Madej, Mary Ann; Reichmuth, Michael; Fong, Darren

    2014-01-01

    The system dynamics model described in this report is the result of a collaboration between U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and National Park Service (NPS) San Francisco Bay Area Network (SFAN) staff, whose goal was to develop a methodology to integrate inventory and monitoring data to better understand ecosystem dynamics and trends using salmon in Olema Creek, Marin County, California, as an example case. The SFAN began monitoring multiple life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Olema Creek during 2003 (Carlisle and others, 2013), building on previous monitoring of spawning fish and redds. They initiated water-quality and habitat monitoring, and had access to flow and weather data from other sources. This system dynamics model of the freshwater portion of the coho salmon life cycle in Olema Creek integrated 8 years of existing monitoring data, literature values, and expert opinion to investigate potential factors limiting survival and production, identify data gaps, and improve monitoring and restoration prescriptions. A system dynamics model is particularly effective when (1) data are insufficient in time series length and/or measured parameters for a statistical or mechanistic model, and (2) the model must be easily accessible by users who are not modelers. These characteristics helped us meet the following overarching goals for this model: Summarize and synthesize NPS monitoring data with data and information from other sources to describe factors and processes affecting freshwater survival of coho salmon in Olema Creek. Provide a model that can be easily manipulated to experiment with alternative values of model parameters and novel scenarios of environmental drivers. Although the model describes the ecological dynamics of Olema Creek, these dynamics are structurally similar to numerous other coastal streams along the California coast that also contain anadromous fish populations. The model developed for Olema can be used, at least as a

  4. A sensitive nested reverse transcriptase PCR assay to detect viable cells of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Cook, M; Lynch, W H

    1999-07-01

    A nested reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR assay detected mRNA of the salmonid pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum in samples of RNA extracts of between 1 and 10 cells. Total RNA was extracted from cultured bacteria, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) kidney tissue and ovarian fluid seeded with the pathogen, and kidney tissue from both experimentally challenged and commercially raised fish. Following DNase treatment, extracted RNA was amplified by both RT PCR and PCR by using primers specific for the gene encoding the major protein antigen of R. salmoninarum. A 349-bp amplicon was detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver stain. Inactivation of cultured bacteria by rifampin or erythromycin produced a loss of nested RT PCR mRNA detection corresponding to a loss of bacterial cell viability determined from plate counts but no loss of DNA detection by PCR. In subclinically diseased fish, nested RT PCR identified similar levels of infected fish as determined by viable pathogen culture. Higher percentages of fish testing positive were generated by PCR, particularly in samples from fish previously subjected to antibiotic chemotherapy where 93% were PCR positive, but only 7% were nested RT PCR and culture positive. PCR can generate false-positive data from amplification of target DNA from nonviable pathogen cells. Therefore, nested RT PCR may prove useful for monitoring cultured Atlantic salmon for the presence of viable R. salmoninarum within a useful time frame, particularly samples from broodstock where antibiotic chemotherapy is used prior to spawning to reduce vertical pathogen transmission. PMID:10388701

  5. A Sensitive Nested Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay To Detect Viable Cells of the Fish Pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Marcia; Lynch, William H.

    1999-01-01

    A nested reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR assay detected mRNA of the salmonid pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum in samples of RNA extracts of between 1 and 10 cells. Total RNA was extracted from cultured bacteria, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) kidney tissue and ovarian fluid seeded with the pathogen, and kidney tissue from both experimentally challenged and commercially raised fish. Following DNase treatment, extracted RNA was amplified by both RT PCR and PCR by using primers specific for the gene encoding the major protein antigen of R. salmoninarum. A 349-bp amplicon was detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver stain. Inactivation of cultured bacteria by rifampin or erythromycin produced a loss of nested RT PCR mRNA detection corresponding to a loss of bacterial cell viability determined from plate counts but no loss of DNA detection by PCR. In subclinically diseased fish, nested RT PCR identified similar levels of infected fish as determined by viable pathogen culture. Higher percentages of fish testing positive were generated by PCR, particularly in samples from fish previously subjected to antibiotic chemotherapy where 93% were PCR positive, but only 7% were nested RT PCR and culture positive. PCR can generate false-positive data from amplification of target DNA from nonviable pathogen cells. Therefore, nested RT PCR may prove useful for monitoring cultured Atlantic salmon for the presence of viable R. salmoninarum within a useful time frame, particularly samples from broodstock where antibiotic chemotherapy is used prior to spawning to reduce vertical pathogen transmission. PMID:10388701

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-06-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between

  7. What`s at stake in the Pacific Northwest salmon debate? Jobs, hydropower, agriculture, fish harvests...species survival

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, A.M.

    1995-03-01

    This article highlights the debate about the pacific salmon in the Pacific Northwest. The population levels of all salmonid species are down precipitously, with some listed as endangered, but no one has come up with a salmon restoration plan that is perceived to be both effective and painless to all the human parties with a vested interest. The Salmon issue touches everyone in the region directly or indirectly. Discussed are the following general topics: devising a plan for the salmon and the politics of planning and the problem of how the four fundamental areas, hydropower, habitat, hatcheries, and harvest, need to be prioritized.

  8. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  9. NATIONAL SURVEY OF MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Regulatory and scientific focus on mercury in the aquatic ecosystem has been largely motivated by the health risks of consuming contaminated fish, primarily because human exposure to methylmercury is almost wholly due to fish. Understanding of the methylme...

  10. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  11. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally-Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, 1996 Annual Report : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovich, Paul; Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifth year of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally-produced chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), from northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulation and interannual variation in several early life history characteristics of naturally-produced chinook salmon from the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project provides information useful in the recovery of listed Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. Specific populations included in the study are (1) Catherine Creek, (2) upper Grande Ronde River, (3) Lostine River, (4) Imnaha River, (5) Wenaha River, and (6) Minam River. In this document, we present findings from research completed in 1996. Naturally-produced chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins have declined drastically in recent years due in part to habitat alterations and hydropower development. Declines have continued despite extensive mitigation efforts, including fish passage improvements, artificial production, supplementation, and habitat modification (BPA Division of Fish and Wildlife 1990). Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (hereafter referred to as chinook salmon), which include naturally-produced chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins, have been listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as threatened or endangered since 1992.

  12. Fishing for Effective Conservation: Context and Biotic Variation are Keys to Understanding the Survival of Pacific Salmon after Catch-and-Release.

    PubMed

    Raby, Graham D; Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Clark, Timothy D; Eliason, Erika J; Jeffries, Kenneth M; Cook, Katrina V; Teffer, Amy; Bass, Arthur L; Miller, Kristina M; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-10-01

    Acute stressors are commonly experienced by wild animals but their effects on fitness rarely are studied in the natural environment. Billions of fish are captured and released annually around the globe across all fishing sectors (e.g., recreational, commercial, subsistence). Whatever the motivation, release often occurs under the assumption of post-release survival. Yet, capture by fisheries (hereafter "fisheries-capture") is likely the most severe acute stressor experienced in the animal's lifetime, which makes the problem of physiological recovery and survival of relevance to biology and conservation. Indeed, fisheries managers require accurate estimates of mortality to better account for total mortality from fishing, while fishers desire guidance on strategies for reducing mortality and maintaining the welfare of released fish, to maximize current and future opportunities for fishing. In partnership with stakeholders, our team has extensively studied the effects of catch-and-release on Pacific salmon in both marine and freshwater environments, using biotelemetry and physiological assessments in a combined laboratory-based and field-based approach. The emergent theme is that post-release rates of mortality are consistently context-specific and can be affected by a suite of interacting biotic and abiotic factors. The fishing gear used, location of a fishery, water temperature, and handling techniques employed by fishers each can dramatically affect survival of the salmon they release. Variation among individuals, co-migrating populations, and between sexes all seem to play a role in the response of fish to capture and in their subsequent survival, potentially driven by pre-capture pathogen-load, maturation states, and inter-individual variation in responsiveness to stress. Although some of these findings are fascinating from a biological perspective, they all create unresolved challenges for managers. We summarize our findings by highlighting the patterns that

  13. Tenacibaculum finnmarkense sp. nov., a fish pathogenic bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Småge, Sverre Bang; Brevik, Øyvind Jakobsen; Duesund, Henrik; Ottem, Karl Fredrik; Watanabe, Kuninori; Nylund, Are

    2016-02-01

    A novel Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, rod-shaped gliding bacterial strain, designated HFJ(T), was isolated from a skin lesion of a diseased Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Finnmark, Norway. Colonies were observed to be yellow pigmented with entire and/or undulating margins and did not adhere to the agar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain belongs to the genus Tenacibaculum (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum 'Bacteroidetes'). Strain HFJ(T) exhibits high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values to Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi NCIMB 14598(T) (97.2 %). The strain was found to grow at 2-20 °C and only in the presence of sea salts. The respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone 6 and the major fatty acids were identified as summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 and iso-C15:0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 34.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization and comparative phenotypic and genetic tests were performed with the phylogenetically closely related type strains, T. dicentrarchi NCIMB 14598(T) and Tenacibaculum ovolyticum NCIMB 13127(T). These data, as well as phylogenetic analyses, suggest that strain HFJ(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum finnmarkense sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is HFJ (T) = (DSM 28541(T) = NCIMB 42386(T)). PMID:26662517

  14. Identification and characterisation of the IL-27 p28 subunits in fish: Cloning and comparative expression analysis of two p28 paralogues in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Husain, Mansourah; Martin, Samuel A M; Wang, Tiehui

    2014-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-6/IL-12 family member with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of an α-chain p28 and a β-chain Ebi3 (Epstein-Barr virus induce gene 3). The p28 subunit can also be secreted as a monomer and function as IL-30 that acts as an inhibitor of IL-27 signalling. At present, the p28 gene has only been described in mammals. Thus, for the first time outwith mammals, we have identified seven p28 molecules in six divergent teleost fish species, Atlantic salmon, two cichlids, two cyprinids and a yellowtail. The fish p28 molecules have higher similarities to mammalian p28 than other IL-6/12 family members. Critical residues involved in the interaction with Ebi3 and the receptor gp130 are highly conserved. The prediction that these are true orthologues is supported by phylogenetic and synteny analysis. Two p28 paralogues (p28a and p28b) sharing 72% aa identity have been identified and characterised in Atlantic salmon. There are multiple upstream ATGs in the 5'-UTR and ATTTA motifs in the 3'-UTR of both cDNA sequences, suggesting regulation at the post-transcriptional and translational level. Both salmon p28 genes are highly expressed in immune relevant tissues, such as thymus, gills, spleen and head kidney. Conversely salmon Ebi3 is highly expressed in other organs, such as liver and caudal kidney. The expression of p28 but not Ebi3 was induced by PAMPs and recombinant cytokines in head kidney cells, and in spleen by Poly I:C challenge in vivo. The dissociation of the expression and modulation of p28 and Ebi3 suggest that both p28 and Ebi3 may be secreted alone or with other partners. PMID:24981291

  15. 77 FR 23463 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Endangered Species Act section 10(a)(1)(A) permit to US Fish and Wildlife Service to collect Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon eggs and juveniles from the Feather River Fish Hatchery to place into the...

  16. 78 FR 74116 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) for the operation of the Methow spring Chinook salmon program. Another application is from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation...

  17. Ecology. Can science rescue salmon?

    PubMed

    Mann, C C; Plummer, M L

    2000-08-01

    At a press conference on 27 July, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) released a long-awaited plan to save the Columbia River's endangered salmon by restoring fish habitat, overhauling hatcheries, limiting harvest, and improving river flow. What the plan did not do, however, was call for immediate breaching of four dams on the Snake River, the Columbia's major tributary--an option that has been the subject of a nationwide environmental crusade. The NMFS will hold that option in abeyance while it sees whether the less drastic measures will do the trick. Responses from both sides were immediate and outraged. PMID:10950712

  18. Biotic and abiotic influences on abundance and distribution of nonnative Chinook salmon and native ESA-listed steelhead in the Wind River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence fish populations and distributions. Concerns have been raised about the influence of hatchery fish on wild populations. Carson National Fish Hatchery produces spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wind River, Washington, and some spawn in the river. Managers were concerned that Chinook salmon could negatively affect wild steelhead O. mykiss and that a self-sustaining population of Chinook salmon may develop. Our objectives were to assess: 1) the distribution and populations of juvenile spring Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead in the upper Wind River; 2) the influence of stream flow and of each population on the other; and 3) if Chinook salmon populations were self-sustaining. We snorkeled to determine distribution and abundance. Flow in the fall influenced upstream distribution and abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon. Juvenile Chinook salmon densities were consistently low (range 0.0 to 5.7 fish 100 m-2) and not influenced by number of spawners, winter flow magnitude, or steelhead abundance. Juvenile steelhead were distributed through the study section each year. Age-0 and age-1 steelhead densities (age-0 range: 0.04 to 37.0 fish 100 m-2; age-1 range: 0.02 to 6.21 fish 100 m-2) were consistently higher than for juvenile Chinook salmon. Steelhead spawner abundance positively influenced juvenile steelhead abundance. During this study, Chinook salmon in the Wind River appear to have had little effect on steelhead. Low juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and a lack of a spawner-to-juvenile relationship suggest Chinook salmon are not self-sustaining and potential for such a population is low under current conditions.

  19. Design and performance of recirculating systems for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at the USDA ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (Franklin, Maine)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atlantic salmon cultured in the NCWMAC breeding program have grown well in the fish culture systems during the first 3 years of operation. The systems were operated at approximately 98% reuse (2% makeup water on the basis of flow rate). The water recirculating systems maintained acceptable water qua...

  20. Distribution and Joint Fish-Tag Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Migrating through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Perry, Russell W.; Adams, Noah S.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to obtain the movement histories of 915 juvenile fall-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) through the lower San Joaquin River and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, in 2008. Data were analyzed within a release-recapture framework to estimate survival, route distribution, and detection probabilities among three migration pathways through the Delta. The pathways included the primary route through the San Joaquin River and two less direct routes (Old River and Turner Cut). Strong inferences about survival were limited by premature tag failure, but estimates of fish distribution among migration routes should be unaffected by tag failure. Based on tag failure tests (N = 66 tags), we estimated that only 55-78 percent of the tags used in this study were still functioning when the last fish was detected exiting the study area 15 days after release. Due to premature tag failure, our 'survival' estimates represent the joint probability that both the tag and fish survived, not just survival of fish. Low estimates of fish-tag survival could have been caused by fish mortality or fish travel times that exceeded the life of the tag, but we were unable to differentiate between the two. Fish-tag survival through the Delta (from Durham Ferry to Chipps Island by all routes) ranged from 0.05 +or- 0.01 (SE) to 0.06 +or- 0.01 between the two weekly release groups. Among the three migration routes, fish that remained in the San Joaquin River exhibited the highest joint fish-tag survival (0.09 +or- 0.02) in both weeks, but only 22-33 percent of tagged fish used this route, depending on the week of release. Only 4-10 percent (depending on week) of tagged fish traveled through Turner Cut, but no tagged fish that used this route were detected exiting the Delta. Most fish (63-68 percent, depending on week of release) migrated through Old River, but fish-tag survival through this route (0.05 +or- 0.01) was only about one-half that of fish that

  1. Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Results Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on β-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Conclusions Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have

  2. A Literature Review, Bibliographic Listing, and Organization of Selected References Relative to Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and Abiotic and Biotic Attributes of the Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Marine and Riverine Environs for Various Historical Periods : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 4 of 4, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, Ronald J.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the results of a literature review on the carrying capacity of Pacific salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of the review was to find the information gaps relative to the determinants of salmon carrying capacity in the Columbia River Basin. The review was one activity designed to answer questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information learned during the literature review and the other work accomplished during this study the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) state concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. To increase understanding of ecology, carring capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The PNNL team suggests that the regions evaluated carrying capacity from more than one view point. The PNNL team recommends that the region use the contextualistic view for evaluating capacity.

  3. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes fish culture and research activities conducted from December 1991 to October 1992 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) on the Redfish Lake (Idaho) sockeye salmon captive broodstock study. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded restoration efforts for Redfish Lake sockeye salmon. Snake River sockeye salmon, now represented only by the Redfish Lake population, were formally listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the NMFS in December 1991. Restoration is being coordinated through the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee. Participation by state and federal agencies and private groups involved in sockeye salmon restoration efforts in Idaho. Our efforts since then have focused on rearing of 1991-brood Redfish Lake sockeye salmon at the NMFS/BPA Stock Restoration Laboratory at the NWFSC (Seattle, Washington), and on research to refine captive-broodstock methodology.

  4. MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

  5. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  6. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and...

  7. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and...

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug

    2009-07-31

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  9. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Services listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. The first planning of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from a captive broodstock occurred in 1994 with the release of 14,119 fish to Redfish Lake. Two release strategies were used with four broodstock lineages represented. In 1995, 95,411 hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon were planted to Stanley Basin waters, including the release of additional broodstock lineage groups and release strategies in Redfish Lake, a yearling smolt release to Redfish Lake Creek, and a direct release to Pettit Lake.

  10. Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, Lynette A.; Martinson, Rick D.; Smith, W. William

    1992-04-01

    The 1991 smolt monitoring project of the National Marine Fisheries Service provided data on the seaward migration of juvenile salmon and steelhead at John Day, The Dalles and Bonneville Dams. All pertinent fish capture and condition data as well as dam operations and river flow data were provided to Fish Passage Center for use in developing fish passage indices and migration timing, and for water budget and spill management.

  11. 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in Great Lakes salmon derived using mammalian, bird, and fish cell bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Heuvel, M.R. van den; Clemons, J.H.; Bols, N.C.; Dixon, D.G.; Kennedy, S.W.; Metcalfe, T.L.; Smith, I.R.

    1994-12-31

    Chinook salmon from lakes Ontario and Huron, and Coho salmon from lakes Ontario and Erie were captured during their fall spawning migration. Subsamples of extracted pooled muscle, liver and egg tissue were used to measure congener specific PCBs, chlorinated dioxins and furans as well as bioassay derived 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent concentration (TEC). The cell culture bioassays used to measure TECs were rat hepatoma (H411E) and rainbow trout hepatocyte (RTL-W1) continuous cell lines as well as chicken embryo hepatocyte primary culture (CEH). Although excellent correlations were found between all 3 cell culture bioassays, CEH was found to be 10 times and 30 times more sensitive than H411E and RTL-W1 respectively. Lake Ontario TECs were found to be higher than either Lake Huron or Lake Erie samples for both species of Salmon, and Chinook salmon was elevated over Coho Salmon. Chemical data indicates that the more toxic coplanar PCBs are selectively concentrated in eggs as compared to liver and muscle. Bioassay derived TECs are discussed with regard to chemical contribution of the PCB and dioxin/furan congeners based on an additive model.

  12. Effects of dietary fish oil replacement on fillet lipids in North American Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers want fish that contain high amount of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for the health benefits. Fish producers desire to supply fish with these fatty acids while reducing the amount of fish oil included in the diet and replacing the fish oil with alternative oils. Two studies were conducte...

  13. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  14. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  15. 76 FR 30193 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of Intent: Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of... National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The Strategy will provide a... to the Office of the Science Advisor, Attn: National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate...

  16. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  17. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  18. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  19. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.; Claire, Glenda M.; Seals, Jason

    2002-01-01

    The four objectives of this report are: (1) Estimate annual spawner escapement and number of spring chinook salmon redds in the John Day River basin; (2) Determine sex ratio, age composition, length-at-age of spawners, and proportion of natural spawners that are hatchery origin strays; (3) Determine adequacy of historic index surveys for indexing spawner abundance and for detecting changes in spawner distribution through time; and (4) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival for spring chinook salmon emigrating from the John Day River basin.

  20. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  1. Salmon testes meal as a functional feed additive in fish meal and plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum)and nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report that salmon testes meal (TM) produced from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts is a potential protein source for aquafeed formulations. A series of feeding trials was conducted using three different fish species; including Nile tilapia, rainbow trout, and white sturgeon at their early gr...

  2. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG FISH HABITAT EMBEDDEDNESS, GEOMORPHOLOGY, LAND DISTURBING ACTIVITIES AND THE PAYETTE NATIONAL FOREST SEDIMENT MODEL, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    This analysis was conducted to determine various factors influencing fish habitat embeddedness in the South Fork Salmon River drainage (17060208). Objectives of the analysis were 1) to relate measured watershed characteristics to embeddedness of fish habitat and to compare the r...

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  4. 'Without Fish, There Would Be Nothing Here': Attitudes to Salmon and Identification with Place in a Russian Coastal Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakhshina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Postsocialist transformations have changed resource values in many rural parts of Russia. On the Terskii Coast in the northwest of Russia, salmon has become a key resource for people's everyday survival. Management of this resource used to be heavily controlled by the state during the Soviet period. The situation changed radically after the…

  5. WILDERNESS SOCIETY'S SALMON STATUS DATA FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish status layers show the historic distribution of freshwater habitat and current status of ten different species of anadromous fish: spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, winter chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, sea-run cutthroat, summer steel...

  6. Exxon Valdez oil spill: State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Effects of pink salmon (oncorhynchus gorbuscha) escapement level on egg retention, preemergent fry, and adult returns to the kodiak and chignik management areas caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Fish/shellfish study numbers 7b and 8b. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-01

    As a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, commercial salmon fishing in and around the Kodiak and Chignik areas was severely restricted throughout the 1989 season. Consequently, pink salmon escapements for these areas greatly exceeded targeted escapement objectives. Investigations were conducted within the Kodiak and Chignik Management Areas during 1989 and 1990 to determine if negative impacts on future odd-year brood line pink salmon production occurred as a result of overescapement in 1989.

  7. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers. The

  9. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  10. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  11. Salmon Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head. Salmon patches are different from port-wine stains (discussed as a separate topic) in that ... difference between a salmon patch and a port-wine stain. In the past, port-wine stains and ...

  12. The fishes of George Washington Carver National Monument, Missouri, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.; Petersen, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Fish were collected at six sites at George Washington Carver National Monument by seining and electrofishing during a base-flow period on July 17-18, 2003. Approximately 700 fish were collected and identified at the six sampling sites. Those individuals represented 17 species (and 1 hybrid) and 13 genera. The number of species collected at the five stream sites ranged from 9 to 12; a hybrid sunfish and 4 species were collected from a pond. Fish collected at stream sites were typical of small headwater streams and no species collected in this study are federally-listed threatened or endangered species. The three most common species were the southern redbelly dace, central stoneroller, and green sunfish. Some differences existed between the assemblages (groups of species) collected in 2003 and in the previous inventories. Four of the 17 fish species collected in this inventory previously had not been collected at the monument. However, 11 species collected in one or more of the previous inventories were not collected in this effort. There is no indication that a change in environmental conditions is responsible for the absence of these species; more likely reasons are seasonal variability, extirpation, low population density, and misidentification. Four species collected at George Washington Carver National Monument may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. The cardinal shiner and stippled darter are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus. The Arkansas darter is considered a species of conservation concern by the State of Missouri. The grass carp is an introduced species.

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6

  15. The effect of high pressure at subzero temperature on proteins solubility, drip loss and texture of fish (cod and salmon) and mammal's (pork and beef) meat.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Pańczyk, Edyta; Walecka, Marta; Pawłowicz, Roman; Tylingo, Robert; Kołodziejska, Ilona

    2014-07-01

    One of the possibilities of using high-pressure technique in inactivation of microorganism is conducting this process at subzero temperature. However, for its practical application in meat preservation the appropriate properties of meat should be maintained. Therefore, the aim of this work was to examine the effect of pressure at subzero temperature (without freezing of water) on proteins and texture of mammal's and cold-adapted fish meat. The data showed that cod and salmon meat proteins were more susceptible to pressure-induced denaturation/aggregation than beef and pork proteins. Glucose and saccharose exerted protective effect on fish meat proteins treated with pressure of 111 MPa(tc) and -10 degrees C but not at 193 MPa(tc) and -20 degrees C. The pressure treatment under the latter conditions increased cook loss of fish meat but not of mammal's meat. However, after cooking the hardness of all kinds of pressurized meat was at the same level as that for unpressurized cooked samples. PMID:23751552

  16. [An outbreak of lipoid liver degeneration (LLD) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a fish farm and attempts to cure the disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Roald, S O

    1976-01-01

    A description of a field experiment on the therapeutic effect of 4 different drugs against lipoid liver degeneration is given in a natural outbreak of the disease in a fish farm. The diagnosis was based on pathological and histopathological changes in the liver and characterized on the basis of the degree of ceroid deposited in the liver cells. The size and weight of the fish had no influence on the deposition, but it was shown that LLD caused a higher mortality in Atlantic salmon than in rainbow trout, showing a weekly mortality of 2.5 and 0.3%, respectively. In the field experiments therapeutic effect was obtained with 1) Vitamin E, mixed into the feed in amounts of 90 mg alpha-tocopherol + 450 mg ethoxyquin pr. kg wet feed. 2) A combination of alpha-tocopherol and selene mixed into the diet in amounts of 20 mg tocopheryli acetas and 0.4 mg natrii seleniis pr. kg wet feed. The cause of the disease is not verified, but it seemes that rancid material in the diet was the main etiological factor. Predisposing factors influencing the peroxydation of the feed under practical conditions in Norwegian fish farms have been discussed. PMID:934810

  17. Flesh residue concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in farmed and wild salmon from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Barry C; Ikonomou, Michael G; Higgs, David A; Oakes, Janice; Dubetz, Cory

    2011-11-01

    The present study reports measured levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in commercial salmon feed (n = 8) and farmed Atlantic, coho, and chinook salmon (n = 110), as well as wild coho, chinook, chum, sockeye, and pink salmon (n = 91). Flesh residue concentrations (ng/g wet weight) of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes, chlorobenzenes (CBz) and cyclodiene pesticides (e.g., dieldrin, mirex) were 2 to 11 times higher (p < 0.05) in farmed salmon compared with wild salmon. Concentrations were positively correlated with flesh lipid levels. Farmed Atlantic salmon (12-15% lipid) typically exhibited the greatest OCP burdens compared with other salmon species. However, when expressed on a lipid weight basis, concentrations of OCPs (ng/g lipid weight) in wild salmon, in many cases, exceeded those levels in farmed salmon. Observed interspecies and site-specific variations of OCP concentrations in farmed and wild salmon may be attributed to divergent life history, prey/feed characteristics and composition, bioenergetics, or ambient environmental concentrations. Calculated biomagnification factors (BMF = C(F)/C(D), lipid wt) of OCPs in farmed salmon typically ranged between two and five. Biomagnification of chemicals such as DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex was anticipated, because those compounds tend to exhibit high dietary uptake and slow depuration rates in fish because of relatively high octanol-water partition coefficients (K(OW)s > 10⁵). Surprisingly, less hydrophobic pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexanes and endosulfans (K(OW) s < 10⁵) consistently exhibited a high degree of biomagnification in farmed salmon species (BMFs > 5). This is contrary to previous laboratory and field observations demonstrating fish BMFs less than 1 for low K(OW) chemicals, because of efficient respiratory elimination of those compounds via gills. The results suggest that ambient seawater concentrations and

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  19. The fishes of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area

  20. 3 CFR 8870 - Proclamation 8870 of September 21, 2012. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012 8870 Proclamation 8870 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8870 of September 21, 2012 Proc. 8870 National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012By the President of the... outdoors have always played an important role in our national life. On National Hunting and Fishing Day,...

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  3. Investigations into the [Early] Life History of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project, Oregon : Annual Report 1994 : Project Period 1 June 1993 to 31 May 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies of spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde basin. During the past year we focused on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles and surveys of spawning adults. The specific objectives for the early life history portion of the study were: Objective 1, document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; Objective 2, estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake River dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; Objective 3 initiate study of the winter habitat utilized by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. The specific objectives for the spawning ground surveys were: Objective 4, conduct extensive and supplemental spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in spawning streams in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha basin, Objective 5; determine how adequately historic index area surveys index spawner abundance by comparing index counts to extensive and supplemental redd counts; Objective 6, determine what changes in index areas and timing of index surveys would improve the accuracy of index surveys; Objective 7, determine the relationship between number of redds observed and fish escapement for the Grande Ronde and Imnaha river basins.

  4. Phoma herbarum, a fungal plant saprophyte, as a fish pathogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Yasutake, W.T.; Leek, Steve

    1975-01-01

    Phoma herbarum, a fungal plant saprophyte, was isolated from diseased hatchery-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The disease was observed at 10 national fish hatcheries in Washington and Oregon, but the low incidence of experimental infections indicate that it is only weakly contagious. Histopathological examination suggests that the air bladder is one of the primary organs infected. The visceral organs are also affected in both natural and experimental infections.

  5. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  6. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam Annual Report October 2006 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Katherine J.; Bott, Yi-Ju

    2008-08-08

    From 1999 through 2007, the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Bonneville Power Administration funded a project to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning areas, and the flows necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Data were collected to ensure that established flow guidelines are appropriate and provide adequate protection for the species of concern. The projects objectives are consistent with the high priority placed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Independent Scientific Advisory Board and the salmon managers on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Because of the influence of mainstem habitat on salmon production, there is a continued need to better understand the physical habitat variables used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. During FY 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory focused on (1) locating and mapping deep-water fall Chinook salmon and chum salmon spawning areas, (2) investigating the interaction between groundwater and surface water near fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning areas, and (3) providing in-season hyporheic temperature and water surface elevation data to assist state agencies with emergence timing and redd dewatering estimates. This report documents the studies and tasks performed by PNNL during FY 2007. Chapter 1 provides a description of the searches conducted for deepwater redds-adjacent to Pierce and Ives islands for fall Chinook salmon and near the Interstate 205 bridge for chum salmon. The chapter also provides data on redd location, information about habitat associations, and estimates of total spawning populations. Chapter 2 documents the collection of data on riverbed and river temperatures and water surface elevations, from the onset of spawning to the

  7. The fishes of Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.; Petersen, James C.

    2005-01-01

    A fish inventory was conducted at Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, during base-flow conditions in September 2003. Six sites including four streams and two ponds were sampled using conventional electrofishing equipment (a seine also was used at one site). There were 653 individuals collected comprising 18 species (plus 1 hybrid) and 15 genera. The number of species collected at the four stream sites ranged from 1 16. Most fish species collected generally are associated with small streams in the Ozark Plateaus. The two most common species were the banded sculpin and the southern redbelly dace. Three species and a sunfish hybrid were collected from the quarry pond. No fish were collected from the unnamed pond. A preliminary expected species list incorrectly listed 42 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. One species not on the original list was added to the revised list. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 18 the 40 species (45 percent) and 1 hybrid. No previous fish inventories have been completed for park but some observations can be made relative to species distributions. There were only five fish species collected in three headwater streams, and it is unlikely that many other species would occur in these three streams because of constraints imposed on the fish community by stream size. Little Sugar Creek, a medium-sized stream, had the most species collected, and it is likely that additional species would be collected from this stream if additional sampling were to occur. Distribution records indicate that all 18 species occur in the general area. Although no species collected in this study are federallylisted threatened or endangered species, three species collected at Pea Ridge National Military Park may be of some special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Two the species collected (cardinal shiner and stippled darter) are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus; both are rather common in certain

  8. Investigations into the Early History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period September 1, 1996 to August 31, 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Johasson, Brian C.; Tranquilli, J. Vincent; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1998-10-28

    We have documented two general life history strategies utilized by juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin: (1) juveniles migrate downstream out of summer rearing areas in the fall, overwinter in river valley habitats, and begin their seaward migration in the spring, and (2) juveniles remain in summer rearing areas through the winter and begin seaward migration in the spring. In migration year 96-97, the patterns evident from migrant trap data were similar for the three Grande Ronde River populations studied, with 42% of the Lostine River migrants and 76% of the Catherine Creek migrants leaving upper rearing areas in the fall. Contrary to past years, the majority (98%) of upper Grande Ronde River migrants moved out in the fall. Total trap catch for the upper Grande Ronde River was exceedingly low (29 salmon), indicating that patterns seen this year may be equivocal. As in previous years, approximately 99% of chinook salmon juveniles moved past our trap at the lower end of the Grande Ronde River valley in the spring, reiterating that juvenile chinook salmon overwinter within the Grande Ronde valley section of the river. PIT-tagged fish were recaptured at Grande Ronde River traps and mainstem dams. Recapture data showed that fish that overwintered in valley habitats left as smolts and arrived at Lower Granite Dam earlier than fish that overwintered in upstream rearing areas. Fish from Catherine Creek that overwintered in valley habitats were recaptured at the dams at a higher rate than fish that overwintered upstream. In this first year of data for the Lostine River, fish tagged during the fall migration were detected at a similar rate to fish that overwintered upstream. Abundance estimates for migration year 96-97 were 70 for the upper Grande Ronde River, 4,316 for the Catherine Creek, and 4,323 for the Lostine River populations. Although present in most habitats, juvenile spring chinook salmon were found in the greatest abundance in pool

  9. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the

  10. 50 CFR 660.406 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.406 Section 660.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries §...

  11. 50 CFR 660.406 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.406 Section 660.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries §...

  12. 50 CFR 660.406 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.406 Section 660.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries §...

  13. 50 CFR 660.406 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.406 Section 660.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries §...

  14. 50 CFR 660.406 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.406 Section 660.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries §...

  15. Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, Richard C.

    1988-12-01

    The 1988 smolt monitoring project of the National Marine Fisheries Service provided data on the seaward migration of juvenile salmon and steelhead at Lower Granite, Mcnary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. All pertinent fish capture and condition data as well as dam operations and river flow data were provided to the FPDIS for use by FPC in developing fish passage indices and migration timing, and for water budget and spill management. 13 refs., 100 figs.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A.

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

    2006-07-14

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  18. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume I of III; Narrative, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil; Gilbreath, Lyle G.; Harmon, Jerrel R.

    1988-02-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service began conducting homing research on Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released, and 23 individual experiments were conducted. The research had the following objectives: (1) develop the techniques for imprinting homing cues while increasing survival of hatchery reared salmonids and (2) provide fishery managers with the information necessary to increase the returns of salmon and steelhead to the Columbia River system and to effectively distribute these fish to the various user groups. Our imprint methods were grouped into three general categories: (1) natural migration imprint from a hatchery of origin or an alternate homing site (by allowing fish to volitionally travel downstream through the river on their seaward journey), (2) single exposure imprinting (cueing fish to a single unique water supply with or without mechanical stimuli prior to transport and release), and (3) sequential exposure imprinting (cueing fish to two or more water sources in a step-by-step process to establish a series of signposts for the route ''home''). With variations, all three techniques were used with all salmonid groups tested: coho salmon, spring and fall chinook salmon, and steelhead. For the single and sequential imprint, fish were transported around a portion of their normal migration route before releasing them into the Columbia River.

  19. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. PMID:25952887

  20. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.

    1995-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. In 1994, the authors estimated the total September Redfish Lake O. nerka population at 51,529 fish (95% CI, {+-} 33,179). The Alturas Lake O. nerka population was estimated at 5,785 fish ({+-} 6,919). The total density and biomass of Alturas Lake was estimated at 27 fish/hectare ({+-} 33) and 0.7 kg/hectare, respectively. The total O. nerka population estimate for Pettit Lake was 14,743 fish ({+-} 3,683). Stanley Lake O. nerka total population size, density, and biomass was estimated at 2,695 fish ({+-} 963), 37 fish/hectare ({+-} 13), and 0.5 kg/hectare, respectively. Estimated numbers of O. nerka outmigrant smolts passing Redfish Lake Creek and Salmon River trapping sites increased in 1994. The authors estimated 1,820 (90% CI 1,229--2,671) and 945 (90% CI 331--13,000) smolts left Redfish and Alturas lakes, respectively. The total PIT tag detection rate at mainstem dams for Redfish Lake outmigrants was 21% in 1994. No Alturas Lake outmigrants were detected at any of the downstream facilities with detection capabilities (zero of 50 fish).

  1. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  2. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  3. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  4. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  5. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  6. Evaluation of seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine and cortisol levels in wild masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, sampled by a Japanese fishing method.

    PubMed

    Munakata, A; Miura, G; Matsuda, H

    2014-10-01

    A new fish sampling method was developed using a Japanese bait fishing rod (8-9 m carbon rod and a nylon line with a small fine wire single hook), which is considered to catch wild salmonid juveniles with low sampling stress. Using this method, seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine (T4 ) and cortisol levels were examined in wild parr, pre-smolts and smolts of masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou in contiguous locations in a coastal river (Kesen River; 44 km) in northern Honshu Island, Japan, overlapping the period of smoltification and seaward migration from August to March. Plasma T4 and cortisol were low in 0+ and 1+ year parr caught in August and September. In March, some yearling (1+ year) fish, which were judged as pre-smolts, and smolts appeared mainly in mid and lower reaches, while parr (0+ and 1+ year parr) continued to appear in the upper and mid reaches. In March, 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts showed high plasma T4 levels while the levels of 1+ year parr were low. During March 2008-2010, plasma T4 levels of 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts had high levels from early to mid-March, whereas plasma cortisol levels of 1+ year smolts were low in early March and increased towards mid-March. Based on these data, plasma cortisol increases probably occur following the increases of plasma T4 levels to lead the 1+ year O. masou to the completion of smoltification and initiation of seaward migration. PMID:25263191

  7. Advanced Sensor Fish Device for ImprovedTurbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    2009-09-14

    Juvenile salmon (smolts) passing through hydroelectric turbines are subjected to environmental conditions that can potentially kill or injure them. Many turbines are reaching the end of their operational life expectancies and will be replaced with new turbines that incorporate advanced “fish friendly” designs devised to prevent injury and death to fish. To design a fish friendly turbine, it is first necessary to define the current conditions fish encounter. One such device used by biologists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was the sensor fish device to collect data that measures the forces fish experience during passage through hydroelectric projects.

  8. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, Annual Report October 2005 - September 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2007-09-21

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning

  9. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan; Mueller, Robert; Murray, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning

  10. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  11. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  12. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  13. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied...

  14. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt. PMID:22128889

  15. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1998 to 31 August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 13,180 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 18% in fall and 82% in spring. We estimated 15,949 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 2% in winter, and 41% in spring. We estimated 14,537 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1998 to June 1999; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 31,113 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 4% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 3% in winter, and 36% in spring. We estimated 42,705 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from August 1998 to June 1999; approximately 46% of the migrants left in fall, 6% in winter, and 47% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March to 20 June 1999, with a median passage date of 5 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 19 April to 9 July 1999, with a median passage date of 24 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 8 July 1999, with a median passage date of 4 May. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher overwinter survival in the

  16. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1997 to 31 August 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Tranquilli, J. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 6,716 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 6% of the migrants left in summer, 29% in fall, 2% in winter, and 63% in spring. We estimated 8,763 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 12% of the migrants left in summer, 37% in fall, 21% in winter, and 29% in spring. We estimated 8,859 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1997 to June 1998; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 15,738 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1997 to April 1998; approximately 3% of the migrants left in summer, 61% in fall, 2% in winter, and 34% in spring. We estimated 22,754 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from September 1997 to April 1998; approximately 55% of the migrants left in fall, 5% in winter, and 40% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 4 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 1 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 3 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 8 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 26 May 1998, with a median passage date of 28 April. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher

  17. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Batten, G.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Kim, Jin A.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Etherington, D. J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Greiner, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  18. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  19. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  20. Limestone fluidized bed treatment of acid-impacted water at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.J.; Haines, T.A.; Spaulding, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of atmospheric acid deposition have resulted in widespread lake and river acidification in the northeastern U.S. Biological effects of acidification include increased mortality of sensitive aquatic species such as the endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a limestone-based fluidized bed system for the treatment of acid-impacted waters. The treatment system was tested at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine over a period of 3 years. The product water from the treatment system was diluted with hatchery water to prepare water supplies with three different levels of alkalinity for testing of fish health and survival. Based on positive results from a prototype system used in the first year of the study, a larger demonstration system was used in the second and third years with the objective of decreasing operating costs. Carbon dioxide was used to accelerate limestone dissolution, and was the major factor in system performance, as evidenced by the model result: Alk = 72.84 ?? P(CO2)1/2; R2 = 0.975. No significant acidic incursions were noted for the control water over the course of the study. Had these incursions occurred, survivability in the untreated water would likely have been much more severely impacted. Treated water consistently provided elevated alkalinity and pH above that of the hatchery source water. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  2. 77 FR 19226 - Identification of Nations Whose Fishing Vessels Are Engaged in Illegal, Unreported, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...NMFS is seeking information regarding nations whose vessels are engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated (IUU) fishing, bycatch of protected living marine resources (PLMRs), and/or fishing activities in waters beyond any national jurisdiction that target or incidentally catch sharks. Such information will be reviewed for the purposes of the identification of nations pursuant to the High......

  3. Apparent digestibility of possible fish meal replacements in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar and Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To increase the sustainability of salmonid production, alternative protein sources to fish meal need to be identified. Many studies have examined terrestrial plant meals/protein concentrates as alternatives. Recently the focus has turned to aquatic protists and plants as well as by-products from oth...

  4. 76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... the potential for large-scale, high-intensity wildfires that threaten human life, property, and... project would use the existing transportation system except for the construction of approximately 14 miles... landscape fire resilience through prescribe burning, fish habitat and passage restoration are...

  5. 77 FR 2996 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... the Strategy in a May 24, 2011, notice of intent in the Federal Register (76 FR 30193). After we... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY: Fish..., Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The purpose of the Strategy will be to...

  6. Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, 1981 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil

    1982-09-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service, under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, began conducting research on imprinting Pacific salmon and steelhead for homing in 1978. The juvenile marking phase was completed in 1980; over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released in 23 experiments. The primary objectives were to determine: (1) a triggering mechanism to activate the homing imprint, (2) if a single imprint or a sequential imprint is necessary to assure homing, and (3) the relationship between the physiological condition of fish and their ability to imprint. Research in 1981 concentrated on: (1) recovering returning adults from previous experiments, (2) analyzing completed 1978 steelhead and 1980 coho salmon experiments, and (3) preliminary analyzing 1979 and 1980 fall chinook salmon experiments. Seven experimental groups are discussed: four steelhead, two fall chinook salmon, and one coho salmon. In four groups, survival was enhanced by the imprinting-transportation procedures. Homing back to the hatchery area was successful in two groups, and generally, unless there were extenuating circumstances (eruption of Mount St. Helens, disease problem, etc.), greater returns to user groups were evident.

  7. Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, 1982 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil

    1983-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service, under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, began conducting research on imprinting Pacific salmon and steelhead for homing in 1978. The juvenile marking phase was completed in 1980; over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released in 23 experiments. The primary objectives were to determine; (1) a triggering mechanism to activate the homing imprint, (2) if a single imprint or a sequential imprint is necessary to assure homing, and (3) the relationship between the physiological condition of fish and their ability to imprint. Research in 1982 concentrated on: (1) recovering returning adults from previous experiments, (2) analyzing completed 1979 steelhead and chinook salmon experiments, and (3) preliminarily analyzing 1980 fall chinook salmon experiments. Six experimental groups are discussed: two steelhead, two spring chinook salmon, and two fall chinook salmon. In four test groups, survival was enhanced by the imprinting-transportation procedures. Homing back to the hatchery area was partly successful in two test groups, and generally, unless there were extenuating circumstances (eruption of Mount St. Helens, disease problem, etc.), greater returns to user groups were evident.

  8. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  9. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  10. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study: Spring Chinook Salmon, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric

    1994-09-01

    As part of the presupplementation planning, baseline data on the productivity of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River have been collected. However, for adult salmonids, data on habitat use, delays in passage at irrigation diversions, migration rates, and substock separation had not been previously collected. In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service began a 2-year radio-telemetry study of adult spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives addressed in this study were: to determine spawning populations` run timing, passage patterns at irrigation diversion dams, and morphometric characteristics to determine where and when substocks become separated; to evaluate fish passage at Yakima River Basin diversion dams including Prosser, Sunnyside, Wapato, Roza, Town Diversion, Easton, Cowiche, and Wapatox Dams; to determine spring chinook salmon migration rates between Yakima River Basin dams, prespawning behavior, temporal distribution, and habitat utilization; to identify spawning distribution and timing of spring chinook salmon; to determine the amount and cause of prespawning mortality of spring chinook salmon; and to evaluate adult fish-handling procedures for the right-bank, adult-trapping facility at Prosser Dam.

  11. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  12. State and Provincial Fish And Wildlife Agencies Librarians National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses agency library information activities, production and dissemination, and resource access as presented at the first conference of state and provincial fish and game agency librarians. Agencies represented include the Fish and Wildlife Reference Service, Aquaculture, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management,…

  13. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservior, 1982 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David R.; Sims, Carl W.

    1983-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration is conducting a 6-year study of the effects of instream flows on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of juvenile fall and summer (O-age) chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. In 1982, the second year of the study, research activities concentrated on refining distribution and behavior data in John Day Reservoir and on releasing and recapturing marked fish needed to define flow/travel time relationships. Twenty-two groups (61,887 fish) of marked O-age chinook salmon were wire-tagged, branded, and released into the tailrace at McNary Dam, and forty-four groups (13,128 fish) were branded and released into the reservoir at various other sites. Sampling at the John Day Dam airlift facility captured 54,647 subyearling chinook salmon including 482 marked recoveries. Additional marks (279) were recovered from purse seine samples taken at various sites throughout the reservoir. The average passage time to John Day Dam for marked O-age chinook salmon released in the McNary tailrace was 23 days. Weekend flow reductions at McNary Dam did not affect passage time of subyearling chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. There was no statistical evidence to indicate that instream flows affected either the rate of movement or residence time of O-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir.

  14. 3 CFR 8567 - Proclamation 8567 of September 24, 2010. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8567 of September 24, 2010. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010 8567 Proclamation 8567 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8567 of September 24, 2010 Proc. 8567 National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  15. EPA's National Reassessment of Contaminants in Fish from U.S. Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple EPA offices collaborated to conduct a reassessment of fish contamination in U.S. rivers as part of the Agency’s 2013-14 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). This is the first national assessment of contamination in river fish that will generate probabili...

  16. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  17. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  18. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  19. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  20. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  1. Fish farming in land-based closed-containment systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'An International Summit on Fish Farming in Land-Based Closed-Containment Systems' was hosted by the Conservation Fund's Freshwater Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF), the Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF), and Tides Canada (TC) at the National Conservation Training Center in She...

  2. Smolt Quality Assessment of Spring Chinook Salmon : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1991-04-01

    The physiological development and physiological condition of spring chinook salmon are being studied at several hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of the study is to determine whether any or several smolt indices can be related to adult recovery and be used to improve hatchery effectiveness. The tests conducted in 1989 on juvenile chinook salmon at Dworshak, Leavenworth, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries, and the Oregon State Willamette Hatchery assessed saltwater tolerance, gill ATPase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid hormones, secondary stress, fish morphology, metabolic energy stores, immune response, blood cell numbers, and plasma ion concentrations. The study showed that smolt development may have occurred before the fish were released from the Willamette Hatchery, but not from the Dworshak, Leavenworth, or Warm Springs Hatcheries. These results will be compared to adult recovery data when they become available, to determine which smolt quality indices may be used to predict adult recovery. The relative rankings of smolt quality at the different hatcheries do not necessarily reflect the competency of the hatchery managers and staff, who have shown a high degree of professionalism and expertise in fish rearing. We believe that the differences in smolt quality are due to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. One aim of this research is to identify factors that influence smolt development and that may be controlled through fish husbandry to regulate smolt development. 35 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. 76 FR 27998 - Public Meeting of the Steering Committee for the National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... the National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...: The Steering Committee for the National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy will be... information on the National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy can be found at...

  4. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  5. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(17)-1 - Fishing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Salmon and halibut fishing. Services performed in connection with the catching or taking of salmon or... taking of salmon or halibut, for commercial purposes, nor the services of any other individual...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(17)-1 - Fishing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Salmon and halibut fishing. Services performed in connection with the catching or taking of salmon or... taking of salmon or halibut, for commercial purposes, nor the services of any other individual...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(17)-1 - Fishing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Salmon and halibut fishing. Services performed in connection with the catching or taking of salmon or... taking of salmon or halibut, for commercial purposes, nor the services of any other individual...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(17)-1 - Fishing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Salmon and halibut fishing. Services performed in connection with the catching or taking of salmon or... taking of salmon or halibut, for commercial purposes, nor the services of any other individual...

  9. Methods for sampling fish communities as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Fish community structure is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The objective of the National Water-Quality Assessment characterization of fish community structure is to relate fish community characteristics to physical, chemical, and other biological factors to assess water-quality conditions. To accomplish this, fish community structure is described at sites representing selected environmental settings. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in fish community structure are examined at local, regional, and national levels. A representative sample of the fish community is collected by sampling a stream reach using two complementary methods. The primary collection method is electrofishing using backpack, towed, or boat-operated electrofishing gear; seining is a secondary technique. Other secondary techniques may be substituted after careful consideration of sampling efficiency and consultation with local fish ecologists. Before fish sampling is conducted, careful consideration must be given to collecting permits; protecting endangered, threatened, and special-concern species; and coordinating sampling efforts with other fish ecologists. After the sample is collected, individual fish are identified to species by ichthyologists. Length and weight measurements are taken, and the presence of external anomalies are recorded.

  10. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  11. Teratological hermaphroditism in the chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1957-01-01

    The anomalous condition of hermaphroditism appears to be no less rare in fish than in other normally dioecious animals. Previous records of bisexuality' in the Pacific salmons, Oncorhynchus spp., are few in number despite the intensive study accorded this group. Rutter (1902) reported the condition in two king salmon (O. tshawytscha); Crawford (1927) reported the condition in a silver salmon (O. kisutch); and Gibbs (1956) described a bisexual steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and briefly noted another instance of hermaphroditism in the king salmon. We wish to record an example of this anomaly in the chum salmon (O. keta).

  12. 76 FR 36896 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Forestwide Invasive Plant Treatment Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... an aggressive invasive plant management program, the number, density, and distribution of invasive...- Challis National Forest and without management will likely increase in density and distribution. Active... boundaries, reduce infestation densities, and retard the establishment of new infestations. Control...

  13. PCR and probe-PCR assays to monitor broodstock Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) ovarian fluid and kidney tissue for presence of DNA of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed Central

    Miriam, A; Griffiths, S G; Lovely, J E; Lynch, W H

    1997-01-01

    A simple, rapid PCR assay for the identification of Renibacterium salmoninarum in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) tissues detected DNA extracted from between 4 and 40 bacterial cells. PCR was at least as sensitive as culture when it was used to identify subclinically infected fish experimentally challenged with R. salmoninarum. However, PCR identified much higher numbers of kidney tissue and ovarian fluid samples from commercially reared broodstock fish to be positive for R. salmoninarum than did culture. This difference may be due to the antibiotic chemotherapy of broodstock fish used by the industry in 1994 to control the vertical transmission of R. salmoninarum. A much closer relationship between PCR and culture results was observed for ovarian fluid samples collected from broodstock fish in 1993. Also, PCR scored a much higher percentage of kidney tissue samples than ovarian fluid samples from 1994 broodstock fish positive for R. salmoninarum, which may reflect the uneven distribution of the pathogen in different fish tissues. Inclusion of a nested probe to identify the PCR-positive 1994 ovarian fluid samples increased the sensitivity of detection to between one and four cells and the number of samples that scored positive by almost threefold. These data indicate that many infected ovarian fluid samples contained very low numbers of R. salmoninarum cells and, because almost all these samples were culture negative, that PCR may have detected dead or otherwise unculturable bacterial cells. PMID:9163437

  14. PCR and probe-PCR assays to monitor broodstock Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) ovarian fluid and kidney tissue for presence of DNA of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed

    Miriam, A; Griffiths, S G; Lovely, J E; Lynch, W H

    1997-06-01

    A simple, rapid PCR assay for the identification of Renibacterium salmoninarum in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) tissues detected DNA extracted from between 4 and 40 bacterial cells. PCR was at least as sensitive as culture when it was used to identify subclinically infected fish experimentally challenged with R. salmoninarum. However, PCR identified much higher numbers of kidney tissue and ovarian fluid samples from commercially reared broodstock fish to be positive for R. salmoninarum than did culture. This difference may be due to the antibiotic chemotherapy of broodstock fish used by the industry in 1994 to control the vertical transmission of R. salmoninarum. A much closer relationship between PCR and culture results was observed for ovarian fluid samples collected from broodstock fish in 1993. Also, PCR scored a much higher percentage of kidney tissue samples than ovarian fluid samples from 1994 broodstock fish positive for R. salmoninarum, which may reflect the uneven distribution of the pathogen in different fish tissues. Inclusion of a nested probe to identify the PCR-positive 1994 ovarian fluid samples increased the sensitivity of detection to between one and four cells and the number of samples that scored positive by almost threefold. These data indicate that many infected ovarian fluid samples contained very low numbers of R. salmoninarum cells and, because almost all these samples were culture negative, that PCR may have detected dead or otherwise unculturable bacterial cells. PMID:9163437

  15. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project: Short Project Overview of Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation in the Upper Yakima Basin; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.; Bosch, William J.

    2005-09-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is on schedule to ascertain whether new artificial production techniques can be used to increase harvest and natural production of spring Chinook salmon while maintaining the long-term genetic fitness of the fish population being supplemented and keeping adverse genetic and ecological interactions with non-target species or stocks within acceptable limits. The Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility (CESRF) collected its first spring chinook brood stock in 1997, released its first fish in 1999, and age-4 adults have been returning since 2001. In these initial years of CESRF operation, recruitment of hatchery origin fish has exceeded that of fish spawning in the natural environment, but early indications are that hatchery origin fish are not as successful at spawning in the natural environment as natural origin fish when competition is relatively high. When competition is reduced, hatchery fish produced similar numbers of progeny as their wild counterparts. Most demographic variables are similar between natural and hatchery origin fish, however hatchery origin fish were smaller-at-age than natural origin fish. Long-term fitness of the target population is being evaluated by a large-scale test of domestication. Slight changes in predation vulnerability and competitive dominance, caused by domestication, were documented. Distribution of spawners has increased as a result of acclimation site location and salmon homing fidelity. Semi-natural rearing and predator avoidance training have not resulted in significant increases in survival of hatchery fish. However, growth manipulations in the hatchery appear to be reducing the number of precocious males produced by the YKFP and consequently increasing the number of migrants. Genetic impacts to non-target populations appear to be low because of the low stray rates of YKFP fish. Ecological impacts to valued non-target taxa were within containment objectives or impacts that

  16. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn , Theodore C.

    1998-05-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them in two reaches of the Snake River. Also, subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at Lyons Ferry Hatchery were PIT tagged at the hatchery, transported, and released weekly at Pittsburg Landing on the Snake River and Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River to collect data on survival detection probabilities, and travel time.

  17. Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  18. Effects of Renibacterium salmoninarum on olfactory organs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) marked with coded wire tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Conway, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum can cause significant morbidity and mortality in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), particularly in Chinook salmon of the stream (spring) life history type, which migrate to sea as yearlings rather than subyearlings. R. salmoninarum can be transmitted vertically from the female parent to the progeny in association with the egg, as well as horizontally from fish to fish. This study was conducted as part of a research project to investigate whether the prevalence and intensity of R. salmoninarum infections in adult spring Chinook salmon could affect the survival and pathogen prevalence and intensity in their progeny (Pascho et al., 1991, 1993; Elliott et al., 1995). Fish from two brood years (1988 and 1989) were reared at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (Idaho, USA) for about 1-1/2 years, released as yearling smolts, and allowed to migrate to the Pacific Ocean for maturation. The majority of progeny fish were marked with coded wire tags (CWTs) about 4 months before they were released from the hatchery so that adult returns could be monitored. The CWTs were implanted in the snouts of the fish by an experienced team of fish markers using automated wire-tagging machines. The intended placement site was the cartilage, skeletal muscle or loose connective tissue of the snout.

  19. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

  20. Acoustic tracking of migrating salmon.

    PubMed

    Kupilik, Matthew J; Petersen, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Annual salmon migrations vary significantly in annual return numbers from year to year. In order to determine when a species' sustainable return size has been met, a method for counting and sizing the spawning animals is required. This project implements a probability hypothesis density tracker on data from a dual frequency identification sonar to automate the process of counting and sizing the fish crossing an insonified area. Data processing on the sonar data creates intensity images from which possible fish locations can be extracted using image processing. These locations become the input to the tracker. The probability hypothesis density tracker then solves the multiple target tracking problem and creates fish tracks from which length information is calculated using image segmentation. The algorithm is tested on data from the 2010 salmon run on the Kenai river in Alaska and compares favorably with statistical models from sub-sampling and manual measurements. PMID:25324076

  1. Net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan coho salmon from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Elliott, Robert F.; Schmidt, Larry J.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Bouchard, Patrick M.; Holey, Mark E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both coho salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain PCBs from their food. Our estimate was the most reliable estimate to date because (a) the coho salmon and prey fish sampled during our study were sampled in spring, summer, and fall from various locations throughout the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both coho salmon and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) coho salmon diet was analyzed in detail from April through November over a wide range of salmon size from numerous locations throughout the lake. We estimated that coho salmon from Lake Michigan retain 50% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  2. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pravecek, Jay J.

    1997-07-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game at the Eagle Fish Hatchery during the period April 1, 1995 to April 1, 1996 are covered by this report. The performance of all captive broodstock groups held at Eagle Fish Hatchery is included in this report. No anadromous adults returned to Redfish Lake in 1995. Three adult residual males were captured in a merwin trap and used in the spawning of captive residual females held at Eagle Fish Hatchery.

  3. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minimum six of 10 inches and maximum size of 20 inches. (2) Salmon Fishing. Salmon fishing is permitted on.... Salmon River. Seasons and bag limits shall be established annually after consultation with the State and... required; however, an individual fishing for steelhead or salmon in park waters, except treaty...

  4. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... minimum six of 10 inches and maximum size of 20 inches. (2) Salmon Fishing. Salmon fishing is permitted on.... Salmon River. Seasons and bag limits shall be established annually after consultation with the State and... required; however, an individual fishing for steelhead or salmon in park waters, except treaty...

  5. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minimum six of 10 inches and maximum size of 20 inches. (2) Salmon Fishing. Salmon fishing is permitted on.... Salmon River. Seasons and bag limits shall be established annually after consultation with the State and... required; however, an individual fishing for steelhead or salmon in park waters, except treaty...

  6. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  7. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...